Джазовая импровизация учебник


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Contents



Introduction



Chapter

1:

the

Improvisor’s

Basic

Tools



Chapter

2:

an

Introduction

to

Melody



Chapter

3:

the

Rhythm

Section



Chapter

4:

the

First

Playing

Session



Chapter

5:

Development

of

the

Ear



Chapter

6:

Further

Study

of

Chord

Types



Chapter

7:

Swing



Chapter

8:

the

Diminished

Scale



Chapter

9:

Analysis

and

Development

of

Melody



Chapter

10:

Chord

Superimposition



Chapter

11:

Functional

Harmony



Appendix

A



Appendix

B



Appendix

C



Appendix

D






To my wife

Patty

whose helpfu
l suggestions

and patient proofreading

greatly facilitated the

writing
of this book.




Foreword


Since the birth of American Jazz and in its struggle to develop, there has been a

great
need for both the literature and theory pertaining to the music as con
tained in

this book,
IMPROVISING JAZZ. This is certainly a most welcome contribution. I

have been through the book

the subject. I am sure both Mr. Coker and the

t
hey can be extremely proud, as the book can serve both as a
text book or as a self
-

teaching device. I am especially delighted to know that IMPROVISING JAZZ
is now

a reality.




stan kenton
















Foreword


The training, care, and feeding of the ja

many of us ought to
be more concerned. For jazz is a significant and vital musical

language truly of our time, if only

century. And its value has increased with the years as

it has developed beyond its

relatively humble and isolated beginnings to become a sophisticated art
form,

which speaks an international, world
-
wide language.



can or should be
ta
ught. And I suppose many still feel that it should not. In fact, I

never cease to be amazed at the
tenacity with which various anachronistic attitudes

and prejudices regarding jazz persist, despite
overwhelming evidence that the face

of jazz has undergone
some rather radical changes in the last
decade or two. In

view of these changes, it is surprising that the “teaching” of jazz and the
whole

question of “formal education” in jazz is a highly controversial issue. Only religion

and
politics seem to be capabl
e of generating more heated discussions. But then,

the vehemence of these
discussions in itself attests to how much is at stake, and it


indicates much about the vitality of the subject under discussion.


I should like to place the practical aspects of thi
s book in the context of the

professional realities
which the young jazz musician of today faces. As jazz broad
-

ens its expressive and technical scope,
it will make increasingly greater demands

on its performers and composers. To clarify this
assumption g
raphically, one need

only compare the musical knowledge required to play jazz in 1925
with that neces
-

-
respecting jazz musician aspired
to

read or write music, nor did the music of the day demand it. By the sa
me token, to
-

day no self
-
respecting musician could survive without the ability to read and write

musical notation

and those
few that still exist are quickly trying to remedy such

shortcomings.

In bygone days, the young jazz
musician acquired his skills (h
is “bag”, in jazz

parlance) in those two now
-
defunct institutions, the
“jam session” and the “big

band.” Here he learned his métier. He gained experience in the practical
every
-
day

challenges of creating music. He learned the art of pacing himself, artisti
cally
and

physically. He learned from his fellow players or from his leader. And above all, he

had time to
learn by trial and error, to try out new ideas, even at the risk of failing.

He had time to edit himself
and to acquire the subtle art of artistic di
scrimination.


For the young player of today these opportunities are virtually non
-
existent. The

jam session and big
band are a memory of the past. Deprived of these means

which represented, in effect, the
“educational process” of yesteryear, the young

pla
yer of today is thrown out in the professional
arena and left to fend for himself

as best he can. Perhaps the “stage band” development of recent
years will help to

fill this void. It is still too early to say, but there are signs that this is already
a

ben
eficent influence.

In any event, a book such as this one fills the gap left by the demise of the
jam

session and the road
-
traveling band. And a book such as this one indicates that

jazz has arrived
at the stage where it can develop its own teaching and ana
lytical

needs and standards.

There are a number of myths which, by their weed
-
like persistence,
contribute

much to the controversy surrounding the subject of teaching jazz and its charac
-

teristic
techniques. One of the
se is a myth that was borrowed from “classical” mu
-

sic and, in a slightly
refurbished form, applied to jazz. This myth consists of the

unfortunate notion that the creation of
music is a vague, nebulous act funda
-

mentally outside the control of the creato
r, that is, the
composer; and that there is

a state called “inspiration” which periodically descends from “above,”
being

granted only to those composers who, for equally nebulous reasons, are especially

endowed to
receive such inspirations. A corollary of
this fantasy is that such ingre
-

dients as thought and work
(other than the mere notating of the “inspiration” on

music paper), in fact any intellectual activity
whatever, are anathema to “true” artis
-

tic creativity.

In improvised jazz, where even the “wo
rk” of
notating the music is not by its

very nature required, this misconception of the creative process
seemed even more

readily applicable. Indeed, until quite recently, if one dared to suggest that
King

Oliver or Charlie Parker did some kind of “thinkin
g” before, during, or after a
given

solo

about

that

solo,

one

was

ostracized

as

a

spoilsport,

taking

all

the

fun

out

of

jazz, or at the
very least as not very “hip.” Solos were thought to emanate full
-

blown from the mouth and fingers
of the player, withou
t benefit of any inter
-

mediary such as the brain.

This deception is and was
possible because very few people bother to make the

is subconscious in the creative

process. In fact, this point often leads to the
further fallacy that, if

a
composer

or

improviser

did

not

consciously

conceive,


us

say,

a

certain

rhythmic

pattern

or

an

intervallic
relationship, then that pattern or relationship did not actually exist in the

composer’s mind.

This fallacy convenient
ly ignores the fact that a
relationship,

once

it

has

been

discovered

and

proven

to

exist,

exists

and

is

operative

as

such

its creator was fully or dimly or perhaps not at all aware of it at the mo
-

ment of creation.

This
seeming paradox is easily e
xplained by the fact that the creative process oc
-

curs at all levels of
consciousness, ranging from minimal to total awareness. This,

in turn, is possible because
“inspiration” occurs precisely at that moment when the

l
preparation for a given task (be it only

the choice of the next note, for example) has been achieved.
Inspiration is like a

seed which cannot come forth until the ground has been prepared and a
certain

formative period has elapsed. In a sense, the compos
er, when he is “inspired,”
is

discovering

the

next

move.

But

this

discovery

can

occur

only

when

all

or

almost

all

of the inherent
possibilities for that next move have been appraised. We tend to

is negative, i.e. how muc
h of it consists of dis
-

carding that which is not relevant or valid, so that by
a process of elimination we

arrive at that single “discovery” which is (presumably) most valid. This
process

can take hours or weeks, or

and this is common in the case of impr
ovisors

only

fractions
of a second.


Thus what I have here called “the most complete mental and psychological

preparation” is really the
crux of the matter. It is the requisite condition under

which inspiration can take wings. And if this is
so, obviously
some kind or some

degree of mental, if you will, “intellectual” process must take
place. This may, of

course, take many forms, ranging from very specific thinking about a very
specific

problem to the most comprehensive and elementary kind of preparation, w
hich we

call
“training” or “study.”

In the over
-
all scheme of preparation, it is at this elementary level that this
valu
-

able book takes its position. It is one of a rapidly growing number of books and

studies being
made available to the jazz student, whi
ch reflect the attitude that

“education” and “learning” are not
necessarily incompatible with the pursuit of

jazz, that the “intellect” is a vital and inseparable part of
the art of improvising. On

this the book takes a refreshingly firm stand.

The implica
tions of this
attitude are in themselves of enormous value, especially

in so far as they may in time break down the
barriers to the teaching of jazz still

prevalent in our educational institutions. But this book’s value is
not only an im
-

plicit one. It ha
s a decidedly practical application as well. Indeed this is its
primary

purpose: to give the beginning jazz improvisor the rudimentary musical
-

tools he
will need as a professional musician. If it deals with this subject at an

elementary level,
this is good
news; and it does so with a welcome thoroughness

name jazz musicians give to a sim
-

ple chord or the fundamental chord progression of the twelve
-
bar
blues.

The book is obviously the work of a m
an who has had to deal with these prob
-

lems both in
his own development as a practicing musician of considerable note

and as a teacher of wide
experience.


gunther schuller











Introduction



hich, in essence, is

a spontaneous
exchange or interplay of musical ideas and moods. Jazz music,
with

its

roots

in

basic

rhythms

and

simple

melodies,

has

developed

naturally

into

a

blend of
musicianship, humanity, and intellect, having universal appeal. Im
provi
sation has existed in other
styles, but in the classical music of Western civilization

its use has been stifled by enlarged
instrumentations and the complexity of

compositional techniques which have made no all
owances
for this means of indi
vidual expr
ession. The composer achieves the effect of spontaneity when his
writ
-

ten music flows naturally and is well played.

Jazz has brought about a renaissance in
improvisation, providing a style which

is conducive to spontaneous creation by utilizing standard
m
usical elements, such

as 4/4 time, songs of uniform length and form (usually 32 measures in
length, with

an A
-
A
-
B
-
A structure), fairly standardized instrumentation, steady tempi, consistent

and
logical harmonies, stylized melodies and rhythms, and even

an
established or
der of introductions,
statements of themes, sequence of soloists, and codas and

endings. Such an established framework
as we find i
n jazz improvisation is as use
ful to the jazz player as the twelve tone system is to the
atonalist composer. Th
e

characteristics of the style make for swift decisions, enabling the music to
move

along without interruption. This is not to say that jazz music has always been and

will always
stay within the aforementioned boundaries dictated by its style, any

more tha
n it would be correct to
state that twelve tone music is without potential

for further development. Jazz has already begun to
expand its resources by absorb
ing the multitude of musical techniques existing in
other styles of
music. Improvi
sation in any of t
he existing styles offers the musician the opportunity to utilize
his

technical ability to its fullest extent, while enjoying
the creative freedom of sponta
neous
composition. In our present culture, the bulk of the activity in improvisation

is in jazz musi
c.

This

principles used in jazz,
presented in logical sequence as they apply to the ultimate

improvised performance. As a
prerequisite to this study, the student must have

some technic
al proficiency and should be reasonably
acquainted with major and

minor scales.

The absorption and utilization of theory and techniques,
which are the

improvisor’s tools, can in no way guarantee an interesting musical personality.

Each
jazz player will fin
d his own musical style and his style will be subject to the

criticism of the
listener. He may develop a style whic
h is physical or cerebral, fad
dish or original, blatant or subtle,
rambling or formful, ugly or beautiful, flexible or

inflexible, tense or r
elaxed, exciting or dull, or any
combination of these extremes,

all of which could be the product of a technically equipped player.
The style of the

individual player is affected by his personality, his intelligence, his talent, and
his

coordination, all o
f which are beyond the scope of this text.








1



the

Improvisor’s

Basic

Tools



Five factors are chiefly responsible for the outcom
e of the jazz player’s improvi
sation: intuition,
intellect, emotion, sense of pitch, and habit. His intuition is

respons
ible for the bulk of his

intellect helps him to plan the technical problems
and, with intuition, to develop

the melodic form; his sense of pitch transforms heard or imagined
pitches into
ter names and fi
ngerings; his playing habits enable h
is fingers to quickly find cer
tain
established pitch patterns. Four of these elements of his thinking

intuition,

emotion, sense of pitch,
and habit

are largely subconscious. Consequently, any

control over his improvisat
ion must
originate in the intellect. While the intellect is

limited in its capacity for control over intuition and
emotion, it can be responsible

finger patterns, in

addition to its func
tion of solving technical problems.

It would be difficult to place
these five factors into proportionate values.
Some

improvisors rely more heavily on certain factors;
o
thers will depend on other fac
tors. A few gifted players are able to perform adequately

by relying

the subconscious elements. All but the rare genius, however, are eventually limited

in
their development. They need special study, du
e to the problems of deeply in
grained habits, the
unaccustomed rigors of working up to every pote
ntial, and, in

some instances, an inability to admit
or evaluate sho
rtcomings.

The ability to

eval
uate

is

important

and

will

be

discussed

in

Appendix

A
.



the problem of
learn
ing to play jazz almost solely through this factor, and hope

that the other four (intuition,
emotion, the sense of pitch, and habit) will progress

at the rate established by the intellect. If, in the
first lessons, the approach seems

cold and calculated, r
emember that most artist
ic accomplishment
requires aca
demic training. This training is the foundation upon which to build, and it will

strengthen
your capacity to enjoy fully your own work and the work of others.

into the proble
ms of the intellect. The improvisor

must know, for his own musical security, the
general framework on which he bases

his improvisation. This, in most cases, is a song form, either
twelve or thirty
-
two

measures in length, which is repeated as many times as
necessary so
that

maximum temporal freedom is allowed to each of the individual improvisors in a

jazz ensemble.
The player’s knowledge of the material must include: (1) the length

of the tune; (2) its thematic and
harmonic construction, in a general sense
(A
-
B
-
A,

A
-
A
-
B
-
(3) the tonality of the tune and any

temporary modulations to other keys; (4) the individual chords of
the progression

and how they are related to one another; (5) the scales which fit the various
c
hords

and sections of the tune; and (6) the emotional equality or mood of the
tune.

These

are

by

no

means

the

only

considerations

confronting

the

improvisor.

Rather, they
comprise the basic minimum of his needed working knowledge of the

material. Additiona
l
considerations will be discussed after you have grasped the

more general techniques for
improvising.

an

example

of

a

typical

tune

used

by

improvisors,

the

“blues”

tune.

(The

te
rms

tune

and

song

are

use
d

in

a

liberal

sense

here,

since

the

original

melody

is

largely

ig
-

nored and obscured by the jazz
player’s improvisations. His creative endeavor
is

enriched

by

his

own

melodies,

based

on

the

chord

progressions

of

the

tunes

he

us
es
.)

The

blues

pr
ogression

shown

in

Figure

1

is

only

one

of

many

existing

chord

progressions to that tune and is an
example of one of the more basic and simple

patterns.



FIGURE 1


The slanted lines below each chord symbol represent the beats. The first le
tter

of each of
the chord symbols indicates th
e pitch upon which the chord is

built,

called

the

root.

A

capital

“M”

signifies

a

major

triad

and

a

small

“m”

indicates

a

mi
nor

triad.

A

triad

is

a

three
-
note

chord

made

up

of

the

first,

third,

and

fifth

degree
s

of a scale, a major scale for
a major triad and a minor scale for a minor triad.

The

number “7” indicates that the seventh degree a
bove the root has been added to

the

triad,

transforming

it

into

a

seventh

chord.

If

the

symbol

for

the

seventh

contains

a

capital “M,”
the chord is constructed from the first
, third, fifth, and seventh de
grees of a major scale built on the
root of the chord. A natural minor scale is used

fifth, and seventh scale degrees

o
f a chord having the symbol, “m7.” If the symbol includes only the
root name and

a “7,” without the “M” or “m” to indicate whether the chord is major or minor, it
is

understood that the triad is major, but the seventh is lowered a half
-
step from its

positi
on in the
major scale. The written names for these types of seventh chords

are:


M7

major seventh
chord

m7

minor seventh chord

7

seventh chord or dominant seventh chord


Examples of the
construction of these chords would be as follows:



A

clearer

project
ion

of

the

harmony

of

the

blues

progression

of

Figure

1

would

now be:



In further analyzing the blues, we find the tune to be twelve measures long, and

in the key of C
major.


C major beca
use it starts and ends on a
C major

seventh chord.)Since there is

no

given

melody

in

Figure

1
,

we

cannot


the

motivic

construction;

however,

notice that the
progression seems basically to contain four measures in C, then an

implied feeling of F fo
r two
measures, followed by six measures of C chords and

chords which are closely related to the key of
C. These sections might be labeled

A
-
B
-
A. We will discuss key modulations in

a later section, when
you have

digested

the

terminology

and

information

nee
ded

for

such

analysis.

The

term

blues,

in

jazz,

usually
denotes a chord progression twelve bars in length, and also describes its

mood.

Since melody
ordinarily moves by steps, rather than from one chord tone to
another,

it

would

be

helpful

to

decide

what

n
otes

can

be

played


chord

tones.

For the major
seventh chord we shall use a major scale built on the root of the

chord; hence the scale for the CM7
chord would be a C major scale. This gives us

the additional notes D, F, and A to act as melodic
join
-

tant melodic notes on C, E, G, and B. For the F7 chord we will use
an F scale, but

lowering

the

seventh

degree

(E)

by

a

half
-
step

to

accommodate

the

E


used

in

the

chord.



The Dm7 and G7 chords, as stated earlier, are closel
y related to the key of C.

Therefore a C major
scale may be used on these ch
ords, but with the scale begin
ning on the roots of those chords.



The

above

scale

on

D

is

an

example

of

a

scale

construction

known

as

the

Dorian

Mode

which

belon
gs

to

a

family

of

modal

scales

discussed

in

music

theory

and

music history texts. The scale on G,
a
lso shown above, corresponds to

the

construction

of

another

modal

scale

from

that

family,

the

Mixolydian

Mode.

Here
-

after, the scale
which uses the same tones as a major sca
le of a major second
(two

halfsteps)

lower

will

be

referred

to

as

the

Dorian

Mode.

Similarly,

the

scale

whose

root is the
fifth degree of a major scale, and wh
ich uses the same pitches, will

be

called

the

Mixolydian

Mode.



Figure

2

shows

a

summation

of

wh
at

we

have

just

learned

about

the

blues

progression. This
information should be analyzed and studied carefully as prepa
-

ration

for

improvisation

on

the

blues

progression

of

Figure

1
.






% = repeat previous measure.



length:

12

measures


form:

A

(4

me
asures)

B

(2

measures)

A

(6

measures)


mood:

“blue”



FIGURE 2



projects




1.

Spelling chords:


Write in the chord notes for each of the following symbols.






2.

Playing chords:

(a)

Play the above chords in two octaves, up and down.


(b) Copy only the symbols f
-

tice the chords,
represented by the symbols, in two octaves, up and down.


3. Writing scales which accompany chords:


(a) Write a major scale on the roots of all the major seventh chords in (a) of

Number 1 a
bove.




(b) Write a scale beginning on the second degree on the roots of all the minor

seventh chords in
(b) of Number 1.







(b)

Write a scale beginning on the fifth degree on the roots of all the seventh

chords in (c) of
Number 1.






4. Playing scale
s which accompany chords:


(a) Read the scales you have written in Number 3, playing them in two octaves

(think of the chord as
you play them).


(b) Using the symbols you recopied for (b) of Number 2, play the


accompanying scales for the
chords implied by

the symbols in two octaves

(think of the chords as you play them).


5. Supply the chord and accompanying scale spellings to the following A
-
A
-
B
-
A

chord progression.
Use the scale of the second degree on all minor seventh

chords and the scale of the fifth
degree on
all seventh chords.













2



an

Introduction

to

Melody



Melody is (1) one of the essential elements of music, along with harmony and

rhythm; (2) that part
of music which is heard most prominently; (3) a component

of music capable of div
ision into
smaller fragments, such as periods, phrases,
or

motifs;

and

(4)

a

group

of

fragments

woven

into


patterns.

The

motif

is

the smallest
melodic entity from which much of the remainder of the music is writ
-

ten or played.



FIGURE 3



Fi
gure

3

shows

a

twelve
-
measure

solo

on

the

blues

progression,

having

six

melodic fragments (in

fragments are related by obvious
similarities to the first fragment, which we
shall

call

the

motif.

Because

they

vary

only

slightly

from

the

motif,

these

five

fragments

would

be

ca
lled

variations.

The

use

of

this

sort

of

melodic

organization,

often

called

the

theme

(motif)

and

varia
tions

form,

seems

to

be

a

natural

tendency

of

both improvisors and compos
composed spontaneously

or not, can be analyzed, therefore, in terms of motifs and variations of
motifs. The

degree to which this type of melodic form exists would of course depend upon
the

individual artist’s ability and desire to
use it.


Some jazz solos are made up of a steady stream of eighth notes, divided into

unrelated phrases by
infrequent pauses for breath or thought. We shall call
this

type

of

improvisation

a

linear

style.

It

is


difficult

to

analyze

in

terms

of

mo
tivic
construction, but we can appreciate it for its continuity, smoothness, con
-

tours, note choices, and
placement of rhythmic accents, rather than for its
melodic

form.

Figure

4

is

an

example

of

a

solo

in

the

linear

style.



FIGURE 4



Linear melodies
may or may not possess formal symmetries, and motivic

melodies exist in which

through
-
composed

melodies

and

may

result

through

either

contrivance

or

accident.

Communication with the
listener is reduc
ed by through
-
composed melodies and,

them until you develop melodic form

and smoothly coordinated phrases through the study of the
theme and variations

technique.



Just as the young composer learns much about his

craft by listening to music

while following the
score, the beginning improvisor can progress more rapidly by

reading a transcription of an
improvised solo while listening to the recording. If no

transcriptions are available, you will have to
transcribe th
em yourself, beginning

with relatively uncomplicated solos and gradually trying more
difficult ones. We

cannot emphasize this practice too much; it will benefit you in two important ar
-

eas: (1) it will develop your ear and pitch memory to the extent that
you will even
-

tually

be

able

to

transcribe

your

own

ideas

while

you

are

improvising;

and

(2)

by

studying the solos
and styles of already proficient improvisors, you will gain a

deeper understanding of the improvised

and ideas for the handling of improvised material. Your
sense for evaluating the

merits of various soloists will also increase as you discover which solos can
bear

the careful scrutiny of analysis. Once the solo has been transcribed as accurately as

possib
le, try
to locate motifs, variations of motifs, and noteworthy linear sections,

as

shown

in

Figures

3

and

4
.

In
addition to studying solos through the use of transcriptions, it would be
wise

to

begin

an

orderly

and

faithful

collection

of

original

motifs

to

be

used

for

analysis

and
development. These will eventually become part of your jazz style and part of


your repertoire of original ideas to be used in future improvisations. By
studying

Figure

3
,

you

should


an

understanding

of

the

general

appearance

and

nature

of

a motif.

close, either by the use of a
note of greater duration or by the use of rests. Anyone,

even the beginner, is capable of composing
short, original motifs, and
with a little

practice can become increasingly fast and accurate with
putting them on paper.

One or two motifs per day is reasonable as a beginning minimum. The output
will

increase naturally. The motifs should be neatly entered into a notebook (open to

re
vision) and
used as a source book of musical ideas. If you have difficulty com
-

posing motifs, you might begin
by finding several pitches which sound good in

succession and which seem to be relatively original,
writing them as whole notes

for the moment an
d adding a rhythm to them later.



The ideas need not be striking or unusual. Don’t wait for what you consider an

exceptional motif to
come to mind; even mildly effective ideas can become richer

through thoughtful development,
reworking, and variations. S
imple,

uncomplicated motifs are often more effective than more
complicated ones.

Furthermore, the ideas need not depict the style of “bluesy” jazz, with an abun
-

dance of lowered thirds, lowered fifths, and lowered sevenths, the ingredients often

found in
what is
commonly termed a “funky” idea. The “funky” style will develop

quite naturally in appropriate spots
without encouragement, because of its popular

usage and its suitability to the jazz style.

Successive,
or at least well
-
placed, variations of motifs
, when employed by the

jazz improvisor, have a definite,

the performer and the listener. Richmond
Browne, jazz pianist and instructor of

author:


What is

the soloist doing when he attempts to “build”? Actually the ideal

process hardly
ever takes place

that is, it is hardly ever the case that a consci
-

entious soloist plays a thinking solo
for a hard
-
listening hearer

but when this

does happen, the key proce
ss is memory. The soloist has
to establish for the

listener what the important POINT, the motif if you like, is, and then show
as

much as he can of what it is that he sees in that motif, extending the relation
-

ships of it to the
basic while never giving t
he feeling he has forgotten it. In other




but not too
much. The listener is constantly making predictions; actual

the next e

either confirming or

denying these predictions in the listener’s mind. As nearly as we can
tell

(Kraehenbuehl at Yale and I), the listener must come out right about 50
% of the

time

if he is
too successful in predicting, he will be bored; if he is too unsuc
-

cessful, he will give up and call the
music “disorganized.”

Thus if the player starts a repetitive pattern, the listener’s attention
drops

away as soon as he has suc
cessfully predicted that it is going to continue.

Then, if the thing
keeps going, the attention curve comes back up, and the lis
-

tener

becomes

interested

in

just

how

long

the

pattern

is

going

to

continue.

Similarly, if the player
never repeats anything, n
o matter how tremendous an

imagination he has, the listener will decide
that the game is not worth
playing,

that

he

is

not

going

to

be

able

to

make

any

predictions

right,

and

also

stops

lis
-

tening. Too
much difference is sameness: boring. Too much samenes
s is

boring

but also different once in a
while.



Most improvisors and composers have a natural inclination to use melodic

form, but often to an
insufficient degree. Both intellect and intuition must come in
-

to play if the solo is to be wholly
satisfying.


be studied, written, and played. If your original
motif collection is used as a
source

for

melodic

development,

it

will

follow

that

all

the

material

developed

from

those

motifs will
also be original, and you will autom
atically develop an original style.

The only developmental
is

transposition,

which

is

simply

a

matter

of

rewriting

a

motif

so

that

it

fits

another

key,

chord, or
sed an effective motif

which seems to fit nicely into
the key of C. This means that the motif will serve
you

well,

as

long

as

the

piece

begins

and

remains

in

C
.

But

of

course

not

all

tunes

are

like
-

ly to be
played in the key of C, under normal circumstanc
es; indeed, most
tunes

contain

at

least

one

simple

modulation

to

another

key.

You

certainly

cannot

afford

to wait for
a certain key, chord root, and chord type to use your motif. Furthermore,

the continuity would be
broken if you use it only at those widel
y spaced intervals.

Therefore it would be well to learn to
write and play your motifs in all keys (by

transposition) and against all types of chords (by
transposition and minor alter
-

ations, which will not affect the general character of the idea).
Also,
you will


discover that many of your motifs can begin on another member of the accom
-

panying or implied
chord. To know what chord fits with a motif can seem like an

overwhelming problem to the
beginning student of improvisation. However, com
-

mon sense an
d taste are the only guides to
finding the “correct” chords; rarely can

a motif be harmonized in one way only. This explains why a
multitude of different

chord progressions can (and do) exist on a single given tune when played by
dif
-

ferent improvisors of

various styles.

To find an arbitrary chord which will fit the motifs,
rearrange (if necessary) the

tones used, being especially careful to include the important tones of
longer dura
-

tion (you will find that some can be omitted as embellishing, nonessenti
al tones)

so that
they are stacked in third intervals as much as possible, simulating the

construction of a triad or
seventh chord. (Ninths, elevenths, thirteenths, and al
-

tered chords can be added when they become
part of your harmonic knowledge.)

Then a
the root and type

of chord which should be used to accompany the motif.




for transposition. Since
the above motif is har
monized by an Em7, the first
step

would

be

to

transpose

it,

raising

it

a

half

step

each

time

(Fm7,

F#m7,

Gm7,

A


m7).

Now suppose,
after having all the transpositions of the motif, you are con
-

fronted with an E7 rather than an Em7
chord. The motif, in o
rder to fit a different

type of chord, will probably require some alteration.
There are many ways to vary

the tones in the idea, without really changing its character. One way
would be:

Regardless of the type of chord or the particular pitch
of the root o
f the chord, the


motif will adapt readily in a number of ways.

To add another dimension, it is usually possible to
place the motif in a different

area of the same chord or of a different chord. The motif under
discussion begins

on the root of the Em7 chor
d, but it could be revised to begin on the third (or
fifth,

matter).

Once you have learned the motif in twelve keys, with
M7, m7, and 7 chords, and

built on at least two other memb
ers of the chord, you will have increased
the num
-

ber of useful circumstances for that motif (and some of these will offer
interesting

variations)

from

one

situation

to

one

hundred

and

eight

situations!

The

transpo
-

sitional
possibilities for development
are awesome and so may seem tedious to

write; however you will find
that you will soon be able to transpose quickly enough

to dispense with writing them and simply
play them in exercise form as preparation

for their use in actual improvisation. An example
of how
these transpositions

might appear in a solo would be:




Keep in mind that melodic variations have at least two objectives, both of which

will raise the level

of offering contrast to the

original
version of the melody, and that of maintaining

contact with the motif. By offering contrast, the
variation extends the improvisation

without risking boredom, and by having similarities to the
original motif, the vari
-

ation affords structural uni
ty to the improvisation.



projects




1.

Begin transcribing of solos, as suggested in this chapter.


2. Begin collecting of original motifs.


3. Learn to develop melodies by transposition, using the motif collection as a

source of material.












3



th
e

Rhythm

Section




compassionate or
sympathetic balance, rhythmic “swing,” and harmony, consti
-

tutes

the

heart

of

an

improvising

group.

Some

small

jazz

groups

contain

only

rhythm
section
players

-

tar, vibraphone, accordion, or
Latin American instruments, such as conga drums,

timbales, bongos, maracas, claves, guiro,
rhythm

section

must

also

suppl
y

all

of

the

improvised

solos

and

the

foreground

duties

usually
assigned to the wind instruments. In an optimum situation, when the

members of the rhythm section
are reasonably accomplished, their function is not

simply to provide a throbbing background to

a
featured wind instrument, nor to

group. Rather

they share the burden of the wind instrument by serving as a soundboard for
its

rhythmic accents, harmonic deviations, melodic continuity, a
nd mood changes.


They contribute more than their basic duties of time
-
keeping and background

vamping by feeding
the soloist with new material to be developed coordinately. At

times they can even become
cooperative entities within the rhythm section, echo
-

ing each other, dropping out occasionally, or
becoming part of the foreground

without necessarily involving the other members of the section. We
shall limit our

study to the basic foundations of rhythm section playing, as applied to the
most

common instru
mentation of that section, the piano, bass, and drums.


drums


Contrary to
common belief, the modern drummer does not rely upon the rhyth
-

mic figures of the bass drum or
snare drum for maintaining the pulse (beat). He

does, however, need to use some compo
nent of his
drums for beating steady,

dependable time, to which he can coordinate the improvised rhythms of
the other


of
subtlety, uses his cymbals for this purpose, either the “
ride” cymbal (a large,

medium thin, mounted
cymbal), the “hi
-
hat” (“sock” cymbals), or both, played

with either sticks or brushes. Although the
patterns played on these cymbals can


vary with the individual, the most common rhythm is:



If brushes are use
d, the ride cymbal pattern is often played on the snare drum with

one hand, while
the other hand rotates a brush around the edge of the snare head,

making a “swishing” sound
accenting the second and fourth beat by accelerating

the swish sharply toward the
body. The brushes
can also be used on the cymbal,

however.

The bass drum, snare drum, and tom
-
toms (if they are
used), are usually re
-

served for improvised accents and this is left to the drummer’s taste and discre
-

tion. Many drummers like to beat their
bass drum lightly, even inaudibly, in steady

quarter notes
except when it is being used for accents. The pulse will be supplied

by the string bass player, who
will generally resent a heavily sounded bass drum

which obscures the sound of the bass. In the
un
fortunate absence of a bass, a

because of the

short duration of its sound. Each of the pizzicato bass tones should have a
long,

singing sound.



bass



The rhythmic pattern of the bass is qui
te simple, usually quarter notes with

occasional eighth
-
note
figures to break the monotony. Once in a while the bass
will

play

in

two

(quarter

notes

on

the

first

and

third

beats)

for

a

section

of

the

tune,

occasionally
using quarter notes on second and fou

As for the pitches played by the bass,
there are several types of bass lines. The

bass player’s first obligation is to outline the consonant and
important notes of

each of the chords (especially roots and fifths), or he should at lea
st outline
the

important notes of the tonality. The two most prominent types of bass lines
can

best

be

described

as

chordal

and

scale
-
like

(“walking”

line).

The

chordal

line

is

the

easier of the
two and is recommended for beginners. The notes are chosen fr
om

the given chord, with emphasis
given to the roots and the fifths.
An example of

such a line would be:



Note that the line contains practically no sevenths, but is more inclined to outline

the triad portion of
the chords. Because of the low range of th
e bass, the disso
-

nance needs to be reduced by
comparison with higher
-
pitched instruments. Sim
-

plicity and economy is of utmost importance for
bass players, especially at the

beginning. The line above would sound nearly as good even with
i
-

tions of some notes. For example, the first measure could have been F, F, C, F,
or

F, F, C, C, instead of F, A, C, A (see example).



This is left to the taste, ingenuity, and technical ability of the player. The second

and fourth beats can
contain non
-
chord (dissonant) tones if the player so
desires.

For

instance,

the

third

measure

could

have

been

C,

B


,

A,

F,

rather

than

C,

F,

A,

C.

It

coul
d

even

be

C,

B


,

A,

G,

since

the

non
-
chord

tones

would

still

be

on

the

sec
-

ond and fourth beats.
Tradition

occur on the first and third beats.

This leaves the second and fourth beats unaccented, and therefore a
logical
place

to

use

the

nonharmonic

tones

of

a

melody.

In

jazz,

the


for

handling

nonharmonic tones
-

cents are placed on the second and
fourth beats. Consequently, the bass player

should accent the second and fourth beats even though
they mi
ght be dissonant

(nonharmonic) tones. The first and third beats, of course, will be unaccented
and

consonant. It is best, when inserting non
-
chord tones, to choose tones within
the

scale

of

the

key,

hence

the

B


instead

of

B.

The walking bass line is sca
le
-
like, using
considerably more non
-
chord tones

and even chromatic tones (tones not within the key signature).
The walking line






piano




The piano player is the one member of the rhythm section who has no defi
nite


rhythm pattern to maintain, yet his improvised rhythmic figures add greatly to the

time
-
keeping.
Perhaps the beginner should play in steady whole notes, half notes,

or quarter notes, trying gradually
to invent mixtures of these and to enhance them

wi
th syncopated figures. He should listen closely to
the drummer for rhythmic fig
-

ures which he can adapt. The soloing wind instrument may
occasionally feed him

possibilities also. The piano player should not be afraid to repeat figures once
in a

while, in

rhythmic
figure. The pianist carries on three functions simultaneously: (1) the

rhythm, including keeping

rhythmic “punches”; (
2) the harmony; and
(3) the element of melodic imitation,

derived from the soloing instrument. He will soon learn, as the
drummer does,

experimentation

will be his chief means of findin
g out.

He can, however, be prepared to play a
-

ticing them diligently, so that when the group assembles to
play, his mind will be

freer to concentrate on rhythmic figures and time
-
rules as

to h
ow he must arrange (voice) the tones of each of the chords; however there are

certain
tendencies established by taste and tradition which may be of help: (1) be


flexible with voicings and

when
moving from chord to chord; (3)
attempt, occasionally, to maintain the same

top note, whenever it is common to several different
chords, for at least several

successive chords (all three of these points will encourage smoothness);
(4)

generally voice the r
oot in the bass of each chord and space the chord wider near

the bottom and
closer near the top; and (5) use voicings of varying weight, depend
-

ing upon the volume needed,
playing fewer notes in softer passages and fuller
-

voiced chords in heavier passage
s.

Below are some
suggested voicings for beginning pianists. Remember
that

these

are

suggestions

for

spacing

and

doubling

that

will

apply

to

any

type

of

chord,

not just
those shown here. These voicings should be practiced in all keys, on all

types of chord
s.
New ones
should be invented and added whenever possible.




projects




Drums.

Practice

alone,

following

the

suggestions

for

the

cymbal

and

hi
-
hat

fig
-

ures.

Play

only

the

cymbal

and

hi
-
hat

at

first,

until

this

feels

natural

and

until

the tempo remains

steady. Be sure to accent the second and fourth beats.

Then try using brushes in either of the
prescribed manners. When these

time
-
keeping practices become easy and natural, and approach a
subcon
-

scious level, try improvising accents with the snare and b
ass drum

them

imitate

each

other

and

occasionally

having

them

in

unison)

but

do

not

alter

the

cymbal

and

hi
-
hat

figures

while

practicing

improvised

accents

and

be

sure the tempo remains steady.
Practice various tempos like these.






Bass.

Using

the

blues

chord

progression

of

Chapter

1
,

write

several

twelve
-

measure bass lines of
both the chordal and walking type and practice playing

them, striving for long pizzicato tones and a
steady tempo. Transpose the

lines to other keys and practice those.
Practice various tempos.



Piano.

Using

the

blues

progression

of

Chapter

1
,

write

and

practice

several

twelve
-
measure
voicings, keeping the type of voicing as consistent as pos
-

sible. Play them in whole notes and half

de
velops, then try inventing various rhythmic figures which will fit


and which can be repeated for twelve measures.



4



the

First

Playing

Session



Before assembling for the first playing session, each participant should prepare

himself thorough
ly
by studying the material to be improvised. It should be memo
-

will be placed before him. Each player should

also practice the material diligently by inventing
arpeggio and scale patterns for all

of the chord symbols,

covering the entire range of the instrument.
If every person

will

study

the

material

carefully

before

each

playing

session,

then

his

mind

and

fin
-


chord, what
scale is u
sed with each chord, and how the phrases should be fin
-

gered. The mind and fingers will
be free to concentrate on more important aspects

of playing, such as establishing melodic form;

and swing; finding useful notes and p
hrases; and planning and
controlling the

intensity of a solo in chosen or inspired moments. None of these elements
can

materialize if the mind is struggling with chord and scale fundamentals.
As the


player develops, he will find that many of these aspects

will become relatively

subconscious and
easy. Now he will be able to add even more
objectives.

The

reference


should

look

like

Figure

2

(
Chapter

1
),

except

that

it

may

need to be
transposed to fit the keys of the variously pitched instruments. (For
t
he

first

playing

session,

we

will

use

the

key

of

concert

B


,

which

will

place

B


-
pitched

instruments

in

the

key

of

C,

and

E


-
pitched

instruments

in

the

key

of

G.)

The

chord

progression

will

be

the

same

as

in

Figure

2
,

except

f
or

transposition.

The

until

he feels confident that it is no longer necessary.

The members of the rhythm section should be

possible, and the wind instruments should be seat
ed in a semi
-
circle,
near the pi
-

ano. The rhythm section should then play through the progression a few times,

while the

tempo, learning to feel the
durations of each of the chor
ds, listening to the differ
-

to maintain the sound of the keynote

in their minds. The pianist should play as simply and
rhythmically as possible,


Next, the ot
hers
should join in, playing several choruses of whole notes in

unison, and playing only the roots of each
chord.



This will train the player to hear the foundation of the progression and will help de
-

velop his sense
ythm (the relative duration of

each chord). In this first session
the harmonic rhythm is quite simple, since none

of the chords has a duration shorter than a whole
note.

The wind instruments should then be assigned a certain note of each chord to

play for
one
chorus. For example, one could play the thirds of all the chords (in

tempo), so that he would play (in
concert key here) the following pitches in
whole

notes:

D

(third

of

B


M7),

G

(third

of

E


7),

D,

D,

G,

G,

D,

D,

E


,

A,

D,

D.

Another

player
w
ill play all the fifths, another the sevenths, and another the roots. It won’t

matter too much which
octave they choose for playing their assigned pitches, al
-

though it will sound best if the roots and
fifths are in a lower range than the thirds


and seve
nths. After one or two choruses of this, exchange notes until each player

has had the
opportunity to play all the members of the chords. This exercise will

strengthen the ear in
understanding the sound of each of the chords, and will also

teach you to thin
k more quickly in
terms of chord spellings.

Next, the wind instruments should play the following arpeggiated figure for
sev
-

eral choruses (in unison):



This exercise begins to train the fingers to find correct pitches, though the
pattern

is


As

explained

in

Chapter

1
,

habit

plays

an

important

role

in

impro
-

vising. By
practicing exercises of this type, plus more of your own invention, you

will form a foundation of
correct finger habits. It is best that this type of exercise,

as well as those
described earlier, be
practiced without reading, so that the
intellect

is

encouraged

toward

deeper

concentration.
¹

Another

exercise

would

be:






Eventually, when the progressions begin to move a little faster and half
-
note dura
-

tions occur on
some chor
ds, such a pattern will have to be revised, but once you

begin to grasp the essence of these
exercises, the invention of similar ones to fit

new situations will not present a great problem.

The
procedure just described should begin each playing session, es
pecially

when new material is
attempted. The following summary can be used for future

reference:





(2)

study

of

the

material

by

each

student

before

playing.


ile listening to the rhythm section play a few

choruses.


(4) playing of roots in whole notes (or duration of the chords).


(5) playing of other members of the chords for their durations.


(6) playing of the chords in various arpeggiated figures.



Since y
ou will feel some self
-
consciousness and confusion at the first session


as to how to begin creating spontaneously, it would be helpful to work on an exer
-

cise which will
dictate a simple rhythm and which will involve simultaneous

improvisation by several

students. The
first improvisor could play a chorus of

whole notes, followed by a chorus of half notes, then a chorus
of quarter notes,

and finally a chorus of any rhythm he chooses, but with eighth notes as
the

predominant rhythm. (This will also develop
an orientation to rhythmic levels, so

that you will

played.) Choose any pitches,

Remember to use scale notes as well as chord
notes, es
pecially at the quarter
-
note

and eighth
-
chorus of whole

notes, the second begins playing his chorus of whole notes (while the first is play
-

ing half notes), then a third person begins playing whole not
es, and so on. As each

his chorus of eighth notes he drops out until his turn comes

around again to start another series of
choruses like his first. When a fourth person

begins playing, there will be four different rhythmic
levels going on

simultaneously,

which will help relieve self
-
consciousness.
This experiment,
charted, would look

like:




When you all feel comfortable in your playing situation, the preceding exercise

can be eliminated in
favor of several choruses each, accompanied onl
y by the

rhythm section. However, the above chart
may be useful later in plotting ways to

experiment with simultaneous and contrapuntal
improvisation. It would also be

advisable to transpose the progression used in this session so you
will be able to

play
in all twelve keys.

session. When


the basic requirements for group playing become rote, then it is possible to bring

in added
considerations. For example, you should try to become aware of c
ertain

pitches within chords which
seem more important than others in
establishing

chords

and

chord

sequences.

In

examining

the

progression

on

page

5
,

we

find

that

there

is

a

need

to

clarify

the

third

of

the

B


chord

as

being

major

(D)

rather

than

minor

(D


).

Similarly,

t
he

seventh

of

the

E


7

chord

must

be

D


rather

than

D.

The

notes

D

and

D


play

a

very

important

role

in

establishing

the

sound

of

the

blues

in

the

key

of

B


.

The

blues

progression

has

the

peculiarit
y

of

seeming

to

shift

n

major

and

minor,

without

using

a

B


minor

chord.

This

effect

is

caus
ed

by

the

E


7

chords,

which

contain

the

D


’s

that

would

have

been

the

most

important note of a
Bb minor chord, had there been one. Then the primary func
-

tion

of

the

E


7

chord

is

to

create

a

feeling

of

B


minor

in

the

second,

fifth,

and

sixth measures of
the blues
progression.

Another

important

pitch

in

the

B


blues

is

the

E


that

occurs

as

the

third

of

the

Cm7
chord in the ninth measure, and as the seventh of the F7 chor
d in the
tenth

measure.

This

E


strengthens

the

key

feeling

of

B


,


it

also

delays

the

resolution

to

the

ton
ic

(B


M7)

chord,

which

is

one

of

the

few

notes

which

cannot

be

sound
-

ed

consonantly

with

a

B


chord.

In

conclusion,

the

three

importan
t

notes

in

the


blues

lie

within

the

small

area

of

a

major

second

from

D


to

E


,

and

the

charting

of these
important notes would be:



You may now begin to notice that if you play the notes of the chord in rapid

succession as pickup
notes to a phrase
, it becomes easier to hear what should be

played. Tonal memory is much like
eyesight in that an impression is made which

sound of a chord for a while after

the sound has stopped. When a chord is played i
n arpeggiated
form, the sound is

established long enough to be heard simultaneously with subsequent notes. Even
-

tually you will find that you need play only the more important notes of a chord to

establish the
sound of the entire chord. These notes will u
sually be the third and

the seventh, because their

M7, m7, or 7, while the fifth and root usually
remain stationary.


Notice that in the diagram given above for the Cm7 and the F7 there are
two

pitches

g
iven

as

important;

the

B


to

A

have

not

yet

been

discussed.

When

either

a

m7 or a 7
chord resolves to a seventh chord which is located a perfect fourth above

(from C to F is a perfect
fourth), the most effective way to establish the joining
of

these

chor
ds

is

to

move

from

the

seventh

of

the

first

chord

(B


in

the

example,

since it is the
seventh of the Cm7) to the third of the second chord (A, which is
the

third

of

an

F7).

The

reason

for

this

is

that

the

other

notes

of

the

Cm7

chord

C,

E


, and G

could

be the fifth, seventh, and ninth of the F chord and are inconse
-

quential because they are
stationary during the change of chords.

If any of the players has difficulty improvising with a
-

anist strike the chord and hold it (no
t in tempo) until the player can
improvise a

number of useful phrases.

As the beginning improvisor finds certain phrases he likes to
use from time to

that

it starts and ends a
t the proper time within the measure. For example, suppose
you

like

to

play

a

B


M7

in

this

way:



Now suppose you arrive (in a continuous line) at the junction of your previous

idea and this phrase,
but a little too early or too late. Always be prepare
d to cope

with these unexpected situations by
improvising a few pitches which will enable

Therefore, instead of turning

out like:



it might be:



or:



or:



It is also suggested that in future sess
ions you prepare some of the motifs from

your collection,
transposing them and altering them slightly so that they can be

used

in

improvisations

at

any

point.


project


Write an original solo on the blues progression, in any key, one chorus in

length, usin
g one or two
(only) motifs from your collection of motifs. Strive for

naturalness of style.


5



Development

of

the

Ear



When a student of music theory identifies and writes what his instructor plays

for him in a dictation
exercise, he is using the same p
rocess used by the jazz

improvisor. He is translating abstract sound
into tangible symbols and making it

understandable. The student is translating sounds coming to him
through the

auditory senses and placing these sounds (in symbol form) on paper. The imp
ro
-

visor is
working with imagined sounds which, when translated, are played on his

instrument. The
mechanical process of translation, however, is the same and
can

be

developed

through

extensive

practice.

Figures

5

and

6

are

illustrations

of

these

two type
s of
dictation.

With composers, the process is nearly identical to that of the improvisor, except

that the
brain translates the imagined sounds into symbols to be placed on
paper.

The

important

thing

to

note

is

that

in

any

case,

the

main

process

is

the

sam
e,

that

of dictation.
If the student of jazz can transcribe what he hears from an outside


source, he can translate what he hears from an inner source through the same

developed technique of
taking dictation. Therefore, if he practices transcribing mu
-

sic
, regardless of the style, he will
greatly increase his ability to improvise. The

improvisor will often need to use his transcribing
ability to translate the sounds

around him in an improvising session if he is to fulfill his obligations
toward
group

impro
visation,

and

if

he

is

to

learn

from

listening

and

understanding

the

efforts

of

those
around him.




sound



(the brain uses memory and intellect to translate the sound into symbols)



FIGURE 5 Dictation from an Outer Source





(the brain uses memory an
d intellect to translate the imagined sound, also ema
-

nating from the
brain, into fingerings for the instrument)




FIGURE 6 Dictation from an Inner Source




The memory plays an important part in that it must record imagined sounds in
-

stantly so that th
ey
can be taken in dictation before the images disappear. Suc
-

memory from one session to another.

Improvisation, like composition, is the product of everything
heard in past

experience, plus the originality of the mo
ment. The contents of even a very accom
-

plished improvisor’s solos are not all fresh and original, but are a collection of

clichés, established
patterns, and products of the memory, rearranged in new se
-

quences,

along

with

a

few

new

ideas.

A
valuable aid

to the improvisor is the development of relative pitch on his

instrument. This enables
the brain to make efficient, accurate translations of heard

pitches (from either an inner or outer
source) into fingerings necessary to produce

that pitch on the instru
ment. A player who has used his
instrument to transcribe

melodies (especially if the melody is played on the same type of instrument)
has

probably discovered that each pitch on his instrument has a slightly different tone

color from the
others. For example
, most pianists can tell when the black keys on a

piano are struck in a sequence
containing mostly white keys. They can also hear
a

great

difference


pieces

played

in

the

key

of

D


and

pieces

played

in

the

key

of

E,

usually

describing

D


as

dark
,

heavy,

and

morose,

and

E

as

bright,

brilliant,

and light. String players can
-

wound, and so forth) of string

changes within a line. Saxophone, clarine
t, and flute players can
recognize a differ
-



requiring few or no fingers, to pitches requiring many fingers, though the pitches

may be only a
minor second interval apart). The
se minute differences in quality can

lead to a type of relative pitch
which applies only to the particular instrument

played by the performer. It can be developed through
dictation exercises (using the

instrument, rather than committing the material to pap
er) and the
memorization of

the qualities found on various pitches of the instrument. After the
improvisor

develops this sense of pitch to a high degree, he will find that he can identify the

exact
pitches on different instruments by hearing the note playe
d as it would
sound

on

his

instrument

and

identifying

it

by

quality.

This

is

why

many

saxophone

players

who

swit
ch

from

an

E


-
pitched

instrument

to

a

B


-
pitched

one

are

unable

to

improvise with ease,
especially if they use only their ear to guide the
m. They find

themselves playing pitches that are a
perfect fourth away from the pitches they in
-

tended to produce. Since the fingerings are the same on
the new instrument, he

has not made allowance for the fact that the two instruments are pitched a
perfe
ct

fourth apart.

The advantages of acquiring keen pitch perception on a particular instrument

are
many. First, it practically eliminates all errors involving pitch translation. Sec
-

ond, it enables the
player to become proficient in the area of melodic imi
tation in


group situations. Third, the player becomes adept at comprehending the unfamiliar

harmonies of
new tunes, or different progressions to already learned material. Last,

and perhaps most important,
the improvisor is aware, on the first hearing, of
the

exact pitches used by other performers.

To
develop this most invaluable aid to improvising, it is suggested that you

adopt the following


(1) Begin observing the slight differences in the tone quality of various pitches

and
registers on your i
nstrument.

-
matching

exercises, beginning with one pitch at a time and gradually working toward

longer
series.

(3) Begin transcribing from recordings of solos of your instrument, playing
them

on the
instrument rather than committing them to paper.


Remember that developing this sense of pitch is a
long
-
term project and that

progress may be slow.


6



Further

Study

of

Chord

Types



Up to this point, we have used only three types of chord st
ructures, the M7, the

m7, and the 7 chords.

notes which are not within one of the
preceding chord structures, alternate
chords

are

used.

As

will

be

pointed

up

in

Chapter

10
,

there

are

three

main

fu
nctional

cate
-

gories of
chords, and the three we have taken up so far are the most commonly

used chords of each of the
families.

In

place

of

a

M7,

for

example,

a

M6

chord

may

be

substituted.

The

M6

chord

is

like the
M7 in that it uses a major triad for th
e bottom three notes, but adds the

sixth major scale degree
instead of the seventh. A CM6, then, would be spelled C,

E, G, A.

If the tune used in an
improvisation is in a minor key, then it is necessary to

learn a type of minor chord, especially to be
used

as a tonic minor chord, which

differs in sound and construction from the m7 chord. There are
two
basic

examples

of

this

tonic

minor

sound,

the

m6

chord

and

a

minor

chord

with

a

major

seventh

(inte
rval),

which

we

will

call

a

m#7

or

a

m


7

(depending

on

w

it

is

necessary to use a sharp sign
or a natural sign to show how the seventh has
been

raised).

A

Cm6

chord

would

be

spelled

C,

E


,

G,

A,

and

the

Cm


7

would

be

spelled

C,

E


,

G,

B


(not

B


,

as

in

the

Cm7).


a

m7

chord

may

be

r
eplaced

by

a

half
-
diminished

seventh

chord

(ø7)

which differs from the minor seventh chord only in that the fifth is
lowered a
half

step.

A

Cø7

chord,

instead

of

being

spelled

C,

E


,

G,

B


(Cm7),

is

spelled

C,

E


,

G


,

B


.

A

C



or

a

C+



may

often

be

used

in

place

of

a

C7;

they

are

spelled

C,

E,

G


,

B


,

and

C,

E,

G
#,

B


respectively,

rather

than

C,

E,

G,

B


.

All the newly given alternate chords may be used in
place of their given and

more common chord family member (M7, m7, or
7) quite freely,

depending upon the harmonization of a given melody.
A summary of the families

is
given below.




Figure

7

shows

a

summary

of

the

symbol,

name,

intervallic

construction,

and

an

example of each of
the chord types included thus far
.

Most of the newly added chords, though they belong to families of
already

learned

chords,

will

require

scales

different

from

those

given

in

Chapter

1

for

the

M7, m7,
and 7 chords. It will be remembered that a major scale was used for the

M7 chord, a Dori
an Mode
for m7 chords, and the Mixolydian Mode for the
7

chord,

the

constructions

of

which

are

given

in

Chapter

1
.

The M6 chord will use the same scale as
the M7 chord. However, the m6
and

m#7

(or

m


7),

depicting

the

minor

mode,

will

differ

from

either

the

M7

or

m7

in

respect to the
scale used with it. The ascending form of the melodic minor
scale

(see

p.

40)

may

be

used

with

either

the

m6

or

the

m#7

chords,

as

the

scale

con
-

tains

all

the

notes

of

those

chords.

The

harmonic

minor

scale

(see

p.

40)

may

a
ccompany the m#7
chord only, since the lowered sixth degree would conflict with

the sixth of the m6 chord.


SYMBOL

NAME

INTERVALS

CONTAINED

EXAMPLE

M7

major seventh

chord

major third

perfect fifth

major seventh


M6

major sixth

chord

major third

perfect
fifth

major sixth


m6

minor sixth

chord

minor third

perfect fifth

major sixth


m

7

or

m#7

minor chord

with a

major seventh

minor third

perfect fifth

major seventh


m7

minor seventh

chord

minor third

perfect fifth

minor seventh


ø7

half
-
diminished

seventh chord

minor third

diminished fifth

minor seventh


7

seventh chord

or

dominant seventh

chord

major third

perfect fifth

minor seventh


+

or +7

augmented seventh

chord

major third

augmented fifth

minor seventh



seventh chord

with a

diminishe
d fifth

major third

diminished fifth

minor seventh



FIGURE 7







C melodic minor scale (ascending)





C harmonic minor scale


The scale which best fits the ø7 chord is one which uses the notes of a
major

scale of a half step up (called Locrian mode
), hence a scale on B would use the

notes of a C
major scale, but starting on B (B, C, D, E, F, G, A, B). This type of

scale contains all the notes of a
ø7 chord built on the root of the scale.




Locrian

Mode

on

C

(D


major

scale,

starting

on

C)


One

a
ppropriate

scale

fits

both

the

+


and



chords

the

whole
-
tone

scale
,

which,

as

its

title

suggests,

is

constructed

by

using

successive

whole

steps

only.


C whole
-
tone scale


A summary of all the types of chords, their families, and their
accompanying

scales is given below for quick reference.










Chord

Family

Chord

Scale

M7 (Tonic Major)


M7 . . . . . . Major Scale




M6 . . . . . . Major Scale

Tonic Minor


m6 . . . . . . Ascending Melodic Minor Scale




m#7 . . . . Asce
nding Melodic or Harmonic Minor Scales

m7


m7 . . . . . . Dorian Mode
1




ø7 . . . . . . Locrian Mode

7 (Dominant)


7 . . . . . . . Mixolydian Mode



+

. . . . . . . Whole Tone Scale




. . . . . . . . Whole Tone Scale



Jazz is a relatively ne
w art whose language and symbols are still in the process

of becoming
standardized. Consequently, the student of improvisation could easily

become confused by
encountering unfamiliar symbols found in chord progres
-

sions given him by players of another
geo
graphical location. Some of the devia
-

tions one might expect to encounter are:



Figure

8

shows

a

new

progression

to

the

blues,

this

one

in

the

minor

mode

and

using some of the
chords introduced in this chapter. This should be transposed

for the various
instruments and used as
-

sion. The scheduling of playing sessions from this point is
left to your own discre
-

tion. There is no limit to the number of possible sessions, but one should
be

scheduled at least whenev
er there is new material to be assimilated.



FIGURE 8



projects




1. Write and practice (in arpeggiated form on the instrument) the M6, m6,
m#7,

(or

m


7),

ø7,

+


,



chords

in

all

keys.


2. Write the melodic minor, harmonic minor, Locrian Mode
, and whole
-
tone scales

in all keys.
(There are only two whole
-
tone scales. You will find the others are all




3. Above each of the written scales, write the chord root and chord type which can

be used in
conjunction with
the scale.


4. Transpose to all keys and practice the following pattern of scales. Play contin
-

uously, stopping
only for breath.





7



Swing



One quick way to determine the depth of a jazz musician’s thinking is to
ask

him

to

define

swing
.

Even

some

o
f

the

most

articulate

jazz

critics

and

chroniclers

will avoid a

corner when they do engage in

asked to name the most important aspect of ja
zz
music, will exclaim “Swing!” and

will even minimize the importance of other aspects, such as
melodic form, func
-

tional harmony, technical proficiency, a well
-
developed ear, versatility,
originality,

and so on. There is no question as to the controversy

in an analytical discussion of

swing,
perhaps from uncertainty more than anything else. Furthermore, if you want

to watch artists nearly
-

bers of a rhythm section during an
intermission, if the grou
p is having
problems

with

swing.

The

issue

becomes

even

more

complicated

when

the

necessary

inten
-

sity

of

swing

is

discussed.
¹


-

ty. Steady tempo
should also be considered, but

it is known that some jazz groups

will swing while the tempo changes
unintentionally. Some jazz artists have
even

contended

that

the

tempo

is

never

steady,

that

the

swing

is

partly

due

to

a

flexible,

rather than a
are supposedly the origin

of jazz rhythms, are
characterized by gradual accelerandos in near perfect unison.)

Other jazz players, even those who
feel that swing is the most important ingredient

of jazz music, believe that swing, though of a
different type,

exists in a good sym
-

phonic orchestra or chamber group, because there is an
emotional or interpre
-

tational type of unity. The intensity of the swing feeling in any kind of music
should

be flexible enough to range from blatant to subtle, depending upon t
he mood and

demands of
the particular selection or
player.

Unfortunately,

young

jazz

players

are

often

told

that

they

must

first

learn

to

swing, even in
the beginning stages of improvisation. This is analogous to expect
-

ing the beginning archer to score
c
onsistent bulls’
-
eyes before attempting the outer

circles. The relaxation and coordination necessary
in playing swing usually
cause

swing

to

become

the

last

added

element

rather

than

the

first.

The

person

who

swings at the
te, as it indicates rhythmic and

emotional precocity and will
probably insure easier progress and acceptance.

Rhythmic unity must come naturally through
compatible combinations of rhyth
-

Howeve
r, the rhyth
-

mic interpretation of the jazz improvisor’s most consistently used rhythm,
the

eighth
-
note
pattern,

can be
learned to a reasonably accurate degree through purely technical means,

those of rhythm,
articulation, and accents. Rhythmically, the
dotted eighth
-

sixteenth
-
note pattern has often been

the eighth note as played by improvising or reading
jazz artists. However, the effect

is too jerky to be used in place of the preceding examples, because
the

beat is

subdivided into four parts, rather than
three.


The music is seldom written either of the above ways but usually in straight

eighth notes with the
them

as

he

would

in

improvising.

This

rhyt
hm

is


referred

to

as

shuffle
-
time
.

Although
most jazz music is legato or legato tongued, there is a tendency

among improvisors to attack lightly
every other note, slurring to the ones

using

the

tongue

on

the

upbeats

and

slurring

into

the

downbeats.

This

articulation

probably
had as its source the peculiar upbeat accent which is a distinguishing trait

of the jazz style (therefore
the preponderance of syncopated figures) and which

would be somewhat facilitated by a tongued
rather than a bre
ath accent.




accents, but these

might be played by an improvising
jazz artist, first playing the line as it is

written,

without altering the rhythm, articulation, or accents.




FIGURE 9



Although the chosen pitches seem to be well within the jazz style, swing is almost

totally lacking

line agai
n, this time using the
shuffle rhythm, but still not inserting the jazz articu
-

lation or accents. It will be noticed this time
that a feeling of swing is beginning to

affect the line, when it is played like:



Next add the articulation as in the example
below, maintain the shuffle time, but

leave out the
accents.






This exercise may seem too technical and mechanical to achieve the total feeling

of swing; some
jazz players, critics, historians, and

listeners feel that swing cannot

be analyzed and taught.
However, the success of this exercise in at least

acquainting you with the feeling of swing cannot be
denied, and further study along

these lines will have an even greater impact on the ability to s
wing.
It is suggested,

then, that you practice the following longer example of a jazz line. If
necessary,

practice the line in the same manner as the previous example, adding the
rhythmic

have no
difficulty

practicing all three aspects at once. However, be careful not to exclude any of

them. From
time to time you may come upon phrases which cannot be played ex
-

actly as prescribed here, but as
long as the rhythm, articulation, and accents a
re

present most of the time, the swing feeling will
persist.


FIGURE 10


projects



1.

Practice

playing

Figures

9

and

10
,

following

the

prescribed

procedure

for



2.

Assemble

the

group

for

a

session

and

perform

Figures

9

and

10
,

using

the

giv
-

en progressions.
Practice them in unison at first, then have each person per
-

form the line, followed by an
improvised chorus, attempting to carry on
the

feeling

of

the

written

choruses

into

the

improvised

chorus.

(Both

Figures

9

and

10

are

blues

pr
ogress
ions

in

G

and

C

major

respectively;

Figure

9

is

one

chorus

in

length,

and

Figure

10

is

two

c
horuses.)

Because

of

the

difference

in

key signatures, the two figures should of course be taken up
as separate selec
-

tions.












8



the

Diminished

Scale



The use of various scales in jazz is a fascinating subject. George Russell,
jazz

pianist

and

author

of

The

Lydian

Chromatic

Concept

of

Jazz

Improvisation
,

focuses

on scales, rather than chords, as a means of organizing tonal mate
-

rials. In a sy
stem of this sort, the
improvisor uses scale references (including many

alternate scales of graded dissonance) in
improvisation and uses chords only as a

depends more upon

his ear to guide him th
rough the chord notes that will best make the
harmonic

progression clear. The over
-
all emphasis is on the development of a strong
linear

style.

The

diminished

scale

is

a

peculiar

scale

alternating,

in

construction,


whole
steps and half steps.








It

was

omitted

from

Chapter

6

because

of

its

more

complicated

structure,

and

be
-

cause its unusual
ability to fit several types of chords would have caused some

confusion to the reader. However the
increased usage and popularity of the dimin
-

ished scal
e prohibits its exclusion from a text on jazz
improvisation, and so we will

devote a short chapter to its origin, construction, and
usage.

The

diminished

scale

derives

its

name

from

the

diminished

seventh

chord
.

This

chord

is

constructed

of

successive

min
or
-
third

(1¹/2
-
step)

intervals,

giving

it

a

perplexed

many theorists and composers as to its use in harmony. Because of its unique

structure
(having no intervals usually found in harmony base
d on tonic
-
dominant


relationships), it sounds key
-
less and the listener has some difficulty anticipating

the next chord. In
fact, the diminished seventh chord can resolve to almost any

chord and sound reasonably acceptable.
It can even resolve to another
diminished

seventh chord. Indeed, since any of the four notes could be
the root, the root can
-

It

most often functions as a substitute for a 7 chord built on the seventh degree, b
y

omitting the root
and adding a minor third interval above the seventh.



The ambiguity of the diminished seventh chord carries over in the diminished

scale, creating a very
flexible, colorful, effective, and practical scale. (Note that the

second, fourt
h, sixth, and eighth scale
degrees of the diminished scale form an
-

other diminished seventh chord, located one step above the
prementioned chord.)

It is important to remember that the scale always has a whole step as its first
inter
-

val. If a half step i
s used first, another diminished scale will be formed, but it will

not apply to
the same situations as the diminished scale beginning with a whole

step, because the root of the scale
will have changed. There are only three
different

diminished

scales,

if

w
e

dispense

with

enharmonic

spellings

(E#/F,

B


/A#,

C#/D


,


i.e.

C,

D


,

and

D,

because

the

E


diminished

scale

will

contain

the

same

tones

as

the

scale

on

C,

th
e

scale

on

E

will

duplicate

the

pitches

found

in

the

D


diminished scale, and s
o on.

The diminished
scale naturally sounds best with a diminished seventh chord. It

also sounds good enough with the ø7,
m6, m#7, and m7 chords, to be used as a

colorful second choice of scale for those chords, using the
same root for both

scale and chord

(that is, D diminished scale for Dø7, F diminished scale for
Fm7,

G diminished scale for Gm6 or Gm#7, and so on).

However, the most effective use of the
diminished scale with chords commonly

used in jazz, is in its application to the 7 chord. The 7 chord
in jazz, as we will dis
-

cover

in

Chapter

10
,

often

contains

altered

tones

which

do

not

change

the

function

of the chord, but
which enrich the over
-
all quality of the sound. You are already

familiar with 7 chords which have a
raised or lowered fifth. Later

you will find that

ninths, elevenths, and thirteenths, and their
alterations, are frequently added to the

7 chord. It would be safe to say, then, that, of the commonly
used jazz chords, the


7

chord

has

the

greatest

potential

for

harmonic

richness.

If

an

A


(¹/2

step

up

from

G)

diminished

sc
ale

were

applied

to

a

G7

chord

(or

a

G



),

the

total

harmonic

ef
-

fect would be created by a root,
third, fifth, seventh, lowered ninth, augmented

(raised) ninth, augmented eleventh, and thirteenth!
Thus, only tw
o chord notes of

the possible ten

the augmented fifth and major ninth

are not
produced by the

diminished scale. (The diminished fifth is the same as the augmented eleventh, ex
-

cept

that

the

latter

is

an

octave

higher.)

If

the

chord

is

a

G+


,

then

a

who
le
-
tone

scale would be
used, and if the chord includes a major ninth, either a whole
-
tone

scale or a Mixolydian Mode could
be used, depending upon the presence of a low
-

ered

or

raised

fifth.

It

is

very

important

to

remember

that

the

G7

uses

an

A


dimin
-

ished

scale
,

rather

than

a

diminished

scale

built

on

G.

It is also interesting to note that when the
diminished scale is applied to the
7

chord,

there

are

no

tones

which

act

only

as

joiners


chord

tones.

All

the

tones are chord
tones or altered cho
rd
tones.

Figure

11

outlines

all

the

seventh

chords,

the

chord

families,

and

the

choices

for

accompanyin
g scale.





FIGURE 11



projects




1. Write and practice the three different diminished scales. Add this scale to
the

scale

exercise

given

at

the

end

of

Chapter

6
.


2.

Find

the

diminished

scale

used

in

Figure

10

of

Chapter

7
.


3. Write and practice, in arpeggios, the three different 7 chords.


4. Review, in a playing session, the various blues progressions (major and mi
-

nor) given up to this
point, in
serting the diminished scale whenever possible.

Be sure that the scale root is identical to the
chord root, except in the case of 7

chords and 7 chords with a lowered fifth, where the scale root will
be one
-
half

step above the chord root.

















9



Analysis

and

Development

of

Melody



By now you should have collected a number of original motifs and should be

familiar with
transposing and altering motifs to fit any given material or key. In this

chapter you will learn to take
motifs apart and to re
build related material from the

constituents.

In order for you to understand a
motif fully and to realize its potential for devel
-

opment, we will describe it by shape (contour), the
relative sizes of its pieces

(rhythm), and its outstanding features (esse
ntial pitches).



FIGURE 12



-

vals, implied
harmony, articulation, phrasing, and mood. However, at this point


ABOUT BOOK

OPTIONS

these considerations are secondary to the more important and useful aspects of

contour, rhythm, and
essential pitches.

Just as the ingredients of the motif
may be removed and examined apart from

the
whole, so can these elements be regarded as outlines for reconstructing (singly

or in ensemble) a
slightly different motif, but one which still bears resemblance to

the original idea. In this way the
two motifs (o

by means of an almost invisible thread of memory
and logic. We discover, upon

analyzing a number of ideas, that the different components seem more
important

with some motifs than with others. If the player wishes to fol
low one idea with an
-

other
which bears strong resemblance to it, then he will use the more essential ele
-

ment. If he wishes the
second motif to be a more subtle echo of the first, then he

may employ one of the lesser
characteristics.

Figure

13

shows

two

examples

of

melodic

development

by

contour.

The

contour

is a
line which describes the spacial motion of the motif. If it describes it ade
-

quately, then another
motif may be invented which uses the same contour. It is not

limited to the same pitches or rhy
thm,
yet this new idea will give strong reminis
-

the ears decide what the

new pitches should be, and the eyes and intellect will check the contour and


prevent errors in pitch choices. Always play t
he original motif and the development

in succession, in
-

cessful imitation.



FIGURE 13


Contours can also be used in another way. They can be invented, rather than

taken
from an existing motif, s
imply by your drawing or imagining an interesting

contour and then
composing an idea to fit it. Then, by repeating the contour,

inventing a new sequence of pitches with

melodic form.

The rhythm of a motif can be
handled in
much the same manner, as shown
in

Figure

14
,

by

composing

a

new

idea

from

the

rhythmic

pattern

of

the

original

motif.

It is not
necessary to use the contour of the first motif, nor is it imperative to use

the essential pitches of the
first melod
y.



FIGURE 14



Developing a formful melody through the use of essential pitches is a little more

challenging. The
essential pitches of a melody are the most important notes of that

melody, the ones which might be
aring.

The least important and less memorable notes are
weeded out by the ear and the

intellect. Since these pitches are likely to be missing in the next
change of har
-

mony, melodic development by essential pitches is best used in tunes which
have

ious chords, so that the pitches will apply to the harmony for a greater dura
-

tion and can
be repeated severally. In rare cases it might be possible to transpose

the essential pitches to fit a new

essential
pitches must be striking enough to be

essential ones,

the essential pitches can accidentally be subjugated or weakened by any new pitch
-

es
which are: (1)

higher in range; (2) accented; (3) placed in strong rhythmic posi
-

tions; (4) given
greater durations; (5) repeated; or (6) approached by leaps
(wide

intervals).

These

possibilities

should

be

used

to

strengthen

the

essential

pitches,

and

should

be

avoided

when

subordinate

notes

are

added.

Figure

15

gives

two

examples of melodic development
through the use of essential pitches. The

development is a check to see,

after playing the new idea, that the successi
ve motifs appear to have
the same


essential pitches as the original one.



FIGURE 15


The object, in the case of development by transposition, contour, rhythm, or

essential
pitches, is the same: to establish melodic form by repeating some aspect

of the o
riginal motif, and
then composing new sequences of intervals to supply the

contours, a rhythm may be invented, without

relating it to an already conceived idea, and used as an
outline for the creation of
a

melody.


pro
jects


1.

Analyze

each

of

your

collected

motifs

in

the

manner

shown

in

Figure

12
.

2.
-

sition, contour, rhythm,
and essential pitches), using the analyzed material

from Number 1 above
. Use any harmonic
foundation you choose.

3. Try improvising (alone) more examples of melodic development along
the

lines of the examples you have just written.

4. Using the progression given below, write a full
chorus of successive devel
-

opments

of

a

sin
gle

motif
,

trying

each

of

the

development

techniques

at

ran
-

dom within the tune.
Strive for naturalness and uncontrived continuity. Study

the example given below the progression
for guidance, but do not feel com
-

pelled to imitate its style, contents, or
sequence of development



Concert key

Transpose if necessary

to key of instrument.








Example



5. Practice and discuss the chorus developed above at the next playing session.


6. During the session, and after everyone is familiar with the
progression used
for

Project

4,

cite

any

motif

from

your

written

chorus

and

have

everyone

improvise

developments of
that motif in their own choruses. Repeat the process with

other players’ written choruses.

7.
e progression given below.

Practice improvising the
tune in a session until everyone is comfortable with

it. Then try improvising to the given contours
(individually, with the rhythm

section), changing to the next contour every eight measures, so that
each

per
-

son will work with all four contours within each chorus. Remember that the

duration of the
individual contour is left to the improvisor, so that there is no

reason why each contour or repeat of a
contour needs to be a certain number

of beats in lengt
h. Furthermore, rests can be inserted at the

player.


Concert key



-

ruses, using (a), (b),
and (c) of Series I (below) as the rhythmic framework for

his impro
visation, playing each figure for
a full chorus. The contours and

pitches are left entirely to his desires, but each rhythm should be
carefully ad
-

hered to for the full twelve measures. After all have played, repeat the process

for
Series II. The drummer
should either be playing the figures lightly behind

each person or be ready to
play it, should the player lose his place. When

everyone has learned to handle the rhythms in Series I
and II, then the

miscellaneous rhythms in Series III should be tried, allo
ting a full chorus for

each
rhythm.


series i




series ii




series iii




9.

In

Figure

10

(
Chapter

7
),

find

two

measures

which

are

identical,

except

for

the

transposition
necessary to make the idea fit the chord.


10.

In

Figure

9

(
Chapter

7
),

locate

a

similar

example

of

two

measures

which

differ

only

in

transpositi
on,

but

which

have

identical

contours,

rhythm,

and

intervals.





















10



Chord

Superimposition



Ninth, eleventh, and thirteenth chords are produced by superimposing third

inter
vals above the
seventh chord, thereby adding color and a thicker texture to the

seventh chord without changing its
function. This practice is commonly used in

jazz, because the extension of the seventh chord
provides more harmonic choices.



Note that the

ninth degree above the tonic corresponds to the second degree,

except that it is written
an octave higher; in like manner the eleventh and thirteenth

correspond to a fourth (augmented
fourth, in this instance) and sixth scale degree,

respectively. These s
uperimpositions have a certain
potential for alterations, as do

the third, fifth, and seventh of the seventh chords. It is up to you to
remember

which types of chords can use ninths, elevenths, and thirteenths, and which of

these
superimpositions can be al
tered in certain chords. The superimposition is

considered unaltered if it is
within the scale that accompanies the
chord.

Figure

16

shows

many

possibilities

for

superimposition

on

the

various

types

of

seventh
chords used in jazz. Group B includes both the

tonic minor chords (m6

and m#7) and the minor
sevenths (m7 and ø7) because both categories have

about the same potential for ninths, elevenths,
and thirteenths. Group A contains

the tonic major chords and Group C contains the 7 (dominant)
chords. It is co
m
-

mon practice among jazz musicians to add more than one superimposition to

some
chords, when possible, or eliminate any one or two superimpositions in fa
-

vor of the remaining
one(s). It is easy to see that the possibilities for variation are

many.




F
IGURE 16


*

The

ninths

were

left

in,

even

after

the

elevenths

and

thirteenths

were

added,

and the elevenths
usually remaind after the thirteenths had been added. This is

not necessary.


**

The

ninths

of

the

eleventh

and

thirteenth

chords

in

Group

C

could

h
ave

been diminished ninths or
augmented ninths.




The 7 chord has one more superimposition possibility than the other
members

of

Group

C

(+


and



)

and

is

more

flexible

than

all

the

chords

in

Figure

16
,

in

that it
can endure more superimpositions,
altered and unaltered, than any of the

other chords, without the
loss of its function. Only thirteen combinations are listed

for Group C, but in reality there are
twenty
-
one possibilities, if we were to include

the altered forms of the ninth in the elevent
h and
thirteenth chords. The additional

eight would be:


In

using

the

m
ore

complicated

chords

shown

in

Figure

16

and

the

additional

eight shown above, you will become
aware of new problems, aside from that of

memorizing the possible superimpositions on va
rious
types of chords in all keys.

(It is taken for granted that this material would be overwhelming if tried,
with all its

possibilities, within a single session. It will have to be digested gradually over a

long
period of time.) As you will discover, the
se superimpositions often do not

sound well when played
abruptly and by themselves. Find ways to approach these

notes from simpler chord notes in such a
way that the added ninths, elevenths, or


consonant. Other
-

or

simply incorrect. At the beginning it is suggested that you precede these added

notes with several
successive and more consonant chord notes, perhaps as pickup

no
tes to a
phrase.

You will also discover certain
melodic formulas for handling these pitches, once

having arrived at them. For example, the
augmented eleventh sounds well when it

is followed by an embellishing figure containing the
thirteenth and the octav
e of

the fifth.


Another example would be to precede an augmented
ninth with the third and fol
-

low the augmented ninth with a lowered ninth.



Some of the superimpositions sound best when approached from above, others

are best when
approached from below
-

es used in conjunction with the
note. These will evolve out of your experiments in

improvisation, and there is no way of
guaranteeing that what sounds pleasing to

you will also please everyone else, or even yourse
lf at a
later date.

If we extract the ninth, augmented eleventh, and thirteenth from a C chord, we

have the
notes D, F#, and A, which spell a D major triad. Therefore, if we want to

add

a

major

ninth,

augmented

eleventh,

and

thirteenth

to

any

chord,

we

sim
ply

add

a major triad
whose root is a major second (one whole step) above the octave of

the chord’s root. Now we are no
longer thinking in terms of superimpositions
of

ninths,

elevenths,

and

thirteenths,

but

are

involved

instead

with

polychordalism
,

which
is the
simultaneous playing of two (or more) different chords. In this case

we have a D major triad over a
C seventh chord. There are several advantages to

thinking polychordally, especially if you know
what triads over a seventh chord will

create the effe
ct of superimposed ninths, elevenths, and
thirteenths. This approach

is faster, easier to handle, purer in sound, and it increases the number of
altered

pitches possible on any chord. (For example, B, D#, F#

the members of a B ma
-

jor triad

sound well, and

have been used by many jazz orchestrators, over a CM7

chord, creating an
augmented ninth with the D#, a sound which was ill advised
in

Figure

16
.

This

exception

is

perhaps

due

to

the

fact

that

in

polychordalism

the

two

chords are
heard separately, and als
o due to their usual separation in range
from

each

other.)

The

chart

shown

in

Figure

17

gives

a

multitude

of

acceptable

major

and minor
triads over the four families of seventh chords. In parenthesis after each

superimposed triad
possibility is the effect,

in terms of ninths, elevenths, and thir
-

teenths, created by that superimposed
triad.


To

illustrate

the

use

of

the

chart

in

Figure

17
,


us

say

we

are

given

a

7

chord

to

play in a particular
section of a tune, and suppose we would like to use a triad

w
hich will give the sound of a seventh
chord with an augmented ninth. We look for

the horizontal column containing triads for seventh
(dominant) chords. In the first

box to the right we find this alteration given in parenthesis after m3.
Since this box

is i
n the vertical column of major superimposed triads, the desired triad will be
a

major triad whose root is a minor third above the root of the seventh chord. Sup
-

pose

that

the

given

seventh

chord

is

a

B


7

chord.

A

minor

third

above

B


is

D


,

so

our

superimp
osed

triad

will

be

a

D


major

triad

(D


,

F,

and

A


),

which

will

give

us

the

sound

of

a

B


7

with

an

augmented

ninth.

(D


is

the

same

as

C#,

the

augmented

ninth

of

B


.)

If

the

given

chord

is

a

G
M7

and

we

wish

to

know

what

tri
-

ads we

can superimpose over that chord, we first locate the
proper family (tonic

major), which is in the upper left
-
hand corner of the figure. By moving
horizontally

to the right we find that we can use major triads built a major second up from our

GM7
(A major
triad), a perfect fifth up (D major), a major seventh up (F# major),

or a minor triad built a
major seventh up from G (F# minor triad).
Choice of these

depends upon personal likes and needs.





FIGURE 17


To notate, in a progression, the existence of a s
uperimposed triad, the founda
-

tional seventh chord
symbol is written, a short horizontal line is placed above it,

and the superimposed triad symbol is
placed above the horizontal line.

Example:


Below are some possible ways to
use polychordalism in impro
vised phrases.



projects



1.

Group

exercise

in

chord

building
.

The

first

person

chooses

any

pitch

of

the

chro
-

matic scale for a
chord root. The second player places a third (major or minor,

as he chooses) on the chord.
The next
places a fifth on the ch
ord, being

careful that the type of fifth fits with what has gone before. The
fourth person

gives the chord a seventh that is possible with the triad that has been built up

to now.
(Now the chord can be mentally categorized by everyone into one
of

the

four

seventh

chord

categories.)

Next

a

ninth

is

added,

if

it

is

possible

(a

°7

chord, for example,
cannot take a ninth), and so on, until everyone has had a

turn, then the first person carries on from
there and starts another cycle.
Each

person

must

have

the

c
hord

in

mind,

so

that

he

does

not

add

a

note

which

is

not possible. When
nothing more can be added to the chord (which will not

always happen on the thirteenth), then the
chord is finished. The one who cor
-

rectly identifies the chord chooses the root to b
e used in the next
chord.

2. Transpose the following progression (if necessary) for a playing session.
Write

superimposed

triads

of

your

choice

above

each

measure

for

the

first

twelve

measures of the

for

the first eight measures of the repeat.
Make a separate copy in concert key for

the piano player. Try using these triads in the session.
NOTE: the bass player

should always remain on the foundational seventh chord, and the
pianist

should play the foun
dational seventh chord with his left hand and the


superimposed triads with his right.



3.

Find

two

pl
aces

in

Figure

10

(
Chapter

7
)

in

which

a

minor

triad

of

a

minor

sec
-

ond (up) has been superimposed
over a 7 chord.


4. Find examples of augmented ninth
s, lowered ninths, and augmented
elevenths

in

Figure

10

(
Chapter

7
).






11



Functional

Harmony



It would be possible, having learned the chord symbols and chord structures

found in jazz, to
dispense with any further consideration of jazz harmony. How
-

ever, this would be analogous to

language and, without knowledge of the syntax or
structure, attempting to speak

the language. It would be helpful to learn the functions of the four
families of

chords (actu
ally there are only three, since the tonic majors and the tonic minors

function
in the same way, establishing the tonic in the major and minor modes), as

well as to gain an
understanding of the functional sequence of chords.

The tonic chords are like magne
ts, tugging at the
other types of chords, giving

the dominants and minor sevenths tension that must be resolved. The
tonic is the


they
are intense and powerful, and must be
resolved to the tonic. The minor sev
-

enths,

which

function

as

sub

dominants
,

are

remote

from

the

tonic

and

act

as

a


secondary tonic, offering repose, but not inertness. Therefore, subdominants lead

to dominants,
which move to tonics or back to subdominan
ts. Once the progres
-

sion reaches the tonic it usually
ends or starts another cycle by moving out to a

subdominant.




easy comparisons of
chord progressions. We will call the
tonic chord I, and the

chords built on the second, third, fourth,
fifth, sixth, and seventh scale degrees are

numbered II, III, IV, V, VI, and VII, respectively. If the

scale degrees, then a flat or sharp sign may be placed be
fore the roman
numeral.

degree

could

be

called

either

a

#II

or

a


III

chord.

Then

to


the

symbol,

we

simply

add our

progres
-

sion

is

in

F#

major,

another

is

in

A

major,

and

a

third

progression

is

in

E


major,

and their
progressions are as
follows:



We

might

guess

that

the

progressions

are

similar

because

the

types

of

chords

agree; however, the root
progressions are

difficult to compare because of the dis
-

tantly related keys. Now translating the root
progressions into a common language,

the roman numeral system, designating the keynote as I in
each example, we find

that they are identical
progressions.



The proble
m of transposing chord progressions for playing sessions is greatly

reduced if the
progression is given in roman numerals, even if the tune contains



he is prepared to
write a

parallel modulation for a different
-
pitched instrument.

For

example:






designate the
key, the location of modulations, and the relative position of the new

keynote. I
f the tune is in a

rather than F#, and so on).

Modulations to

important to do so in order to achieve
a clear understanding of chord
progression

tendencies. For example, suppose you analyzed the above
progression, translating

tune

modulated up a major third interval at one point. Your analysis would be:





You would s
till find the correct chords when you played, but you would be led to

believe

that


#IVm7

VII


IIIM7


are

common

chords

and

that

the

Am7,

D7,

and

GM7

chords

are

functioning,

somehow,

in

the

key

of

E


.

Both

of

these

assump
-

tions would be incorrect. Thos
e particular roman numerals are very
uncommon,

especially in groups. One might occur by itself, functioning as a passing chord be
-

tween two more common chords, or as a substitution for a common chord, but it

is highly unlikely
that more than two such chor
ds would appear. The Am7, D7,
and

GM7

chords

function

not

in

the

key

of

E


,

but

in

the

key

of

G

major.

In searching for possible
-

man numerals, the following questions might
be asked:


(1) Are there

any spots where it has been necessary to place flats or sharps be
-

fore the
roman numeral? If so, a modulation might be present.


(2)

Are

there

a

considerable

number

of

roman

numerals

which

are

not

I,

II,

or

V? This could indicate
the area of a
modulation
.

(3)

Are

there

some

I

chords

which

are

not

IM,

II

chords

that

are

not

IIm,

and

V

chords

t
hat

are

not

V

?

If

so,

this

could

also

be

pointing

up

a

modulation.

(4) If the answer to questions 1, 2,
or 3 is “yes,” is there a M7 or M6 chord on
a

tone

which

is

not

I

or

IV?

If

there

is,

this

could

be

the

tonic

of

a

new

key.

You

might also check to
see if there is
a tonic minor chord in the questionable

area.

(5) If a tonic chord has been found on a
scale degree other than I or IV,
are

there,

preceding

that,

chords

which

could

function

as

IIm7

or

more

espe
-

cially

V

?

If

so,

a

modulation

is

certain;

try

to

locate

th
e

exact

point

where

the previous key became
hazy and the new key began to emerge. Under the

first chord definitely belonging to the new key,

roman

numerals
from that point to the new position of I.


The keynote or tonic chord needs relief, as
its inertness and monotony can

weaken a progression. Consequently, many tunes contain a simple
modulation up

a perfect fourth, making IV sound like a new tonic in a new
key. However, in
most

cases the modulation is temporary and the progression falls back to the original

tonic within a
measure or so, the modulation having served its purpose. The rela
-

tionship of keys separated by a
perfect fourth (i.e. C and F) is so clo
se that, unless

a modulation to that nearly related key is
sustained, it would perhaps be inaccurate

to consider it as a modulation in the true sense of the word.
Therefore, we will take

the liberty of maintaining the original keynote as I throughout modul
ations
up a

perfect fourth, and a common progression such as the following:




(The

chord

which

leads

back

to

I

is

often

a

#IVo7

or

a

IVm7

followed

by

a


VII

,

rather

than

the

IV
m6

that

is

shown

here.)


s, either for the purpose
of


understanding the functions of the chords or for simplifying transposition, you will

need to know
which roman numerals and their chord
-
types are most common.
By

now

you

are

probably

aware

that

IM7,

IIm7,

and

V


chords

are

goin
g

to

be

preva
-

lent, since
they are considered to be the most important chords in establishing a

new key, as shown in the
discussion on recognizing modulations. Since
temporary

modulations

to

IV

are

common,

expect

also

to

find

some

Vm7,

I

,

and

IVM7

chords
,

as

w
ell

as

the

IVm7

used

to


to

I.

Below

are

listed

the

most

common

chords found in jazz tunes,
listed in the order of their frequency of occurrence. You

will, of course, also encounter others.


Chord

Function

(most

common

function)





After you
numerals,

your

next

step

is

to

study

the

tune

for

its

general

functional

structure
,

by

grouping


portions of the progression into areas of the tonic, dominant, or subdominant,
and

grouping


m
easures

that

move

the

tune

into

another

key.

Figure

18

shows

two examples
of tunes by jazz composer
-
pianist Duke Ellington, which have been

plotted in terms of areas of the
tonic, dominant, and subdominant. This does not

say that the chords will all be I,
V, or IV chords,
but that the functions of the other

chords can be classified in the general area of the tonic, dominant,
or sub
-

dominant.


mood indigo





take the “a” train




FIGURE 18




The grouping of measures into sections which have a key in com
mon could
be

illustrated

by

projecting

the

tune

used

in

Project

4

of

Chapter

9
.


In discussing functional harmony, Richmond Browne dismisses the importance


of superimpositions of ninths, elevenths, and thirteenths, and states the problem

as being that of

knowing when the harmony is generally in the tonic, dominant, or

subdominant, or in a nearly
related key. Browne writes,


The only thing left of a tune after it has really been worked over in
modern jazz

is

the

general

functional

structure

in

very

broad

t
erms,

too.

The

exact

root

progression
is usually gone; the melody is gone, but the number of bars in the

tune remains the same, and you
generally reach the tonic, dominant, or

subdominant in the same measures as they occur in the
original version of the

tu
ne. All substitutions, fake cadences, or tricks cannot obscure the recogniz
-

ability of that structure. Therefore, the student should grasp this fact firmly, and

have it in mind

that the functional structure of a tune is its identity. The de
-

tails of exac
tly which form of a
dominant sound is going on can be approached

more fruitfully if they are all treated as variants of a
position relative to the ton
-

by

questions of density, or s
onority, or spacing, and not harmony in the sense of

voice
-
leading.
Example: I place my hands on the keyboard at random, making

sure that the lowest note I strike is
functionally useful, but the other fingers are

spaced in thirds or fourths for sonority, o
r in seconds for
bite. My harmony is

limited to the function of the lowest note, and maybe a fifth or a seventh
above

that,

and

the

rest

of

the

notes

are

color.

.

.

.

Bearing

in

mind

that

the

one

basic

harmonic

urge

seems

to

be

the

movement

of

the

root

dow
n

a

fifth

(a

tendency

more prominent in jazz than in
classical harmony, from which it is derived),
it

is

seen

that

the

basic

harmonic

problem

is

to


above

the

tonic

functionally

and

create suspense
by delaying the resolution.


It will be found that jazz

harmony makes great use of the cycle of fifths
in

progressions. (This could just as easily have been called a cycle of fourths. If you

go downward in
successive perfect fifth intervals, you will arrive at the same pitch
-

es

as

you

would

by

going

up

in

suc
cessive

perfect

fourth

intervals.)

The chord
sequences may vary the cycle by adding or eliminating a chord or two,


and the progression may abruptly move to a remote place from the previous chord,

but the pattern
established by the cycle of fifths will ge
nerally show through all
the

variations.

Figure

19

shows

this

cycle

in

two

forms,

in


and

in

roman

numer
-

als. The
chord
-
types in such a chain will
vary.

Examine

the

tune

in

Project

4

of

Chapter

9

and

note

that

the

first

five

measures

follow the
cyc
-

fectly

by

using

the

root

sequence

F,

B


,

E


,

A


,

and

D


.

In

the

next

measure

we

find

another

c
hain,

starting

on

D,

continuing

to

G,

C,

F,

B


,

E


,

and

A


.

The

com
-

mon

progression

of

IIm7,

V7,

IM7

is

a

clear

example

of

the

cycle

of

fifths,

and

this

progression

is

o
ften

extended

to

become

IIIm7,

VI

,

IIm7,

V

,

IM7,

which

is

an

even

longer cycle.



FIGURE 19


The next most common tendency in chord progressions is for the
roots to
move

chromatically

downward,

as

in

the

interpolation

of

a


III

chord


a

IIIm7

and

a

IIm7

c
hord.


a

long

chain

of

chromatically

moving

chords

will

occur

in

a

tune,

such

as

C7,

B7,

B


7,

A7,

and

so

on.

A

few

progressions

even

con
tain

sec
-

tions where the root movement is
chromatically upward, but the tendency for

downward chromaticism is much stronger. The root
sequence which is least com
-

mon is the movement upward or downward by whole
steps.

If

you

wish

to

alter

a

progression

wi
thout

disturbing

its

objectives,

Figure

20

can help you

able to move from any of the
chords in the subdominant class, to any of the

chords in the dominant category, and finally to any of
the

chords in the box con
-

taining the tonic chords and tonic substitutions. The most common way of
moving

through

these

groups

would,

of

course,

be

IIm7

V


IM7.

However,

it

would

be

possible

to

use

a


II


,

for

example,

in

place

of

the

V

.

Another

possibili
ty

would

be

IVM7

#IV°7

IIIm7,

which

would

avoid

all

three

of

the

more

common

chords.

Note
that the direction of progression in the figure is from right

to left, rather than


from left to right.



TONIC

DOMINANT

SUBDOMINANT



IM7 or IM6

IIIm7

VIm7

V7

VII°7

II7

#IV°7

#II°7



IIm7



IVM7 or IVM6



Direction

of

Progression



FIGURE 20



projects



1.

Translate

the

tune

given

in

Project

4

of

Chapter

9

in
to

roman

numerals.

Do

the

same for Project 7
of that chapter.


2. Quiz yourself on the functions of the 13 common chords listed in this chapter,

covering the right
-
hand column with a piece of paper.


3.

Plot

the

first

eight

measures

of

the

tune

in

Project

7

of

Chapter

9

in

the

manner

shown

in

Figure

1
8

of

this

chapter,

then

plot

out

the

key

sequence

for

the

en
-

tire tune.


4. Memorize the cycle of fifths, then find sequences from that cycle in the
tunes

given

in

Projects

4

and

7

in

Chapter

9
.


5.

Revise

the

chord

progression

of

Figure

10

(
Chapter

7
),

using

the

above

substi
-

tution chart as a
guide.


6.

Read

Appendix

A

and

discuss

with

jazz

enthusiasts.

Listen

to

some

prominent

jazz players on
record and discuss their work in terms of the criteria listed in

A
ppendix

A
.


7.

Pianists.

Work

on

the

left

hand

suggestions

in

Appendix

B
.


8.

Study

the

material

in

Appendix

C

and

experiment

with

it

in

playing

sessions.


9.

Study

the

tunes

and

tune
-
types

presented

in

Appendix

D
.

Make

reference

th
em in sessions. Play them in the order in which

they appear.










Appendix

A






Since the growth of the student of jazz will depend to a great extent on the influ
-

ence of recorded
music, he must
learn to absorb and evaluate what he hears. His

assessment of techniques will in time
become automatic and he will then be free to

perceive the music from every aspect. Jazz is made up
of many intangible qualities

that create appeal. This appeal becomes a
matter of personal taste.
However, there

are some definite questions that the listener can ask that are necessary to a well
-

rounded evaluation.




1.

Choice

of

Materials.

Does

the

artist

make

use

of

the

best

songs

available?

Is

the

song appropriate
for th
e player’s style and interpretation?



2.

Emotional

Content.

Does

his

tone

quality

seem

alive?

Is

he

able

to

project,

emotionally?


3.

Versatility.

How

many

different

moods

is

he

able

to

create?

Does

he

adapt

to

new musical
environments and establish rappo
rt with others in the group? Is

the excitement he creates limited to
swing, rhythmic outbursts, humor, and mis
-

chief? Or does the excitement also take on the more
subtle aspects of beauty,




4.

Taste.

Is

the

chosen

mood

always

appropriate

to

the

musical

situation?

Does

he

practice
moderation and economy in using his materials and techniques?


5.

Originality.

Is

the

artist

an

innovator?

Though

he

might

show

that

he

has

ab
-

sorbed the qualities
of other p
layers, is there a considerable amount of material

which seems to be his own, so that one is
actually able to distinguish him from

other artists of a similar style? Does there seem to be a creative
urge about him

which causes his style to be constantly enr
iched with new ideas?


6.

Intellectual

Energy.

Can

the

player

hold

one’s

interest

with

only

the

stimulus

of

his ingenuity? Is
the player physical, cerebral, or both?











Appendix

B


Since jazz is a relatively new form of expression, there exist certa
in problems

which
still need to be solved through theory and practice. One of these problems is

the harmonic
coordination of the piano player’s left hand with the bass player’s

lines. Most pianists use their left
hand to accompany the melodies improvised b
y

their right. The left hand plays chord roots (as bass
notes), along with one or two

other chord notes above the bass note, which are usually a seventh and
possibly a

tenth (wide reach of octave above the third). If the pianist’s left
-
hand bass note

coinc
ides
with the root played by the bass player, there is an intonation problem,

plus the interference with the
bassist’s tones by the doubling of his tones in the

same or near octave on the piano. If the left
-
hand
piano bass note does not coin
-

cide with the

string bass note, then it is reducing the clarity and
freedom of the

bass line. In conclusion, it would be helpful to the over
-
all sound of an
improvising

group if a new type of left hand were developed which would not use roots as
bass

notes and which wo
uld be separated from the string bass range.

Such a solution has been
developed by several leading jazz pianists, whose

left
-
hand styles contain no roots, except for final
cadences, leaving the bassist full

freedom of range and style. Examples of some of t
hese left
-
hand
chord voicings

are

shown

in

the

remainder

of

Appendix

B
.


Some Possibilities for Voicings



an Example of Usage in a
Blues Progression














Appendix

C



Alternate Chord Progression to the Blues







Common and Similar Chord Progr
essions


often Used as the “A” Section

of a Tune Having an A
-
A
-
B
-
A Structure





Two Common Types of “B” Sections,

with their Deviations often Found

in
Tunes Having an A
-
A
-
B
-
A Structure


type i




type ii





Common Turnarounds











Appendix

D



a

Collection of Tunes, Categorized According to their Charac
-

teristic
Progressions


PART I



TUNES

HAVING

SIMILAR

BEGINNINGS


A.


Tunes

which

begin

on

a

II


chord






B.

Tunes

which

have

IM7

to

IV


as

their

first

two

chords





C.

Tunes

which

start

on

IVM7

or

IVM6






D.

Tunes

whose

first

four

chords

are

IM7,

VIIø7,

III

,

VIM

(temporary

modu
-

lation to relative
minor)



(23)

Blues

progre
ssion

(e)

in

Appendix

C
.




E.

Tunes

which

use


Vø7

or


Vm7

as

the

first

or

second

chord,

usually

contin
-

u
ing around the
cycle of fifths





PART II



TUNES

HAVING

SIMILAR

“B”

SECTIONS




A. Tunes whose “B” section is the same as the “A” section, except that the “B”

section occurs a
perfect fourth up from the original key





B. Tunes which modulate up a p
erfect fourth for the first half of the “B” section,

then modulate up
another major second (perfect fifth up from original key) in

second half of “B” section




(34) See “B” section of (28).


C. Tunes which have successive modulations downward by half
-
ste
ps
in the “B”

section








D. Tunes which modulate up a perfect fourth for the first half of the “B” section,

then modulate
down a major second for the second half


E. Tunes which modulate up a major third for
the “B” section and remain there

for the
duration of the “B” section







(45) see “B” section of (5).



F. Tunes
which modulate up a major third for the first half of the “B” section,

then modulate up a minor third
from there for the second half





G. Tunes which modulate up a minor thi
rd for the “B” section














(59) See “B” section of (13).


(60) See “B” section of (3).


H. Tunes which modulate down a major third for the “B” section




(67) See “B” section of (26).


I. Tunes which modulate to a minor key whose keynote is

a major third interval

above the original
key





PART III


MISCELLANEOUS

CHARACTERISTICS


A. Tunes which modulate up a major third within the
“A” section











B. Tunes which modulate downward in whole steps




(84) See (39).


JERRY

COKER

is

a

tenor

saxophonist

and

an

educator

of

broad

experience.

He has developed
studio music and jazz programs for Indiana University,

Sam Houston State University, the
University of Miami and the University of

Tennessee, where he is a professor teaching saxopho
ne
and jazz. The jazz

curriculae he originated are very widely used. He has taught and directed
in

locations around the world for National Stage Band Camps, Tanglewood

Camp of the New
England Conservatory, and Jerry Coker Summer Camps.

Also well known as a

professional
musician, Jerry Coker has been a fea
-

tured soloist with Stan Kenton, Woody Herman, Clare Fischer,
Frank Sinatra,

and the Boston Symphony Orchestra. He has made a number of recordings,

some of
them of his own music. His books, available in se
veral
languages,

include

Improvising

Jazz,

The

Jazz

Idiom,

Listening

to

Jazz,

Patterns

for

Jazz,

The

Compl


for

Improvisation,

Drones

for

Improvisation,

and

Jazz

Key
-

board.



ALSO

BY

JERRY

COKER


Patterns for Jazz

The Jazz Idiom

Listening to Jazz


Jazz Keyboard

Drones for Improvisation


1

The

development

of

concentration

is

a

necessity

for

the

improvisor.

Not

only

will the player

learn to combat
self
-
consciousness
in performance. The accomplished improvisor

has usually developed his powers of concentration to
a very high degree. Mood

and continuity are more consistently sustained when the player is not
easily dis
-

tracted. Also, a

more technical and interesting performance is possible. By giving

his
attention wholeheartedly to the best possible contribution, the improvisor can

relax quickly and
dispense with the unnecessary physical effort that the rattled play
-

er must make. Advan
ced or gifted
players may rely solely on emotion for total

involvement. This is concentration of a type which
transcends early technical train
-

ing, and which eventually displays the musical personality of the
artist.

1

Traditional

modal

terminology

is

giv
en

because

it

is

unnecessary

to

coin

new

terms for an
old scale system.

1

The

intensity

of

swing

can

vary

greatly

in

the

styles

of

different

jazz

musicians

indeed, it can even vary at times within a single individual. The tunes

and arrangements can also ca
ll
for more or less intensity of swing. Intensity of

combination, of these factors: (1) dy
-

namic level or loudness; (2) mood or time
-
feeling; (3) unity in
the sense that all


members of a performing group are playi
ng with the same concept of the pulse.

With these
variables, it is easy to see how individual tastes might conflict on such

an
issue.

1

Only

the

major

seventh

chord

is

given

here,

though

the

same

triads

can

be

superimposed
over the M6 chord as
well.

2

Only

the

7

chord

is

given

here,

though

the

same

triads

can

be

superimposed

over

the

7

chords

with

a

+5

or


5

as

well.

1

A

turnaround

is

a

short

series

of

chords,

occurring

at

the

close

of

a

segm
ent

of

a tune, which replaces an extended duration of a tonic ch
ord. This relieves possible

monotony
and serves to prepare a repeat of a section or chorus.


Copyright © 1964 by Simon & Schuster, Inc.


All rights reserved including the right of reproduction
in whole or in part in any

form.


First FIRESIDE EDITION, 1987


Published by Simon & Schuster,
Inc.

Simon & Schuster Building

Rockefeller Center

1230 Avenue of the Americas

New York, NY
10020

www.SimonandSchuster.com


FIRESIDE and colophon are registered trademarks of Simon
& Schuster, Inc.


Library of Congress Catalo
ging in Publication Data


Coke, Jerry.

Improvising
jazz.


Reprint. Originally published: Englewood Cliffs,

N.J.: Prentice
-
Hall, 1964.

1. Improvisation (Music)
2. Jazz music


Instruction and study. I. Title.

MT68.C64

1986

785.42

86
-
13845

IS
BN 0
-
671
-
62829
-
1 Pbk.

ISBN
-
13: 978
-
1
-
4516
-
0270
-
8 (eBook)

















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