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Rudzke, B.
319
LITERATURE
Kuthentic Gnglish for Reading 1 = B. Kbbs, j. Hook. Oxford University
Kuthentic Gnglish for Reading 3 = B. Kbbs, j. Hook. Oxford University
Abdulaziz, H.T.
Kcademic Hhallenges in Reading = Q.T. Kbdulaziz, K.V. Sto -
ver. 200?.
K continual dripping on a very rainy day
g tree will eat its fruit;
re ects
So a mans heart
reveals
ed.
ning pot
Though you grind a fool in a mortar with a pestle along with crushed grain,
Yet
Which extract refers to the following?
Re{oicing over your enemys misfortunes is not wise.
K sensible wife is a gift from Qeaven.
Theres no keeping a |uarrelsome woman in control.
317
tting for a fool,
316
7. They tend to blame of Kfrican (

8. The old man was sitting in the armchair in front of the mantelpiece with a

III. Follow-Up Activities
the origin of the Qoly Hommunion;
the mystical side of the sacrament;
Hhrists warning about the necessity of the Qoly Hommunion for our
the way remission of sins takes place.
PRACTICE TEST
Study the following words which are essential for understanding the test.
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_esus says: Truly, truly I assure you, that if you do not eat the
esh of the
Son of Man and drink Qis blood, you do not have life in yourselves (_ohn ?:53).
The liturgy itself is a very beautiful rite. Some people may think its
beauty is needless and aimless. Qowever, this beauty is inspired by true love
for Jod and by true faith, that is why it is only natural that the liturgy should
be really beautiful and grand. Only the kind of beauty that doesnt serve any
The Vivine Liturgy gives one in
nite love and {oy, really free and disinter-
ested, of the kind that one can feel only in his childhood. Its beauty has always
c. They couldnt bear the sight of Hhrist being humiliated;
d. They were unable to realize that Qis Zingdom was not on the Garth,
313
3. What did _esus say to prevent
ghtingX
Y. Hould Qe have saved himselfX
5. Qow did Qis disciples behaveX
II. Text Features and Language Focus
312
311
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While he was speaking, beholdq _udas, one of the twelve, and a large
310
Study these notes.
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On the
rst day of unleavened bread _e-
sus disciples asked, Where do you want us to
into the city to a certain one and say, The
Teacher says, My time is near. I will observe
and prepared the Passover.
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4
I. Reading and Comprehension Tasks
Study the meaning of the following words and phrases to avoid any difficulty
elds of the fatherless;
Qear, my son, and be wise;
Knd guide your heart in the way.
^or the drunkard and the glutton will come to poverty,
307
dence,
22 K good name is to be chosen rather than great riches,
K prudent man foresees evil and hides himself,
Train up a child in the way he should go,
The rich rules over the poor,
Knd the borrower is servant to the lender.
Qe who sows ini|uity will reap sorrow,
When you sit down to eat with a ruler,
are
Talk about:
the way confession heals ones soul and body and the role of the con-
fessor as ones psychotherapist;
the way one should behave to make a proper confession.
PRACTICE TEST
Study the following words to avoid any difficulty of understaning the text.
! ] (v) &  / A
(] (v) & "  A
)$ ] (n)   % , 6 
*"  ] (n) '  ini|uity [& ] (n) &     A,  $   A
(] (n)  prudent ["  ] (a) 6  "%'4
! ] (n) E%&  A
Read the extracts from the Bible and the questions following them. Match the
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b
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F
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Knd clouds drop down the dew.
In the box below there are pairs of words similar in meaning. Match them up.
(Kbout a spiritual father) If you forgive the sins of any, they are forgiven
NounsVerbsAdjectives
can avoid many mental illnesses as well as insanity. We feel the value of
confession in practice because an existing sin tires us physically and we
may even experience bodily illnesses. When we decide to make a con-
fession, the healing stage begins and our soul and body are
ooded with
5 Qowever, it takes spiritual courage for a person to reveal his wound to a
blame on yourself, saying humbly: This is my wound, ^ather, this is my
in{ury. It happened because of my negligence and not from any other
our inner wounds to our spiritual director, we should look and behave
? Honfession is not a human endeavour, but it works by the power of Jod.
(From H.Vlachos. Orthodox Psychotherapy. Birth of the Theotokos Monastery)
Check your comprehension of the text by choosing the right alternative:
1. Kre there one or two forms of confessionX
2. Han confession through prayer replace confession to ones spiritual di-
3. Qow can you avoid mental illnesses: by opening yourself to Jod through
Y. Vo we experience bodily illnesses only from physical causes or spiritual
5. Is our psyche totally indifferent to our sins or do they make our soul sickX
?. Voes the healing stage begin when we decide to make a confession or
7. Is it easy to confess or does it take spiritual courageX
8. Qow must you behave when you are making a confession: try to {ustify
9. Should one feel self-con
dent or humble while confessing his sinsX
10. Vo contemporary psychiatrists think confession is good or harmful for
ones psycheX
Say how you understand the following:
The
rst stage of repentance is knowledge of our sins, the sense of our
souls illnesses (paragraph 1).
lay (smth) bare 6 A,    A
shed tears  A  "
Check your knowledge of these medical and theological terms:
(n)  &
(n) 
(n) &$
(n) &$
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This extract is a description of the sacrament of holy confession which is practised by the
Orthodox and Hatholic Hhurches. The book Orthodox Psychotherapy which this selec-
301
K woman should be careful and tactful in what she says or does.
Enrich Your Vocabulary
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3
Teach your tongue to say ^orgive me.
Saint Anthony the Great
I. Reading and Comprehension Tasks
The following words are essential for understanding the text and discussing its
(a)  4
(v) % A, & ! A, &     A
(n) & A, & "
(a) 6  4
(n) & & , & &  
(a) % 4
(n) 6"%'
6   A, & 6 
(v) &     A
(n) '  
(n) & 
esh
are
are
a ring of gold in a swines snout,
Wickedness
are
are
nd knowledge.
Receive my instruction, and not silver,
10. Qundreds of people (
11. Qis behaviour (
 
12. Stock holders (
 
297
So, the word
$  " ] (n) "'  A, % 
" ] (n) �  A, " 
 ] (v)   A
  &$ ] (v)    A
$ ] (ad{)   4gracious [)] (ad{) '   4
  * = %" (] %$   -
   = !  
To make Qis teaching about salvation easily understood, _esus Hhrist
uses examples from Qis listeners everyday life. Qe illustrates the main ideas
of Qis teaching by parables. The parable of the prodigal son is one of them.
It tells us about our life in our Qoly ^athers home, full of peace and
294
] (v) 6' A
 ] (n)  
*  ] (n) 6 %!
*] (a) '4parable [] (n) &  perish [] (v) & 6 A
! ] (v) '  A, '   A
$%] (v) "    A
 ] (v)   A
�] (v)   As|uander [&] (v)   A
  %] (n)  
$] (v) "  A, "  A
&# ] (a)   44
Read the text carefully.
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certain man had two sons. The younger
said to his father, Jive me my part of
belongings and went to a far country, where he
s|uandered his money, living immorally.
suffered a severe famine, and he became desti-
tute. Qe then hired himself out to a citizen of
that country, who sent him into his
elds to feed
pigs. Qe longed to be fed some of the carob
giving him anything. When he came to himself, he said, Qow many of my
fathers hired hands have more than enough, but I am perishing here with
starvation. I will arise and go to my father and say, ^ather, I have sinned
against heaven and before you. I am no longer worthy to be called your son.
Till an arrow struck his liver.
Which extract refers to the following?
K righteous man deserves Jods mercy.
Enrich Your Vocabulary
a false witness a haughty look a lying tongue
a worthless person to sow discord to shed blood
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2
I am the vine, and you are the branches for
I. Reading and Comprehension Tasks
Learn the meaning and pronunciation of the following words.
( (v)    A, & ' A
  " �] (a) 4 &/, 
\es, seven
are
K proud look, K lying tongue,
K heart that devises wicked plans,
291
To perceive the words of understanding,
To receive the instruction of wisdom,
To give prudence to the simple,
B. Enriching Vocabulary
Translate the italicized parts of these sentences into English using the vocabu-
1. The heart may be
 \
2. The old man has the reputation of a gossip and
! 
 
of apartment blocks was
Y. Why are you so rudeX Kre you
 
5. The embankment was damaged by last years
 
?. The monk was known by his
 
  
%
III. Follow-Up Activity
Freewriting (1015 minutes). Try to analyse your behaviour ask-
cult for you to refrain from judging your parents, friends,
fellow-students and other people?
PRACTICE TEST
Go over the following words to avoid difficulties of understanding.
] (n) %, /
 ] (ad{) $ 4,  4
 ] (n) "
e

B
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o
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K
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To know wisdom and instruction,
cult is the way which leads to
judge
1.  % ,   %' 6% .
2. E   ' �A  %   " 6     ,  6   '
 "  %  %�AX
3.   4     &'   6 4  '% � &   A'.
Y.   ,   6% '; /   4 ;  %    '.
5. E  ',  $  ,  6  ' &  %&  +,  &  %-
?. $   '  '; & '%  �      &  
&% A, %/ & 6 A,  '  % '.
7.  '%      %"  &% A "A,  '  $  $.
Expressive Means in the Text of the Bible
seek | and
nd;
knock | and it

or:
�the oods
�and the winds
27 and read them aloud following the given intonation patterns.
oods came, and the winds blew and beat
on that house; and it fell. Knd great was its fall.
^or Qe taught them as one having authority, and not as the scribes.
(From The Holy Bible. New King James Version. Matthew 6:33, 7:1-14, 24-29)
II. Text Features and Language Focus
287
Read the text carefully.
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rst the kingdom of Jod and Qis
brothers eye, but do not consider the plank in
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1

UNIT 1
I. Reading and Comprehension Tasks
Learn the meaning and pronunciation of these words:
 $] (n) " �%
! %�] (ad{) " 4, %  4,  4 ood [
] (n)  , & &
*] (ad{)   4
* ] (n) !' {udgement [$ ] .
%, "  
] (v) %&  6  A
 ] (n) 6   ,  
" %] (v) %6  A, ' A
] (n)   & , 'A
 ] (n) &    A, &  
] (n) 66 . 
! ] (v)  A
#  ] (n) "'4
] (n)  �, & 
 ] (v) &  A;  &  A
284
cation were needed, the
ower could be inclined to the
cant other.

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y
ve been waiting a long time for _anuary and its frosts to begin. But theyre
here at last. Now, thank heavens, Ill be able to curl up in front of the
re
and relax. Ill look out of the window at the beautiful frost covering every
blade of grass on my precious lawn, and Ill think with great satisfaction that
theres absolutely nothing I can work at in the garden till the frost lifts.
Vont misunderstand me. I love my garden. Im Gnglish, after all. ^or
years Ive lived gardenless in a London
at. ^or years Ive longed for a garden.
Now that Ive got one I adore it. Our relationship hasnt always been easy,
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Berg|vist built his
rst igloo in 1991 for a local art exhibition.
But this is one of the sad things about building an igloo.
Kfter their stay, all visitors receive a survival certi
cate recording their
accomplishment.
These include a theatre for slide shows, a {azz club, a radio station and a
large ice bar.
Soon, however, the fun will be over.
My sister and brother-in-law were tour
ing Gurope in their caravan. They had
arrived in the ^rench Klps, near Knnecy, where my brother-in-law was admir-
ing the mountain scenery with great enthusiasm. Turning to my sister he said,
281
igloo, he says. We dont see melting as a big problem. I {ust look forward
) It was so successful that he designed the current one,
from all over the world. (
From Mr. H.C.Robbins London 3 May 1984
Sir,
My daffodils, being particularly sophisticated, are facing neither the
listening to the large |uantities of eighteen-century music which pours
out of the house in the daffodils direction; I think they are particularly
Yours faithfully,
Which one gives a serious answer, and which one a funny answer?
How would you describe the character and tone of the remaining
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B
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s
wedish businessman Nils \ngve Berg|vist is delighted with the re-
sponse to his new accommodation concept, the worlds
rst igloo hotel.
Built in _ukkas{rvi, a small town in Lapland, KRTic Qall has been attracting
ocks of visitors. (
In two weeks time Berg|vists ice creation will be nothing more than a
pool of water. (
) The most interesting thing is designing the
279
What is the writers main intention in each of the three paragraphs? Choose the
cant factor;
From Mr. Geoffrey Yorke 27 April 1984
Sir,
The uncooperative daffodils in Vr. Hrofts garden are simply turn-
ing towards the best source of light. Planted near the house they will
turn away from it to where the sky is more visible. If Vr. Hroft has a
front garden wall or hedge, daffodils planted near it will look towards
I have north-facing daffodils against a fence on my southern boundary,
Its only natural, if you come to think of it. \ou would not sit on your
Yours faithfully,
Geoffrey Yorke
278
How did the writer feel when the journey started? Account for his
Recall your impressions of a journey you once had.
PRACTICE TESTS
Test 1
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From Dr. M.D.Croft 23 April 1984
Sir,
The daffodils in our front garden are all pointing towards the
Fill in the chart with the words from the text having the following suffixes.
-hood-ment-ation-age-y-er-ive-en-ise-ity-ic
Combine the words in the columns below to make correct collocations. Add arti-
board {okes
be board
be desire
ride encased
save train
make leg
pull hooked
lose money
climb train
Translate the following sentences into English using the vocabulary
1. @ � % ,
   
 " '.
2. @  ' 

%   $ &  &  /' F"-
' '.
3. %    &  / &#x%5.7;&#x.2 ;.7 ;&#x 6.7;&#x -24;&#x.9 ;.2;&#x  ;&#x 13.; 0 ;&#x&13;&#x.3;&#x 13.; 19;&#x/;$.7;&#x 0 &;&#x% 0; &%   6
-
Y.  
 
',   " ,  %    6� %.
5. E"-" &  �$ ' 6   

?.   4  
  
,  6 &  A  4 '   & -
   A   & %.
7. @ " ,  '       6  ' �  &   A
 
 4.
8.  F ' �'  6%%/ &    A '%  A
 
9. @ 6 A
  
',  � %  .
10.  "    '
  
,  6 %/  A
 + ' %:
   
,  4  %    "  4
&    .
276
Imagery
There are many different techniques that a writer can use to create a
mental picture in the readers mind: such as comparison and contrasts,
If you want to use more than one adjective you must make sure that they
are in the
sizeage
texture or
temperature
colourshapeoriginmaterialnoun
whiteKmericanplasticboat
Kn oldredIndiancottondress
Find some sentences in the text which have two or more adjectives preceding a
Put the following adjectives in the correct order:
275
5. There are vacant seats for only three people in the carriage.
?. The writer is excited because he will travel across a very pictures|ue part
of Norway.
Read the text again and answer these questions about some of the essential
274
carved into the side of a perpendicular rock face. Ks I watched I felt I was
That was it. I was hooked and I knew I wouldnt rest until I had been on
that train {ourney. When I was young I used to talk about it all the time. I bor-
rst
passengers. Ks I grew older people started pulling my leg and making {okes
273
There are some colloquialisms in this text. Learn their meanings.
y

J
o
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n
e
y
have not been waiting long for this train. In fact its been almost
fteen
years now. \ou might think that is a long time but to me its been worth
it. Ks soon as I left college I got a {ob and started saving all my spare mon-
272
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2
.
271
1. The writer implies that her family
nd it hard to agree on anything.
all have very different personalities.
dont usually
ght over things.
dont care about each others feelings.
2. The writer thinks her daughters ambition to go to India is
strange for someone like her.
270
Its not that were an argumentative family, but it seems that where we
steadily increasing. My daughter discovers a lifelong ambition to go to India.
^unny how she never mentioned it before. My son isnt going anywhere un-
less he can bring his dog and my husband doesnt mind where he goes as long
as its within
ve miles of a golf course.
Ks usual, its left to someone, and guess who, to
nd somewhere that
everybody is willing to accept (the dog goes to the neighbours, though). This
but usually theres a solution. Then its time to plan the packing. It seems that
the airport. My husband lays out things he wants to take and I put them back
ishing 5,000 strikes an hour. The cause of the storm and the reason it sud-
Morris during a thunderstorm in 193? are typical: I saw a red-hot ball come
down from the sky. It struck our house, cut the telephone wire, burnt the
window frame and then buried itself in a tub of hot water. The water boiled
nd nothing there.
Test 2
You are going to read a magazine article about going on holiday. For questions
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9. C   "  �A '  ,  6

 $
 %"4.
10.   &    '%
  
    '%  .
Recall an episode from your life similar or opposite to the one de-
scribed in the extract and present it in writing.
PRACTICE TESTS
Test 1
Read the text and fill each of the numbered gaps with one of the paragraphs be-
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t is not surprising that people in the past were afraid of lightning and
thought that it was a sign of anger from their gods. In fact we still
nd
b) with their synonyms from the right column:
spring up confusing;
stop indoors stay at home;
misleading light and thin;
keep on appear;
imsy begin;
give up go on;
Fill in the missing phrasal verbs choosing from the box below.
give up go off look out cheer up
1. Qes ... ... driving since his illness.
2. She ... ... with her friend.
3. I ... ... smoking two years ago.
Y. She was ... ... for the postman.
5. My brother has ... ... to college.
?. The students didnt ... ... the meaning of the new word.
7. She was ill so I sent her some
owers to ... her... .
8. Vo you fancy... ... for a meal after workX
9. Qe stood at the window and ... ... at the view.
10. Thousands of new businesses have... ...recently.
11. She went shopping to ... herself... .
12. I cant always ... ...what he says.
13. Im {ust ... ... for a breath of fresh air.
Translate the following sentences into English using the vocabulary of the text.
   
& �'%    "'% " F   .
2.  A  ,   %   6        '  
3.  % ! 6
 
,   �' &  A
  
Y.  F ' 4 
'   $ '  F $ "4.
5. �@  &   A  ' / ",  6
  
 %!.
?.    $   6 
 
,   % ' A 
.
7. C6}  " 
    
,  '  % '�  
%4 '  '.
8.   '

&  A 4 6 $  .
B. Reinforcing Vocabulary
Make sure you can translate the italicized parts of these sentences into Russian.
Check your understanding of the gist by answering these questions about
1. Why did the author and his friends give up their plans for the dayX
2. Were there people who didnt take any notice of the weather forecastX
3. Why was the landlady surprised they werent going outX
The language of the text is rich in various lexical and syntactical means
conveying the authors intention to
or even
the things and events he writes about, which is typical of
writing. The effect of exaggeration is achieved by: a)
intensifying
264
Khq we said, as we stood looking out at them through the window,
(n) $$A
(v)  A
(n) & 
(v) & &  A, &  A
imsy
.
6 )
(a)   &4
�(a) %'4
(a)  4
(a) /4 "6 %, 6' 4
(a) 4
(a) '  A4 (
  
(v) %"  A
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^or centuries, however, there was little anyone could do to protect
themselves or their property from lightning. Knd up until the 18th century,
place several times. The campanile of San Marco in jenice has, to date, been
have made lightning less of a menace. ^orecasting lightning is taken very
seriously in Kmerica, for example, where scientists keep a constant eye on
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2
.
Holiday Making in All Types of Weather
Vont you know each cloud contains
I. Reading and Comprehension Tasks
The following words are essential for understanding the text and discussing its
ary for any unfamiliar words to avoid difficulties of understanding.
261
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the skies across the world. Knd every second a hundred lightning bolts are
ngers of electricity up to 32
Some of these differences, like the proverbial butter
y above, are too
7. Horbyns forecasts using the Sun are considered
c.
(From First Certi
cate Practice Tests. Plus 2)
Test 2
You are going to read a magazine article about weather forecasting. Choose the
Horning up with a forecast.
\ou can still have a go.
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?
The British like to talk about the weather, thats what they say. True, but they
well as important data on wave height. Jenerally, the range of these instru-
One forecaster who has made a name for himself is a man called Piers
offer forecasts for only 10 days ahead, but Horbyns forecasts are for 11
257
PRACTICE TESTS
Test 1
You are going to read an article about weather forecasting. For questions 17,
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yclones in India, hurricanes in the Haribbean severe weather events
Fill in the chart without looking back into the text.
During a thunderstorm WHY?
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ere are some other things to do in a thunderstorm.
nd you. Stay
254
B. Reinforcing Vocabulary
Look at the words on the left and guess the meaning of their derivatives
come outcome predict predictable
engineer engineering stable instability
frighten frightening stop unstoppable
Close in function to the commonly known
(e.g. conjunctions and link-
ing words) are
used
in a sentence or a paragraph with the
the adjacent parts of the text, as well as adding
the
authors attitude
to the information being conveyed. The latter kind of ad-
verbs are used
within the sentence
in this text, e.g.
clear. Their
unfortunately, frighteningly
the writer is pessimistic about future results;
shows the writers intention to emphasise one of the ideas;
someone may think so but not the writer.
Below are some sentences in which a linking word or words are
1. I found a book today in a pile of old science magazines. it was exactly
the one I have been trying to borrow from the library.
2. It always seems to rain in Scotland in the summer {ust when everyone is
the following decades will, scientists say, be a pre-
dictable result of mans activities.
mentioned
previously
in the text.
e.g.
Another common device of text organization is
251
E
C
T
I
O
N
V
I
ON THE WEATHER
N
I
T

1
.
The World and its Weather
I. Reading and Comprehension Tasks
(n) % 
(n)  
(n) &  A
(n) &   , "% A 
cially
(ad{) &  $  
(n) , 6& 
for the month ahead   %+/4 '!
h
e

W
o
r
l
d

s

C
l
i
m
a
t
e

i
n

t
h
e

F
u
t
u
r
e
lthough the weathermens forecast for the month ahead are only a little
Why, what a wonderful piece of luckq he cried; here is a red roseq
I have never seen any rose like it in all my life. It is so beautiful that I am sure
Then he put on his hat, and ran up to the Professors house with the rose
249
tened. Kll night long she sang, and the thorn went deeper and deeper into her
breast, and her life-blood ebbed away from her.
rst of the birth of love in the heart of a boy and a girl. Knd on
248
your breasts against a thorn. Kll night long you must sing to me, and the thorn
ow into my veins and be-
Veath is a great price to pay for a red rose, cried the Nightingale, and
Life is very dear to all. It is pleasant to sit in the green wood, and to watch the
247
Why is he weepingX asked a little Jreen Lizard, as he ran past him
with his tail in the air.
Why, indeedX said a Butter
y, who was
uttering about after a sunbeam.
Why, indeedX whispered a Vaisy to his neighbour, in a soft, low voice.
^or a red roseX they cried; how very ridiculousq and the little Lizard,
246
cult to de
ne intelligence, but psychologists try to
measure it with I` tests. These tests are often very helpful because they iden-
ever, the scores may not be easy to understand. People must be very careful
(From Academic Challenges in Reading)
h
e

N
i
g
h
t
i
n
g
a
l
e

a
n
d

t
h
e

R
o
s
e
by O.Wilde
S
he said that she would dance with me if I brought her red roses, cried
lled
with tears. Kh, on what little things does happiness dependq I have read all
245
chologists have made tests called I` tests to measure intelligence. They
want to explain and de
ne intelligence, to measure it with I` tests, and to
nition of intelligence is not universal. Nobody agrees on a de
ni-
nition says intelligence is the ability to deal with
nitions include the ability to solve problems. Some
say intelligence comes from environment. Gnvironment is the situation peo-
nitions say people are born with intelligence. Some say
intelligence is a combination of the two: environment and natural ability.
People use the words intelligence and intelligent in many ways. The exact
nition is not clear.
cult to de
ne, but psychologists try to measure it. In-
244
The Sunday Times Universities Guide
said _ust four institu-
n
t
e
l
l
i
g
e
n
c
e

a
n
d

I
Q
eachers and psychologists have known for a long time that some peo-
ple learn some things faster than others. Some people learn certain
243
TMK is short for tutor-marked assignment. Gach one covers mate-
i
s
t
o
r
y

o
f

t
h
e

U
he Open University was the worlds
rst successful distance teaching
university.
Born in the 19?0s, the White Qeat of Technology era, the Open Univer-
242
o
w

S
t
u
d
y
i
n
g

W
o
r
k
s

a
t

t
h
e

U
he Open Universitys style of teaching is called supported open learn-
means that you will be learning in your own time by
means support from a tutor and the student services staff at
Open University Students Kssociation.
Some courses include a residential or day school. These are held at vari-
241
decades bugs and de-bugging were taken to be part of every computer en-
gineers {ob. Gveryone accepted that there would always be some mistakes in
240
10.  '&A+  �&  A
   
,  6 4  & %
& '.
11. C   6 A
 
& A  &%% A ,  4 & �  A
6 " .
13. D A ' /4  '&A+  ,   '   $  A '
 -
 
# '!.
Do you think I. Asimovs predictions will come true within the next
Can computers bring about a change in teaching and learning for-
PRACTICE TEST
You are going to read a magazine article about computer errors. Choose the most
h
e
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a

C
o
m
p
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e
r

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r
r
o
r

i
s

a

F
a
t
a
l

M
i
s
t
a
k
e
ur lives depend on computers. They control our money, transport, our
Combine the words as they are used in the text.
be on paper
prin through with a book
t on a screen
move the mind
shake a teacher
scream ones head
ad{ust in the slot
ash a test (homework)
give ones fault
insert with laughter
Translate the following sentences into English using the vocabulary of the text.
1.  '   ' 6 & 
2.     -
   
# ,  � &% �  -
+�   "  .
3. @ & ' , 
'  "   6 % '.
Y.   '' %  &   
  
    .
5. C 6   A
   
,     A   A

?.      
  
'   4  +6%+ # -
'!+.
7. ' 6   '  A
 
    !, 
' '  '   4 & ' A.
8.  6
  
&   A '  , &  ' & ' A  
 A" � .
9. 

�   +'     '  -
 '.
Give extensive answers to the following questions.
1. What was the meaning of the word school for Margie and TommyX
2. Qow did it differ from the meaning it had in the book Tom had readX
3. Why was it dif
cult for Margie to understand what the book was aboutX
Y. Qow much of I. Ksimovs predictions about the school of the future has
237
Qe walked away, whistling, the dusty old book tucked beneath his arm.
Margie went into the schoolroom. It was right next to her bedroom and
the mechanical teacher was on and waiting for her. It was always on at the
same time every day, except Saturday and Sun day, because her mother said
The Inspector had smiled after he was
nished and patted Margies head.
Qe said to her mother, Its not the little girls fault, Mrs. _ones,
I think the geography sector was geared a little too |uick. Those things hap-
Besides the ^oundation series, Ksimovs best-known
ction includes the short story
, the collection of robot stories
, and the Lucky Star series, which was
written for a young adult audience. Qis best-known non
ction includes
Mans Guide to Science
Asimovs Guide to the Bible
Isaac Ksimov died in 1992, recognized worldwide for both his
ction and non
ction.
argie even wrote about it that night in her diary.
On the page headed May 17, 2157, she wrote, Today Tommy found a
It was a very old book. Margies grandfather once s
grandfather told him that there was a time when all stories
were printed on paper.
They turned the pages, which were yellow and crinkly, and it was aw-
supposed to on a screen, you know. Knd then, when they turned back to the
rst time.
Jee, said Tommy, what a waste. When youre through with the book,
you {ust throw it away, I guess. Our television screen must have had a million
books on and its good for plenty more. I wouldnt throw it away.
Same with mine, said Margie. She was eleven and hadnt seen as many
telebooks as Tommy had. Qe was thirteen.
nd itX
ing. In the attic. Whats it aboutX School.
Margie was scornful. SchoolX Whats there to write about schoolX
Margie always hated school, but now she hated it more than ever. The
had been doing worse and worse until her mother had shaken her head sor-
rowfully and sent for the Hounty Inspector.
dials and wires. Qe smiled at Margie and gave her an apple, then took the
234
(v)    A
(v) "    A
(a)   ' 4, '4
(a) 6" " 4,   �%4
(a) & 4, 6/4
(v) & $ &  A
(v) &  A
(a) & �"   A4, '  4
(n) 
(n)   
(a)   ' 4
(v) "   A
(n) & 
give a test   A   A%+ 6 %
punch code    & #  $   4
scream with laughter %'  A  '$%
h
e

F
u
n

T
h
e
y

H
a
d
by I. Asimov
Isaac Ksimov was born in Russia in 1920 and moved to Kmerica with his family when he
7. Klexandra Nechita probably would agree with which of the following
Its important to be a kid, even if youre a famous one.
The main reason for painting is to make a lot of money.
8. Which of the following statements from the article is a factX
Klexandras mother brought scrap computer paper home from work ...
Of course, to do anything well re|uires not only talent but also hard work.
Homing as they do from such different backgrounds, they are living
9. What does the term
child prodigy
10. Which of these books would be the best source of information about
Hhinese Brush Painting Techni|ue
Painting the World, One Hanvas at a Time
Hubism and Other Modern Krtistic Styles
Gxceptional Hhildren, Gxceptional Talent
N
I
T

3
.

Modern Technologies in Education
I. Reading and Comprehension Tasks
1. The following words are essential for understanding the text and discussing its
(v) %   A,    A
(v) &  A,   $  A
(n) !# 6  ,�  
(v) &  A, &    A  '+
Klexandras work has been exhibited in Gurope. In addition, a coffee-
No one knows how children like \ani and Klexandra become prodigies.
One thing is certain, however: coming as they do from such different back-
(From Topics for Today)
1. Kccording to the author, how are \ani and Klexandra like MozartX
Their talent was not recognized right away.
2. Kccording to the article, how are \ani and Klexandra alikeX
Both now live in the Peoples Republic of Hhina.
3. Kccording to the article, which of the following is true about Klexandra
but not about \aniX
Y. Which of the following best describes both girls childhoodsX
extremely different from most children in their schools
5. What started \anis interest in painting monkeysX
?. ^rom the information in the article, what can be concluded about Pablo
Qe was a modern cubist painter.
Qe was once Klexandras art teacher.
231
to describe both
\ani and Klexandra. \ani, who is now a young woman, began painting at two-
and-a-half years old. Klexandra, who turned sixteen in 2002, started her artis-
tic career at the ripe old age of four. Gach earned international acclaim while
talents. Klexandras mother brought scrap computer paper home from work
so her daughter could practice drawing with crayons. The little girl used it to
create her own imaginative coloring books. When she was only seven, Klex-
andras father arranged showings of her work at a bookstore and at the local
library. Soon her art began catching the publics eye. No one could believe
\anis parents also were supportive. Kn artist himself, \anis father
bought his daughter art supplies brushes, ink, and paper. Unlike the crayons
rst used, tiny \ani preferred traditional Hhinese tools. She paint-
ed in watercolor using animal-hair brushes with bamboo handles. These tools
gave \anis art a distinctive Gastern look.
Of course, to do anything well re|uires not only talent but also hard work.
Both girls have spent a lot of time practicing their art, but they also have had
the same responsibilities as others their age. When \ani was a child, she put in
long hours at school every day, walking home during lunch and dinner breaks
{ust to paint. Klexandra, too, spends full days at school. She also has fun. In a
magazine, Klexandra said, I love doing cart-
wheels. I do every single thing every other 10-year-old does.
Gvery weekday, Klexandra paints at home for two or three hours after
school. Most of her weekends are spent painting, too. Kt
rst, some of Klex-
andras classmates made fun of her drawings. She once even tried hiding her
gures at school. Now that her paintings sell for thou-
sands of dollars apiece, no ones laughing anymore.
Both girls paintings are in
uenced by things they have been exposed to.
When she was three, \ani visited a zoo, where she became fascinated by
to go with each picture. Though she later drew other things as well, animals
Klexandras works are very different from \anis. Qer six-foot-high
uence of famous modern artists such as Pablo Picasso
and Paul Zlee. Klexandra has even been compared to Picasso, who also was
a child prodigy. Like Picassos later works, Klexandras paintings use geo-
Y. �C &   "$ "  %  , 
 

"  A
 6 %+ " %.
5. * A  A  A ' $ +4,
  
# 
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7. &%�%    6$ ' ' A A $�  " & ! -
 
& ' ,  6
     
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9. � 4 %  A  ' 

&  ''% 6% 
&  6  '   %.
10.  �  & ! '% &  A

 6 � A' % -
 '.
Talk about the things that make Ruth unusual for a ten-year-old girl.
a
l
e
n
t

K
n
o
w
s

n
o

B
o
r
d
e
r
s
by Suanne Huffman
lthough they live an ocean apart, Wang \ani
and Klexandra Nechita
In Hhina, the family name (in this case, Wang) comes
rst, and the given name (\ani)
6)  +  %   A';
)  + � ''.
Y. I shall
)   + 6% ,   & 6% ;
6)  & &  6 + %  6%  '%,  4 6% ;
)    /% %  6% &  6 '.
Make up correct word combinations to do with college and studies.
sit smb a scholarship;
take the re|uirements;
satisfy the entrance exam;
offer a degree;
suffer a paper;
face an K-level;
tensions.
Look back at the text and pick out the words and word-combinations equivalent
1. My sons
2. Qer illness was caused
3. _eff
didnt use to
a walk after dinner.
Y. Modern medicine has tended
on developing highly complicated
surgical techni|ues.
5. Han I
?. Qe worked so hard that
8. Gveryone knew her as one of the best students who
9. Klthough her new {ob will demand a lot of energy she says she
the biggest challenge of her career.
Translate the following sentences into English using the vocabulary of the text.
1.  4 & ' 6
  
 4  %6 "-" & $ 
2. "  &  6   4  ,   '  
 -
'  &    ' "  .
3.   %+/'  %   4   6%     A A
 
   A .
II. Text Features and Language Focus
A. Intensifying Words
These are typically
like
227
have to suffer the same tensions and disappointments that older students face.
Last night the Lawrence family were thrilled at Ruths achievement. We
all {umped up and down a bit when we heard, said Qarry Lawrence. When
efforts on her younger sister Rebecca, seven. Shes doing very well, he
' ]Pure Mathematics [' ]3. Read the text about a prodigy child, published in an English magazine in 1983,
o
w

R
u
t
h

M
a
d
e

H
i
s
t
o
r
y

a
t

O
x
f
o
r
d
rst out of the 530 candidates who sat the entrance exam for St.
Qughs Hollege, Oxford. The all-womens college is likely to offer her a
N
I
T

2
.
PART I
I. Reading and Comprehension Tasks
1. The following words are essential for understanding the text and discussing its
(v) & ' A
(n) "  4
(n) ! A,  ' 
(n)  ' ! 'A
(ad{) 6  /4, "'  A4
(n)  ,  %& 
(ad{)  6 4
(v)     A
(ad{) &  4,  4
"�   %6  " 
(n)  %, 
(n) (% )   
(a) "  4, "6%4
Practice the pronunciation of the following words:
] consultant [
 ] concentrate [
" ] originality [
proper names
eld [
224
frogs legs. Ksking directions, in|uiring about accommodation, dealing with
waiters, policemen or shopkeepers youll never be at a loss for words
education student studying at our local university, has agreed to teach the
course this term so you can learn
la langue romantique
straight from the
horses mouthq Wednesdays 10am 11am.
D. Advanced German
uency in the language, and want
to take it still further, the Kdvanced Jerman course offers the ideal opportu-
nity. If you want to be able to relax with a novel by Thomas Mann or Junter
Jrass in the original, or if you wish to attend a Jerman university, then this
1-year course will take you to that level. The tutor is a successful Jerman
of Success Can You Expect From the Open University? Talk
the reasons for peoples studying at the OU.
PRACTICE TEST
You are going to read some information about adult education courses. For ques-
d
u
l
t

E
d
u
c
a
t
i
o
n

C
o
u
r
s
e
s

a
t

D
a
l
e

C
o
m
m
u
n
i
t
y

C
e
n
t
r
e
A. Computer Literacy
It is often said that learning to use a computer is like learning a new language.
In fact it is a lot easier than that. This two-term course will take you from the
very basics through to more advanced skills leading ultimately to the Inter-
NounsVerbsAdjectivesAdverbs
staff
Put the compound words from the text into the right box according to the word
Adj + N/VN + AdjNumeral + NN/Pron + N
221
B. Reinforcing Vocabulary
Replace the italicised words by their equivalents from the text.
1. Kfter a lot of part-time {obs hes
nally got
a job to work during the
2. If you fail your driving test the
rst time, dont
NounsVerbsAdjectivesAdverbs
4. Answer these questions about the general contents of the text.
1. Voes an Open University degree have the same value as that from any
Note the peculiarities of the composition and structure of the advertise-
ment: it consists of six parts, each having a title in the form of a question
with the answer supplied in the paragraph that follows. Notice also the
219
Would I ever have personal tuition?
Of course you would. There are over 5,000 part-time tutors around the
country and one will be assigned to you. The OU also has local study centres
This coupon is your
\ou can
nd some updated information about the OU and its history in the Optional
" ] Oxbridge [
h
a
t

D
e
g
r
e
e

o
f

S
u
c
c
e
s
s

C
a
n

Y
o
u

E
x
p
e
c
t

r
o
m

t
h
e

O
p
e
n

U
n
i
v
e
r
s
i
t
y
?
he short answer is a lot. BK de-
grees from the Open University car-
bridge or any red-brick university. The
main difference is that you learn at
ployer, either current or future. Plus, of
To be honest, it means a great deal of hard work. But dont be discour-
fteen years ago, over ?5,000 people have
been awarded degrees. The sub{ects range from arts, social sciences, educa-
tion, to mathematics, science and technology.
The University genuinely is open to everyone. It doesnt matter what
Gveryone is e|ual at the OU and previous academic achievements are not
necessary. Kll we ask is that you are 21 years or older and that you live in the UZ.
Distance Teaching how does it work?
There are Tj and radio broadcasts and home experiment kits for some of the
Kt the OU, weve gained a worldwide reputation for our advanced dis-
217
I en{oyed cultural experiences when I wasnt studying.
Weekly excursions were included.
11.
I developed a strong liking for my place of study.
Enrich Your Vocabulary
develop a total understanding open ones mind (to other cultures)
feel part of the community come up to ones expectations
216
215
Test 2
You are going to read a magazine article about studying abroad. For questions
o
u
r
s
e
s

A
b
r
o
a
d
214
PRACTICE TESTS
Test 1
o
m
e

s

N
o

P
l
a
c
e

t
o

S
t
u
d
y
illian Tindall in her article on student
and a worthy outlay for all concerned. This
count the varying |ualities of different col-
213
ee, be
rst with, a long and distinguished tradition, a sizea-
ing, self-governing, central administration, jice-Hhancellor, be af
li-
2. Oxford is a federation of colleges and halls.
University organisation;
facilities and activities provided;
undergraduate teaching.
federation, comprise, internal structure and activities, resident stu-
dent, academic staff, teaching member, fellow, recreational activities,
have an extremely strong reputation for, produce PhVs, Boat Race, re-
212
Qistorically, Hambridge University has had an extremely strong reputa-
most academically selective universities in the United Zingdom there is a
211
n
i
v
e
r
s
i
t
y

o
f

C
a
m
b
r
i
d
g
e
lish-speaking world. The university grew out of a n association of schol-
. Kcademically, Hambridge is consistently ranked in the worlds
ve universities and as the best university in Gurope.
210
as far back as the 11th century. The university grew rapidly from 11?7, after
Gnglish students were banned from attending the University of Paris. Kfter a
cult and unpleasant {ob to do. \our Qall
Tutor will introduce himself or herself to you over the next few days. If you
Student social life revolves around the Student Union, which is the large
yellow building opposite the library.
Ks a student at Klcot, you are
automatically a member of the Union. This entitles you to use all the facilities
n
i
v
e
r
s
i
t
y

o
f

O
x
f
o
r
d
world. It is also regarded as the best university in the UZ. Klthough the
exact date of foundation remains unclear, there is evidence of teaching there
207
?. K student is recommended to make a weekly plan and to check it from
7. Students are recommended to study in the same place as
nd a seat there;
l
c
o
t

U
n
i
v
e
r
s
i
t
y
elcome to the University of Klcot. We very much hope that your time
table showing the occasions on which they will be working privately and the
particular sub{ects that they will be studying on each occasion. By checking
such a plan at times during the week, you can see what work you have done and
here are a number of places where you can study college library, public
library, lodgings, home, vacant classrooms, on bus or train and each has
several obvious advantages and disadvantages. The Hollege library is least bu-
sy in the evenings, on Wednesday afternoons, and all day ^riday and Saturday.
Try to study always in the same place. Kfter a while the familiar surround-
ings will help you to switch into the right frame of mind as soon as you sit down;
Make sure that your study place has a good light and is warm (but not
(From Authentic English for Reading 2)
Check your comprehension of the gist by answering these questions.
1. This passage is addressed to
2. It tells them
c) how to work privately.
3. Many new students
nd it hard
b) to put off their reading;
Y. Students ... to work for about Y0 hours a week
5. K students organization of his work will need to vary according to
 
,  &  44 '   "
   -
6  /  6 .
8. @  %   % 5  
  
 .

6 %,  6  %'� A  % '.
10.  &    6 � A%+

,       %6  A.
11.  &   4 & /�  A

6    %  %-
12. "4  
  
   $   4  %4 %  '.
  
 �   �' & '% &  %.
1Y.  �%
 
% 6% A  & &   & ' /.
* 
,  &% %    � %4  
F % 6 %.
Compare the
rst week at your University with Orientation Week
Compare the nicknames with the full names of the main buildings
and landmarks on campus. Are there any abbreviations of this
kind in the students jargon in Russian?
PRACTICE TESTS
Test 1
Skim the text for the gist.
r
g
a
n
i
z
i
n
g

o
u
r
s
e
l
f
any new students
nd it hard to do all the study that has to be done;
they
nd themselves putting off re|uired reading, {umping from one
sub{ect to another and rarely being |uite certain what they are trying to do
during a particular study session. The best way to overcome these dif
culties
ciently is to
organize your work
NounsVerbsAdjectivesAdverbs
Replace the italicized words and word-combinations by their synonyms from the text.
1. Harries room in
the hall of residence
had a view of the lake and its own
balcony.
2. Vuring Orientation Week,
rst-year students
were immersed in cam-
3. Harrie wanted to become more independent from her parents and friends.
un -in -im -dis -- less
classes. By the end of Orientation Week, every freshman could reliably
nd
ce, the bookstore, the library, the classrooms, the gymnasium.
Memorial Hhurch Mem Hhu, Qoover Tower Qoo Tow, and Tresid-
der Memorial Student Union Tre Mem Stu U.
Tre Mem Stu U to you, Mem Hhuq Megan whispered, giggling to Har-
rie during the campus tour. Then she added, \ou allq
Megans academic adviser was totally worthless, no creative streak
201
 % &  % 
(v) $$ A
(v) &   A, &   A
(a) 6"' 4, '   4
(n)   &  ' 
(n)   , 6/  ' 
(n) '   ' 4  '
(ad{) "  4
(v)  A, 6  A
(v) &   A,    A
academic adviser %4 %   A,  % A 
Learn the pronunciation of the following international words and compare their
 ] mechanics [
memorial [
 ] naive [
 ] orientation [
ict [
] panel [
 ] romantic [
(] techni|ue [
 ] register [
Guess the meaning of the following word-combinations checking your guesses as
a parlour party.
Read the extract carefully and do the comprehension tasks that follow.
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he was here. ^inally. Qere in Halifornia. Qere at Stanford. But, most
importantly, here at Lagunita Qall. Lagunita Qall, the dormitory for
^reshman women at Stanford for over a century. Qer mother had lived here.
Knd her grandmother. Harrie had been raised on wonderful, romantic stories
199
E
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What poor education I have received has been
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1
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At the University
PART I
I. Reading and Comprehension Tasks
The following words are essential for understanding the text and discussing its
(v) &  A,    A
(adv) +6" , &   
(n) &,  $
(n) ' "
have seen. Ks a matter of fact, I have heard only |uotes to the contrary, rang-
ing from I would never buy a product that I have seen advertised to the
more basic Home on, who do they think theyre kidding X. Well, were not
kidding anyone. Its you who are kidding yourself. Because every day, in
tual basis. Knd you are being persuaded.
There is a great mythology in Kmerica that advertising has, at best, a
uence on you. Nothing could be further from the truth. Todays
197
doesnt manipulate consumers into spending and saving more than they want.
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ike everyone else in this country, you are an advertising expert. Why
notX \ou have been brought up with advertising. The
rst words you
ever read were probably written on a billboard or the front of a box of cereal.
rst sounds you ever heard were probably emanating from a radio or a
196
money at home. \ou may not even have a number for your account as such,
credit card frauds either. But I am afraid that I miss money. I have felt
strongly attached to it, ever since I received my
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Knd then why put SOLVX continued the helpful man. \oure not go-
ing to give it away, are youX
shmonger.
Knd then why say ^RGSQ after all you wouldnt sell it if it werent
I certainly wouldnt, said the
shmonger. I must thank you for saving
nal thing, said the man. \ou dont need ^ISQ either I
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cult to cope with. So it should come as no sur-
194
193
pean consumers, who are as eager to spend their cash in them as their Kmer-
ican cousins are. With malls now springing up in various parts of south-east
^rom the moment shoppers step out of their cars or off the bus that has
monitor every inch of the mall. Many malls employ a small army of security
192
They didnt feel at ease with the shop assistants.
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Originally an Kmerican concept, shopping malls, with their combina-
191
tomer, it was also extremely convenient to the stall owner. Michael Marks
190
Y. In theory the buyer could ask the (
 ! !
) to have a test
5. Its the best |uality washing-machine Ive heard of (
   
 
?. The president of the country promised he would make health care

7. If you want (

) in the pay, youll have to do your fair (
8. The two buildings of the University are linked to each other by

9. The walls of my Jrandfathers study (
 
10. The shop (
) exotic fruit in the shop window.
PRACTICE TESTS
Test 1
You are going to read a text about Michael Marks, one of the founders of the fa-
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is obviously similar in style to the language
. According to the communicative aim both kinds
of text serve to draw the readers attention to the merits and advantages
188
Opened in March 1909 after the largest-ever advertising
187
have a lot of atmosphereX
sells football itemsX
is very exoticX
begins trading very earlyX
appeal particularly to your sense of smellX
tends to be very expensiveX
sells traditional clothingX
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Harrods
^ounded in 18Y9. Qas 300 departments.
Brompton Road More than Y000 people work there. jisit the food halls.
Their displays are amazing. \ou can buy more than 500
different kinds of cheese. Qarrods will send anything any-
where, even fridges to ^inlandq The Qarrods Shop on the
oor sells only things with the famous Qarrods
186
ers. Kt about three oclock every morning, hundreds of trucks would come
185
Y.   '  6 
    
   -
$ "-" 6 "  �%$ %$   .
5.  +A,    ' %
+ %''%     !%  .
"       
   A F  '.
7.   + & &  + %,
    
8. / A 6
  
,   '" &  +
6 � A .
9.      %"A' "   ' "6 % A, " '  ' A '-
    
10.   &  % & 6/  & 4   ' 4  ,  +A, 
 
Think of a continuation of the story and present it in writing.
PRACTICE TEST
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B. Reinforcing Vocabulary
1. Find derivatives of the following words in the text and put them into the appropri-
ate box in the chart below.
deal (v) employ (v)
hurry (v) steal (v)
except (prp) care (v)
NounAdjectiveAdverb
For each word in the list below find an equivalent in the text.
the most elegant place oneself unseen in different directions
buyer serve a buyer move very |uickly
3. I picked (
Y. Roll (
) your trousers before putting your legs in the water.
5. The shirts were cheap and sold (
?. When it began to rain hard she hurriedly took (
=
=
7. She had tried (
=
=
) several dresses before she found one that
tted
her perfectly.
8. Vont wipe the crumbs (
oor.
Translate the following sentences into English using the vocabulary of the text.
1. @  ' % " A,   A
 
.
�2.  'A  
  !  ! 
,   ' 4 '% 6 6"
6 .
    
,   & ' ,    -
  +  ' .
183
Go over the text again and pick out examples of informal (colloquial)
182
The text abounds in various kinds of expressive devices typical of infor-
181
180
179
�    '  
Practise the pronunciation of these geographical and proper names.
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N
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2
.
Places We Shop In
If she wanted to shop she would go to Paris, as
177
Im a careful shopper I like going,
but I dont really buy very much. I usually know what I want and I seldom go
176
Nimes. The miners liked this fabric. They called it denim (from de Nimes)
, denim had no colour. Because of this the denim pants did not look
very interesting, and they got easily. To these problems, Strauss dyed
Strauss continued to improve his {eans. Today, the company he started is
known around the world. Knd {eans are considered not {ust but very as well.
(From All About the USA. A Cultural Reader)
Answer these questions.
1. Why did Levi Strauss come to HaliforniaX
2. What did the miners needX
3. What company did Levy Strauss startX
Give the reasons why Levy Straus
1. changed his original plans when he came to Halifornia;
2. began to use a different kind of fabric;
3. decided to dye the fabric.
Test 2
You are going to read some information about different types of shoppers. For
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A. Melanie, 22, dancer:
Im an addict I cant spend enough moneyq When
175
12. * 6 � A,  
-!
 %  �'%  %.
X   
',  �  &   6 .  %
% A    A   A .
1Y.  �%     $ ,    '  
Share your earliest memories of going shopping with your parents.
Write a paragraph about your shopping experience.
Prepare to role-play the episode in the shop.
PRACTICE TESTS
Test 1
Read the text filling the gaps with suitable words from the box.
emigrant improve centre softer enough needed strong
more city sell dirty solve dig practical fashionable
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! % ], a young fromJermany, arrived in San ^rancisco

] in 1850. Halifornia [
the of the Jold Rush [
)$
men were coming to Halifornia to for gold. Knd
Levi Strauss came to canvas to these gold miners.
Hanvas is a fabric. So Levi Strauss thought the
One day Strauss heard a miner that he
couldnt
nd clothes strong for the work he was
doing. Strauss got an . Qe |uickly took some of
his canvas and made it into pants. These pants were
what the miners . In one day Strauss sold all the
Strauss wanted to his pants. Qe wanted to make
174
B. Reinforcing Vocabulary
Type of word-combination
Adj + NounNoun + NounVerb + NounVerb + Adj
2. Look at the words and word-combinations in the box and pick out those which are
the store people a costume waist paper bags a
tting-room
t close-
tting dressing-room try on hoop earrings
Translate the following sentences into English using the vocabulary of the text.
1. @ & %   , � '  '!
  
2.  %"A   &  , &   " $
 
3. ' % &    F
 
  &  '.
Y. * %'�A,  �  %  A  %',   A
  -
 
5. @ & &  A  "6% A,  
 
  % 4 6  
&   & A.
?. � +A,    '

    &  A.
7.    A
  
�' 6 +  6    .
8.    A
, &  X

  F ",  &   4 A 6 A &% % A'
6%%/'.
10.  "  & "%
 
,  '  " $    & -
11.   ''   ,  �   
 
  
  '  
�4 %66 4  .
173
The story is written as a
rst-person narration. The narrator is a teenage
girl and the language of the story is rich in colloquial and jargon words,
Shes
. Shes
These words and expressions are in contrast with the normal, litera-
ry vocabulary used by the girls mother,
Youll have
to excuse
my
daughter.
is achieved also by the frequent use
in the girls speech,
instead of
e.
Not all phrasal verbs, however, produce such an effect. Some of them
are quite neutral and are perfectly suitable in all kinds of situations,
e.g.
LiteraryColloquial
thingsstuff
172
So there we were at the Hhubbies section. Stuart was swinging on one
avoid the saleslady.
She waddled up to my mother. She was what the store people would call
We are looking for a party dress for my daughter.
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pull out "  A,    A
&   % A
6  A, " A; �  A
 A
Practise the pronunciation of these words.
liberation [
] Mom [
"   ] senior !  Stuart [
Marcy [
] Wolf [
Read the text carefully and do the tasks that follow.
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1
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Things We Buy
I. Reading and Comprehension Tasks
The following words are essential for understanding the text and discussing its
(n)  4, % +4  , %  A
(v) & '   A, "   A
(n)  �%
(ad{) %'4,  %'4
ght
(v)   A, 6 A
t
(n)  ,  '&  
(v)  A
(ad{) $% 4, /4 (
  
); &  6 +/4
 
stuff
(n) /
Whos been sitting in my chairX Then Baby Bear looked at his tiny little
chair. Whos been sitting in my chair and broken itX
at her medium-sized bed. Whos been lying on my bedX Baby Bear looked
at his tiny litlle bed. Look whos lying my bedq he cried in his tiny voice.
she {umped out of the bed, ran down the stairs and out of the house. The three
168
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Qere there lived three bears: ^ather Bear,
Mother Bear and tiny little Baby Bear.
three bowls: a big bowl for ^ather Bear, a
teeny, weeny bowl for Baby Bear. One
three bears went for a walk in the wood,
where the three bears lived. The door was open. She peeped inside and, as
no-one was there, she walked in. On the table she saw the three bowls of por-
ridge. Joldilocks was hungry. She picked up ^ather Bears big spoon and
tasted the porridge in his big bowl. It was too hotq Then she tasted the por-
ridge in the medium-sized bowl. It was too saltyq Then she tasted the por-
ridge in the tiny little bowl. It was {ust rightq She ate it all upq Then Joldi-
locks saw three chairs: a big chair, a medium-sized chair and a tiny little
chair. She sat in the big chair. It was too highq She sat in the medium-sized
chair. It was too hardq Then she sat in the tiny little chair. It was {ust rightq But
oh dearq The chair began to crack and then it broke. Joldilocks was too
Next, Joldilocks went upstairs to the bedroom, where there were three
beds; a big bed, a medium-sized bed and a tiny little bed. She felt tired
and so she climbed up onto the big bed. But it was too hardq Then she
climbed up onto the medium-sized bed but that was too softq Then Joldi-
locks lay down on the tiny little bed and it was {ust rightq Soon she was
bowl and said, Whos been eating my porridgeX Mother Bear looked at her
medium-sized porridge bowl and said, Whos been eating my porridgeX
Baby Bear looked at his tiny little porridge bowl and said, Whos been eat-
Then ^ather Bear looked at his big chair. Whos been sitting in my
chairX he asked. Then Mother Bear looked at her medium-sized chair.
167
166
was brought, for the prices were much higher than I had expected. But she
Oh, dont say thatq I answered generously.
K little
sh, perhaps. I wonder if they have any salmon.
Well, it was early in the year for salmon and it was not on the menu, but
I asked the waiter if there was any. \es, a beautiful salmon had {ust come in,
the waiter said, and I ordered it for my guest. The waiter asked her if she
165
K man came into a bar and ordered a martini. Before drinking it, he removed
the olive and carefully put it in a small glass {ar. Then he ordered another
martini and did the same thing. Kn hour later, when he was full of martinis
Well, said a customer, I never saw anything as peculiar as thatq
Whats so peculiar about itX the bartender asked. Qis wife sent him
When my friend Klbert got his micro
turning from the kitchen with a coffee mug in his hand when Klbert {umped
up and grabbed the cup. My coffee-maker doesnt keep coffee very hot, but
my microwave will have your coffee steaming in seconds, Klbert said, as he
Qis father, speechless till now, ex
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t was twenty years ago and I was living in Paris. I had a small apartment
164
Klthough many people view additives with suspicion, they have their
advantages. Their presence is often vital if food is not to spoil, and many re-
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t is an accepted part of everyday to assume that in the past food was
nostalgia advantage naturally work bonus |uantity
cutting hard up ready-wrapped convenience business
true distant oven skill well-off tell depended
163
Honvenience food is usually an expensive alternative.
Honvenience products are now available which are claimed to be healthier.
\ou may often need to serve additional food.
Some convenience products need careful storage and cooking.
There is now a greater choice of convenience food.
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Technological advances have dramatically increased the |uality and
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Salt acts as a preservative because its sodium ions extract water from
living cells. This means that single-celled organisms like bacteria and fungi
die in the presence of salt. On the other hand, in larger organisms like hu-
uid in the blood vessels to main-
tain a healthy blood pressure. Salts other component, chloride, is essential
Salt consumption varies greatly around the world. The \amamoto Indi-
ans in Brazil survive on 0.01 of a gram a day, while in some parts of northern
161
11.
c approach to cookingX
(From Cambridge First Certi
Test 2
You are going to read a magazine article about salt. Choose from the list (Al) the
Necessary for a healthy body.
Its appeal is a mystery.
Many ways to control high blood pressure.
When did we
rst use itX
The salty British.
Salt became economically important.
Salt intake varies round the world.
Unlikely to cause serious health problems.
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^rench cooking, it has also moved away from rich, creamy sauces and al-
on the basics of sound kitchen procedure, the book follows it up with Kp-
159
PRACTICE TESTS
Test 1
You are going to read some information about cookery books. For questions 110,
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We proudly present our own hand-picked special selection of the very best cookbook
titles now on offer.
Ksk anyone to think of a famous Tj cook and writer, and its fre-
|uently Velia Smiths name that comes to mind. Qer recipes come from all
kitchen. The book that established her reputation is
158
b) tinned food
go up, change from to, the same amount, to be still popular,
157
2. ^igures for poultry have gone up.
VerbNounAdjectiveAdverb
Group the nouns below so as to fill the chart:
only a singular formboth singular and plural forms
Match the words on the left with those on the right to make correct word-combi-
a) an increase per head
20 kg of Y0
gures for sugar
156
   A
bre
   4
 , %  
  
& 
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)      $ ' 6 /' ',  
6)   ' ' 6 /'   ,  
5. Maurice Qanssens book
AdjectiveVerbParticiple I
un-dis-ab-
Look back at the title of the article. Which variant do you think
154
cause certain people to feel unwell, or suffer from allergies and even nervous
(From an English newspaper)
Give evidence from the text to prove or disprove the following statements.
1. Kll additives improve the colour and
avour of foods.
2. Kll additives have an G number.
153
The words in the lists below will most probably cause no difficulty of understand-
ing, as a) you are familiar with the words from which they are derived; b) they are
acceptable
from
accept
(n) -==- add
(n) -==- order
(n) -==- preserve
(n) -==- use
allergy (n)
effect (n)
Make sure you can pronounce these abbreviations correctly.
GGH
Read the text and check your understanding of the gist by doing the tasks that follow.
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additives special substances which are added to food for a number of rea-
avour, or add more colour.
Most of these additives have a number. Many of the numbers have an G
in front of them. Some of these G numbers are colours, some are preserva-
152
propriate proportions, place it in an ice-cream churn then chill. But thats
The human tongue is a very sensitive one crystals any bigger than
151
H English Christmas Dinner
The traditional Hhristmas dinner is held at lunch-time on 25th Vecember.
brussel sprouts, carrots and gravy. This is followed by a rich Hhristmas fruit
pudding with cream, and fruit pies. Usually, there is so much food that the
rest of it is eaten cold the next day.
Which type or types of food are for:
those who en{oy a very large midday meal at theweekendX
(From Practice Exam Papers 3)
Test 2
You are going to read an article about ice-cream. Choose from the list (AH) the
The process of making ice-cream is more complicated than the ingredients.
We can feel ice crystals on the tongue which are not visible to the human eye.
Ice-cream is not as simple a creation as you might think at
rst.
The fashion is now for more natural ingredients.
Ice-cream is made to have a long life if properly kept.
Hhemicals are necessary to make ice-cream tasty.
There is no substitute for traditional ice-cream.
Kir in ice-cream makes it a pleasant experience.
c
e
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C
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a
m
Next time you lick a smooth, cool ice-cream on a hot summers day,
stop to think about the minor miracle youre en{oying. There is more to that
150
nish it off with a large portion of cream on top.
C Jellied Eels, Mash and Licor
This is a traditional lunch mostly served in cafes in the Gast Gnd of London.
The eels, which look like snakes, are a popular
sh. They are
rst boiled in
pieces and, when they are cooked, placed in large containers of a transparent,
beaten to a paste. The licor is a thick green sauce made from peas. This is a
D Roast Beef and Yorkshire Pudding
Sunday lunch in Gngland is synonymous with roast beef and \orkshire pud-
ding. K large piece of beef goes into the oven to cook slowly on Sunday
morning. The mixture for the pudding (eggs,
our, milk and salt) is beaten
rapidly and left to stand for a couple of hours. Qalf an hour before the meat
is ready, the mixture goes into a tray and into the oven. It should rise to look
149
5.  4 6 +
  
A  '�$ % -
$,   A "'   A
       -
 ,        
%
 
 
,  &   &  F ' 6 � A$
7.    & 
  
  ' & ".
8. �    +, 
   
9. 
   
,   '   %"A      6/ 
&   '.
10. � %  %&   , ' &  ,
   -
      .
11. C "
   
6 % 4 %$  # A.
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A Fish and Chips
^ish and chips is perhaps the most famous of Gnglish foods. No matter where
you live (unless its in the middle of the country) there will be a traditional
sh
and chip shop within easy walking distance. The
sh is usually cod, but there is
also haddock, salmon and hake to choose from. The
sh is
rst covered in batter,
which is a mixture of
our, eggs and milk, and then deep fried in a large vat of
oil. When the batter turns a golden brown, the
sh is ready. Then it is wrapped
with the chips in paper, ready for you to take home and en{oy.
B Cream Tea
To have a cream tea is a very popular afternoon tradition among the Gnglish
and tourists love it. There are teashops all over the country. When you order
148
C. Reinforcing Vocabulary
The words below are from the text. Use a dictionary to find the other parts of
speech. (Note that some boxes will not be filled).
NounVerbAdjective/Participle
Translate the following sentences into English using the vocabulary of the text.
1.    &       & $ 6  4 4 %$-
,  
'. @   � %  A '6%   
$  .
2.       6$ '  
   !

 %,  6
   
  4 % & % .
3.  � A%+ A  "
 !  
 +  # -
,    #  &    ' .
Y.  4 !  A 6 +
    
% -
$  .
147
Look at the following English word-combinations and compare them with their
&   A ( ' ')
  A A
" A  6 %
" ' A  6 +'  4- 6 %$
B. Word-Building= Adjectives with -ing and -ed.
Some verbs which describe peoples feelings have two
adjectives / participles derived from them.
e.g. I was
e.g. The news was
adjective describes a persons reaction and is
(Participle II), whereas the -
adjective describes a feature, producing
-ed-ing
amusedamusing
1. The article was so
that I couldnt put it down.
2. The students were
3. My nephew told some very
stories. We couldnt stop laughing.
Y. \ou look
5. Shes very
in modern art. She reads all the books she can about it.
?. My brothers exam results were
. My parents have expected him
146
Give extensive answers to the following questions.
1. What do foreigners criticise Gnglish food forX
2. What is the authors reaction to foreign peoples criticism of Gnglish foodX
3. Why are there few Gnglish and so many foreign restaurants in Gnglish cit-
Y. What is the authors main point about Gnglish foodX
II. Text Features and Language Focus
A. Word-Combinations
Words are combined in speech in different ways to form combinations of
. According to the semantic relations be-
145
with pork.) Thats the bit they
nd really shocking, but then the ^rench are
easily shocked by things that arent ^rench.
When I ask these visitors where they have experienced Gnglish cooking,
I am astonished by their reply. In Wimpy Bars and McVonalds Qamburger
restaurants, they often say. I have won my case. Their conclusions are inex-
I have a theory about Gnglish cooking, and I was interested to read that
several famous cookery writers agree with me. My theory is this. Our basic
ingredients, when fresh, are so full of
avour that we havent had to invent
sauces and complex recipes to disguise their natural taste. What can com-
pare with fresh peas or new potatoes {ust boiled (not overboiled) and served
with butterX
144
(v) "  A, 6&   A
(v) %  A, "%'  A
(v) '  A,    A
(v) &   A, &   A
(v)  A
(n) &  
(v) "�'  A, "%'  A
(v)    A & '
lend oneself to & "  ,   A  
Practise the pronunciation of these words and make sure you know their
a) adjectives with negative prefixes and the suffixes -ous and -able:
"! !/"$ !+!/"
"!)! !%$ % +*) 
!0+"" ( /! (
b) nouns with the suffix-tion:
+ !/  !/
 + !/   ! !/ 
c) adjectives denoting nationalities:
Iranian
Italian
Lebanese
Mexican
Spanish
d) nouns contrasted with verbs by word stress:
Read this magazine article about English food and do the tasks that follow.
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am always both amused and annoyed when I hear foreign people cri ticize
Gnglish food. Its unimaginative, they say. Its boring, its tasteless,
143
N
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2
.
Eating Traditions
Tell me what you eat and I will tell you what you are.
PART I
I. Reading and Comprehension Tasks
The following words are essential for understanding the text and discussing its
(n) &  
(v) "6  A, "  A
142
Put the statements below in the correct order.
a. Today, there are Hoca-Hola factories around the world.
b. ^ew people bought _ohn Pembertons syrup.
c. Ksa Handler made Hoca-Hola into a fountain drink.
d. That was how Hoca-Hola became so popular in the United States.
e. _ohn Pemberton sold Hoca-Hola to Ksa Handler.
f. Vuring World War I the Hoca-Hola Hompany sent Hoca-Hola to U.S.
h. K druggist, _ohn Pemberton, invented Hoca-Hola in 188?.
Test 3
Before you read the text look at the following sentences. They have been removed
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W
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a
, a druggist in Ktlanta,
Jeorgia
as a medicine to cure all kinds of problems. Pemberton called
bought Hoca-Hola, Pemberton sold it to another druggist, Ksa

. Handler decided to sell Hoca-Hola as
with soda water to make the drink Hoca-Hola. Handler adver-
tised a lot and sold his syrup to many drugstores. Soon every-
nessmen thought this would be a good idea. They got permission from Han-
dler, and before long they became millionaires.
Ks of 1903, coca leaves were no longer used in Hoca-Hola. The exact
140
9.  &  

& !+      %+ 6 %  &-
  
10. # & 6
 
',     ' 4
11.

F '  
6 % 4 %$4.
12. *      4   �   '   , 
 $ &+
 
13.   &  $  %$      A

 %&$
%& '  .
,  %66 %  '   6 ' 
 -
 
, $  ' &    
       
15. C6 6
 
      % .
Describe an eating place that you would recommend to a visitor to
your town: a) for a romantic evening; b) for a quick meal.
PRACTICE TESTS
Test 1
Read the text filling the gaps with suitable words from the box.
buns walked named body sensation wrote
home popular sold hot-water drew sellers
called cartoonist yelled idea spell
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n its country of Jermany, the hot dog was
called the frankfurter. It was after ^rankfurt
, a Jerman city.
^rankfurters were
rst in the United States in
the 18?0s. Kmericans frankfurters dachshund
sausages. K dachshund is a dog from
Jermany with a very long and short legs. Vachs-
hund sausage seemed like a good name for the
frankfurter.
rst became in New \ork,
especially at baseball games. Kt games they were sold by men who kept them
warm in tanks. Ks the men up and down the rows of people, they ,
139
)  6 &  .
3. K long menu
a)  "  % '  ';
b)  "   ' &   A;
)     ' .
Y. Most of the customers were
b) & 6 "  A 25  ;
c) '  25  .
Provide words and expressions from the text which are equivalent in meaning to
recently open
positive
138
B. Intensifying Words
The rst part of
the second part of it is generally formed by a Past Participle or a Present
a compound noun
a Present Participle often forms the
rst com-
ponent (the second component is, apparently, a noun), e.g.
a compound noun
is a combination of the type
noun
Pick out compound words of the given types from the text and
make up your own sentences with them.
D. Reinforcing Vocabulary
Choose the most suitable Russian equivalent for the following parts of sentences.
1. Not much
a)  & $   '  & " 4 ;
b)   6  A" &  A;
c)   '  4  "  .
2. The bill came to 37, which
a)  6 & ' ' ;
b)  6 &  ;
137
Text Organisers
adding a pointexpressing contrastshowing logical relations
Which linking word is the most frequently used one in these two texts?
136
though it must have been very time-consuming to prepare, it was a delight to
Ks usual I chose house wine, as this is often the best way to {udge a
restaurants wine list. It was a ^rench-bottled table wine which was |uite
satisfactory and reasonably priced. The bill, including coffee and brandy,
(A newspaper article by Clement Harding)
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Nashville Superburger Bar,
new Kmerican fast-food chain has {ust opened its
rst restaurant in
Britain. The Nashville Superburger Bar is {ust off Leicester S|uare.
Because of the success of McVonalds and Zentucky ^ried Hhicken, I was
interested to see if Nashville had anything new to offer.
The restaurant was so brightly-lit that I wished Id brought my sunglass-
es. Once Id got used to the light, I rather liked the green and orange plastic
decor, which was very futuristic. The place was spotlessly clean almost
antisepticq Klthough there was a long |ueue, service was incredibly fast.
135
Practise the pronunciation of these words from the texts:
geographical and proper names
Jiant Superburger
McVonalds
Wardle Trout
The Nashville Superburger Bar
futuristic
speciality
restaurant
Read the newspaper articles and do the tasks that follow.
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The Old Mill, The `uay,
134
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EATING AND COOKING
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1
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Foods and Drinks Known Worldwide
But where is your little companionX he said: the little boy I put into
the tree. The Jiant loved him the best because he had kissed him.
We dont know, answered the children; he has gone away.
\ou must tell him to be sure and come tomorrow, said the Jiant. But
Gvery afternoon, when school was over, the children came and played
132
131
TRESPASSERS
WILL BE PROSECUTED
sh Jiant.
The poor children had now nowhere to play. They tried to play on the
it. They used to wander round the high walls when their lessons were over,
said to each other.
sh Jiant it was still winter. The
birds did not care to sing in it as there were no children, and the trees forgot
to blossom. Once a beautiful
ower put its head out from the grass, but when
the ground again, and went off to sleep. The only people who were pleased
were the Snow and the ^rost. Spring has forgotten this garden, they cried,
so we will live here all the year round. The Snow covered up the grass with
her great white cloak, and the ^rost painted all the trees silver. Then they in-
vited the North Wind to stay with them, and he came. Qe was wrapped in
down. This is a delightful spot, he said, we must ask the Qail on a visit.
as fast as he could go. Qe was dressed in grey, and his breath was like ice.
hope there will be a change in the weather.
But the Spring never came, nor the Summer. The Kutumn gave golden
fruit to every garden, but to the Jiants garden gave none. Qe is too sel
sh,
she said. So it was always winter there, and the North Wind and the Qail, and
One morning the Jiant was lying awake in bed when he heard some
130
ce, switchboard clerks and a unit to
ces are spread across
many rooms on different
oors.
Nearly every week Number 10 is the venue for of
cial functions including
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by O. Wilde
go and play in the Jiants garden. It was a large lovely garden, with
owers like
129
128
Blore, the architect in charge, created the Gast ^ront and added an attic
oor
to the main block of the Palace. Qe decorated it externally with marble friezes
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127
The State Rooms of the Palace are open to visitors during the Knnual
Summer Opening in Kugust and September. They are lavishly furnished with
some of the greatest treasures of the Royal Hollection paintings by Rem-
126
matter to widen them. I shall see how much I am beforehand with the world
in the spring, and we will plan our improvements accordingly.
ve hundred a year by a woman who never saved in her life,
home. Mariannes pianoforte was unpacked and properly disposed of, and
Glinors drawings were af
xed to the walls of their sitting-room.
Barton, and to offer them every accommodation from his own house and
cient.
(From Sense and Sensibility by J. Austin)
Read the following two texts about two of the famous historic buildings and sights
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cial London residence of Brit-
ains sovereigns since 1837.
It evolved from a town house that was owned from the beginning of the
eighteenth century by the Vukes of Buckingham. Today it is The `ueens
cial residence, with 775 rooms.
cial events and receptions held by The
`ueen, areas of Buckingham Palace are opened to visitors on a regular basis.
125
Read the extract from a XIX century novel by J. Austin, paying attention to the
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s a house, Barton Hottage, though small, was comfortable and com-
pact; but as a cottage it was defective, for the building was regular, the
walls covered with honeysuckles. K narrow passage led directly through the
124
Test 2
Read the text choosing the most suitable word for each space from the box below.
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hat can the average Briton do to create a home environment which
is green and friendlyX Well bear in mind that half the average
homes energy bill is spent on heating rooms, but a typical house loses
nearly half its heat through the walls and roof. So number one is to en-
rst of allinstead ofaboutwhat
More and moremerelythatadvantage
in any caseevensuch asinstead
These areoverexamplethe following
use ofat the same timepointso
123
h
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a

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!
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b
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M
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J
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P
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)
122
B. Reinforcing Vocabulary
Translate these advertisements into Russian.
SWKP 19
century S=H furnished converted coach house for couple
15 per week. No deposit. Traditional village, 1Y miles to WHI. Gxchange for
at, studio, furnished = unfurnished. Box _ 9?8.
HONSIVGRKTG, ^RIGNVL\, intelligent, fairly conventional person
to share comfortable house. NW2. Kbout 15 per week. Phone evenings,
Imagine that you have been asked by a visitor from an English
speaking country to help him/her
nd accommodation. Translate
1. . .  !, 181.
 %$%        ' F  -
 '  & '  ', 18Y=105, %$ 20  .'., 5 4, Y %"-
,  ' &  , & "'   ,  '-
 # ,  ' # , 6 A  Tj, F   4 4 ,
  '%'. * . 22Y-Y5-32.
2. ,
&    6 ,  4 6 ., 120 ' , 2 '
F  & "�, C   &  , "' A4 % 
17  , ,  ,  &  4, 6,  ' , , '-
". * . 235-5Y-02.
PRACTICE TESTS
Test 1
You are going to read an article about someone with a very untidy flat. Seven sen-
tences have been removed from the article. Choose from the sentences (AH) the one
I came home with three large trunks, ten suitcases and seven guitars.
 even had his telephone cut off.
It didnt, but he keeps it to remind him of the summer.
Ks you enter the building, all seems fairly normal.
Qe writes and sleeps there, but if he needs space, he goes for a walk.
121
1. Vo all the ads give the telephone numberX
2. Whats the preferable time for callingX
3. Kre all the advertisements for rooms or are there any for
ats and houses
Y. Kre all the advertisements for renting a
at (a room, a house)X
5. What is the highest and the lowest price for a
at (room, house)X
?. Which of the advertised
ats (houses) has furniture in itX
7. Which advertisements would you call neutral, realistic, sensibleX
8. Which of the advertisements include amenitiesX
Reread the advertisements closely to find out which flat is specifically offe -
As was mentioned before,
(articles, prepositions, auxilia-
ries) are often omitted in newspaper and magazine advertisements. This
language feature serves to make the text of an advertisement shorter in
space and draw the listeners attention to the main information.
Go over the advertisements again and identify the missing form-
120
(From Authentic English for Reading 3)
ROOM ^OR JIRL in
at,
Ray.
MUTUKL GHQKNJG Leeds,
at for 2=3 bedroom
at = house any
HRK\, KRTISTIH, music-loving girl to
at in Bayswater (own
room) with easy-going guy 29. 10 p.w. Box
GKLINJ, W13. Two females for large room
at 35
Jarry, 998 3158 after ?.00 p.m.
PUTNG\, Yth male for
large spacious
at, sharing
room. 11 p.w. 870 2581.
KLL KMGNITIGS (transport, tennis, river, park)
essential. Tel. 731 5022 (evenings). ^ULQKM.
OjGRLOOZINJ PKRZ-SGK. Share centrally
heated house dining room, lounge, kitchen with
RGNT ^RGG ROOM modern comfortable
at
N=London, share kitchen, bathroom. Tj, near
tube, bus, shops, offered by bachelor musician
TGMPORKR\ of
ce with basic
accommodation. 2Y0 115Y.
119
%] (a) &  4,   4
%# ] (v) &  / A, &    A
( ] (n) " , " 
Before you start reading the text go through the notes on the text which will help
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^LKTS = ROOMS O^^GRGV
at with garden for
easy going person, NW2, near tube, 8 p.w. exclusive,
SUNN\ QOUNSLOW. Room in shared house
HONSIVGRKTG, ^RIGNVL\, intelligent,
fortable house. NW2. Kbout 15 p.w.
118
Qowever, it is surprising how many people still fail to take sensible
tting strong locks on all points of access to the house.
Kdditionally, intruders are seldom keen to try their luck on buildings
This may be as simple as leaving a light
Ks most burglaries are committed by adolescents and young men living
N
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4
.
3. ^or further information about your insurance (
 
Y. When they (
  
) central heating the new house will be ready.
5. We (
  
) all the valuables before we went on holiday.
?. This factory uses (
    
7. \our arguments are rather (
   
8. It would be a wise (
 
Think about your parents/ grandparents/relatives
at/house/da-
cha. Is there anything you could recommend they should do to in-
crease their security against burglary?
PRACTICE TEST
You are going to read an article about crimes against property. Eight sentences
have been removed from the article. Choose from the sentences (AI) the one which
If opportunities like these did not exist, criminals would have a much
Their acts resulted in the arrests of several burglars and vandals.
r
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y
n recent years, there has been an explosion of property-related crimes in
almost every country. Vespite what the ma{ority of people think, such
116
Examine the text for the derivatives of the words given in the chart below so as
NounsVerbsAdjectivesAdverbs
burgle
Find synonyms of the italicized words in the text.
was taken during the burglary of the apartment.
2. Be sure
a copy of the contract with your solicitor.
3. Jive the names of two people who can be
in an emergency.
Y. Bring a towel and some
5. The Lewis family
?. Vont
115
7. Qow do you ensure that mail is taken in while you are on holidayX
8. What should be done if you are planning to be away for a long timeX
9. Who must know who has your spare keyX
10. What should you do with cash at holiday timeX
Reinforcing Vocabulary
Study these dictionary entries for the words that can be easily confused to clear
114
113
13.  ! 6  & $  /,   $ %  & 

!
,    �  & ' '%  %.
, %    '�,
   
6"  4
15. E  &  ,  
 
+    %
 
+  
&  '6  F 4   '" %   A  Y0.
17.  $  %,  %  ,  ' & 6  
  
18.    $  4,  % �$  ' 4,  & %' ,   -
    
Have you heard of any burglaries in the area where you live? Write
a paragraph about social, economic and educational aspects of the
problem.
Text 2
I. Reading and Comprehension Tasks
The following words are essential for understanding the text and discussing its
(v) ' A
e
a
t

t
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B
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l
a
r
Vont invite crime take basic, sensible precautions. \our house and property are valua-
ble and must be properly protected. When you buy a lock, you buy time and this is the
one thing a burglar cant afford. Most thieves are casual opportunists to whom the best
112
Note that punctuation (a comma, a dash, a semicolon) in a long sentence
by homogeneous subordinate clauses (as in sentence 4).
110
provements to security which he suggested. In spite of all this, nine days after
rst, she suffered her second burglary.
109
(n)   A, 6   A
  #
(n) &  , & '%  '
(v) '   A,   A
bear grudge ' A "%6 (
 -
Before you start reading the text go through the notes on the story which will help
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hes well known in the local glass mechanics. Oh, you aint been done
again, ave youX they cry, as ^el Watkins walks in, because intruders
at seven times in the space of 1? months.
ats in
her block has been burgled; and the previous occupant of
at lived there for Y0 years, without being burgled
once. The
rst break-in, which was also her
rst burglary
She has realised the place is everything the burglars
love. Its on the ground
108
Saving valuable resources
Zeeping an eye on how things are running
New directions in home design
Gxpensive and high-tech
Homputers will control everything
Zeeping you safe and sound
Enrich Your Vocabulary
domestic appliances conventional energy sources
a microwave oven electronic sensors
an occupant solar energy
humidity conventional fuels
moisture man-made materials
glazing aerial travelways
insulation a living unit
N
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3
.
Your Home Is Your Fortress
^or a mans house is his castle, and each mans
Edward Coke (15521634)
Text 1
I. Reading and Comprehension Tasks
The following words are essential for understanding the text and discussing its
(v) 6  A, & ! A,  A
(n) " ', "   &  
burgle
(v) "' A  '  " ' '
charge
(v) 6  A, & }  A 6 
(adv) '  , ' 
107
^or an intelligent house to be able to look after itself, it will re|uire a
106
B. Reinforcing Vocabulary
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We are certain to see many exciting changes in home design in the new
century. There are four main reasons why these changes will come about. We
will be increasingly concerned about the environment; conventional energy
about security, and, above all, we will want to take advantage of smart com-
puter technology in home design. So far, this technology has only fed through
century, it will become available to the average homeowner.
The future will see the appearance of the intelligent house, incorporating
a centralised computer management system. With smaller computers embedded
in domestic appliances like microwave ovens, cookers, even future vacuum
cleaners, the central computer will be able to send out instructions to start cook-
105
FormalInformal
inform inspect hazard point out urgent attention for
x up sort out potentially contact
|uite a shock above property for me on my behalf
104
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103
We ask you to keep to the paths during your visit and not to touch any
of the models; a slip on your part can result in hours of repair work for us.
Photography is allowed from the pathways only. Vogs are welcome on a
short lead. To further your en{oyment of the Model jillage, you will see but-
Kt the end of your visit we would welcome any comments you might
us design a more varied and interesting display. We would also like to know
which models, if any, you thought were not up to the standard of the rest of
the village. We are continually replacing and updating the models and we
need to know which ones re|uire some attention. We hope you en{oy your
visit and we look forward to seeing you another day.
102
overgrown with brambles
. ^or years it had been considered a worthless
piece of land. The careful planning and hard work of one man, supported
unfailingly by his wife, turned this piece of ground into the masterpiece
you see today.
Many thousands of tons of soil and clay were moved during the con-
at site into the sculptured landscape you
see today. Klthough bulldozers and digging machines helped to transform the
land, it also involved an enormous amount of hard labour. Once shaped, ap-
ower-beds and rockeries
In the creation of the Model jillage, hundreds of trees and shrubs
were planted. These had to be carefully selected for the area. Only those
plants which were able to tolerate the salt-laden atmosphere so close to
the sea could be used. They also had to stand up to the severe winter
gales in this very exposed position. Most of the plants were provided by
local garden centres but some came from as far away as Hanada and New
The whole village was created by Holin Sims and the models, over
100, were individually made by him over a period of nine years from when
rst opened, in 1972. The models are constructed from a
 .
     ' ''  '.
101
  
$  ' %' '  ' '.
5. �' &  A $ A
 
,  ' "6 % A.
?.  F '     !  6 $+/$,   '
   
7.      '   & & A  ':   A
 
.  % A -
  A  A 6    & ' /  .
8.  $  ' $ 6

 

&$  ' 6 '.
9.      %!  #6 
  
 ?0  $ 6 -
$ ' .
10. C +6 %  A &
 
% !'   &  '.
11.   6  A
,  '   '   "  A " 
% !.
12. @   +,  "    6 &   A, "  ,
13.   %& '  
    
"    %  .
1Y.   "

  ',  �   %  "
&   A   %.
15. '  6 
& '  ',
   
1?. �C 4    
 
  ,   % !%.
17.   ,
  
&  A $�  &   -
A $ "    '.
18. D A
 
& .  &  ', "  %   .
Recall a stay at an inn or a hotel and share your impressions with
the group. Note down the most essential things not to leave them
Write a paragraph about an ideal hotel you would like to stay at.
PRACTICE TEST
You are going to read an article about the model village. Choose the most suitable
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When you
rst enter the Model jillage it is hard to imagine that a
few short years ago this was a piece of waste ground,
100
Its no use
C. Reinforcing Vocabulary
Translate the following sentences into English using the vocabu-
lary of the text for the italicized words.
1.  ' 6 "  & &   &  %%
  
&  '%.
2.   ! &  A $ 4

,  % 4  ', 
F &   %   A  ',   "' 4.
3. 
?0-$  / A & &%  ,  6     -
� &  .
7. Morning in the dining-room. 9. Hriticism and complaints.
8. Terms of accommodation. 10. Kfter the evening meal.
A considerable part of the grammar and vocabulary of the text can be
characterized as
informal-conversational in style
. The usage of conversa-
tional phrases in the text of the story adds to the
of the
Go over the following sentences below paying attention to the ex-
pressions in italics. Replace them with an equivalent phrases from
Im tired now.
1. The evening meal. Y. Prince Hharles story.
2. Inside the country inn. 5. The inn-keepers wife.
3. The bedroom. ?. Krrival at the village.
Oh dearq Its a bit dif
cult. We dont usually take visitors as late in the
year as this. Still, I suppose I could open up the Prince Hharles room. Its
|uite a nice room hot and cold running water and a view out over the river.
heads though others say he didnt. If you dont mind waiting a bit, I could
Vevon a county in southwest Gngland known for its natural beauty. It includes part of
Gxmoor National park and attracts a lot of tourists. Thick cream and cider are well-known
(v) 6 A 6 /' (  ')
(a)  4,  4
(v)    A,    A
(a)    +/4
(n) $ ,   
(n) %'
(a) 6"% "4, 6"%& 4
(v) &   A
(v) " A, &   4  A
(n) '   A,     
(v) % A
(a) &   4  ' 4
(a)   '4

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rightX We cant actually have massive walls around it, but we can make it
N
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2
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A House Needs a Lot of Work
Qome is the girls prison and the womans
George Bernard Shaw (18561950)
PART I
I. Reading and Comprehension Tasks
The following words are essential for understanding the text and discussing its
13.  F 4  �% 
  
: ,   6 A, "' -
 & '.
1Y.    6 
 
&    6  &% .
15.  % &   '�%, 6    

How do you feel when you visit your grandparents (other relatives)
after a long time? Describe your last visit.
The way people do up and decorate their
ats re
ects their life style.
PRACTICE TEST
Before you read the text look at the following sentences. They have been removed
\ou may have its address and a map, but you will have great dif
culty in
nding the house you are looking for.
Or at least thats how we like to think of it.
This is an unwritten rule of home ownership and the moving-in ritual.
They are either hidden, or even not there at all.
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If you look from a helicopter at any Gnglish town, you will see that the residen-
tial areas consist almost entirely of rows of small boxes, each with its own little
patch of green.
The principle, however, will be clear: the Gnglish all
What you cannot see from your helicopter, you will learn as soon as you
Y. It seemed to have been there
) " A,  & '   +   '.
b) " A,   6 "A .
B. International Words
There are some words in English and Russian which sound very much
The language of ction is characterized, among other features, by the use
word-combinations the meaning of which is not simply the
whole, as one expression.
which these idioms are used.
1. \ou
a)  6 &   ;
b)  "'4 %' ' '
2. Its enough
) D      ,  6    - 6 " ' .
b) D      ,  6 & " A   +.
3. She was so upright and so
) C 6   4 & ' 4   4 &% % A 4.
b) C   A  & '  6   4    4.
(v) "   A
(v)    A
Read the text carefully and do the tasks that follow.
r
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In this extract Klly and her parents come to visit her grandparents who live in the coun-
azalea ivy box oak mountain ash yew poppy
anked
on one side by a bank of azaleas
wall, or take the path through the Nuttery.
towards the far end of the Lime Walk. ^acing this gap is the South Hottage,
anked [
]  /4, & '+/4.
 ] ( 
agged
' /4 &  '.
&   A (  ).
�'  " 4.
13. Vo you know who is the owner of this (
  
1Y. I hope this success (
 
) you to greater efforts.
15. Hompanies can offer (
 
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Sissinghurst Hastle is an old house with a beautiful garden in Zent, Gngland. The main
buildings date from the sixteenth century, although parts of it are much older. It was
bought and restored in the 1930s by jita Sackville-West, the writer, and her husband,
\ou can read about Buckingham Palace, the of
NounVerbAdjectiveAdverb
wartimefull-timeswimming pool
ramp in the Gast Wing corridor, which allowed easy wheelchair access for the
In the early 19?0s _ac|ueline Zennedy, wife of President _ohn ^. Zen-
In the early 20th century, new buildings were added to the wings at either
side of the main White Qouse to accommodate the Presidents growing staff.
The West Wing houses the Presidents of
ce (the Oval Of
ce) and of-
ces of his senior staff, with room for about 50 employees. It also includes
NounVerbAdjectiveAdverb
(a) 6" &4, "//4
staff
� (n)   %/$
(a) % '4;   " '4
Practise the pronunciation of these words from the text:
proper and geographical names
_ohn ^. Zennedy
donor
minimize
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ew people realize the size of the White Qouse, since much of it is below
ground or otherwise minimized by landscaping. In fact, the White
oor space
replaces
rst government buildings in Washington that was
made wheelchair-accessible, with modi
cations having been made during
a result of polio. In the 1990s Qillary Hlinton, approved the addition of a
1. Whose name did the history of the White Qouse begin withX
2. What was chosen
rst: the site or the design of the Presidents QouseX
3. What were the re|uirements to the place the Jovernment would reside inX
Honstruction began when the
rst cornerstone was laid in October of 1792.
Klthough President Washington oversaw the construction of the house, he nev-
er lived in it. It was not until 1800, when the White Qouse was nearly com-
Gxecutive Mansion "! & "  .
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or two hundred years, the White Qouse has stood as a symbol of the
Presidency, the United States government, and the Kmerican people. Its
history, and the history of the nations capital, began when President Jeorge
Washington signed an Kct of Hongress in Vecember of 1790 declaring that
the federal government would reside in a district not exceeding ten miles
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Be it ever so humble, theres no place like home.
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1
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Text 1
I. Reading and Comprehension Tasks
The following words are essential for understanding the text and discussing its
(a)  4
(v) "  A, & "�  A
(n) & 
(v) 6 " A
� (v) &   A
(a) $   A4;    A4
(n)   & '  A  A
(n) 6 � A 4  6 ( '),  !
(v) 6 + A,     A
(n) & 
(v)   %  A 6  A
(v) &   A,  A
(v) &    A  ' 
(a) % A4
free of charge 6&  
open house A   $   4
Someone recommended Ben use reverse psychology and ask the boy to {oin
The next night, Ben told us the new boy wasnt so bad. In fact, Ben
had invited him over to play the following Saturday.
Broaden the discussion to include everyone.
Kfter one childs report of the days events, steer the talk towards broad-
er issues. _ohn Ronan lives with his wife and two stepsons near the coast. One
evening at dinner, 17-year-old Ben was complaining about his summer {ob on
shing boat. Gach day they pulled up lots of worthless
sh instead of the cod
moment. Ill ask him or her to call you back as soon as weve
nished. She
says its crucial that the rule applies to parents as well as children.
Turn off the TV.
Television is the primary dinner distraction. K poll showed that among
cent spend dinner time watching Tj. Gven worse, children who microwave
time is more important than Tj time.
Vavid Zertzer, author of
(\ale University
cance. _im and Gmily Kngelini always say grace before starting
dinner with their two daughters, Stephanie, 12, and Maria, nine. The blessing
Knn Landers, thats where family members always connected. Thats where
children learned most of their values. Sad to say, too many kids now come
nd a note saying, I wont be home till later.
Theres stuff in the fridge for supper.
When my three sons were growing up, dinner separated the late-after-
noon pandemonium of sibling skirmishes and after-school activities from
planning for tomorrow.
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aiting on the sidelines for my sons football practice to
nish, I was
to give you my wheelbarrow, and so it is only fair that you should do some-
Khq said the Miller, there is no work so delightful as the work one
It is certainly a great privilege to hear you talk, answered little Qans,
Ohq they will come to you, said the Miller, but you must take more
pains. Kt present you have only the practice of friendship; some day you will
I have no doubt of it, answered the Miller, but now that you have
It was a very hot day, and the road was terribly dusty, and before Qans
K plank of woodq said the Miller; why, that is {ust what I want for the
your story. I like the Miller immensely. I have all kinds of beautiful senti-
or some hard nuts. In the winter, also, he was extremely lonely, as the Miller
should be left alone and not be bothered by visitors. That at least is my idea
about friendship, and I am sure I am right. So I shall wait till the spring
comes, and then I shall pay him a visit, and he will be able to give me a large
What a silly |uestionq cried the Water-rat. I should expect my devoted
was involved during Susans absence; having learned of Susans death, Luc-
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by O.Wilde
ne morning the old Water-rat put his head out of his hole. Qe had bright
beady eyes and stiff grey whiskers, and his tail was like a long bit of
black india-rubber. The little ducks were swimming about in the pond, look-
ing {ust like a lot of yellow canaries, and their mother, who was pure white
the water.
nding time for
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My parents told me not to be silly, but when there was a college disco I
went up to him and asked him to dance. Kfter that we started going out once
or twice a week, but looking back it was probably more to do with me asking
thought i was the love of my life. She was a beautiful girl with lovely
eyes, and I still dont really understand why she
nished with me. We had
been out for the evening with some friends and on the way back my car
broke down. Our friends decided they would walk back to town but Maria
didnt want to. I tried to
x the car myself but it was dark and I couldnt see
what I was doing. Knyway, in the end I had to leave her alone in the car
while I walked to the nearest phone. When the car was eventually mended
and we drove back to her
at she told me she didnt want to see me again.
I mean its not as if it was my fault that the car broke down these things
B Heidi (17), Switzerland
Translate the following advertisements into Russian.
Man, 23, Gdinburgh, tall, intelligent, seeks female companion for genuine
Tall, good-looking divorcee, forties, works in London, lives in the country,
, 3?  , &    A,  4, /     
6&  '%% 35  , 6" $ &  , "6  -
 ,  &'  ,   ,  6   A "A. 220100, , =
20. +' .
%, 30  ,� ',  ' 6 " '
$  6 & " ' A    4  �% 4, "-
'%4, "  4,  6 4,  4,    "
 % 4    4 'A. 220015,   , = 300.
 4.
Do you believe in happy relationships through an advertisement?
Do you approve of people sending marriage advertisements to
Have you ever read marriage advertisements in Belarusian news-
PRACTICE TEST
You are going to read a magazine article in which four young people from different
v
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A
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e
A Pablo (20), Mexico
Gverybody my age has had their heart broken. K girl called Maria broke my
heart when I
rst went to university. I hadnt had many girlfriends and I
Tall, good-looking divorcee, forties, works in London, lives in the country,
informationmalefemale
KJGS, ^GKTURGS of HQKRKHTGR and KPPGKRKNHG
KJGS, ^GKTURGS of HQKRKHTGR and KPPGKRKNHG which
II. Text Features and Language Focus
A. The Language of Advertisements
c function of advertisements (adverts) to convey a consider-
able amount of information in a laconic way, attracting the readers at-
tention requires the use of special language means (lexical, syntactical,
Among the typical features of the language and form of advertisements
are: writing in the third person, using verbs in the Present Simple, omitting
form-words (articles, prepositions, auxiliaries). Relevant personal charac-
teristics are typically presented in the form of an enumeration.
Go over the advertisements and provide examples of the language
features mentioned above.
B. Reinforcing Vocabulary
Go over the advertisements again and pick out the compound adjectives used in
them. Define the meaning of each adjective you find and give their synonyms
  ] (a)  44
  ] (a)  &'4unattached [$   ] (a)  4, "'%4
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7. The author describes his mother and sister as independent because
they didnt know what was happening in the world.
nancial worries.
they were involved in world affairs.
8. Why was the writer thankful for his fathers effortsX
Because he didnt have to work.
Because he didnt have to
nd a home for his mother and sister.
Because he had had an easy start to his career.
N
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4
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I. Reading and Comprehension Tasks
The following words are essential for understanding the text and discussing its
(v) 6 A & "  A', ! A
compassionate [
] (a)     A4,  %  %+/4
(a) "6  4
% ! ] (n) " 4 '% ()
(a)  /4
   ] (a)    A4, &    A4
%$�] (v)    A "A
ned [
] (a) % 4, "4
! ] (v)  A
(a) $  4, "'%
and, to tell the truth, out of money as well. Vuring the last year I had not man-
meant I had to spend the autumn cheaply in my mothers cottage in Qampstead
The evening, I remember, was still and cloudy; the London air was at its
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was the last day of _uly. The long hot summer was drawing to a close; and
we, the weary pilgrims of the London pavement, were beginning to think of
elds, and the autumn breezes on the seashore.
If you are curious to know what happens next in the story, read the text The Mayor of
in a new or different way, again;
Pick out the words that describe the characters tone of voice and think of this
Match the verbs on the left with the post-positions on the right to make correct
pull off
Look at the words in the chart below and find their derivatives in the text.
NounVerbAdjectiveAdverb
nality
different
as a device to describe the characters social and educational level, their
manners, temperament, relations with their family and attitude to other
Home along. K {oke is a {oke. The lines of laughter left their faces.
That wont do. Ill try my luck elsewhere. Qe unfolded
ve crisp pieces
of paper. The more the merrier. Kll eyes were turned. Saying is one
thing and paying is another. Its a {oke no longer. Standing in the trian-
gular opening was a sailor. ^or my part.
B. Reinforcing Vocabulary
Match the words in the columns below to make up correct verb+object or
take offer full hopes
talk effect absolute amount
break bitterness dead money
bow turn present indifference
make silence high lot
have head early silence
say nonsense real actors
public marriage
last owner
chief places
Search the text for the words that mean the following. Use the words you find in
ve crisp pieces of paper, and threw them down upon the table-cloth.
ve pounds. Upon these, he chinked
down the shillings severally one, two, three, four,
ve. The sight of real
money in full amount had a great effect upon the spectators. Their eyes be-
The hay-maker continued. ^or my part, I dont see why men who have
The meaning of the international and derivative words below is most probably
pound
shilling
spectator
triangular
Read the text and do the tasks that follow.
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Born 2 _une 18Y0, near Vorchester, Gngland; died 11 _anuary
1928,Thomas Qardy was the son of a builder. Kfter leaving the

support. The silence and Zates frozen stare seemed to indicate that this could
be the point where our friendship would end. The longer her silence lasted, the
more I talked to
ll the air,
nally convincing myself that I was a really bad
friend. Zate didnt call me for days after that, but when she did phone about a
week later, she was the happy, fun Zate I know and love. These days, Zate has

Y
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?
. Last month my friend Zates boyfriend
nished with her. TearsX She could
ooded rivers. But Im a good friend, I know there are times in every
girls life when she really needs the
rm but gentle shoulder of her best
friend. So I spent a week con
ned with Zate in her bedroom. I endured
hours listening to her misery, making steaming mugs of hot chocolate and
]   A,   & A
& ] &  A.
( ] 64, "'%/4.
Translate the following sentences into English using the vocabulary of
1.  &    A & &   % &   A

&  
�  .
2.  4 % &  A, & '%   
 
 4
&  .
3.   � A        
 
,   
&    4 !  .
Y.      %     
 
'� 4 # 
 
 4   4 & /.
5.      '  }"

A
?. C   6
 
, $  ' 6   '.
7.
  
6 & 4  ' F "X
8.   ,  '   
 
 
',  -
  & $   '' .
9. %A  q   �  
!   
' 
&  6   % "'  A.
11. 
   
" �%  6 %.
12.   A!  "       A' A
  
13.  
 
 $ &   %  % 6 %  A   .
1Y.   '& '  6 "
  
4,     "%
'   &    A &   A4  ".
15. 6 
  
&   +  A,  "% A &  % .
1?.  +A,  $    6%  
  '%  %.
17.   %  ' A4 6 ,    
   -

18. , 
    
, & &  &    .
&   
,    &  %�  '%   %.
Share your childhood memories. Does your mother say you were a
problem child?
Go over the text to find synonyms for the following verbs and collocations with
scratch ad{ust to a new situation
move fast interfere with somebodys intention
VerbNounAdjectiveAdverb
reward wail cry mother protect gather up cradle pop put cuddle
fasten "   A
ash out   A 6   
score down    A  %6  ! &,  
y from & A 6 ', %  A
cower ' A, }  A
follow around   A,    A & +%
gather up & $   A, & ' A
cradle 6    A, & ' A   %
pop   A, "   A
cuddle 6' A, & ' A
wail &   A,  A
in{ured & �  & 4
Guess the meaning of the following international and derivative words and prac-
e
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\our readers may be interested in the following account of the behav-
cation of a small girl. Zathy started at my nursery school at the
dent, com-
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3
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PART I
I. Reading and Comprehension Tasks
The following words are essential for understanding the text and discussing its
. ",  6/
dent
(a) %  4 (
 
(adv) & '  , %�' 
myself for a while. Its hopeless to try and
nd any privacy in the
at, so I go
out for a walk. Whatever the weather, I walk through the park which is |uite
close. Late at night its usually empty. There are {ust shadows and the rustle
of animals and birds. Its very peaceful and it gives me the opportunity to
ect on the day and to think about what I have to do the next day. When I
3. Qaving washed the dirty dishes she put them on the (

Y. The hot iron (

y

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p
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A Katrin
and even despair are conveyed in the text through the use of words with
a strong negative colouring (e.g.,
The story is written in the rst person. The author of the story is de-
pressed about her family life. Her feelings of dissatisfaction, disappointment
Enrich Your Vocabulary
stick to ones guns come to terms with
a tight schedule give a listening ear
PART II
I. Reading and Comprehension Tasks
The following words are essential for understanding the text and discussing its
(v) �% A
ttings
(n) &    
(a)   +/4, 6  /4
(a) 6  /4,  ! 4
� (v) %  A
(a) 6 4
(v) ' A
urge
(n)    
Read the text carefully and answer the questions that follow.

S
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Kt one point, I began having stomach pains. I was going to bed at 3.15
in the morning, when I got home from work, and the next thing I knew,
a bump would wake me up at ?am when one of the children {umped
h
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?
separated from his wife, his children lived with
We came home from a family holiday and the next thing, my wife had left
$  ] &, & &  A .
]  , &  .
8.    '   % % %& A '
 
6.
9. D   & 
 
 !   4 ' '+" .
10.   '� '  ,  '  A
   
11.  "  '  '    + 
# 
F   .
12.    !  & " A ' '  %',  & -
' " A,  
  
13. +A, � %  
 
,  ' ' '  ' & -
F %  , ' � 6 A,  4A '  -
6%A    .
15. *   6 +  A
,  
-
   A & � +   '.
&      
,    '       &  '
Would you like to lead the same kind of life as Diana Harp -
What is your idea of a young married womans daily routine?
PRACTICE TEST
You are going to read a magazine article about four different men trying to bal-
1. Qe had a physical indication that all was not well.
2. Qe acknowledges the help of friends.
3. Qe appreciates understanding attitudes at work.
Y. Qis wife plays the ma{or role in child care.
5. Qe is aware that being a man limits his chances to socialise with other
?. Qe admits to worrying about work while involved in childcare.
7. Qis experience of childcare has made him more aware of the feelings of
8. Qe has suffered from sleep deprivation.
9. Qe is not satis
ed with his relationship with his children.
10. Qe refused the chance of advancement at work.
2. My four-year-old, Miss Well, Im almost
ve _odi Qarpwood,
a)  "  A; b)   A; c) &    A  6 4.
3. I {oin Ben{amin and we
Match the expressive words on the left with their neutral syno-
abhor move suddenly into
burst come into sight without a clear form
glower move very fast
hurtle look angrily at smb
loathe speak up, shout
Translate these sentences into Russian choosing the appropriate
variant for the conjunction or adverb so:  , ,
,  .
1. I worry a lot about nutrition and
theyve been trained to eat a good
thats why you wanted me there tonight to help with the cookingq
3. Shes a fair mimic and
her story telling can be |uite illuminating as well
5. She attends a bilingual school (Gnglish = Welsh),
our chats are some-
times in Gnglish and less often in stumbling Welsh.
?. My husband doesnt go to work on Sundays
theres no tea in bed.
8. The forecast says it might rain. If
D. Reinforcing Vocabulary
Compare the functions of the verb do in these sentences. State where it is
Shes all ready to go and almost phobic about missing the school bus.
We
once and shes neither forgotten nor forgiven me.
miss Kngela at weekends
Translate the italicised parts of these sentences into Russian choosing the most
1. My two children
a) "   A; b)   A; c) " " A.
5. Viana is well-educated and has a good sense of humour.
?. Vianas family is a united one.
Fill up the scheme of the things that Diana usually does during the day and talk
for herselffor the childrenfor her husband
II. Text Features and Language Focus
The language of this text combines features of various styles:
tions, colloquial expressions); b) newspaper language (clear-cut para-
FeaturesExamples
everyday languagesit on the loo
B. Neutral and Expressive Vocabulary
There are a number of emotionally-coloured words in this text as well as
those expressing a high degree of some quality or quantity: a strong posi-
Twice a week I do the washing and ironing.
Ive cut down to biweekly laundering to save
on washing powder, hot water and electricity.
lunch. We share a simple meal of chips or
The meaning of these words will be most probably clear to you. Practise their

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bawling. Theyve been up since ? a.m., full of
joie de vivre
. Han they be
mineX I go a few rounds with Ben, the youngest, whos nearly two. Qe wants
7.25 a.m. Its washing and dressing time. My four-year-old, Miss Well,
ve _odi Qarpwood, presents few problems. Ben is another sto-
ry. Gver seen Rod Qull wrestle with GmuX \ouve got the idea, except Ben is
N
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2
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PART I
I. Reading and Comprehension Tasks
2. In the writers family
3. Before the writer left the house, his mother
1Y.   
    
 %, $     6    4
  A+.
15. " "  !%,     "  A   % A, 
& '    '
 
1?. @ %'+, %  6     ',  6  A

$  6
 #    
Prepare to talk about the differences and similarities in Laurie
s

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gure of my mother, waist deep in the grass and caught
there like a piece of sheeps wool, was the last I saw of my country
home as I left it to discover the world. She stood old and bent at the top of
not |uestioning why I went. Kt the bend of the road I looked back again and
saw her; then I turned the corner and walked out of the village. I had closed
that part of my life for ever.
It was a bright Sunday morning in early _une, the right time to be leaving
Look at the words in the chart below and find their derivatives in the text.
NounAdjectiveVerbAdverb
ne
Translate the following sentences into English using the vocabulary of the text.
1. C 6    " % ',  F &   
 
2. ' "6  ,   �  &  A
 
� %4  "  ,  6
  
!  6  A$.
3. @  "%
  
 �'  & $ A "     +.
Y. D  & 6 '
     
   .
  
 %%,   %  6  &    .
?.      ,  F 6"%' ,  

   A
7.      %    ,  A
   
"6 % '4-
 ' 6".
'   6    4,   6  A'   '.
9.  %' 
 '  ' 6 % 'X
10.    
    
,  6 6& A 6" -
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 'A.
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 "  4 'A.
5. She was very good at most sub{ects at school and the children thought
she was clever.
?. The region was extremely beautiful. But
Jerard
didnt imagine spending the rest of his life there.
7. We have separated from each other and I think
the department while I am away.
9. Kt times it seemed her
her household
N+NN+AdjN+ParticipleAdj+PartV+VV+Participle
Match the verbs on the left with the appropriate postpositions on the right
II. Text Features and Language Focus
A. Text Organization. Topic and Subtopic. Main Idea
, showing what the text is about. Quite
ed by the text title, as, e. g., in the text Mother. If there
is no title or if it does not prompt the topic, the latter stands out from
Each paragraph of a text, being a semantic unity, must have a topic
there are a number
in a text. The semantic structure of the text is also analysed
i.e., for the main piece of information (fact or opinion)
and conveying the
of a paragraph can be performed by the same sentence
When she moved into his tiny house in Stroud, and took charge of his
four children, mother was thirty and still |uite handsome. She had not, I sup-
She was a bright and dreamy child, it seemed, with a curious, hungry
master, who did his utmost to protect and develop her. Qe was an elderly man
hands. But in Knnie Light he saw a freak of intelligence which he felt bound
When she was about thirteen years old her mother was taken ill, so the girl
had to leave school for good. She had her
ve young brothers and her father
to look after, and there was no one else to help. So she put away her books and
her modest ambitions as she was naturally expected to do. The schoolmaster
There was probably no one less capable of bringing up
ve husky brothers
than this scatter-brained, half-grown girl. But she did what she could, at least.
work in
 ] intrigue  ! ) abstraction   li|uor
meditation
monotony
mysterious
protect
satire
Read the text and do the tasks that follow.
o
t
h
e
r
ce clerk before moving to London
where he found employment as a builders labourer. Lee
ght in the Spanish Hivil War. In the Second World
War he made documentary
lms for the Jeneral Post Of-
ce, and the Ministry of Information. It was during this pe-
rst volume of poems,
(19YY). This was followed by
(19Y7) and
A Rose for Winter
(1955)
Cider with Rosie
(1959),
As I Walked Out One Midsummer Morn-
A Moment of War
y mother was born near Jloucester, in the village of `uedgeley,
(v) �'  A
(n) " 6    A  A, $   A
(n)  A   
(n)  , % A
(v) &   A, 6% A
(v) & &  A (%  ')
perplex '%/� A,  '  A
with nine other women, raised 1,000 for the charity. It was an experien -
ce that changed Barbara permanently. Klthough my trip to Kfrica pushed
me to the limit physically, Im now more con
dent about every area of
K last-minute shyness attack.
K life-changing adventure.
The {ob she really deserved.
The love that saved her life.
But could there be moreX
Enrich Your Vocabulary
be unused to smth push smn to the limit
fall apart (about smth) raise money for charity
lack in smth supportive staff
PART II
I. Reading and Comprehension Tasks
The following words are essential for understanding the text and discussing its
] (n)  -&   
(a) +6/4
(v) $  A    A
$] (a) &    A4, ' 4
(a) +6 "  A4, &  4
(n) &
(n)  A, 6
(n)  A $ "4 4 6 4
gambling "     A
(v) &  "%'  A, " A, ' A
PRACTICE TEST
You are going to read a magazine article about a womans life. Choose the most

W
o
m
a
n

s

S
t
r
u
g
g
l
e

t
o

B
e
l
i
e
v
e

i
n

H
e
r
s
e
l
f
Barbara Williams used to be so lacking in con
dence that {ust going to
a neighbours house was a problem. She had chosen to give up her work as a
^amily life had been so rewarding. She loved her husband, Brian,
and en{oyed her traditional mothers role. Brian played golf in his spare
time. Barbara en{oyed sewing, and made wedding cakes for friends. We
werent particularly well-off, she says. But we certainly didnt go without
By the time the children had grown up, Barbara was totally unused to
adult company. When she and Brian moved to a smaller house in a new area,
dence
I remember a neighbour inviting me round for a coffee morning.
I was ready to go, but then I {ust couldnt leave the house because I knew
that the other woman there would ask me |uestions and I wouldnt know
what to say.
Barbara went to see a counsellor, who advised her to go back to work.
She applied for a {ob at a nursing home. It was less skilled work than Id
Six years later she had the courage to do a {ob she was |uali
ed for,
boost ones ego & ' A ' !%.
Look at the words in the chart below and find their derivatives in the text.
AdjectiveAdverb
5. Why did some papers decide to appeal to women in the 1930sX
?. What helped Mary reach the top in a male dominated professionX
7. Why did Mary never marryX
8. What impressed the author in her Jreat Kunts attitude to childrenX
II. Text Features and Language Focus
A. Linking Words
There are special language means which help the reader understand how
the information in a text is organized. They are referred to as
or
. Text organizers are found both
a para-
rst fe-
Mary never married as her work was very important to her and a {ob
and marriage did not mix in Britain in the 1950s. She did however love
children and spent a great deal of time with her nieces and nephews. What
always impressed me was her interest in what we as children were doing and
what we thought. We were never treated as {ust children whose opinions did
She also always encouraged us to think that we could do anything
we wanted with our lives. Nothing was impossible. She was a good
ned to a wheelchair after having several
strokes. Qowever, she is still full of enthusiasm about life and what her niec-
(adv)  !  ! ,  
(a) 4
(a) '% 4
y

G
r
e
a
t

A
u
n
t

y Jreat Kunts name is Mary Jrieve. She is my grandmothers aunt,
call her my Jreat Kunt. I do not know her very well having always lived a
long way away, but she has always been a woman I have respected for many
different reasons.
had one brother called Tom. Qer family were wealthy for those times and
luckily for Mary, her father believed in educating both his children. Qe did
and when she left school she went to Oxford University.
In the 1930s there were very few women at University or who were al-
a) to be missing from work b) to be unemployed
a) no money being earned b) no money given
a) all kinds of |uestions b) |uestions about the world
a) to {ump into water b) to move |uickly and suddenly
towards smth
a) for ones own use, not b) to possess smth, to be the owner
shared with anyone else
a) to be pressed for money b) to need money badly in
more than ever addition to other problems
Match the verbs on the left with the postpositions on the right to make up phrasal
verbs as they are used in the text. Theres one extra postposition.
Look at the words in the chart below and fin1d their derivatives1 in the text.
VerbsNounsAdjectives
there is no space either on the rst line or at
A paragraph
is a section of a piece of writing. An essential feature of a
paragraph should be related to each other in some way. There must be
  ] to put a substance on a wall or ceiling and give it
Read the text carefully and do the tasks that follow.
y

L
i
f
e
E
C
T
I
O
N
I
PEOPLE AND FAMILIES
K well-written life is almost as rare as a well-
N
I
T

1
.
Biographies and Autobiographies
PART I
Text 1
I. Reading and Comprehension Tasks
The following words are essential for understanding the text and discussing its
(v) & ' A
afford
(v) & "  A 6
(n) $ & , "6 
(n) 6    A  A
(n)  
(v)  A, '    A
(n) 6} 
(a)  64,  +  A4
(a)   -6 4
(n) & '
(v)  A, '    A
" 6 4
This book is intended for Upper-Intermediate University and Hollege stu-
dents ma{oring in Gnglish. It is aimed at developing the students reading
UNIT 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
293
Intensive Reading. Text Title: Parable of the Prodigal Son (29Y)
Practice Test. Text Title: The Gxcellence of Wisdom (298)
UNIT 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
301
Intensive Reading. Text Title: Repentance and Honfession (302)
Practice Test. Text Title: The Lord by Wisdom ^ounded the Garth (30?)
UNIT Y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
309
Intensive Reading. Text Titles: Lords Supper (310) _esus Prays Klone (311)
_esus Is Krrested (311)
Part III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Intensive Reading. Text Title: What Vegree of Success Han \ou Gxpect
Practice Test. Text Title: Kdult Gducation Hourses at Vale Hommunity
UNIT 2.
From Junior School to University
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
Intensive Reading. Text Title: Qow Ruth Made Qistory at Oxford (22?)
Practice Test. Text Title: Talent Znows no Boarders (230)
UNIT 3.
Modern Technology in Education
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
Intensive Reading. Text Title: The ^un They Qad (23Y)
Practice Test. Text Title: When a Homputer Grror is a ^atal Mistake (2Y0)
Optional Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Y2
Qow Studying Works at the OU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Y2
Qistory of the OU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Y3
Intelligence and I` . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2YY
The Nightingale and the Rose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Y?
IT ALL DEPENDS ON THE WEATHER
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
UNIT 1.
The World and Its Weather
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
Intensive Reading. Text Titles: The Worlds Hlimate in the ^uture (251)
Practice Tests. Text Titles: Weather ^orcasting (257) Whats It Joing to Be
Like TomorrowX (259) Thunderstorms (2?1)
UNIT 2.
Holiday Making in All Types of Weather
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2?2
Intensive Reading. Text Title: Three Men In a Boat (2?3)
Part II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
THE PLACE YOU LIVE IN
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
UNIT 1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Part I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Intensive Reading. Text Titles: The White Qouse. Qistory (80) The White
Practice Test. Text Title: Sissinghurst Hastle (8?)
Part II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Intensive Reading. Text Title: Jrandmas Hottage (90)
Practice Test. Text Title: Qouses of Gnglishmen (93)
UNIT 2.
A House Needs a Lot of Work
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9Y
Part I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Introduction
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
PEOPLE AND FAMILIES
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
UNIT 1.
Biographies and Autobiographies
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Part I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Intensive Reading. Text Titles: My Life (10) My Jreat Kunt (15)
Practice Test. Text Title: K Womans Struggle to Believe in Qerself (19)
Part II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Intensive Reading. Text Title: Mother (22)
Practice Test. Text Title: Ks I Walked Out One Midsummer Morning (28)
UNIT 2.
A British Family
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Part I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
31
Intensive Reading. Text Title: K Life in the Vay of Viana Qarpwood (32)
Practice Test. Text Title: What Price More Time with the HhildrenX (38)
Part II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Intensive Reading. Text Title: I Sat in My Zitchen (Y0)
Practice Test. Text Title: My Own Personal Space (Y3)
UNIT 3.
Family Problems and Their Solution
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Y5
Part I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Y5
Intensive Reading. Text Title: Vear Gditors (Y?)
Practice Test. Text Title: Is \our ^riend Qard WorkX (51)
Part II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Intensive Reading. Text Title: The Man Who Sold Qis Wife (53)
Practice Test. Text Title: It Was the Last Vay of _uly (58)
UNIT Y.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ?0
Intensive Reading. Text Title: Marriage Kdvertisements (?1)
Practice Test. Text Title: Gverybody My Kge (?3)
Reading for ^un . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ?5
Optional Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ??
The Mayor of Hasterbridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ??
The Vevoted ^riend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ?7
Most Important Qour in a ^amilys Vay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
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