Спутниковая навигация. (2008)


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-
2008

,
ISBN 978-5-91359-037-4 . ., 2008
-ѻ, 2008

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TRANSIT ()
() 1960- .

1980-.
NAVSTAR (NAVigation Satellite providing Time And Range -
) [3] 1977 . .
1983 .
, 1991 . GPS
. 1993 . -
. 15 . ,
GPS
$100 .
GPS (Global Positioning System)
, GPS, -
4
( 1413) 12 1982 .
24 -
1993
(24 ) 1995 . -
. -
, -
ge
dazomai , , . . -
. ,
, ,
,

-
;
();
: -
- (-

;
-
.
6
; ,
, , .
. -

,
,
. .

, -

, -
, -
,

,
.
,

,
7
.
1946 .
, a = 6 378 245 ,
8
(
(Latitude)
(Longitude)
, P , QQ` , -
A -
A .
A
A ;
90

: (N North), (S
South).
A
-
A.

, (W West),
9
(E East). -
,
; .
G, A, -
; . -
PP,
( ) -
, -
-
(. . 1.3,

A

) ")
10
5".
).
( )
( OX, OY.); -
, (),
) ")
11
( )
( O
) -
OX (. . 1.4,
( ),
.
,
,

(
, Aa,
Bb, Cc Dd (. . 1.5,
) -
). ABCD

AB.
Aa,
Bb, Cc, Dd

;
,
,
12
. -
D/D D D/D = D2/12R2. , R = 6400 ( ) D = 20 , D/D = 1/1 218 000, D = 30 , D/D = 1/541 000. - 106, - 20 20
.
-
()
. [1],
, L = 10 p = 7,8 , L = 100 p = 0,8 , . .
) ")
13
),
-

(
). -
-
60 , 6
;
; L0 -
: L0 = 6
,
: L0 = 360
(6
), n
) ")
 . 1.6.        ' *
14
(. 1.6,
), -
, :
S ; S ; Y
; R
1:10000
; 1:5000 -
,

.
. OX
( OX
), OY (
OY ). Y
;
, Y
500 .
()


. -
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. ,
, , ,
. ( 1:1 000 000 -
15
40 .
-
,

: 1/M = f/H, f -

. -
A (. .1.7,
) ")
16

.
, C BD CD,
CB.
. BC
, CB
= A
+ 180
+
, . .
()
(-
,
(. . 1.8,
= (

=
.
. 1.8,
-
AN = BN = R
(R ) -
,
-

, A
. :
= L
sin, L, B ;
L0 .
(. 1.8,
17
-
, . .
=
+ 180
+

A (. 1.9,
")
18
BC;
BN
(-
); ,
().
, . . A = A
,
-
+
= A

= A
+ , -
,

90
): 1- (-), 2-
) ")
19
(-), 3- (-), 4- (-);
. 1.9,
1.6. #   
64% 36% )
, . . 1
1 . ( 10...20 ,
0,4... 0,5 , 20, 24 50 ) -
. ,
), . ,
(. 1.10,
N

:
A , B C -
, BAC -
20
H. -
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Q T,
H -

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,
b'a'c'; c'
= c' b'. b'
Q, c'

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22
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-

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0,5 1
23
, 3 1
10 1 .
, -05 (, ,
0,5 1 ; -10 (, ,
. 1.12)
10 1 . : 1200,
1500, 3000 4000 ; -
,
(. 1.13,
, .

= H
+ h.
= H
+ a
) ")
24

, .
.

(. 1.13,
);

( -
) ; -
. ,

(. 1.14). LK -
LC CK LB BK
, S -
( ).


, -
c
(. 1.15),
 . 1.14. *        
25
510 ;
1 ;
500 -
-
. ,
10 1
1 2 : h = H
H

P
;
H -
( ).
) .
:


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,
, (n t)
. , ,
(t = 1);
; ,
(n 1) . -

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= min,
. . ,
-
 . 1.15. *        
26
i- , -
:
. n
, t r -
,
-




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� t r, , t r,
, ,

27
/n), n
-
-
m2 = ( f/ x)2(mx)2 + ( f/ y)2(my)2 + ( f/ z)2(mz)2 +... (1.1)
, F = kX m
= k
bY m
= a
+ b
; F = XtgY m
= tg
(m/F)
(1.2)
,
,
X, -
-
28
1- :
(

2- :
. -
.
29
: ( , -
: ,
1- 2- .
, -
1. A X

P,
Y Y
, (1.3)
P, -
) ")
30
(X X
, (1.4)
X Y ,
X Y P
(1.3)
; (1.4)
; (1.3) (1.4)
;
-
A
(
S,
,
(1.3) (1.4),
31
. (1.5)
X
, X

S ,
X
).
1-2
, .
S,
1 2 (
X
Y
),
1-2. S = (
X).
1-2
=
+ Y
= 90
00' 00"
� 0
= 270
00' 00"
Y 0 .
= 0
�X 0
= 180
00' 00"
=
-

-

AP;
BD
BP;
32
AB BA,
,
(
(. 1.19,
P S2 B X

( ), B
) ")
33

AP BP ,
A P
(. 1.20,
). .
,
")
34
, , ,
A B
X Y ,
, -
,
. 1.20,
)
")
35
, , 2
, 3
. . 10- ;
, .
A, B P R
B, C P

AB,
,

,
BC,
,
. , A, B, C
.
. -
, ,
, -
36

1. (. 1.21),

;
, (. ).
2. - (. 1.22),
37
-
2. -
3. - -


30"; -
1/1000 1/3000. -
0,4" 10",
-
( -
, -
38
, ,
(, 4-7 . 1.23)
, . . -
. -


, ;
, -
. -
. -
ABP (. 1.24,


=
39
:
A B,
AP BP:
AP BP:
A
P B P;

, -
 . 1.24. : %   ' ()  %   ' (")
")
40
, -
(
), 1
;
, ,
A-1 B-1
().
1-
(), TRANSIT () 2-
() NAVSTAR-GPS () (. . 2). -
- NAVSTAR-GPS
( ).

1942 ( ) -90 ( ),

WGS-84 (. . 1.2).
-

1987 1993
136 , -
41
, . . -
, .

X, Y,
Z ( B
L) H .
4 , -
,
, Y
, Z
, i = 1,2,3),

(P X1)2 + (YP Y1)2 + (ZP Z1)2]1/2;D2 = [(XP X2)2 + (YP Y2)2 + (ZP Z2)2]1/2;D1 = [(XP X3)2 + (YP Y3)2 + (ZP Z3)2]1/2, XP, YP, ZP, -
42
1.9. %      
, -


, -
, ,
. -
: 1:1 000 000, 1:500 000, 1:200 000, 1:100 000, 1:50 000,
;

,
( a = 2 -
, -
20 ,

,
43
: N1 () N2

CD -
-

, -


2 ,
= a/mn; m = n = 10 F
= a/100, . .
- ,
, -
:
44
,
.
2 , ,
, , 400 .
a = 2,28 , -
40 , 4 .

, 0,1 .
, -
-
,
4
;
1:1 000 000. , , -
1- (. 1.7), -
45
1:500 000 -
4
. 3
2
.
1:500 000 ,
1:200 000 -
36 .
1
40' .
1:200 000 , -
I XXXYI,
1:100 000
144 -
1:100 000 ,
1 144, -
, N-37-144.
1:50 000 -
1:100 000 4 -
1:50 000 , -
1:100 000
1:25 000 -
1:50 000 4 -
. : 730" 5 . -
1:25 000 , -
1:50 000 ,
1:10 000 -
1:25 000 4 -
. : 345" 230" . -
1:10 000 ,
1:25 000 1 4, ,
46
1:5000 1:2000,
20
, -
1:100 000, . .
1:5 000 -
1:100 000 256 . -
1:5 000 , -
1:100 000
1:2 000 -
1:5 000 9 .
37.5" 25" .
1:2 000 ,
1:5 000
20
.
1:5000; 1:5000 -
1 .
1:5000 4
1:2000 4 1:1000 16 -
1:500. 1:1000
1:5000 40
40 ;
1:5000
4
(400 ),
1:2000 1
(100 ), 1:1000 25 ,
,
-
47

1:10 000 -
( OX), X = Const OY;

1.9.5. )      
,

. . , -
. .
-
48
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8 (): , , -
, . -
( ) .
, (
) -

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.
, ( ) -
-

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),
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49
, ,
, ,
,
(. 1.28), -
50
. -
;

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,
.
h = 1, 2, 5, 10 -
h = 0,5 2,5 .
. 1.28 ,
= h/a = i
) ")
51
h (. 1.29,
, CD
BC
-
-





.

,
;
,
0,2 . , -

: h = 0,2M. , 1:M = 1:5 000 -
h = 1 .
52
( ) ,
. 1, 2, 3, 4 (. 1.30,
), ,
1-2, 1-3, 1-4, 2-3 3-4 -
, . 1.30,
-
, , 4-1, -
, , 1
. 4-1 A, F, E, D, C, B
FAf BAb : Af/Ab = Ff/
. 1.30,
(), -
Ab ; 1
4 , F
4-1, . 1-2,
2-3
. , -
) ")
53

,
-
.
54
, . .
1993 .
-
: -

,
1:1 000 0001:10 000


, ,
,

55
. . -

. ,
, , 1956
()
, ), , -
. . -
56
(
, , . .
()
BMP, GIF, JPG, PNG, TIF, TIFF ( TIF), DRG (TIFF -

, , ,
, -
, -
, , , -
57
, . -
,
, -
(. . 5), -
, . .
TRANSIT ()
()
1960- .
1000 .
(2 ) (-
( 70...100 ) -
: 5
59
NAVSTAR (NAVigation Satellite providing Time And Range
) [3] 1977 .
. 1983 .
, 1991 . GPS
. 1993 .
15 . , GPS
100 .
GPS (Global Positioning
System) ; -
, GPS, -
( 1413) 12 1982 .
24 1993
GPS-NAVSTAR , ,
. , -
95
GPS. -
: GPS? ,
, .
1997 . -

GPS (Jammers).
. -
, ,

. 3 -
2...3 , -
50 .
10 20 150 .
60
20000 . -


-


-
-
61
,
, ,
( ), -
,
,
. ,
-

.
. -
62

, 11000 -
11000 ,
12000 , , -
(300 000 /)
2993 (!).
( 100000 ),
), ,
63
. 1 ,
(. . 2.1,
). (
, -
(, ) . ,

120290 ;
(. .
(

S/A (Selective Availability) -
64
")
65
66
,
, (.
1 . 2.2).
, , -
67
GPS GLONASS, 10 .
- 5 (. . 2.3), -
, 14, -
6 7. -
68


, (, INMARSAT),

RDS (Radio Data System) FM-.

,
.
,
283,5325 . -
1998 , -

() .
(
),
1012 100 .
(WADGPS Wide Area Differential GPS) (GDGPS
200 . -
0,51 ; -
69
. -
RTCM SC-104,
0,5 ,
(Wide Area Augmentation System) . -
. -
WADGPS Satloc
2,
WAAS .
929 .
Satloc 4 , WAAS
6 . Satloc 15 , -
, WAAS 24,
Satloc 750 /, WAAS
70
250 /. Satloc
(GDGPS)
(WADGPS).

GDGPS
.
RTG (Real Time
71
,
2.3. -  NAVSTAR=GPS
24
=
12 00 ( 20000 -
 . 2.4. &" %   ,#    NAVSTAR/GPS
72
(. 2.5) 1575,42 (L1)
1227,6 (L2),
34 ( 180
2 1, 2
50 /. . 2.5 , L2
-, L1 -
/- -. -
, , 100 (-
50 ) 20,46 (
- ( Precision )
( PPS Precise Positioning Service) -
1994 . (A/S Anti-Spoofing)
L1 L2 , -
73
C/A (Coarse Acguition )
SPS (Standart Positioning Service -
22 , 27,7
0,09 , SPS -
/ (. 2.6) 10--
1, 2,
G1, G2 [15]. -
3 .
. 2.6, 2
PRN (Pseudo Random Number) -
2 ( 7)
74
50 / , 1500 -
, . . 30 .
. 1 -
; 2 3
30 .
. 4 5
25 , 25 -
GPS (. . 2.7) 1 (
6, 3
5 /-, -
- 4 10, -
( 9). 11 10 -
NMEA-183 (. )
(. 2.8)
75
5 . 2 -
.
4 11 9. -
GPS- Q 3
6 (
10) 12 .
+ Q
)
GPS-. I Q
8;
7
5,
.
CR LF. -
GGA -
, , ,
, HDOP (Horizontal Dilution of
76
Precision -
123456789101112131415
1111.11,a,yyyyy.
a,x,xx,x.x,xxx,M,x.x,M,x.x,xxxx *hh
1 -
2, 4 -
6 GPS : 0
; 1 -
; 2
; 3
7 (0012; -
8
11 : -
WGS-84 ();
13 GPS ( -
SC104 ; ,
14 ID (00001023) ,
(. . 6)

77
. .

, SNR (Signal-to-Noise Ratio
/). L1 , -
30,
. , L1
6 . -
, SNR L2 , L1 -
GLL ,
1234567
1111.11,a,yyyyy.yy,a,hhmmss.ss,A*hh
1, 3 -
5 -
GSA (Global Satellites Active
) GPS ,
, ,
$GPGGA
123456789101112131415161718
,x,xx,xx,xx,xx,xx,xx,xx,xx,xx,xx,xx,xx,x.x,x.x,x.x*hh
1 : M , 2D (
) 3D (, ) ; A -
78
2 : 1 , 2 2D, 3
314 (PRN) , -
15
16, 17 -
, -
2D (Manual 2D) -
10 , -
50 .
3D (Manual 3D)
.
2D/3D (Auto 2D/3D) -
3D , . -
,
79
5 , -
GSV (Global Satellites in View
1234567891011121314151617181920
x,x,xx,xx,xx,xxx,xx, xx,xx,xxx,xx*hh

RMC (Recommended Minimum speCific data) , -
2 . -
123456789101112
A,1111.11,A,yyyyy.
a,x.x,x.x,ddmmyy,x.x,A*hh
1
3, 5 -
80
VTG
Garmin
12345678910
x.x,T,x.x,M,x.x,N,x.x,K,i,*hh
1, 2 ( -
3, 4 (
5, 6 (SOG) -
7, 8 (SOG) -
, Garmin, -
( )

81
2005-2006 . 4- GPS IIR)
( 2007 . GPS IIF)
12 GPS III 2013 .
2.4. -  #�0?--
24
(. . 2.9,
). -
120.
= 11 15 44 , -
19100 .
-
,
17 (7 , 23 , 27 , 27 ).
( )
82
.
,
.
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, .
-,
,
. -
83
, -
5
. -
,
-

24 10 -
1600 ,
3-
ͻ -
-
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~200 , ~19100 64,3

84
:
0,5 ; 1
(  11 16 )

( = 12 00 ) GPS,
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85
),
38 -
2000 , . .
-
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. -
30 . -
1 .
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n (ln), -
n (n = 1...24) -
86
( );
n,
( ) ( -
), -
. -
,
-
L-.
(L1 ~ 1600 L2 ~ 1250 ). -
L1 L2. , -
( ),

0,511
. GPS, -
5070 ;
87
70 ;
15 /;
0,7 .
5,11 -

L1 , , -
L2

0,2 . -
L1
L1 L2 -
- , -


( ),
1

20 (-
), - 8 . -

.
UTC 1

10 -
88
-
1
. UTC
, , 1
: 00 00
00 31 1 1- (
31 1 2- , 30 1 3-
, 30 1 4- ) -
,

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.
( 2 )
2- UTC.
) 1
50 / .
, -
; -
: ;
; ;
;
-
89
; , ; -
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85- , 77 (b85, b84...b10,
85-
,
1...7 s , -
1... 7
s = 1, Ci
i = 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 +
8 , , i
85, 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
, 1...
7 (
); -

1...7 -
, s = 0, 1...7 , s = 1,
24
90
5 , -
40 , , -
(1600 )
f
= 9/7 -
k = 1...24, . . f1 = 1602,5625 ; f24 = 1615,5000 ; f1 = 1246,4375 ; f24 = 1256,5000 . - 1602,0...1616,0 , -
1597,4...1620,6 1241,3...1261,6 .

,
2005 .
7...4, (-
91
L1 L1 L2
,
,
,
1
.
1 . ,
2 .
1,7
, 0,3
20 -
30 -
10 , -
G() = 1 +
: 11111000110111010100001001
0. -

92
GPS . ,
GPS-, -
C/A , -
,

.

.
,
.

. ,
10 ,


93
1. 165 (, -
2. S/A
2.1. CEP (Circular Error Probable) ,
, 50 % ,
. 3 TTFF (Time
To First Fix) ,
4.
5.
9. (Humidity) 5...95 % (
10. +(3,8...8) . ,
94
2,8 ,
(
1 ).
11. 3,3 -
80 , .
HI-204E 145 ,
20 . (HI-
204S) (Trickle
Power) 27 , -
. .) RS-232. ,
HiCOM PS/II ( PS/II )
DB9 (COM).
13. NMEA-0183 v. 2.20 GGA,
GLL, GSA, GSV, RMC, VTG (. . 2.3)
, HI-
20. USB-,
GPSviewer, . 2.10,
95
;
Com Port
, ,
( Power
-

NMEA
( );
(Date) (Time)
(Longitude) (Latitude) -
(Acquiring), -
( -
96
(Direction), (Speed), (Altitude)
GPS- SiRF- starI (1997 .) -
2...3 -
),
FoliageLoc ,
GPS- 20 -
160 ,
. -
WAAS EGNOS, -
800
, 200
GPS- SiRFstarII SiRFstarIIe
( , WAAS,
EGNOS, DGPS, ARM- ARM7TDMI
1 M EDO DRAM), SiRFstarIIe/LP (
, 60
20 TricklePower), SiRFstarIIt,

97
, GPS-.
SiRFNav -
, 2007 .
GPS- , Sirf III. -
, Keomo.
Sirf III , -
gpsportal.ru, , - -
Scoutmaster, Garmin 38, Garmin 12
6. (Waypoints)
(, )
98
37. .
38. .
39. .
42. DGPS.
45. 0,3...1,8 .
99
47.
55.2. , (Warm
55.3. 1
56. (1,44...128 ), -
58.
1 , , -

100
(,
. . 2.1).
northward. Orient sky northward
, Orient sky
ahead
( -
Orient map ahead. Orient map northward
, -
UP DOWN;
Auto zoom
, .
Hide/show waypoints /
( ).

UP/DOWN
: (SPEED), (AVERAGE SPEED)
(MAX SPEED),
(HEADING), (BEARING),
(ELEVATION), (LOCATION),
101
102
, GOTO -

,
Clear all
TO FINISH/TO START
. 15


.
(
), Track,
Track log ( ) Save
. ,
: , (-
) . .
,
Trackback : TO BEGIN/TO END (
),
.
UP DOWN BEARING,
(HEADING).

. Stop
103
104
,
, , POI . .
, ,
,
-
,
GPS-
. -
,
. -

(. . 4).
(Waypoint)
(Point Of Interest) -
.
POI : ,
. .
, ,
(Track) -
, . . -
105

GPS ,
.
-

.
.
,
, , -
, , -
,
106
GPS , , ,
, , . . -
, , . . , ,
, ,
,
,
,
GPS. -
107
76, GPSMAP 60C, Garmin Quest .
-
ECDIS ,
, (,
, )
, .
,

, --
,
. ,
.
, ; ,
. C-Map NT+
108
NT+
.
150
,
,
NT
NT .
-
C-MAP N+
( )
,
GPS (
,
. GPS
,
109
.
Raychart
520 Raychart 530 c
GPS- ,
, 1000
20 . 7,
10,7...44 , 223
205
152 , 3,5 . -
MOV ( ) -
, Find ship Ship ( )
() -
,
, -
, .
, , , . .

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,
: ,
, ; ,
110

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.
.
,
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, . . , -
111

.
,
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:
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, , , ,
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; 45
1,5 .
9,6 /c
;
(
112
;

.
70 . -
,
-
,
. -
,
,
.

113
EutelTracs
),
(www.esrin.esa.it/, www.sat.com/, www. alenia.com)
()
.

,
.
:
,
,
.

,
( 1994 .) Prodat
MARECS- B2 (Maritime European Community Satellite),
1996 . ITALSAT-2
Alenia Spazio, 1997 . ARTEMIS, -
1,5...1,6 . ITALSAT-2
114
- (4...6 ), -
L-. (
) 1,5 / -
BPSK/TDM, 600 /c (
384 , 8 48 ) SS-DMA (-
( 1,05 , 1,3 , 180 )
, - (8 40 ),
90 , 1,5 ) . -
,
115
,
, , , , ,
36
( 8 4-
45 ). 775 ,
39,5 , 4 . -
1 2) PH Pegasus --
L-1011 1995 . ,
,

GPS. - (
137...138 ) -
TDMA/FDMA ( -
2,4 /c), ( 148..149,9 )
FDMA ( 4,8 /c).
, ,
57,6 /. ORBCOMM

, .

,
,
( 137 , )
116
117
,
25 80 .
RRC -
40
Inmarsat- (LES),

(
5 ). ,
Inmarsat. -
LOGIQ Dispatch Interactive
Simac
.
,
,
, , -
118
LOGIQ
MDT (MDA) .
LOGIQ MDT ( V25) -
-
-
(4 40 ).
13 15
, -
RussGPS, -
-, , -
119
gps.ru.
1. -
, , . .).
120
22 ( -
-
40. () GPS Trimble.
41. () GPS
46. Boston Group () GPS
49. GPSMapEdit ( GARMIN).
121
50. GPS TrackMaker (Communication Program for GPS and Data
57. GPS -
58. GPS -
59. GPS -
(. ).
60. GPS -
(. ).
62. GPS -
(. -
63. GPS/
( . . . , . -
).
122
74. ( ).
3. 0  !     OziExplorer
: Windows 95/98/ME/
NT4/2000/ ( 10 )
(GPS

;
,
100 -
-
;
;
;
;
.
(. 3.1) , -
,
124
,
WGS-84 UTM
( ) (
) ( ), (
), (NMEA)
, . -
,
-
Cursor Zoom Window,
. Map View
, (. . 1.4
125
(Waypoints),
126
,
(.HDR,.A01,.A02....)
(.RML) PCX--
OziExplorer; -
( PNG) -
.
OZF; , -
25% .
100% (90, 80, 70 ...)
. -
Run Img2Ozf program .
(. 3.2) :
(Ozf2 Ozf),
127
(. 3.1)

.
, ,
.
(Index Map) () , -
World Map (. 3.3), -
( ).
Sub-Folders Search Path -
128
Refresh Maps (Search
Recent Index Maps
Recent Search Paths
Fast Draw
Auto Hide
Show Map List at Pointer ,
(Name Search)
, . -
. 3.4 -
Name to Find , -
Left Name to Find,
129
(Load Name Database) ,
(Clear the Name to Find) Name
(Plot Location)
(Find Maps) ,
(. . ) ,
(Plot Locations as Points) -
(Create Waypoint)
(Advanced Search) , -
(Draw), (Hatch)
(Find Map) ;
Map, (Waypoint List) , -
130
At Present Position , -
To the North ( )
, -
131
Latitude/Longitude (/) ,
Mercator , ;
(. . 1.5) ,

.
Transverse Mercator , -
(. . 1.4); -
( ) , -
.
Lambert Conformal Conic ; -
.
Sinusoidal (Latitude)
; .
, (Datum List)
.
UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator) ,
Mercator: (Latitude) 0 ;
(Scale factor) 0,9996 ( -
132
Easting) 500000;
(False Northing) 0
10000000 ;
UTM- MGRS (Military Grid Reference
BNG (British National Grid) ,
(Datum of Loaded Map)
;
. GPS-, Garmin,
133

Size ,
Symbol Size
( 17 ,
Waypoint Symbol ,
Display Format
Pointer Direction -
(left , right , top
Garmin GPS Display
Proximity Distance , -
134
Altitude (
);
Edit Position, Edit Date
Attachments Waypoint
Attachments ,

File Attachment
Proximity/Route Attachment
Proximity/Route Symbol
Symbol Position
(Top Left , Top , Top Right
, Bottom Right , Bottom , Bottom
Time
Proximity/Route Proximity/
(. 3.5),
Default
-
135
. -
Proximity Distance . 3.5, , -
136
2, 3 . .),
(. 3.4), ,
(. . 3.5.10).
Add Wp ;
/
ReLink ,
Reduce/Expand Arrow ( ) -
Send GPS--

Show ()
137
138
. Lowrance/Eagles
. Magellan MLR GPS- -
Garmin (, . .)
139
3.3. %   /Tracks:
(Manually Create Track
, ,
(. . 3.8,
GPS-. 10002000 ,
. -
(. . 3.5.10) (Track Width)
(Show/Hide
Track Control (. 3.8,
), -
Num (175);
Description ,
Points ; -
Distance , -
(Show/Hide the track display on the map)
140
(Do not show track points)
(Show Fixed track points)
(Make Track Points in Box Active)
(Open properties dialog when creating new track points)
(All New Track Points are Created Active)
-
Save Active Track Points to a File -
(Insert a new track point)

141
(Manually Create Track Points)
(Show Track Point Hints)
(Save the Selected Track)
(Selected Track Properties)
(Move track Up)
(Move Track Down)
,
(Split Track 1 into Separate Tracks for Each Track Section)
( 74 )
-
Properties (
142

Alarm Zone -
) ")
 . 3.8. :  ()       (")
143
Shift ,
;
(Shift + Ctrl) -
(Shift + Alt)
(Shift + Ctrl + Alt) -

144
Color .

145
Zoom
Pan -
l
To Track ,
Load -
Max Distance
Min Distance ;
Max Deviation
146
Max Angle ;
;
Arrows ()
, ,
) ")
 . 3.12. &  % ' ()   '   (")
147
, , GPS-
. , Garmin
Magellan -
(315, 320). MLR
1
Track Control (. 3.8) Track Property
(. 3.9) .
Eagle Lowrance,
(X Y) 32,5 , ,
148
1000
( GPS-).

, -
Fore Color ( Garmin
Event Symbol (
. . 2.5).
Symbol Size ,
149
Default
Event (. 3.14), :
Datum ;
Position : Lat/
Lat, Long : -
150
(Manually create a Point). ,
(Show/Hide
Point Control (. 3.15,
), -
(Show/Hide Points on Map) /
(All Points are Made Inactive) -
(Draw Box to make Points Active)
(Open Properties when Creating New Points)
(All New Points are Created Active) -
Save Active Points to a File .
151
(Manually Create a Point) /
(. 3.16,
Properties , , ,
Rotation () 9090
) ")
152
Desc 1, Desc 2 (
Desc 3 ( 12 );
Edit Position -
(. 3.16,
Format : ,
Style : ,
) ")
153
; -
154
; -
(Position &
-
155
(Track)
Load Points from File
156
From Mapinfo mif Files mif- (
From Mapgen Vector Files (
Polylines & Polygons
-
Save Routes to File
Save Points to Points File
157
, (To Text File) IGC Track
(ArcInfo) Shape (.shp),
158
4, 5, 6
, .
7 -
. ,
, , -
. , -
159
Map Projection
( ). -
, ,
/
( ). (
. Map Projection -
UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator), BNG (British National Grid)
. (. . 3.1).
(Show/Hide Corner markers) ,
(Show Cursor Zoom Window) -
(Show MapView Window) () -
(
Image Coordinates (X,Y) X Y
Degrees & Mins (Lat)
Grid Coordinates ( Map
Zone , UTM, British
N/S N () S () -
160
Easting, Northing /
Point 1
1 Calibrate Position. -
) .
Image Coordinates (X,Y) -
N/S E/W .
) ")
161
Save
Check Calibration of Map ,
. 3.19,
Options, -
Map Advanced Options (. 3.20),
Include in Moving Map -
Show Track (. . 3.7.10), -
162
Map Load Options (. . 3.5.10),
Change Image File Name, Path & Drive
Import Map
OziExplorer; -
Single DRG Map All DRG Maps on a CD or in a Folder), BSB
NOS/GEO Chart (Single BSB or NOS/GEO Chart All BSB or
NOS/GEO Charts on a CD or in a Folder), Maptech RML PCX
CD map-
163
( ) -
(Selected)
Window Fit to page(s)
Window to Scale -
Selected Fit to page(s)
Selected to Scale
Map to Scale -
Scale ; -
, (

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Pages () (Wide)
2- 10 ,
10 , . .
1,5 , ,
Orientation () : -
Map Objects ( ) , -
164
Do not Print Map Image ( )
Object Scale ( )
, ( 1:1).
Track Line (mm/unit) ( )
: 1- 1 , 2-
Route Line (mm) ( )
Grid Label (mm) ( )
165
Datum ;

Include -
Position Format : -
) ")
")
166
Save Map to Image File -
PNG- BMP- 24- (Color Image),
- (Black & White) OziExplorer (Run
Im2Ozf program). Im2Ozf
(. . 3.1),
Configuration (Alt + C) OziExplorer;
. 3.23. -
Load Last Map
167
Position );
Map Scroll Increment
Data File Datum , -
Map File Path ( MAPS) map-
.
Data File Path ; -
Distance Units : -
168
Speed Units : /
Altitude Units :
169
Alternate Grid ; -
Use Map User Grid -
, .
Path 1Path 4 Image File Paths . -
GPS Make GPS- :
NMEA, WGS-84,
GPS Model GPS-,
GPS Make; -
170
Com Port -
Parity (Even), (Odd)
Upload/Download Baud rate
NMEA Baud rate -
Use PVT for Garmin instead of NMEA -
Serial Port Driver .
USB-COM
Auto Pilot Output -
171
Active
Com Port , -
Interval NMEA -
RMC, RMB, APB, BWC
Reserved Waypoints ( 0 (Lower)
20 (Upper)),
Track Control Initial Size :
172

(. 3.26);
:
Screen Update Rate ( )
Store Track Point Interval -
(, , . .).
Track Tail Length .
Dock Controls ,
173
NMEA Check Sum
Use Depth Sentence ,
174
Alarm Duration ( ) -
,
Show Line from Position -
Project Track Line ()
Projected Line Width ().
Compass Button -
Show Compass Rose -
Direction :
175
Available toolbar butons
. Current toolbar butons -
Add () Available
Remove () Current
Flow Butons to 2 lines 2 ();
Flat Butons / -
Move Up, Move Down
F2F12 , Available toolbar butons
176
3.6.1. Selection Control
Selection Control (Marking
Control) (. 3.28), -
Select Waypoints (Waypoints)
Select Events (Events) -
3.6.4. Select Nearest Waypoints
Select Nearest Waypoints
Invert Selection : -
177
3.6.8. Copy Map Screen to Clipboard
Copy Map Screen to Clipboard
, (Clipboard).
Show /: (Main
Lists : (Alt + W), (Alt
+ E), . . 29 -
(Sort by Name)
178
(Position Format Buttons) -
,
(Plot Location of Selected Waypoint on Current Map) -
(Find Map for Selected Waypoint) , -
,
179
Add ;
180
Route Editor (Alt + R) (. .
Show Routes on Map (Ctrl + R)
3.7.9. Tracks
Simulated GPS GPS-
Lowrance GlobalNav 200, Eagle Explorer Garmin 12 (
181
Re-index Map Files
Index Map (Index Map); -
(Index Map) (. .
Blank Map (Auto Scale)
10 .
- ,
182
Deg Line Color, Min Line Color, Sec Line Color
Auto Scale ; Line
Label Interval ( -
Label Screen Display
, 180
Clip to Neat Line
Numbers
183
(. . 3.5.10). , UTM,
1:250 000 . , -
UK OSGB (BNG) Irish Grid).
3.8.5 3.8.10. Clear All Waypoints, Clear All Events, Clear Route
Data from Map, Clear All Tracks from Map, Clear All Points from
Map
3.8.11. Clear All of Above
). . 3.8.53.8.11 -
3.8.12. Add or Drag Map Object
184
3.8.13. Find Maps) (. .
3.8.14. Save Map Position
.
185

( . .

;

(
-
3.1H.1. Moving Map Control /Ctrl J M:
Moving Map Control (Ctrl + M) -
Show GPS Fix Data (Ctrl + F)
Number Satelites: 5 ,
HI-204S (. . 2.5),
1 2-
HDOP: 2,8 , -
DGPS Last Update: 0, DGPS Station: 0000 -
Start NMEA Communication with the GPS (Ctrl + S) -
Start Moving map Control (. . 3.35).
186
(. . 3.5.10 . 2.5), -
( ),
Moving Map is ON c
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3.1H.5. Ignore NMEA Valid Data Flag
Ignore NMEA Valid Data Flag
Lowrance, Eagles . (. . 3.7.13). GPS-
Show NMEA Input & Output -
NMEA Simulator (Alt + S) -
$GPRMC NMEA.
187
. 3.34, , -
270
+10, -10, -1, +1 +10
-
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-20, -1, +1 +20 /. ()
Start Here
(. 3.35),
Moving Map Control (Ctrl + M) (. 3.10.1).
-, SM
:
NMEA
Simulator (Speed) (True), Alt (
188
3.1H.8. Log Track to Memory[Map
Log Track to Memory/Map -
Track 1
(Show/Hide Track Plot) -
( rack 1
-
3.1H.9. Log Track to File
Log Track to File
3.1H.1H. Change Track Log File
Change Track Log File
3.1H.11. Clear Track Log File
Clear Track Log File , .
3.10.10. -
. -
3.1H.12. Automatically Scroll Map
Automatically Scroll Map / -
189
(Show Line from Position to Cursor)
Show Regional Map Window
/mmcontrol
/navcontrol Navigation
3.11.1. Navigation Control /Ctrl J N:
Navigation Control (Ctrl + N) -
(Navigate Along a Route) .
190
(. . 3.2),
.
(Navigate to a Waypoint)
(Cancel Navigation) ,
1 (. 3.37), Moving Map/NMEA
. 3.37 ,
1 ( 90
191
Moving Map Control (Ctrl + M) (. 3.10.1, . 3.35) -
. Navigation Control (. 3.36) -
0.001 Right 0,001.
192
Send Waypoints to GPS Using $GPWPL NMEA Sentence
193
PsiMapper RealMaps (. mypsioon.ru).
, , 2005 . , -
. ,
(. . 5).
,
.
()
204E HI-204S HAiCOM (),
. 2.5.
(www.vobis.ru) -
, -
( 500 ).
RealMaps
1. OziExplorer File/Configuration/Maps
Country or Region ( ) North & East (/
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54.6`` ( ), . . r -
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194
5. XnView
( / /4
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8. RealMaps -
Point ,
(Latitude) 00`0.0``N (Longitude)
00`0.0``E ( (North West
( RealMaps
.
.
. 8 ,
195
GPS- HI-204E(S)
, Psion 5mx
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196
PS/2 () 9- D . PS/2 -
Garmin Que, TomTom Navigator Destinator.
WINDOWS
95/98/ME/NT/2000/XP ( Windows NT/2000/
-
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GPS-,
198
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199
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206
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207
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209
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210

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211
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212
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216
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225

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Compact Flash, SD, MMC;
(RAM Storage);
(Program memory): 22 (-
(. 4.8).
City Guide (. . 4.5)
226
227
Siemens SX1 Sendo X (. 4.10). -
,
 . 4.9. &  AKMTrack
228
229
3. GPSMap 2.00 by Viking GPS
(http://www.nokia-6600-software.
vikinggames.hu) Nokia 3650, Nokia 6600, Nokia 7610,
Nokia 7650, Siemens SX-1 (. 4.11);
(http://www.wayfinder.com)
1 (. 4.12); -
1000 . -
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(
(v-dorogu@mail.ru)), . Windows 98,
Windows ME, Windows NT4.0 SP6 Windows 2000 -
(. 5.1)
OziExplorer (. . 3.1). . 5.1 , -
OziExplorer (. . 3.13). (
,
, . . .
231
. 5.2,
.
232
Datum ; -
Elevation units (
Code page , -
ACSII , . .
Coding Schema ;
233
File properties , -
( . 5.3). -
Insert before ( ).
, NOTE: The last level should be empty.
, Change (
234
(. 5.4)
, .
cGPSMapper,
Free cGPSmapper land version for Windows
,
.
:
Save objects as
cGPSMapper ,
TRE size , -
TRE margin , cGPSMapper
,
Map is transparent ( )
, ,
Preprocessing
235
No ( , );
Generalization only ( ) -
, 2-
) -
POI Index POI,
Put number before name
Put ZIP before name
Enable MG (search for intersection) -
236
-
Description (,

237
. 5.6, -
Snap to grid
238
Stick to neighbours -
Color of new object, Width
Buttons for multiple selection Shift
239
Tracks, Routes
; ,
Map infotips
20 ,
PCX5, OziExplorer, MapSource,
240
Add -
Close , -
Save Map
Import ArcView (.SHP) MapInfo (.
Export
Select
.
Zoom In/Zoom Out ( +/) -
Full map (Ctrl + ) .
241
Levels ,
Show mini-map (I) / ( -
Show Ruler / (-
Show Grid (G) /
Show Labels (L) / -
Transparent Polygons (T) / -
Show Routing Nodes (N) / -
, ;
, , . .
Show Road Classes (U) / ,
Show Numbers along Roads (H)
Show Attachments (E) /
Show Google Maps -
GPS tracking ( -
242
List of Waypoints, Tracks, Routes
Attachments (Ctrl + T)
Go to position (Ctrl + G)
Zoom :
, ; -
Select Objects
Edit Nodes
(, , .).
Trim -
243
Transform
Shift -
Affine , -
Quadratic
Test Routing Grapf
Generalize ,
Join per-Level Objects
, , -
, -
Split Object by Levels
Remove Object Dublicates -
Convert Labels
244
Merge Inner Poligons
Slice All Objects ,
Split Map to Files
Verify Map , -
Check routable polylines for self-intersection
; cGPSmapper
245
Edit postal adress items (,
,
, GPSMapEdit,
mail.ru) GPSMapEdit,
,
,
3D Mode
, -
(Aircraft Autonomous Integrity Monitoring)
(Absence of Solar Orientation) -
(American Congress on Surveying and Mapping) -
: , -
: , -
: ,
: , -
(Automatic Direction Finder)
247
(Automatic Dependent Surveillance) -
(Airlines Electronic Engineering Committee) -
(Automatic Frequency Control)
(Automatic Fault Indication)
(Air Force Materiel Command)
(Air Force Space Command) -
248

(Aeronautical Mobile Communications Panel) -
249
ASDE
250
(Automatic
(Automatic Vehicle Monitoring and Identification)
(Additive White Gaussian Noise)
(All Weather Operations Panel)
:
(Built-In-Test) , -
(Binary Phase Shift Keying) ( 180)
(Bearing) , :
(Coarse Acquisition Code) -
(Central Air Data Computer)
(Controlled Access Service)
(Consultative Committee for Definition of Second) -
(Central Control Facility) -
-
251
(Command and Control System)
(Consultative Committee for Time and Frequency) -
(Code Division Multiple Access)
(Celestial Ephemeris Pole) -
(Circular Error Probable) ,
(Civil GPS Service Interface Committee)
(Central Integrity Monitoring for GPS) -
-
(Carrier to Noise Ratio)
(Centralized Navigation Control) -
(Communication-Navigation-Identification) -
: GPS -
: , -
:
252
(Course Deviation Indicator)
: , -
(Cyclic Redundancy Check)
(Communication Research Laboratory) --
(Shaanxi Astronomical Observatory) -
(Consolidated Space Operations Center)
(Consolidated Space Test Center) -
(Commission on International Coordination of Space
(Civil Users Community) -
(Common User Element) -
253
(decibel)
(Digital European Cordless Telecommunications) -
(Deutsche Flugsicherung)
(Differential GPS) GPS, -
(delay-lock-loop) -
(Defence Mapping Agency)
(Distance Measuring Equipment) -
(Precision Distance Measuring Equipment) -
254
(Department of Transportation)
(The Pentagons Defense Science Board)
255
(Earth-Centered-Earth-Fixed) ---
(European Committee for Telecommunications Regulatory
(Electronic Distance Measurement) -
(European Economic Area)
(Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory)
256
(Estimated Range Deviation) -
(European Radio Messaging System)
(European Space Agency) -
(Electrically Suspended Gyro Navigator)
(European Satellite Navigation Programme)
:
(Estimated Time Enroute) : -
257
(European Organization for Civil Aviation Equipment)

(Federal Aviation Administration) -
(Federal Aviation Authority of Russia) -
(FAA Technical Center) -
(Phase II) ,
258
(Federal Railroad Administration) -
(Federal Radionavigation Plan) -
(Ground-based Augmentation and Integrity Test)
(GBAS Azimuth Reference Point)
(Ground-Based Augmentation System)
259
(Greenwich Mean Time) :
(Global Navigation Satellite System) -
(Global Navigation Satellite Service of second generation)
(Russian State Research Institute of Aviation System)
(Global Positioning & Navigation News) -

: , ,
: -
260
(High Intensity Radiation Fields)
(Hazardously Misleading Information) -
(Horizontal Protection Level)
(Integrity, Availability, Continuity of Service and
(International Association of Geodesy)
(International Association of Institutes of Navigation) -
(International Association of Lighthouse Authorities) -
-
(International Air Transport Association)
(International Astronomical Union) -
(International Civil Aviation Organization) -

(Interface Control Document) -
(Initial Control System) -
261
(International Electrotechnical Committee)
(Institute of Electrical and Electronical Engineers) -
(International Earth Rotation Service)


(Instrumental Flight Rules)
(Interagency GPS Executive Board)
(Ionospheric Grid Point)
(International GPS Service for Geodynamics) -
(Instrumental Landing System) -
262
(Improvement and Modernization Programs) -
: -
(Initial Operational Capability) -
(Issue of Data, Clock)
(Issue of Data, Ephemeris) -
(Inmarsat III Indian Ocean Region) Inmarsat
, -
(Ionospheric pierce point) -
(IERS Reference Meridian) -
(IERS Reference Pole)
(Inertial Reference System) -
(Interference-to-Signal ratio) /-
(Integrated Satellite Control) -
(International Standartization Organization) -
(Intelligent Transportation System) -
263
(International Telecommunications Union)
(ITU-Radiocommunications sector)
ITU-RR
(ITU-Radio Regulations) -
(The Japan Civil Aviation Bureau)
,
(Johns Hopkins University)
264
1176,45 ( ) GPS -
(Local Area Augmentation System)
(Local Area Differential GPS) -
LEO satellite
(Low Earth Orbited satellite)
265
(Master Control Station) - GPS (. .
(Mean Corrective Mainteance Time) -
266
267
(National Air Traffic Service) -
(Navigation Message)
(Navigation Center)
(NAVigation Satellite providing Time And Range)
(Navigation Satellite Information Service) -
(U.S. National Bureau of Standards)
268

(Navigation Land Earth Station) -
(National Aerospace Laboratory) -
(National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) -
(FAA Notice to Airmen System) -
(Naval Ocean System Center) - -
(National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental
(National Research Council)
(National Security Agency) -
(Non-Standard Y-code)
(Navigation System Error) -
NGSO MSS
(Non-GeoStationary MSS)
(National Telecommunications and Information Administration
269
(Navigation Technology Satellite) -
(Naval Underwater Center) -
(Orbitography and Synchronisation) -
(On-Board Computer Program)
(Obstacle Clearance Panel) -
(Operational and Certification Requirements) -
(Office of the Inspector General) -
(Operations and Maintenance) -
(Orbit Maneuvre Vehicle)
270
271
(Pseudo-Random Noise) , -
pseudo-random code -
(Protected signal) (-
(Phase-Shift Keying) , -
(Position, Velocity and Time) ,
(Quadri-Phase-Shift Keying)
, GPS (.
-
(Research and technology development in Advanced
(Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring)
(Reliability and Maintainability) -
(Radio Astronomy Service)
(Rubidium) , -
(Relative Dilution of Precision) -
(Research, Development, Test and Evaluation) -
272
(Radio Frequency Interference)
(Right-Hand Circular Polarization)
(Royal Institute of Navigation, United Kingdom) -
(Receiver Independent Exchange Format) ,
273
(Radio and Telecommunications Terminal Equipment)

(Root Sum Square) -
(Selective Availability) : -
: -
. ,
(Satellite Autonomous Integrity Monitoring)
(Search and Rescue Satellite) -
(Senate Armed Services Committee)
(Satellite Communications) -
(surface acoustic wave filter)
(Strategic Defense Initiative)
(Standard Data Link System) -
274
, 23
(International System of Units)
275
(Space Test Program) -
(Tactical Air Navigation) -
(Internacional Atomic Time)
(Tactical Air Communications and Navigation System)
(To Be Confirmed (Corrected))
276
277
(TuRN) : , -
(user segment) :
(United States Coast Guard) (
(United States GPS Industry Council)
(United States Naval Observatory) -
(United States Space Command) -
(Universal Time corrected for polar motion)
(Universal Coordinated Time) -
(Universal Tansverse Mercator)
(VHF Data Broadcast) -
278
VLBI
279
-
4. . . . .:
6. . ., . ., . ., . .
7. . ., . . . -
/ . .. , . ., . . .
10. . . IBM PC /
11. . ., . . -
NAVSTAR. -
13. . ., . ., . . .
. 2- .
281
GPS.
15. . . IBM PC /
VisSim Electronics Workbench. . 6- . . .:
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
1.2. . . . . .7
1.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
1.4. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
1.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
1.7. . . . . . . . .28
1.8. . . . . . . . . . . .36
1.9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42
. . . . . . . . . .58
. . . . . . . . . .60
2.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67
2.3. NAVSTAR-GPS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71
2.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81
2.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106
2.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .119
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .123
3.1. . . . . . . . . .124
3.2. (Waypoints) (Routes) . . . . .132
3.3. (Tracks). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .139
283
3.7. View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .177
3.8. Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181
3.9. Optios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184
3.10. Moving Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184
3.11. Navigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .189
3.12. GPS NMEA Only. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .191
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .197
4.1. MapGPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .197
4.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .199
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .217
4.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .220
4.5. . . . . . . . . . . . .221


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- ʻ
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