МОНОГРАФИИ ВОЗ Т 4


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monographs
on selected
medicinal plants
WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants. Vol. 4.
1. Plants, Medicinal. 2. Angiosperms. 3. Medicine, Traditional. I. WHO Consultation on Selected Medicinal
Plants (4th: 2005: Salerno-Paestum, Italy) II. World Health Organization.
ISBN 978 92 4 154705 5 (NLM classication: QV 766)
World Health Organization 2009
All rights reserved. Publications of the World Health Organization can be obtained from WHO Press,
World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland (tel.: +41 22 791 3264;
fax: +41 22 791 4857; e-mail: bookorders@who.int). Requests for permission to reproduce or translate
Acknowledgementsv
Introduction1
General technical notices5
Ramulus cum Uncis Uncariae353
Cortex Viburni Prunifolii364
Radix Withaniae373
Italy, 36 October 2005392
Collaborating Centre for Traditional Medicine, College of Pharmacy,
use of herbal medicine; however, there is still a signicant lack of research
now available on the WHO web site (http://www.who.int/medicinedocs/
tional or regional monographs on medicinal plants or national formular-
For example, at WHOs regional training workshop on regulation of
rectly, for assistance in the development of monographs on medicinal
WHO mono-
as a technical term only. It does not have the same meaning as mono-
tion on medicinal uses should not be taken as implying WHOs ofcial
Finally, the Fourth WHO Consultation on selected medicinal plants
used medicinal plants. We should like to express our appreciation to all
is not normally found in ofcial compendia,
section includes only the results of
Vitex agnus-castus
Carr.,
Vitex verticillata
Abrahams balm, Abrahamsstrauch, agneau-chaste, agnocasto, agnos-cas-
chasteberry, common chaste tree, daribrahim, felfele barry, fanfangosht,
gatileira comum, gattilier, gattilier commun, hab an nasl, hab el fakd, hab
3
,
9
).
0.05mg/kg (
R2R3
Glc
OCH
ChrysosplenolD
Cynaroside
OCH
CCH
H
Vitexilactone
CCH
H
Vitexlactam A
-glucopyranosyl
Glc
O
O
Glc
Aucubin
Agnuside
R = H
-HB
-HB=
-hydroxybenzoyl
and opioid
subtype) receptors with a range of median inhibitory concentra-
-opioid receptor. No binding in the orphan opioid receptor was noted.
H-choline. Treatment
46
).
). Two other double-blind placebo-controlled studies investigated
= 0.069). In the women with
due to luteal-phase dysfunction, the efcacy of a fruit extract for the nor-
menstruation, is considered to be within normal physiology. Non-cyclic
tion of a health care provider. Several open (uncontrolled) trials (
abscesses, inter-menstrual bleeding and urticaria; in the placebo arm (
=
58
59
42 drops or 1 capsule daily, for 1 day to 9 years and the outcomes mea-
sured included the physicians and patients self-assessments. Elimination
30 studies involving 11506 subjects reported a total of 246 adverse events,
dizziness, gastrointestinal distress, increased menstrual ow, nausea, skin
Warnings
tively, was not teratogenic and did not affect maternal health as compared
Die Medizinische Welt
Roeder D. Zur Therapie der Mastodynie und Mastopathie mit Mastodynon. 54.[On the treatment of mastodynia and mastopathy with Mastodynon]. DieMedizinische Welt
Berberis vulgaris
Crude drug may be small, at and irregular shaped, up to 2.0mm thick,
or curved pieces up to 0.5mm thick; outer surface dark yellowish-grey
with shallow, longitudinal furrows, or thicker pieces with deeper cracks
and ssures. Occasionally, black apothecia of lichens are present. Inner
part is brous(
are small, yellow, thick walled and lignied with very numerous, con-
Yellowish-brown, containing fragments of thin-walled, lignied, poly-
gonal cork cells; abundant short, yellow bres occurring singly or in
walled sieve tubes and associated parenchyma; prism crystals of calcium
sionally twinned; small, simple starch granules, rounded to ovoid;
groups of rectangular stone cells with moderately thickened walls and
chyma; occasional lignied bres and vessels from the adherent
Tests for specic microorganisms and microbial contamination limits are
To be established according to national requirements.
Total ash
Water-soluble extractive
To be established in accordance with national requirements.
To be established in accordance with national requirements.
than 0.05mg/kg (
To be established according to national requirements. Since the major
Berberine
O
Columbamine
OCH
Berbamine
Jatrorrhizine
Magnoflorine
Used orally for the treatment of cystitis, dysmenorrhoea, eczema, fever,
intravenous administration of 50.0mg/kg bw of berberine to rabbits.
and
Zoogloea ramigera
Aureobasidium pullu-
(black and white strain),
Trichoderma viride
(original green strain
Microsporum gypseum
and two
aureus

� S (sensitive)
� (resistant)

� S.





and
in vitro at a concentration of 1mg/ml and 0.5mg/ml, re-
in vitro(150g/ml), and, at a concentration of 1.0mg/ml,
Giardialamblia
Trichomonas vaginalis
and induced morphological changes in the
Berberine has been reported to have protective effects against cardiac ar-
Berberine inhibited the proliferation of mouse spleen cells induced by T-
cells were obtained from mice treated with berberine at a dose of 10.0mg/
Intragastric administration of an extract of the cortex to rats for 6weeks
peritoneal administration of berberine to mice, at a daily dose of 10.0mg/
= 0.001) reduced pathological injury and improved renal
T-lymphocytes as compared with controls (
Intraperitoneal administration of 150.0mg/kg bw of cyclophosphamide
caused serious haemorrhagic cystitis in rats after 12 hr, including bladder
eally)-induced toxicity, suggestive of an inhibitory effect on microsomal
Daily dose: crude drug 0.51.0g three times daily, or by decoction; liquid
Roxb. ex Colebr. (Burseraceae) (
(Colebr.) Roxb.(
husn-e-lubban, Indian frankincense tree, Indian olibanum, Indischer-
weihrauch, kapitthaprani, kondagugi tamu, kondor, koonkanadhoopam,
kundre, kundrikam, kundur, kundur luban, kunduru, kunthreekan, kun-
turukkam, labana, loban, loban zakar, lobhan, luban, luban-dacar-hindi,
luban dhakar, maddi, madi, madimar, pahadi, parangisambrani, parang-
A medium to large deciduous tree, up to 18m in height and 2.4m in girth.
The gum solidies slowly with time. It is reddish brown, greenish yellow, or
dull yellow to orange in colour. It occurs in small, ovoid, fragrant tears. Some-
times the tears form agglomerated masses up to 5cm long and 2cm thick.
Fracture is brittle, fractured surface is waxy and translucent. Burns readily
Not lessthan 45% (
To be established in accordance with national requirements.
than 0.05mg/kg (
Treatment of abdominal pain, asthma, coughs, dysentery, fever, jaundice,
500.0mg/kg body weight (bw) had no analgesic effects in dogs, rabbits or
). However, administration of a non-phenolic fraction of the
60.0mg/kg bw. A dose of 150.0mg/kg bw induced analgesia in 70% of
). The degree of analgesia was comparable to a dose of 34.5mg/
kg bw of morphine. A dose of 150.0mg/kg bw also caused a 70% reduc-
classical complement pathway. The threshold concentration for inhibit-
CCO
H
-Boswellicacid
R = H
R = CO-CH
-Boswellic acid
CCO
H
H
R = CO-CH
X = H
R = CO-CH
X = O
R = HX=H
R = HX=O
37
A double-blind pilot study, involving 37 patients with rheumatoid arthri-
). Patients were treated with 3.6g of the crude drug or placebo
for 12 weeks. Outcome measures included Ritchies index for swelling and
crude drug was as effective as mesalazine for the treatment of Crohns
resin preparation (350mg three times daily for 6 weeks), and the effects
The Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia of India
1.,
Part I, Vol. IV
of Health and Family Welfare, Department of Indian System of Medicine
and Homeopathy, 1999.
Database on medicinal plants used in Ayurveda
2.. New Delhi, Central Council
for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha, Department of ISM and H, Ministry
of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, 2000.
Berlin, Springer Verlag, 1975 [in German].
bouly Library, 1994.
NAPRALERT database.
Chicago, University of Illinois
the ground. The fruit is inferior, ovoid or oblong, nearly ellipsoidal, capsule
Usually in agglutinated groups of 27 seeds. Each irregularly angular, 3-
to 4-sided, oblong, ovoid; 24mm long, up to 3mm broad; pale orange to
aril externally, transversely wrinkled but not minutely pitted; hilum de-
apex; hard; internally, whitish, showing a thin dark testa, a whitish starchy
: Inferior, ovoid or oblong, nearly ellipsoidal, capsule plump or
slightly shrunken; 820 mm, but most fruits are 1015mm long, 510mm
Semen Cardamomi
To be established in accordance with national requirements.
The recommended maximum limit of aldrin and dieldrin is not more
than 0.05mg/kg (
) and pesticide
1,8-Cineole
CCH
CCH
andenantiomer
-Terpineol(+)-
-Terpinyl acetate
Semen Cardamomi
Treatment of asthma, bronchitis, colic, coughs, fainting, fever, rheuma-
Semen Cardamomi
Warnings
Average daily dosage: 1.5g of drug; equivalent preparations.
Tincture: daily dosage equivalent to 12g (
1.20th ed, 1st Suppl. Rockville, MD, The United
2.,
Vol. 1
ty, Scientic Technical & Research Commission, 1985.
The API Pharmacopoeia of India, Part I. Vol. I,
3.1st ed. New Delhi, Govern-
ment of India Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Department of Indian
Systems of Medicine and Homeopathy, 1990 (reprinted 2001).
Dr. K.M. Nadkarnis Indian materia medica
Vol. 1
bay, Popular Prakshan, 1976.
5., 14th ed. (English ed.). Tokyo,Ministry of
Health, Labour and Welfare, 2001 (http://jpdb.nihs.go.jp/jp14e/).
6., 7th ed. (English ed.). Seoul, Korea
The Japanese standards for herbal medicines
8.. Tokyo, Yakuji Nippon, 1993.
Semen Cardamomi
Terminalia chebula
Tests for specic microorganisms and microbial contamination limits are
Total ash
Water-soluble extractive
0.05mg/kg (
To be established in accordance with national requirements.
Gallic acid
Chebulanin
Chebulagic acid
Chebulinic acid
O
O
1
).
HIV-1 protease was assessed in vitro (
The effect of intragastric administration of an extract of the fruit
(500.0mg/kg bw for 45 days) was investigated in a model of experimen-
Warnings
and TA98 strains of
tagen 2-aminouorene in the TA97a, TA98 and TA100 strains. The aque-
revertants, but had no perceptible effect against sodium
revertants in TA100 and TA1535 strains of
L. (Cu-
Willd.,
C. courgero Ser.
Gray,
C. melopepo
L.,
L.,
Willd.,
C. ver-
L.,
P. verrucosus
., P. vulgaris
giraumon, gourd, grskar, guicoy, harilik krvits, herkules-keule, jeri-
kumra, lob-abyad, lob-kar-e-asal, malange, mandelgrskar, marrow, na-
gummadi, pumpkin, qar, qar maghrebi, qar rumi, qaraa, safed kaddu,
To be established in accordance with national requirements.
Tests for specic microorganisms and microbial contamination limits are
Total ash
To be established in accordance with national requirements.
Water-soluble extractive
To be established in accordance with national requirements.
0.05mg/kg (
To be established in accordance with national requirements.
Squalene
NCO
Cucurbitine
dose-dependently inhibited the binding of labelled dihydroxytestoster-
Toxicology
Oral daily dose: 10g of seed; equivalent preparations (
1.. Stuttgart, Deutscher Apotheker Verlag, 1999.
Zeitschrift fr die rztliche Praxis,
1979, 3:3840 [in
Indian Journal of Animal Research
, 1971,
Cynara cardunculus
:The fresh lower part of the ower head is ofcial in the
L. was the name of the plant cited in the above-men-
tioned pharmacopoeias and monographs. However, the correct name of
Cynara cardunculus
Alcachofa, alcachofra, alcaucil, alcaucoe, artichaut, artichaut commun,
artichiocco, artichoke, artichoke thistle, Artischocke, artiskok, carcioffa,
carciofo, carciuffolo, cardo alcachofero, cardo de comer, cardo sen-
zaspine, cardoon, dotal roza, edible thistle, enginar, garden artichoke,
Gemseartischocke, globe artichoke, hathi choka, hatichuk, kangar, kan-
gar I dahri, kharshoul, kharsuf, kunjor, Scotch thistle, som-eonggeongqui
A large herbaceous perennial, thorny plant, approximately 1.5 m in
height. The leaves are large, alternate, deeply dentate. The tall purple
Leavesare very large, up to approximately 50cm long by 25cm wide with
To be established in accordance with national requirements.
-caffeoylquinic acid,
quiterpene lactones, with cynaropicrin being the primary component, followed
by dehydrocynaropicrin, grosheimin and their derivatives; and avonoids
-rhamnopyranosyl and caffeoyl are presented below.
Treatment of digestive complaints (e.g. dyspepsia, feeling of fullness, at-
Caffeicacid
H
H
Chlorogenic acid
Cynarin
R1 = R3 = H R2 = Caf
R1 = R3 = Caf R2 = H
Caffeoyl
-rhamnopyranosyl
Rha
Caf
O
Cynaropicrin
Cynaroside
Scolymoside
R = H
received the extract at doses of 125.0 and 250.0mg/kg bw. Orlistat, a li-
plaints. The daily dose was 46 capsules (containing 320.0mg of extract
per capsule) per day, for an average of 43.5 days. Digestive complaints
declined signicantly, by 71%, over the treatment period (
0.001).
either 640.0mg of the extract or a placebo three times daily for 12 weeks.
�subjects with a total cholesterol level of 210mg/dl (
Warnings
regulatory authority.
vised and enlarged ed. Bombay, Popular Prakashan, 1976.
10.[
L. (Lythraceae) (
(Punicaceae)(
be-
longs to the Lythraceae family (
Anar, anara, anar-ke-per, Carthaginian apple, dadam, dadima-phalam,
dalima, dalimb, dalimbay, dalimbuhannu, dalimo, darakte-naiar, darimba,
Granatbaum, granatum, grenadier, grenadillo, gul armini, gulnar, jaman,
lam, mathalanarkom, melograno, mkoma manga, nar, pomegranate, pos-
nar, qsur roman, qsur rommam, quishr-al-romman, quishr-romman,
mammam-goulnar, ruman, rumau, sekiryuu-karpi, seog-ryu, seokryupi,
shajratur-rummam, sham-al-rumman, shih liu pi, shiliupi, shukadana,
site, verticillate, oblong-lanceolate, glabrous, 19cm long and 0.52.5cm
14
).
andenantiomer
Punicalin
7
,
19
).
12
).
Warnings
For diarrhoea lasting for longer than 3 days, contact a health care provider.
For diarrhoea associated with fever, nausea and vomiting, or bloody stools,
contact a health care provider. Do not exceed recommended dosage.
Oral daily dose: 39g for decoction (
Trease and Evans pharmacognosy
Tanaka T, Nonaka G-I, Nishioka I. Tannins and related compounds. XL.
L.(Lythraceae) (
(Punicaceae)(
be-
longs to the Lythraceae family (
Anar, anara, anar-ke-per, Carthaginian apple, dadam, dadima-phalam,
dalima, dalimb, dalimbay, dalimbuhannu, dalimo, darakte-naiar, darimba,
Granatbaum, granatum, grenadier, grenadillo, gul armini, gulnar, jaman,
lam, mathalanarkom, melograno, mkoma manga, nar, pomegranate, pos-
nar, qsur roman, qsur rommam, quishr-al-romman, quishr-romman,
mammam-goulnar, ruman, rumau, sekiryuu-karpi, seog-ryu, seokryupi,
sham-al-rumman, shajratur-rummam, shih liu pi, shiliupi, shukadana,
site, verticillate, oblong-lanceolate, glabrous, 19cm long and 0.52.5cm
ter, with a leathery rind enclosing numerous seeds, variously coloured,
Irregular slices or gourd-shaped, brittle, varying in size, 1.53.0mm thick.
what lustrous, rough, with numerous warty protuberances. Some with a
raised tubular persistent calyx and a stout and short peduncle or its scar. Inner
rectangular, with slightly thickened walls. Clusters of calcium oxalate 10
Total tannins not less than 10% (
).Structures of ellagic acid and punicalin
are presented below.
Orally for the treatment of chronic diarrhoea, dysentery, gingivitis and
Treatment of bronchitis, fever, gastrointestinal ailments, menorrhagia,
Ellagicacid
Punicalin
menthol (0.03 g/100ml), and absolute alcohol (5 g/100ml). Eighty volun-
mouths with 20ml of the mouthwash for 30 seconds, they then closed
S. mutans
and
spp. were killed
Warnings
fever, nausea and vomiting, or bloody stools, contact a health care pro-
vider. Do not exceed recommended dose.
14., 5th ed. Strasbourg, Directorate for the Quality of
Singh RP, Chidambara Murthy KN, Jayaprakasha GK. Studies on the anti-
Chidambara Murthy KN, Jayaprakasha GK, Singh RP. Studies on antioxi-
. P. cujavillus
P. pomiferum
L.,
P. pyrifer-
P. pumilum
Vahl (
goavy, goejaba, goiaba, goiabeira, goiabeira-vermelha, goiabeiro, gouyav,
gouyavier, goyav, goyavier, goyya, grosse gelbe, gua, guafa, guajave, gua-
A large shrub or small tree up to 10 m high. Stem slender, usually not
exceeding 30cm in width; bark brownish, thin, smooth, and often aking
off in scaly patches. Leaves opposite, oblong, slightly oval shaped, 515cm
To be established in accordance with national requirements.
Total ash
To be established in accordance with national requirements.
To be established in accordance with national requirements.
Water-soluble extractive
To be established in accordance with national requirements.
To be established in accordance with national requirements.
0.05mg/kg (
1624
).
Ara
X=H
X= Ara
CCH
Oleanolic acid
Ursolic acid
CCH
H
H
-Pinene
andenantiomer
Caryophyllene
Ellagic acid
Intragastric administration of 100.0, 200.0 or 400.0mg/kg body weight
). A dose of 200.0mg/kg bw of the
both sexes at doses of 0.2, 2.0 and 20.0 g/day (1, 10 and 100 times the nor-
0.05). Serum sodium and
hepatotoxicity. In female rats, serum sodium, potassium and albumin lev-
25
).
Warnings
. Totowa, NJ, Humana Press, 1999.
NAPRALERT database.
Chicago, University of Illinois
en el estudio de las propiedades antidiarricas de la
in vitro guinea
pigs ileum as a model of study of the antidiarrheal properties of the guava
Total ash
Water-soluble extractive
To be established in accordance with national requirements.
O
H
(+)-Protolichesterinic acid
The antioxidant activity, reducing power, superoxide anion radical scav-
linoleic acid, respectively. On the other hand, 500.0 g of
lignant cell-lines (T-47D and ZR-75-1 from breast carcinomas and K-562
units, had pronounced immunostimulating activity. The polysaccharide
concentration of 1mg/ml, in human granulocytes in vitro.Intraperito-
neal administration of the polysaccharide to mice, at a dose of 1.0mg/kg
(0.048g drug per pastille/day, 0.3g drug per pastille/day or 0.5g drug per
tween the three test groups. A dose of 0.48g per day (10 pastilles per day)
who were administered 320600mg of an aqueous extract of the thalli in
Warnings
3
,
17
,
18
)
Vaccini-
United States Phar-
Oxycoccusmacrocarpus
O.painstris
var.
Afonya, American cranberry, bear berry, black cranberry, cranberry,
Kronsbeere, large cranberry, low cranberry, marsh apple, Moosbeere,
Trailing evergreen shrub up to 15cm in height; rhizomatous. Stem: slender,
glabrous to hairy, rooting at nodes. Leaf: simple, alternate, sub-sessile; blade
narrowly elliptic, rarely oblong, (5) 710 (18)mm long, (2) 34 (5)mm
wide, apex rounded; leathery, upper surface green, lower surface glaucous;
new shoots; bracts 2, green, 12mm wide; pedicels 23cm, recurved, joint-
The dried berry is dark red to almost black, 7.011.5mm in width and
1015mm in length, with a smooth but deeply wrinkled, slightly lustrous
1.52mm across, with a shallow depression in its centre inside which is a
spongy. In cross-section, the mesocarp and endocarp are a dull red. The
Tests for specic microorganisms and microbial contamination limits are
To be established in accordance with national requirements.
Total ash
To be established in accordance with national requirements.
To be established in accordance with national requirements.
Water-soluble extractive
To be established in accordance with national requirements.
To be established in accordance with national requirements.
To be established in accordance with national requirements.
0.05mg/kg (
To be established in accordance with national requirements.
Proanthocyanidin (trimer)
Cyanidin
Peonidin
R = H
). Two clinical trials have as-
was as-
in solid media containing cranberry
tures were tested for ability to agglutinate P-receptor-specic beads. The
strain JR1, P-mbrial agglutination
). Two compounds in cranberry juice inhibited
E. coli
to mucosal cells. One of these com-
of 240ml of commercial cranberry juice cocktail (30% pure juice), and in
39isolates and 19 (79%) of the 24 antibiotic-resistant isolates in all bioas-
10hours following ingestion of the cranberry juice cocktail. The extracted
In another study, urine samples were collected from groups of volunteers
following the consumption of water, ascorbic acid or cranberry supplements
(unspecied) and tested in an anti-adhesion assay. Only intake of ascorbic
Pseudomonasaeruginosa
Staphylococcus
. Conversely, urine obtained from subjects
measured in vitro. The fruit had an anthocyanin concentration of 0.32mg/g
fresh weight and a total phenolic concentration of 3.15mg/g fresh weight.
18.5mol/g fresh weight. Chlorogenic acid, peonidin 3-galactoside, cya-
fects of capsules containing concentrated cranberry (400.0mg of cran-
pregnancy or unrelated infections, or were lost to follow-up. Treatment
0.005). On average, 2.4 UTIs per year were recorded in the cranber-
group. Treatment was well tolerated and no side-effects were reported.
A pilot study of 15 patients who had spinal cord injuries was per-
In an uncontrolled study, 28 patients in a nursing home were treated
Twice-weekly urine samples were examined for leukocytes and/or ni-
cytes. However, this study did not include a non-exposure cohort (con-
colony-forming units/l of a pathogenic
10
colony-forming units/ml) compared with 75% (120)
remained the most common pathogen during peri-
ods of consumption of placebo and cranberry. Three symptomatic infec-
1000ml of cranberry juice or water over an 8-hour period. Laboratory
volunteer. The results demonstrate that urinary oxalate levels in the vol-
= 0.01) by an average of 43.4% during
rin was reported in a 69-year-old male patient with a mitral valve replace-
Mahady GB, Fong HHS, Farnsworth NR. Cranberry. In:
Mag-
Rehder and Wilson,
Rehder and Wilson var.
Rehder and Wilson (
Thunberg. (
Rehder and Wilson and
Rehder and Wilson var.
Rehder and Wilson are also ofcial in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and the Japanese Stan-
). However, there is currently insufcient information available
Trunk bark: rough, 27mm thick, plate-like or semi-tubular bark rolled
To be established in accordance with national requirements.
To be established in accordance with national requirements.
Total ash
To be established in accordance with national requirements.
Water-soluble extractive
To be established in accordance with national requirements.
To be established in accordance with national requirements.
0.05mg/kg (
magnocurarine are presented below.
HonokiolMagnolol
0.05). In vitro, the extract (at
concentrations of 0.0011.0mg/ml) concentration-dependently inhibited
Staphylococcus epidermidis
Enterobacter
Proteus vulgaris
Escherichia coli
and
cin-induced gastric ulceration was reduced in animals treated with 400mg/
the cells to chemical hypoxia (0.5mm potassium cyanide). Treatment with
0.01) (
). Magnolol (concentration 10100 g/ml) inhibited nor-
Warnings
strains TA98 and TA100 at concentrations up to
40.0mg per agar plate (
and 10
M
For oral administration: 39g of crude drug for decoction daily in divided
1., 14th ed. (English ed.). Tokyo,Ministry of
Health, Labour and Welfare, 2001 (http://jpdb.nihs.go.jp/jp14e/).
Pharmacopoeia of the Peoples Republic of China. Vol. I
2. (English ed.). Bei-
3., 8th ed. (English ed.). Seoul, Korea
The Japanese standards for herbal medicines
5.. Tokyo, Yakuji Nippon, 1993.
Magnolia ofcinalis
, 1988, 23:383
Bong.,
ssp. lanulosa (Nutt.) Piper,
var.
militaris, biranjasif, bloodwort, bumadaran, carpenters grass, carpenters
yarrow, daun seribu, dog daisy, egel tologch ovs, erba da carpentierir, erba
arrow, herbe au charpentier, herbe de millefeuille, hezarbarg, Jungfraukraut,
Katzenkraut, knights milfoil, mil de tama, mil en rama, mil ores, mil ho-
jas, milefolio, milfoil, millefolium, milenrama, nosebleed, old mans pepper,
oum alf ouraka, pharange, saigum, sanguinary, sataraatyoutas, Schafgarbe,
diers milfoil, stratictes, tansy, thou alf ouraka, thousand leaf, thousand leaf
scattered glandular trichomes; cortex narrow, parenchymatous with sev-
eral layers of collenchyma in the ridges; numerous vascular bundles, ar-
:While the owering tops of the plant are ofcial in the
2005 (
Caryophyllene
Chamazulene
Achillicin
O
HOCH
H
andenantiomer
1,8-CineoleLinalool
andenantiomer
H
andenantiomer
-Pinene
H
andenantiomer
andenantiomer
Gastric and duodenal ulcer, occlusion of the bile duct and gallbladder dis-
Warnings
strains TA98 and
2.. Mexico City, Se-
lide-peroxides from yarrow,
L., a soluble component
(Weinheim), 1991,
SchemppCM, Schopf E, Simon JC. Plant-induced toxic and allergic derma-
mordica charantia
Momordica balsamina
Spreng.,
Salisb.,
African cucumber, amargoso, ampalaya, art pumpkin, asorosi, assorossi,
balsam apple, balsam pear, Balsambirne, balsamina, balsamino, ban kareli,
baramasiya, barbof, bitter cucumber, bitter gourd, bitter melon, bitter
see, concombre, condiamor, coraillie, cun de amor, cundeamor, ejirin, em-
Fructus Momordicae
Total ash
Water-soluble extractive
To be established in accordance with national requirements.
0.05mg/kg (
Fructus Momordicae
-glucopyranosyl
-allopyranosyl
Glc
All
-xylopyranosyl
Xyl
CCH
Goyaglycoside b
Goyaglycoside d
R1R2R3
OCH
OCH
OCH
OCH
AllH
Goyaglycoside g
OCH
Momordicoside I
Momordicoside F2
Momordicoside F1
Momordicoside G
CCH
OHC
O
Glc
Momordico
sideK
R = H
Momordicoside L
Goyaglyc
oside f
CCH
Goyaglycoside h
CCH
Glc
All
CCHO
GoyasaponinI
Goyasaponin II
R = H
R = Xyl
CCH
Goyasaponin III
Xyl
Fructus Momordicae
200.0mg/kg bw per day) were evaluated in a pilot study (plasma glucose
� 180mg/dl, 21 days), a chronic study in alloxanized rats (plasma glucose
� 280.0mg/dl, 120 days) and streptozotocin-treated mice (plasma glucose
� 400.0mg/dl, 60 days). The maximum antihyperglycaemic effect oc-
curred with an aqueous extract at week 3, at a dose of 200.0mg/kg bw per
day. In chronic alloxanized rats, treatment with the aqueous extract led to
levels after 1, 2, 3 and 4 months of treatment, respectively. In mice with
gated in KK-Ay mice. The extract in combination with exercise reduced
the blood glucose concentration of KK-Ay mice 5 weeks after oral ad-
0.001), and also signicantly lowered
the plasma insulin of KK-Ay mice under similar conditions (
0.01).
only or exercise only, 5 weeks after the administration. Administration of
in vivo. The effects of different doses (100.0, 200.0 and 400.0mg per day)
of alcohol extracts or aqueous extracts of the fruits (1 kg of fruit to 500ml
Fructus Momordicae
Fructus Momordicae
Fructus Momordicae
0.05) without increasing insulin levels in the blood. In ad-
). However, no ran-
domization, blinding or proper controls were used in this study.
= 8) an improvement in blood
Fructus Momordicae
), the seeds of the crude drug should not be taken during pregnancy.
Warnings
genic in cultured mouse embryos at the early organogenesis stage. Mor-
Fructus Momordicae
Momordica charantia
[Bitter melon-reduction of blood sugar levels
Momordica charan-
,1990, 183:10261027.
Fructus Momordicae
Vaccinium myrtillus
L.
Vaccinium angelosums
V.montanum
baceri mirtillo, baggiole, bagolo, Bickbeere, bilberry, bimbelas, blackber-
ry, blaeberry, Blaubeere, Blaubessen, blue berry, blueberry, bog bilberry,
brimbelle, burren myrtle, European blueberry, harilik, hei guo yue ju,
The dried berry is a dark blue, subglobular, shrunken berry, about 5mm
Tests for specic microorganisms and microbial contamination limits are
Total ash
To be established in accordance with national requirements.
Water-soluble extractive
To be established in accordance with national requirements.
To be established in accordance with national requirements.
0.05mg/kg (
Besides the normal organic acids (37%; e.g. citric acid and malic acid),
phenolic acids and other phenols, the fruits contain up to 10% tannins
(mostly catechol tannins). The major characteristic and biologically
-glycosides in fresh bilberry juice and fruit include quer-
Delphinidin
Petunidin
Cyanidin
R1 = OH R2 = H
R1 = R2 = OH
R1 = OH R2 = OCH
R1 = R2 = OCH
-glucopyranosyl
Glc
3-monoglucosides
100.0mg/kg body weight (bw) or intragastric administration at a dose of
200.0400.0mg/kg bw of anthocyanosides. The anti-inammatory effect
a dose of 25.0 to 100.0mg/kg bw was effective treatment both in the skin
Vaccinium
cultivars (including
). Total antioxidant capacity, measured
as oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ranged from 13.9 to 45.9 mol/g of
using electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Both the extract and the tea
). In one study, the initial
was accompanied by a transient increase in vascular permeability. This
the blood vessels of the brain. Treatment of rats with anthocyanins from
of the fundus alterations, as well as a stable, or an improved visual acuity.
night visual acuity and night contrast sensitivity. The test subjects were
active capsules containing 160mg of bilberry extract (25%) for 3 weeks.
Women with primary dysmenorrhoea received either the extract corre-
sponding to 115mg anthocyanosides per day or a placebo for 5 days be-
0.01), mammary tension
0.01), nausea (
0.01), and heaviness of the lower limbs (
0.01)
Venous insufciency and varicose veins
sessed. Twenty-seven patients with varices, varicosities and telangiectases
walls by a mechanism that involves increasing the endothelium barrier-
Warnings
In one ex vivo study, oral administration of an extract of the fruit contain-
1., 5th ed. Strasbourg, Directorate for the Quality of
Vaccinium myrtillus
Vaccinium myrtillus. Presse
Radix Panacis Quinquefoliiconsists of the dried roots of
Wool,
styles 2, carnose, slightly curved, 11.5mm long; locules 2; fruit laterally
attened, transversely oblong, up to 7mm long and 10mm broad, longi-
tudinally sulcate, the wall at length dry, seeds 2, oblong, 45mm long,
34mm broad (
0.05mg/kg (
Rha
Ara
Ara
-arabinofuranosyl
-glucopyranosyl
-rhamnopyranosyl
CCH
O
Ginsenoside Rb1
R = Glc
R = Ara
Ginsenoside Rb2
R = Ara
GinsenosideRc
Ginsenoside Rd
R = H
CCH
H
R = H
PseudoginsenosideF11
CCH
Rha
H
of 2.040.0mg/ml (
was specically assessed. Native LDL (0.2 or 0.3mg/ml) was incubated
with the saponins (0.251.0mg/ml), with vitamin C (50 M) as a control.
M) induced the expression of pS2 RNA and protein in
tract nor estradiol induced increased pS2 expression in T-47D or BT-
20cell lines. Although estradiol exhibited a proliferative effect and ta-
Intragastric administration of the powdered root, at a dose of 100.0mg/
or panaxatriol, 10200.0 g) in 0.1ml (
Toxicology
dependent manner. The extract was 45-fold more potent than
in inhibiting CYP1A2. Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re, Rf and Rg1, either
CYP1 activities. However, at a higher concentration of ginsenoside (50g/
drolysis, inhibited CYP1 catalytic activity, but the effects were not due to
neal administration to mice. Toxicity was not observed after oral admin-
Various extracts of the roots, with a specic ginsenoside prole, are re-
index following a 75g oral glucose tolerance test in a randomized, single-
blind study involving 12 normal volunteers. Each subject received 6g of
the extract orally, or a placebo, 40 minutes before a 75g oral glucose toler-
ance test. Venous blood samples were drawn at -40, 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90
uct (500mg powdered root per capsule) was assessed in individuals who
administered 0g (placebo) or 3, 6 or 9g of the ground crude drug in
capsules at 120, 80, 40 or 0 minutes before a 25g oral glucose challenge.
glucose challenge. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated
that treatment (0, 3, 6 and 9g crude drug), but not time of administration
=0.037). Pair-wise comparisons showed that compared with
administration of the placebo (0 g), doses of 3, 6 or 9g of the crude drug
0.05) reduced the area under the curve (by 19.7, 15.3 and
Two-way ANOVA showed that the main effects of treatment and admin-
0.05). Glycaemia was lower over the last
45 minutes of the test after doses of 1, 2 or 3g than after placebo (
0.05);
Chinese ginseng and American ginseng.
Planta Medica
, 1998, 64:585586.
Phellodendron amu-
Rupr. or
Amur cork tree, amur oak, Amurkorkbaum, amurkortrae, amuuri kor-
Found in northern China, Japan, and the Democratic Peoples Republic
A deciduous tree, 1015 m high, with grey, deeply ssured, corky bark.
Leaves opposite, compound-imparipinnate, reaching a length of 30cm;
low-brown, with ne vertical lines. Texture light and hard, fracture -
Odour: slight; taste: very bitter, mucilaginous and imparts a yellow colour
Transverse section reveals a thin yellow outer cortex, scattered with stone
Total ash
Water-soluble extractive
The recommended maximum limit of aldrin and dieldrin is not more
than 0.05mg/kg (
) and pesticide
,
15
Berberine
OCH
O
OCH
OCH
Jatrorrhizine
Palmatine
R = OH
R=OCH
OCH
Phellodendrine
Vibrio cholerae
grows in a medi-
cidal activity. The suggested mechanism by which berberine exerts its
M (
). Treatment of a human oesophageal squamous
and
C. glabrata
C. tropicalis
Helicobacterpylori
and
and
at a concentration of 1.0mg/ml and 0.5mg/ml, respectively (
). Ber-
(150.0g/ml
and at a concentration of 1.0mg/ml signicantly inhibited
Giardialamblia
and
Trichomonas
and induced morphological changes in the parasites (
0.001)
,
56
Berberine is well tolerated in humans in therapeutic daily doses of 0.5g (
Warnings
None reported. However, berberine, the major isoquinoline alkaloid oc-
assessed in
Daily dose: 310g daily (
Pharmacopoeia of the Peoples Republic of China.
1.Beijing, Chemical Indus-
2., 14th ed. (English ed.). Tokyo, Ministry of
Health and Welfare, 2001 (available at: http://jpdb.nihs.go.jp/jp14e/).
3., 8th ed. (English ed.). Seoul, Korea Food and
NAPRALERT database.
Chicago, University of Illinois
Chiou WF, Yen MH, Chen CF. Mechanism of vasodilatory effect of ber-
berine in rat mesenteric artery.
rec-assay and Salmonella/microsome reversion assay.
Picrorhiza scrophulariiora Pennell] (Scrophulariaceae) (2).SynonymsPicrorhiza kurrooa Royle:Picrorhiza kurroa Benth.,P. kurroa
Hong[syn.
Pennell] are taxonomically similar and have been used
ko, katuku rohini, katurohini, katvi, kaur, khanekhaswael, kharbaqe-hin-
di, kot kaan phraao, koouren, kot kaanphraao, kour, kurri, kuru, kutaki,
the mountains of Yunan (
approximately 510cm long. Spikes terminal. Calyx nearly equally in
5segments. The corolla has 4 or 5 lobes, bilobiate with lobes more or less
then loculicidally into 4 valves, 12mm long. Seeds numerous, ellipsoid:
0.05mg/kg (
Used orally to treat anaemia, asthma, diarrhoea, dyspepsia, fever, head-
aches, obesity, malaria and stomach ache. Also used as an anti-inamma-
Apocynin
O
Aucubin
Picroside II
R = HMB, R' = H
R = H, R' = HMB
H
O
PicrosideI
Picroside III
R1 = R2 = H
R1 = OCH
R2 = OH
CCH
Cucurbitacin B
Cucurbitacin D
CCH
CCH
Cucurbitacin F
CCH
CucurbitacinR
R= CO-CH
R =H
CucurbitacinE
CucurbitacinI
R = CO-CH
R = H
Intragastric administration of a dose of 25.0mg/kg body weight (bw) of a
on hepatocellular injury and redox status was investigated in a haemor-
at a dose of 75mg twice daily was administered for 2 weeks. The study
Treatment did not improve the condition of patients who smoked or reg-
negative), a powder of the crude drug was administered orally (375mg
= 15) or a matching placebo was given
Rajeshkumar NV, Kuttan R. Protective effect of picroliv, the active constitu-
Teratogen-
Royle-Ex Benth Part V: Anti-inammatory action: Relation with cell types
Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Royle-ex Benth Part IV: cellular mechanisms of anti-inammatory action.
,1989, 33:2830.
Willd
Vernacular names
6
,
8
,
14
,
17
).
The castor-oil plant is either cultivated or is found growing wild in most
Water-soluble extractive
Water
fatty acid: (R)-(+)-12-hydroxy-Z-
noleic acid is presented below.
Ricinoleic acid
(ricinoleic acid 0.33mg/guinea-pig and capsaicin 0.0090.09mg/guinea-
The tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonist FK 888 (0.59mg/kg subcutane-
peptidase inhibitor, thiorphan (1.3mg/kg body weight (bw)) signicantly
However, repeated topical application of ricinoleic acid (0.9mg/guinea-
pig) or capsaicin (0.09mg/guinea-pig) for 8 days inhibited carrageenan-
examined by scanning electron microscopy. The changes that appeared
Exanthema may occur. In this case, treatment with the oil should be dis-
Due to stimulation of bile ow, the oil should not be used by patients
loss of salt and water.
Warnings
to a worsening of intestinal hypomotility. Do not take for more than
35days without consulting a health care professional. Overdose may
Pharmacopoeia of the Peoples Republic of China
5..
Vol. 1
zhou, Guangdong Science and Technology Press, 2005.
7..
Vol. 1,
can Unity, Scientic Technical & Research Commission, 1985.
Youngken HW.
Textbook of pharmacognosy,
6th ed. Philadelphia, PA, Blak-
Vol. I
cal Botany, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, 1996.
L.
Alecrim, azir, biberine, biberye, boithran, common rosemary, echter Ros-
marin, encensier, garden rosemary, gusmarino, hasalban, hatsa louban,
marin, rosmarini, rosmarino, rosemary, tresmarino (
A bushy, low, much branched, perennial sub-shrub attaining a height of
about 1 m. Leaves leathery with fringed margin, 1.02.5cm long, aro-
brown in colour. Spiciform inorescences of pale blue or light lilac ow-
Clear, mobile, colourless to pale yellow liquid (
1
).
Refractive index: 1.4641.473 (
1
).
Optical rotation: -5 to + 8 (
1
).
Acid value: not more than 1.0 (
1
).
-pinene
H
H
andenantiomer
andenantiomer
BorneolCamphor
1,8-Cineole
Erwinia carotovora
Streptococcus pyogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica
when added undiluted
The essential oil, and its individual constituents, camphor, borneol, thy-
with greater baseline, relative to right frontal activation, shifted left dur-
activation shifted right. The second study, involving 27 full-term new-
Store in a cool place in an airtight container, protected from light (
Daily dosage for oral administration: 1ml of essential oil (
1., 5th ed, Strasbourg, Directorate for the Quality of
Cairo, Med-
bouly Library, 1994.
NAPRALERT database.
Chicago, University of Illinois
Alecrim, azir, biberine, biberye, boithran, common rosemary, echter Ros-
marin, encensier, garden rosemary, gusmarino, hasalban, hatsa louban,
na, rosmarini, rosmarino, rosemary, tresmarino (
A bushy, low, much branched, perennial sub-shrub attaining a height of
about 1 m. Leaves leathery with fringed margin, 1.02.5cm long, aro-
brown in colour. Spiciform inorescences of pale blue or light lilac ow-
Leaves linear to linear-lanceolate, curved, 14cm long, 24mm wide; co-
Tests for specic microorganisms and microbial contamination limits are
Total ash
Water-soluble extractive
Water content
0.05mg/kg (
Rosmarinic acid
Genkwanin
H
H
andenantiomer
and enantiomer
BorneolCamphor
1,8-Cineole
CCH
Carnosol
36
).
Estrogenic effects
on nonhaem-iron absorption. Twenty-four female volunteers consumed
= 10) or rosemary (study 2;
= 14). The extracts
(0.1mM) were added to the meat component of the test meals. The meals
to 8.9 5.2% (
0.01) in the presence of green tea extract and from
7.54.0% to 6.4 4.7% (
0.05) in the presence of the rosemary ex-
). A 56-year-old man developed occupational contact derma-
Folium Rosmarini is contraindicated in cases of hypersensitivity or aller-
Warnings
Daily dosage: for oral use 46g of herb. Infusion: 24g in 150ml water
S.daphnoides
Vill.,
L.,
L.,
nectaries. Stamens 18, often 2 in staminate ower, and in pistillate ow-
ers, the ovary is superior, bicarpellate, unilocular; style 1; stigmas 2, each
02-lobed. Fruit capsule, two-valved. Seeds many, comose (
lanceolate, acuminate and serrulate, ash-grey, sericious leaves. The fruit is
The bark is 12cm wide and 12mm thick and occurs in exible, elongat-
collenchyma from the bud may be present. Twigs show, additionally, frag-
Tests for specic microorganisms and microbial contamination limits are
12
).
4
).
-
Salicortin
2'-
andepimer at C*
Salicin
Fragilin
R= CO-CH
R = H
R= CO-CH
R=H
Daily consumption of the extract with 240.0mg salicin per day affected
mentary treatment. In the group receiving conventional therapy, 18% of
function dimensions of the WOMAC, daily visual analogue scales (VAS)
the placebo was highly signicant (18.0 mm; 95% CI27.2 to 8.8 mm;
= 0.0002, ANCOVA). The results in the rheumatoid arthritis trial
logue scale was 8mm (15%) in the group treated with willow bark com-
pared with 2mm (4%) in the placebo group. The difference was not
19.3mm;
= 0.93, ANCOVA) (
Warnings
on the advice of a health care professional due to the possibility of Reyes
fection, Reyes syndrome should be suspected. This extremely rare, life-
cy, the product should only be taken under medical supervision.
acute conditions of swelling of joints, redness and impaired mobility per-
anticoagulant drugs such as coumarin and heparin. However, Cortex Sali-
Scientic names of plants in English
French
Arabic and Persian Languages.
Tehran, University of Tehran Pub-
bouly Library, 1994.
Vol. VIII
. Tehran, University of Tehran, 1960.
Youngken HW.
Textbook of pharmacognosy
, 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA, Blak-
iston Company, 1950.
Geneva, World Health Organization, 2007.
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics
, 2003, 74:9697.
Fructus Tribuli
Fructus Tribuli consists of the dried fruits of
Tribulus terrestris
L. (Zygo-
Tribulus lanuginosus
Abrojo, abrojos, akanti, alaf-e-kanguereh, baijili, bastitaj, be tha gokharu,
Fructus Tribuli
Tests for specic microorganisms and microbial contamination limits are
Total ash
Water-soluble extractive
Water
0.05mg/kg (
Rha
H
-rhamnopyranosyl
Rha
O
-glucopyranosyl
TribulosaponinA
Tribulosaponin B
R = H, R' = O-Rha
R =O-Glc, R' = H
Rha
H
-xylopyranosyl
Xyl
Protodioscin
Rha
Rha
Xyl
Xyl
N
H
OCH
Tribulusamide A
X = H
X =O
Tribulusamide B
Fructus Tribuli
Although clinical trials have assessed the use of the crude drug for
the symptomatic treatment of angina pectoris and male infertility
), randomized controlled clinical trials are needed before the
use of the crude drug can be recommended for the treatment of these
Fructus Tribuli
when compared to that of the tissues from the control group. However,
the contractile, anti-erectile response of corpus cavernosal tissue to nor-
Tribulus
over a period of months. Harman and norharman appear to
ronal gene DNA. The extractable alkaloid content was 44.0mg/kg dry
Fructus Tribuli
ment in the sperm morphology, acrosome morphology and reaction
Fructus Tribuli
Flos Trifolii
Flos Trifolii consists of the dried inorescences of
Trifolium pratense
L.
Aasristik, aka kurooba, aka tsumekusa, akerklee, basim ahmar, beebread,
broad-leaved clover, cow clover, creeping clover, hong san ye cao, hong
ow clover, peavine clover, puna-apila, purple clover, red clover, red-klover,
redo kurooba, ribah, rode klaver, rodklover, rdklver, Rot-od-kopklee,
Rothe Kleeblumen, Rother klee, Rother Wiesen-Klee, Rotklee, rod-klee,
Inorescences are ovoid with a rounded summit, mostly from 1234mm
Flos Trifolii
Tests for specic microorganisms and microbial contamination limits are
colony-forming units (cfu) per g, the total combined moulds
count should not be more than 1000 cfu perg (
Total ash
Water-soluble extractive
The recommended maximum limit of aldrin and dieldrin is not more
than 0.05mg/kg (
11
).
R1 = R2 = H
R1 = H R2 = CH
R1 = OHR2=H
BiochaninA
R1 = OHR2=CH
Flos Trifolii
Topical treatment of dermatological disorders such as psoriasis and ecze-
Much of the experimental pharmacology for Flos Trifolii is based on in-
Flos Trifolii
750mg/kg body weight (bw) per day, to virgin, ovariectomized 50-day-
in any of the tissues studied.These data suggest that red clover extract is
Flos Trifolii
Flos Trifolii
ly assigned to receive either Promensil (82mg total isoavones), Rimostil
(57.2mg total isoavones) or a placebo. The primary outcome measures
Flos Trifolii
� 0.05).
= 0.0018), specically
clover disease described symptoms of infertility, abnormal lactation,
Flos Trifolii
Flos Trifolii
Van de Weijer P, Barentsen R. Isoavones from red clover (Promensil) sig-
Fugh-Berman A, Kronenberg F. Red clover (
Trifolium pratense
,2001, 8:333337.
Han D, Tachibana H, Yamada K. Inhibition of environmental estrogen-in-
In Vitro Cell Development and Biology
Uncaria rhynchophylla
Wall.,
U.hirsuta
Havil.,
(Oliv.) Havil. or
Roxb.
Our-
brous, occasionally bearing compressed, hooked thorns. Young stems
slender, square to slightly angular, glabrous. Stipules of the plagiotropic
shoot 610mm long, those of the orthotropic shoot considerably larger,
up to 30mm long, inside glabrous with glandular hairs at the base, outside
glabrous, margins entire, narrowly triangular, deeply bid for over two
thirds of the length, lobes narrowly triangular to triangular-lanceolate.
51237cm, membranous, glabrous on either side; apex acute to cus-
To be established in accordance with national requirements.
Total ash
To be established in accordance with national requirements.
Water-soluble extractive
To be established in accordance with national requirements.
0.05mg/kg (
,
5
,
17
R
Corynoxeine
Isocorynoxeine
R= CH=CH
R = CH=CH
RhynchophyllineIsorhynchophylline
R = CH
-CH
R= CH
-CH
CCH
-HMC
Uncarinic acid A
Uncarinic acidB
-HMC
-HMC
Antiarrhythmic activity
20
).
Anticonvulsant activity
In cultured hippocampal neurons from neonatal mice, hydrogen per-
Candida albicans
Escherichia coli
Streptococcus pneumoniae
vitro at concentrations up to 500.0mg/disc (
kg bw), or oxindole alkaloids isolated from the crude drug (10100mg/kg
0.05) (
0.05) (
alkaloids isolated from the crude drug, corynoxine (30.0mg/kg bw),
corynoxine B (100.0mg/kg bw) or isorhynchophylline (100.0mg/kg bw)
Warnings
at a concentration of 40.050.0mg/plate in
strains TA98 and TA100 (
when administered by intraperitoneal injection to mice at a dose of 4.0mg/
kg bw, equal to 1040 times the amount used in humans (
strains TA98 and TA100 at a concentration of 40.0mg/
Oral daily dose: 312g of the crude drug, added to a decoction, taken in
Pharmacopoeia of the Peoples Republic of China. Vol. I
1. (English ed.). Beijing,
2., 14th ed., Suppl. 1 (English ed.). Tokyo, Minis-
try of Health, Labour and Welfare, 2004.
3. (English ed.). Seoul, Korea Food and
Geneva, World Health Organization, 2007.
15., 5th ed. Strasbourg, Directorate for the Quality of
Cortex Viburni Prunifolii
Cortex Viburni Prunifolii consists of the dried root or stem, trunk or root
Viburnum prunifolium
Viburnum pyrifolium
Cortex Viburni Prunifolii
blue-black, glaucous, 610mm wide, 716mm long, persistent (
into irregularly shaped oblong chips of varying sizes (1.515cm in length
Cortex Viburni Prunifolii
Water-soluble extractive
To be established in accordance with national requirements.
To be established in accordance with national requirements.
0.05mg/kg (
Cortex Viburni Prunifolii
1
,
10
,
11
).
Cortex Viburni Prunifolii
Warnings
Radix Withaniae
Radix Withaniae consists of the dried roots of
Withania somnifera
(L.)
L.(
ghodakun,ghodasan, gisawa, gizawa, hayagandh, hidi-budawa,
hirchil, e-gaddy, hiremaddina-gaddy, hiremaddina-gida, Indian ginseng,
leaf; margin entire or wavy. Inorescence: axillary, umbellate cyme of
Radix Withaniae
Tests for specic microorganisms and microbial contamination limits are
Total ash
Water-soluble extractive
To be established in accordance with national requirements.
To be established in accordance with national requirements.
The recommended maximum limit of aldrin and dieldrin is not more
than 0.05mg/kg (
) and pesticide
11
).
WithasomniferolA
WithanolideD
Withaferin A
R1 = H R2 = OH
R1 = OH R2 = H
Cuscohygrine
Radix Withaniae
As a general tonic to increase energy, improve overall health and prevent
). In one study, a suspension of
powdered root (1 g/kg suspended in 2% acacia gum, 50mg/ml) adminis-
Radix Withaniae
vitamin E at a dose of 100mg/kg, orally for 4 weeks. On days 29 and 30,
Withania somnifera
and
vitamin E treatment groups were given isoprenaline (85mg/kg), subcuta-
Radix Withaniae
21days with intraperitoneal haloperidol (1mg/kg); on day 22, vacuous
300mg/kg bw) dose-dependently reduced haloperidol-orofacial dys-
Withania somnifera
(10.0 or 20.0mg/kg bw) were administered by intra-
In another study, an aqueous suspension of the crude drug was evalu-
tric administration of the extract (100.0mg/kg bw) prevented an increase
In another study, the powdered root was administered to mice at a
Radix Withaniae
Radix Withaniae
300.0mg/kg bw. The positive control drug used was disodium chromo-
observed in animals treated with cyclophosphamide at a dose of 20.0mg/
kg bw, and the crude drug suspensions at a dose of 3001000.0mg/kg bw.
Radix Withaniae
the study, an estimated dose of 200mg/kg bw per day was given for
4weeks as above while monitoring body temperature, body weight,
cortisol value in heparinized plasma and ascorbic acid content of the
adrenals. The liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys, thymus, adrenals and stom-
ach were examined histopathologically and were all found to be nor-
ed with the crude drug (100.0mg/kg bw per day) and in the control
group on day 1 were 91g and 106 g, which, after 4 weeks, had increased
to 185g (103%) and 178g (67.9%), respectively. The rats treated with
the crude drug gained more weight than those in the control group
value given). The percentage weight gain after 8 weeks of the
Withania somnifera
treatment was 227% for the animals in the
treated group and 145.3% for those in the control group. The relative
body weight gain was signicantly greater in the group treated with the
0.001). While it is not clear
when the rats were mated, the average weights of the progeny at
1month of age were 70g and 45g in the crude-drug-treated and con-
trol groups, respectively, indicating healthier progeny in the treated
group. In the 4-week study, the weight gain in the animals in the treat-
ed group was comparable to that of those in the control group. The
body temperature of animals in the group treated with the crude drug
was 1.7C lower than in the control animals. The treatment caused an
0.001). Histopathologically,
root (250mg twice daily) on psychomotor performance in 30 healthy vol-
Radix Withaniae
Withania Somnifera
on glycosaminoglycan
Radix Withaniae
Salerno-Paestum, Italy, 36 October 2005
Dr Anibal Amat, Departtamento de Pharmacognosy y Medical Botany,
nian Drug & Medical Technology Scientic Centre, Yerevan, Republic
ofArmenia
(Stroke Center), Hospital of Oriental Medicine, Kyung Hee Univer-
sity Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea
Dr Anchalee Chuthaputti, Institute of Thai Traditional Medicine, De-
partment for Development of Thai Traditional Medicine, Ministry of
Professor Vincenso De Feo, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Faculty of Pharmacy, State University of Salerno, Fisciano (Salerno),
Professor Francesco De Simone, Dean, Faculty of Pharmacy, State Uni-
Dr Drissa Diallo, Director, Dpartement du Mdecine Traditionnelle, In-
Professor Alberto Gimnez Turba, Director of IIFB, Universidad Mayor
Dr Yukihiro Goda, Director, Division of Pharmacognosy, Phytochemis-
Health, Labour and Welfare, Tokyo, Japan
Dr Tansir Ulhaq Haqqi, Research Ofcer, National Medicinal Plants
Board, Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Sid-
dha and Homoeopathy, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, New
Professor Konstantin Keller, Department for International Pharmaceuti-
cal Affairs, Federal Ministry of Health and Social Security, Bonn, Ger-
Professor Fritz Hubertus Kemper, Director, Environmental Specimen
Bank for Human Tissue, University of Muenster, Munster, Germany
Dr Jong-hwan Kim, Scientic Ofcer, Herbal Medicines Standardization
Dr I-hsin Lin, Chairperson, Committee on Chinese Medicine and
Pharmacy, Department of Health, Taiwan, China
Dr Robin Marles, Manager, Research and Science Division, Natural
Professor Emilio Minelli, Centre of Research in Medical Bioclimatology,
Professor Tams Pal, Director-General, National Institute of Pharmacy,
Dr Ju-Young Park, Senior Scientic Ofcer, Herbal Medicines Standard-
Dr Ain Raal, Associate Professor Docent of Pharmocognosy, Depart-
ment of Pharmacy, The University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia
Dr Farnaz Niaz Rathore, DrugsController, Ministry of Health, Islam-
Professor Yang-Chang Wu, Graduate Institute of Natural Products,
Kaohsiung Medical University (KMU), Taiwan, China
(
1
, 154
Radix Ginseng,
1
, 168
Radix Glycyrrhizae,
1
, 183
Cortex Granati,
4
, 108
Pericarpium Granati,
4
, 117
Folium Guavae,
4
, 127
Gummi Gugguli,
3
, 169
H
(
Ammi Visnagae,
Cimicifugae Racemosae,
2
, 55
Coptidis,
1
, 105
Curcumae Longae,
1
, 115
Hydrastis,
3
, 194
Picrorhizae,
4
, 258
(



Roxb. ex Colebr.

(L.) Merr.


L. var.
(Willd.)








Rhizoma Curcumae Longae, 1, 115Cynara cardunculus

D.C. var.

D.C. var.


(L.) Moench

Wilson [Magnoliaceae]

Wilson var.
Wilson[Magnoliaceae]

(Maiden and

Cortex Pruni Africanae, 2,246Prunus armeniaca L. [Rosaceae]
L. var.
Max-


L. [Lythraceae]




Libosch. var.
riaceae]

Cortex Rhamni Purshianae, 2, 259Rheum ofcinale Baill.[Polygonaceae]
L. [Polygonaceae]

aceae]
Terminalia chebula
(
NameCAS RNMol. form.VolumeMonograph name
NameCAS RNMol. form.VolumeMonograph name
NameCAS RNMol. form.VolumeMonograph name
angelicone37719-98-5C-16 H-16 O-5
_28Radix
angelol G83199-38-6C-20 H-24 O-7
_28Radix
123-11-5C-8 H-8 O-2
NameCAS RNMol. form.VolumeMonograph name
_33;Cortex
_247Cortex
bergapten484-20-8C-12 H-8 O-4
_12Fructus
NameCAS RNMol. form.VolumeMonograph name
NameCAS RNMol. form.VolumeMonograph name
ceramides104404-17-3
_333Radix
NameCAS RNMol. form.VolumeMonograph name
corynoxeine630-94-4
coumarin91-64-5C-9 H-6 O-2
_99Cortex
NameCAS RNMol. form.VolumeMonograph name
daucosterol474-58-8C-35 H-60 O-6
_86;Radix
_333Radix
NameCAS RNMol. form.VolumeMonograph name
eleutheroside B118-34-3C-17 H-24 O-9
_86Radix
eleutheroside B116845-16-2C-17 H-20 O-10
_86Radix
eleutheroside C15486-24-5C-8 H-16 O-6
_86Radix
eleutheroside D79484-75-6C-34 H-46 O-18
_86Radix
eleutheroside E39432-56-9C-34 H-46 O-18
_86Radix
eleutheroside E17374-79-0C-28 H-36 O-13
_86Radix
ellagic acid476-66-4C-14 H-6 O-8
_120;Pericarpium
_130Folium
NameCAS RNMol. form.VolumeMonograph name
_117Cortex
491-60-1C-15 H-12 O-4
_117Cortex
frangulin A521-62-0C-21 H-20 O-9
_117Cortex
frangulin B14101-04-3C-20 H-18 O-9
_117Cortex
friedelin559-74-0C-30 H-50 O
_249Cortex
NameCAS RNMol. form.VolumeMonograph name
ginsenoside Rb211021-13-9C-53 H-90 O-22
_171;Radix
_230Radix
ginsenoside Rc11021-14-0C-53 H-90 O-22
_171;Radix
_230Radix
ginsenoside Rd52705-93-8C-48 H-82 O-18
_171;Radix
_230Radix
ginsenoside Re52286-59-6C-48 H-82 O-18
_171;Radix
_230Radix
ginsenoside Rf52286-58-5C-42 H-72 O-14
_171Radix
ginsenoside Rg122427-39-0C-42 H-72 O-14
_171;Radix
_230Radix
ginsenoside Rg252286-74-5C-42 H-72 O-13
_171Radix
glaucarubinone1259-86-5C-25 H-34 O-10
_62Fructus
glucofrangulin A21133-53-9C-27 H-30 O-14
_117Cortex
glucofrangulin B14062-59-0C-26 H-28 O-14
_117Cortex
NameCAS RNMol. form.VolumeMonograph name
hamamelitannin469-32-9C-20 H-20 O-14
NameCAS RNMol. form.VolumeMonograph name
NameCAS RNMol. form.VolumeMonograph name
kutkoside35988-27-3C-23 H-28 O-13
_262Rhizoma
lauric acid143-07-7C-12 H-24 O-2
_288Fructus
4431-01-0C-12 H-14 O-2
_28Radix
(+)-limonene5989-27-5C-10 H-16
_36;Fructus
NameCAS RNMol. form.VolumeMonograph name
_247Cortex
magnolol528-43-8C-18 H-18 O-2
_170Cortex
maltol118-71-8C-6 H-6 O-3
_261Herba
7228-78-6C-23 H-25 Cl O-12
_213Fructus
maslinic acid4373-41-5C-30 H-48 O-4
_362Fructus
melittoside19467-03-9C-21 H-32 O-15
_286Radix
menthol2216-51-5C-10 H-20 O
NameCAS RNMol. form.VolumeMonograph name
mitraphylline509-80-8
_352Cortex
momordicoside F181348-81-4C-37 H-60 O-8
_195Fructus
momordicoside F281348-82-5C-36 H-58 O-8
_195Fructus
momordicoside G81371-54-2C-37 H-60 O-8
_195Fructus
momordicoside I81371-55-3C-36 H-58 O-8
_195Fructus
momordicoside K81348-84-7C-37 H-60 O-9
_195Fructus
momordicoside L81348-83-6C-36 H-58 O-9
_195Fructus
monomelittoside20633-72-1C-15 H-22 O-10
_286Radix
mukulol41943-03-7C-20 H-34 O
_172Gummi
NameCAS RNMol. form.VolumeMonograph name
parthenolide20554-84-1C-15 H-20 O-3
_320Herba
NameCAS RNMol. form.VolumeMonograph name
procyanidin B229106-49-8C-30 H-26 O-12
procyanidin B323567-23-9C-30 H-26 O-12
procyanidin B429106-51-2C-30 H-26 O-12
prodelphinidinC-30 H-26 O-14
NameCAS RNMol. form.VolumeMonograph name
reserpine50-55-5
_225Radix
rhein478-43-3C-15 H-8 O-6
_234Rhizoma
rheinoside A111545-28-9C-27 H-30 O-17
_234Rhizoma
rheinoside B111614-10-9C-27 H-30 O-17
_234Rhizoma
rheinoside C111545-29-0C-27 H-30 O-16
_234Rhizoma
rheinoside D111614-11-0C-27 H-30 O-16
_234Rhizoma
rhynchophylline76-66-4
ricinoleic acid141-22-0C-18 H-34 O-3
_274Oleum
rosmarinic acid20283-92-5C-18 H-16 O-8
_183;Folium
_297Folium
rutin153-18-4C-27 H-30 O-16
_39;Flos
_153;Herba
_272Flos
sabinene3387-41-5C-10 H-16
_184Herba
safor yellow A85532-77-0C-27 H-30 O-15
_117Flos
safor yellow B91574-92-4C-48 H-54 O-27
_117Flos
safranal116-26-7C-10 H-14 O
_129Stigma
saikogenin A5092-09-1C-30 H-48 O-4
_70Radix
saikogenin D5573-16-0C-30 H-48 O-4
_70Radix
saikogenin F14356-59-3C-30 H-48 O-4
_70Radix
saikogenin G18175-79-6C-30 H-48 O-4
_70Radix
saikosaponin A20736-09-8C-42 H-68 O-13
_70Radix
saikosaponin B158558-08-0C-42 H-68 O-13
_70Radix
saikosaponin B258316-41-9C-42 H-68 O-13
_70Radix
saikosaponin B358316-42-0C-43 H-72 O-14
_70Radix
saikosaponin B458558-09-1C-43 H-72 O-14
_70Radix
saikosaponin D20874-52-6C-42 H-68 O-13
_70Radix
salicin138-52-3C-13 H-18 O-7
_312Cortex
NameCAS RNMol. form.VolumeMonograph name
NameCAS RNMol. form.VolumeMonograph name
silydianin29782-68-1C-25 H-22 O-10
_303Fructus
-sitosterol83-46-5C-29 H-50 O
_249;Cortex
_333Radix
sitosterone1058-61-3C-29 H-48 O
_249Cortex
speciophylline4697-68-1
_352Cortex
spiraeoside20229-56-5C-21 H-2O O-12
squalene111-02-4C-30 H-50
_86Semen
NameCAS RNMol. form.VolumeMonograph name
-terpineol98-55-5C-10 H-18 O
_64Semen
NameCAS RNMol. form.VolumeMonograph name
ursolic acid77-52-1C-30 H-48 O-3
_249;Cortex
_272;Flos
_345;Folium
_130Folium
uvaol545-46-0C-30 H-50 O-2
_345Folium
valerenal4176-16-3C-15 H-22 O
_271Radix
valerenic acid3569-10-6C-15 H-22 O-2
_271Radix
550-37-8C-12 H-14 O-3
_28Radix
valtrate18296-44-1C-22 H-30 O-8
_271Radix
valtroxal71013-41-7C-17 H-22 O-7
_271Radix
vanillic acid121-34-6C-8 H-8 O-4
_28Radix
vicenin-223666-13-9C-27 H-30 O-15
_261Herba
3-vinyl-1,2-dithiin62488-53-3C-6 H-8 S-2
_19Bulbus
2-vinyl-1,3-dithiin80028-57-5C-6 H-8 S-2
_19Bulbus
visnadin477-32-7C-21 H-24 O-7
_26Fructus
Visnagae
visnagin82-57-5C-13 H-10 O-4
_26Fructus
Visnagae
vitexilactone61263-49-8C-22 H-34 O-5
_13Fructus
vitexin3681-93-4C-21 H-20 O-10
_261Herba
vitexin 2-rhamnoside64820-99-1C-27 H-30 O-14
vitexlactam A459167-05-6C-22 H-35 N O-4
_13Fructus
withaferin A5119-48-2C-28 H-38 O-6
_376Radix
withanolide D30655-48-2C-28 H-38 O-6
_376Radix
withasomniferol A194413-09-7C-28 H-38 O-7
_376Radix
wogonin632-85-9C-16 H-12 O-5
_316Radix
xanthohumol6754-58-1C-21 H-22 O-5
_239Strobilus
xanthotoxin298-81-7C-12 H-8 O-4
_12Fructus
yangonin500-62-9C-15 H-14 O-4
_234Rhizoma
NameCAS RNMol. form.VolumeMonograph name
zingiberene495-60-3C-15 H-24
_118;Rhizoma
_280Rhizoma
zizyphus saponin I77943-56-7C-47 H-76 O-17
_362Fructus
zizyphus saponin II77943-83-0C-47 H-76 O-17
_362Fructus
zizyphus saponin III77943-54-5C-52 H-84 O-21
_362Fructus
zwiebelanes126038-52-6C-6 H-10 O S-2
_8Bulbus
ordered by CAS number
CAS RNName
50-55-5reserpine
60-33-3linoleic acid
76-22-2camphor
76-50-6bornyl isovalerate
76-66-4rhynchophylline
76-78-8quassin
77-52-1ursolic acid
78-70-6linalool (
81-27-6sennoside A
82-02-0khellin
82-57-5visnagin
89-83-8thymol
90-82-4(+)-pseudoephedrine
91-64-5coumarin
CAS RNName
104-55-2cinnamaldehyde
106-23-0citronellal
106-24-1geraniol
106-25-2nerol
106-26-3neral
111-02-4squalene
112-80-1oleic acid
CAS RNName
141-27-5geranial
143-07-7lauric acid
149-91-7gallic acid
153-18-4rutin
154-23-4catechin
298-81-7xanthotoxin
299-42-3(-)-ephedrine
CAS RNName
CAS RNName
548-04-9hypericin
CAS RNName
3569-10-6valerenic acid
3621-36-1columbamine
3621-38-3jatrorrhizine
3681-93-4vitexin
3779-59-7cimigenol
3877-86-9cucurbitacin D
CAS RNName
6906-39-4peonidin 3-monoglucoside
6926-08-5harpagide
CAS RNName
18262-45-8(-)-11-deoxyaloin
18296-44-1valtrate
18444-66-1cucurbitacin E
18449-41-7madecassic acid
CAS RNName
23513-13-5[6]-shogaol
23513-14-6[6]-gingerol
23513-15-7[10]-gingerol
23567-23-9procyanidin B3
23666-13-9vicenin-2
24815-24-5rescinnamine
24959-84-0canin
25161-41-5acevaltrate
CAS RNName
36338-96-2carthamin
37271-16-2sennoside C
37271-17-3sennoside D
37719-98-5angelicone
38953-85-4isovitexin
39012-20-9picroside II
39025-25-7guggulsterol I
39025-26-8guggulsterol-II
39025-27-9guggulsterol-III
39432-56-9eleutheroside E
41451-75-6bruceantin
41743-67-3[3]-gingerol
41743-68-4[4]-gingerol
41743-69-5[5]-gingerol
41753-43-9ginsenoside Rb1
41943-03-7mukulol
42553-65-1A-crocin
51014-29-0isocorynoxeine
CAS RNName
56645-88-6aloinoside A
57710-64-2D-crocin
58050-17-2E-crocin
58316-41-9saikosaponin B2
58316-42-0saikosaponin B3
58479-68-8platycodin D
58546-54-6schisandrol B
58558-08-0saikosaponin B1
58558-09-1saikosaponin B4
59440-97-0(+)-echinolone
61263-49-8vitexilactone
61281-37-6schisandrin B
61281-38-7schisandrin A
62488-53-33-vinyl-1,2-dithiin
63644-62-2coniferyl ferulate
64461-95-6picroside III
64820-99-1vitexin 2-rhamnoside
65995-63-3punicalagin
65995-64-4punicalin
66176-93-0cimicifugoside
66663-90-9platycodin D2
66663-91-0polygalacin D
66663-92-1polygalacin D2
66779-34-8platycodin A
66779-35-9platycodin C
CAS RNName
77790-55-7neoolivil
77943-54-5zizyphus saponin III
77943-56-7zizyphus saponin I
77943-83-0zizyphus saponin II
78281-02-4hydroxysafor yellow A
79484-75-6eleutheroside D
79974-46-2tribulosin
80028-57-5vinyl-1,3-dithiin (2-)
80151-77-5(-)-tussilagine
81348-81-4momordicoside F1
81348-82-5momordicoside F2
81348-83-6momordicoside L
81348-84-7momordicoside K
81371-54-2momordicoside G
81371-55-3momordicoside I
81720-05-0rehmannioside A
81720-06-1rehmannioside B
81720-07-2rehmannioside C
81720-08-3rehmannioside D
82209-72-1andropanoside
82209-76-5andrographiside
82854-37-3echinacoside
CAS RNName
91108-32-6isotussilagine
91574-92-4safor yellow B
92935-94-9angelicide
98449-40-2taraxacoside
99742-03-7[1]-gingerol
99742-07-1[7]-shogaol
99742-08-2[9]-shogaol
99742-09-3[11]-shogaol
99742-10-6[12]-shogaol
CAS RNName
163589-51-3desacylsenegin II
164178-32-9cascaroside E
164322-83-2cascaroside F
166833-80-3chebulanin
173557-02-3desacylsenegasaponin A
180572-65-0desacylsenegin III
194413-09-7withasomniferol A
206256-62-4uncarinic acid A
218622-84-5tribulusamide A
218622-86-7tribulusamide B
311310-49-3tribulosaponin A
311310-52-8tribulosaponin B
333332-41-5goyaglycoside a
333332-48-2goyaglycoside b
333332-49-3goyaglycoside c
333332-50-6goyaglycoside d
333333-12-3goyaglycoside e
333333-13-4goyaglycoside f
333333-14-5goyaglycoside g
333333-19-0goyaglycoside h
333333-20-3goyasaponin I
333333-23-6goyasaponin II
333333-27-0goyasaponin III
ordered by molecular formula
Mol. form.Name
Mol. form.Name
Mol. form.Name
C-10 H-16(+)-limonene
C-10 H-16(-)-
C-10 H-16sabinene
C-10 H-16 Ocamphor
C-10 H-16 Odihydrocarvone
C-10 H-16 Ofenchone
C-10 H-16 Ogeranial
C-10 H-16 Oneral
C-10 H-17 N O-3isotussilagine
C-10 H-17 N O-3(-)-tussilagine
C-10 H-18 Oborneol
C-10 H-18 O1,8-cineole
C-10 H-18 Ocitronellal
C-10 H-18 Ogeraniol
C-10 H-18 Olinalool (
C-10 H-18 Omenthone
C-10 H-18 Onerol
C-10 H-18 Oterpinen-4-ol
C-10 H-20 Omenthol
C-11 H-10 O-5isofraxidin
Mol. form.Name
Mol. form.Name
C-15 H-18 O-4helenalin
C-15 H-18 O-5artecanin
C-15 H-18 O-5canin
C-15 H-20 Ocurzerene
C-15 H-20 O-3parthenolide
C-15 H-20 O-411
C-15 H-20 O-43
C-15 H-20 O-8fragilin
C-15 H-22 Ovalerenal
C-15 H-22 O-2valerenic acid
C-15 H-22 O-4[4]-gingerol
C-15 H-22 O-9aucubin
C-15 H-22 O-10catalpol
C-15 H-22 O-10monomelittoside
C-15 H-22 O-10procumbide
C-15 H-24eremophilene
C-15 H-24humulene
C-15 H-24zingiberene
Mol. form.Name
C-16 H-14 O-4imperatorin
C-16 H-16 O-5angelicone
C-16 H-18 O-9chlorogenic acid
C-16 H-20 O-9gentiopicroside
Mol. form.Name
C-19 H-30 O-4[8]-gingerol
C-19 H-32 O-4(+)-protolichesterinic
C-20 H-18 N O-4berberine
Mol. form.Name
C-21 H-20 O-12isoquercitrin
C-21 H-20 O-12spiraeoside
C-21 H-21 N O-6hydrastine
C-21 H-22 N O-4palmatine
C-21 H-22 O-5xanthohumol
C-21 H-22 O-8chrysaloin
C-21 H-22 O-8(-)-11-deoxyaloin
C-21 H-22 O-8(+)-11-deoxyaloin
C-21 H-22 O-9aloin A
C-21 H-22 O-9aloin B
C-21 H-22 O-9isoliquiritin
C-21 H-22 O-9liquiritin
C-21 H-22 O-11neocarthamin
C-21 H-24 O-7visnadin
Mol. form.Name
C-22 H-26 O-8(+)-syringaresinol
Mol. form.Name
C-26 H-34 O-9E-crocin
C-26 H-34 O-11brucein A
C-26 H-38 O-4lupulone
C-26 H-40 O-8neoandrographolide
C-26 H-40 O-9andropanoside
C-26 H-40 O-10andrographiside
C-27 H-24 O-19chebulanin
C-27 H-30 O-14glucofrangulin A
C-27 H-30 O-14vitexin 2-rhamnoside
C-27 H-30 O-15safor yellow A
C-27 H-30 O-15scolymoside
C-27 H-30 O-15vicenin-2
C-27 H-30 O-16lucenin-2
C-27 H-30 O-16rheinoside C
C-27 H-30 O-16rheinoside D
C-27 H-30 O-16rutin
C-27 H-30 O-17rheinoside A
C-27 H-30 O-17rheinoside B
C-27 H-31 N O-14tinctormine
C-27 H-32 O-13aloinoside A
C-27 H-32 O-13aloinoside B
C-27 H-32 O-13cascaroside C
C-27 H-32 O-13cascaroside D
C-27 H-32 O-14cascaroside A
C-27 H-32 O-14cascaroside B
C-27 H-32 O-14cascaroside E
C-27 H-32 O-14cascaroside F
C-27 H-32 O-16hydroxysafor
C-27 H-35 N O-12ipecoside
C-27 H-42 O-20rehmannioside D
C-27 H-44 O-3guggulsterol-III
C-27 H-44 O-4guggulsterol I
C-27 H-46 O-3guggulsterol-II
Mol. form.Name
C-29 H-30 O-13amarogentin
Mol. form.Name
C-30 H-50 O-2uvaol
C-30 H-50 O-5barringtogenol C
C-30 H-50 O-6protoaescigenin
C-30 H-52 O-3panaxadiol
C-30 H-52 O-4panaxatriol
Mol. form.Name
C-37 H-54 O-11cimicifugoside
C-37 H-56 O-11actein
C-37 H-60 O-8momordicoside F1
C-37 H-60 O-8momordicoside G
C-37 H-60 O-9goyaglycoside a
C-37 H-60 O-9goyaglycoside b
C-37 H-60 O-9momordicoside K
C-38 H-54 O-19B-crocin
C-38 H-62 O-9goyaglycoside c
C-38 H-62 O-9goyaglycoside d
C-40 H-56 O-7uncarinic acid A
C-40 H-56 O-7uncarinic acid B
C-41 H-30 O-27chebulagic acid
C-41 H-32 O-27chebulinic acid
C-41 H-68 O-14astragaloside III
C-41 H-68 O-14astragaloside IV
C-42 H-38 O-20sennoside A
C-42 H-38 O-20sennoside B
C-42 H-40 O-19sennoside C
C-42 H-40 O-19sennoside D
C-42 H-62 O-16glycyrrhizin
C-42 H-66 O-14calenduloside F
C-42 H-68 O-13calenduloside A
C-42 H-68 O-13goyaglycoside e
C-42 H-68 O-13goyaglycoside f
C-42 H-68 O-13saikosaponin A
C-42 H-68 O-13saikosaponin B1
C-42 H-68 O-13saikosaponin B2
C-42 H-68 O-13saikosaponin D
C-42 H-70 O-15goyaglycoside h
C-42 H-72 O-13ginsenoside Rg2
C-42 H-72 O-14ginsenoside Rf
C-42 H-72 O-14ginsenoside Rg1
C-42 H-72 O-14pseudoginsenoside F11
C-43 H-42 O-22carthamin
C-43 H-70 O-14goyaglycoside g
C-43 H-70 O-15astragaloside II
C-43 H-70 O-15isoastragaloside II
C-43 H-72 O-14saikosaponin B3
C-43 H-72 O-14saikosaponin B4
Mol. form.Name
C-44 H-38 O-23sennoside E
C-44 H-38 O-23sennoside F
C-44 H-64 O-24A-crocin
C-45 H-38 O-18proanthocyanidin
C-45 H-72 O-16astragaloside I
C-45 H-72 O-16isoastragaloside I
C-47 H-76 O-17zizyphus saponin I
C-47 H-76 O-17zizyphus saponin II
C-47 H-78 O-19astragaloside V
C-47 H-78 O-19astragaloside VI
C-47 H-78 O-19astragaloside VII
C-48 H-28 O-30punicalagin
C-48 H-54 O-27safor yellow B
C-48 H-76 O-19calenduloside H
C-48 H-78 O-19asiaticoside
C-48 H-78 O-20madecassoside
C-48 H-82 O-18ginsenoside Rd
C-48 H-82 O-18ginsenoside Re
C-49 H-76 O-19goyasaponin III
C-51 H-84 O-21tribulosaponin A
C-51 H-84 O-22protodioscin
C-51 H-84 O-22tribulosaponin B
C-52 H-84 O-21jujuboside B
C-52 H-84 O-21zizyphus saponin III
C-53 H-90 O-22ginsenoside Rb2
C-53 H-90 O-22ginsenoside Rc
C-54 H-92 O-23ginsenoside Rb1
C-55 H-90 O-25tribulosin
C-57 H-92 O-27polygalacin D
C-57 H-92 O-28platycodin D
C-59 H-94 O-29desacylsenegin II
C-59 H-94 O-29platycodin A
C-59 H-94 O-29platycodin C
C-63 H-102 O-32polygalacin D2
C-63 H-102 O-33platycodin D2
C-64 H-102 O-33desacylsenegasaponin A
C-65 H-102 O-31goyasaponin I
C-65 H-104 O-33desacylsenegin III
Mol. form.Name
C-70 H-104 O-32senegin II
C-70 H-110 O-35goyasaponin II
Selected WHO publications of related interest
Information on medicinal plants:
WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants, Volume 3
WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants, Volume 2
WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants, Volume 1
Quality assurance and control of herbal medicines:
WHO Guidelines on good agricultural and collection practices (GACP) for medicinal plants
WHO good agricultural and collection practices (GACP) monograph on Artemisia annua L

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