Historical Dictionary of Ancient Egypt, 2Ed — B..


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HISTORICAL DICTIONARY
Second Edition
Morris L. Bierbrier
HISTORICAL DICTIONARY
ANCIENT EGYPT
Second Edition
e great pyramids of Giza, Tutankhamun, the Great Sphinx,
Cleopatra, and Ramesses II„the names and achievements of ancient
Egypt are legendary. Ancient Egyptian civilization, situated along
the Nile River, began around 3150 BC and was ruled by pharaohs
for three millennia until it was conquered by Rome in 31 BC. 
Historical Dictionary of Ancient Egypt
upon the “ rst edition through a chronology, an introductory essay,
appendixes, a bibliography, and cross-referenced dictionary entries
on Egyptian rulers, bureaucrats, and commoners whose records
For orders and information please contact the publisher
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Historical Dictionaries of Ancient Civilizations
Series editor: Jon Woronoff
, Morris L. Bierbrier, 1999.
,Joel W. Palka, 2000.
Pre-Colonial Africa
, John H. Rosser, 2001.
Medieval Russia
,Lawrence N. Langer, 2001.
Napoleonic Era
, George F. Nafziger, 2001.
Ottoman Empire
,Selcuk Aksin Somel, 2003.
Mongol World Empire
,Paul D. Buell, 2003.
,Gwendolyn Leick, 2003.
Ancient and Medieval Nubia
,Richard A. Lobban Jr., 2003.
11.
The Vikings
Ancient Israel
Historical Dictionaries of Ancient
Civilizations and Historical Eras,No. 22
Lanham, Maryland€Toronto€Plymouth, UK
SCARECROWPRESS, INC.
Published in the United States of America
Awholly owned subsidiary of
www.scarecrowpress.com
Copyright ©2008 by Morris L. Bierbrier
All rights reserved.
To my wife
Lydia Collins
Editors Foreword
Jon Woronoff
Readers Note
THE DICTIONARY
ADynastic List
BMuseums with Egyptian Collections
311
About the Author
EditorÕs Foreword
Historical Dictionary of Ancient Egypt
torical Dictionaries of Ancient Civilizations and Historical Eras series,
and now it is the first to be expanded and updated. This is quite fitting
of its history, and the exceptional works of art and architecture it left be-
hind. The Egyptian civilization is also one of the most topical of the an-
and its vestiges still visited by countless millions of people every year,
book that can also be used by a broader public. The entries are inform-
EDITORÕS FOREWORD
Historical Dictionary of Ancient Egypt
have been written without the assistance of Dr. Patricia Spencer, direc-
ReaderÕs Note
written down. Thus the names of Egyptian people and places have been
Reign of Narmer.
Reign of Aha.
Reign of Djer.
xviii¥
Reign of Menkauhor.
¥xix
Reign of Amenemhat I, founder of Dynasty 12. Cap-
xx¥
Death of Thutmose II. Accession of Thutmose III. Hat-
Thutmose III consolidates Egypts empire in Syria-
Death of Thutmose III. Accession of Amenhotep II. Rebel-
Death of Amenhotep II. Accession of Thutmose IV.
Death of Thutmose IV. Accession of Amenhotep III.
Marriage of Amenhotep III and Tiy.
Marriage of Amenhotep III and Gilikhepa of Mitanni.
Death of Amenhotep III. Accession of Amenhotep IV
Reign of Akhenaten. Attempt at religious change to
worship of Aten. Loss of northern part of Syrian province to the Hit-
¥xxi
Egyptian…Hittite peace treaty.
Death of Ramesses II. Accession of Merenptah.
War against the Libyans and Sea Peoples. First mention of
xxii¥
Death of King Piye. Accession of Shabaqo in Nubia.
Death of Shabaqo. Accession of Shebitqo.
Battle of Eltekeh. Defeat of Egyptians by the Assyrians.
Death of Shebitqo. Accession of Taharqo. First definite date
in Egyptian history.
First Assyrian invasion of Egypt. Temporary flight of
Taharqo to Nubia.
¥xxiii
Restoration of Persian rule. Appointment of Achaemenes as
Rebellion of Inaros. Death of Achaemenes in battle.
Expulsion of Persians by Amyrtaeos of Dynasty 28.
Overthrow of Amyrtaeos. Accession of Nefaarud I of Dy-
Death of Nefaarud I. Accession of Hakor.
Death of Hakor. Accession and deposition of Nefaarud II.
Death of Nakhtnebef. Accession of Djedhor.
Campaign against Persia. Overthrow of Djedhor. Accces-
Conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great.
Death of Alexander the Great. Accession of joint kings
Philip III Arrhidaeus and Alexander IV. Ptolemy I becomes satrap of
Murder of King Alexander IV.
Official acknowledgment of the death of King Alexander
IV. Reign of Ptolemy I.
Death of Ptolemy I. Accession of Ptolemy II.
Marriage of Ptolemy II and his sister Arsinoe I.
xxiv¥
Death of Ptolemy II. Accession of Ptolemy III.
Death of Ptolemy III. Accession of Ptolemy IV.
Marriage of Ptolemy IVand his sister Arsinoe III.
Death of Ptolemy IV. Accession of Ptolemy V. Revolt of
Thebes temporarily taken by Ptolemaic forces. Accession of
rebel Ankhwennefer.
¥xxv
Expulsion of Ptolemy XII. Reign of Berenice IV.
Restoration of Ptolemy XII. Murder of Berenice IV.
Death of Ptolemy XII. Accession of Ptolemy XIII and
xxvi¥
Ancient Egypt owed its prosperity, wealth, and power to its geographic
location along the banks and in the Delta formed by the river Nile. The
and plentiful. The agricultural region was protected in the east, west,
which tended to discourage but not necessarily prevent invasions. The
Berbers. The Egyptian language had affinities with both the ancient
branch. The Egyptians clearly differentiated themselves from their Se-
bians to the south. They appear to have inhabited the Nile Valley from
Inhabitants of the Nile Valley can be identified from the Palaeolithic
Period at various sites beginning in 200,000 BC as hunter-gatherers liv-
ing off the land and using flint tools. During the Neolithic Period, farm-
ing communities developed, growing emmer wheat, barley, and flax.
These groups also domesticated animals and made and used pottery.
pottery. During the Naqada II Period (3500…3100 BC), the culture is at-
tested as far north as the Delta at Minshat Abu Omar, although an ap-
According to late Egyptian traditions, two kingdoms emerged during
which were merged to form the united kingdom of Egypt through the
Egypt to unite the country, but the historical process was probably more
complicated. Astrong kingdom under Dynasty 0 emerged in the south,
mastaba tombs at Abydos. Little is known about developments in the
new capital at Memphis; certainly the tombs of such officials as
xxviii¥
the Old Kingdom. The forces of the first ruler, Snefru, campaigned in
¥xxix
and Thebes (Dynasty 11). Other provincial rulers, or nomarchs, in-
creased their local power, backing one side or the other. The surviving
monuments of the period demonstrate the growth of different provincial
Around 2040 BC, Mentuhotep II of Dynasty 11 finally overcame the
Kingdom. Anew capital was established at Thebes, where the king built
his funerary monument at Deir el-Bahri. Trade links were reopened
was replaced by Dynasty 12, inaugurated by the southerner Amenemhat
I, probably the vizier of the last ruler of Dynasty 11.
Amenemhat I proved a vigorous and inventive ruler. He strengthened
Egypts defenses on the Sinai Peninsula by building fortifications to con-
Itjtawy near the Fayum in the center of the country, and the region was
further developed by his successors. Amenemhat I sought to ensure polit-
xxx¥
unequivocal female ruler. Her reign was brief, and the succeeding Dy-
ond Intermediate Period. At first, the country remained stable and
erally ruled for a very short period. However, the unity of Egypt began
emerged based at Kerma. The country also faced an increasing influx
¥xxxi
Egypt. The rulers of Dynasty 18 embarked on important building proj-
ects, notably in the temple of Karnak at Thebes, whose god, Amun, was
elevated to chief god of Egypt and identified with the sun god Re. The
temples were also awarded large land grants and portable wealth to con-
firm their support of the dynasty. The royal family altered its burial cus-
toms, choosing the more secluded Valley of the Kings. The control of
world stage. Direct contact was established with Greece, Asia Minor,
although his chief wife was an Egyptian commoner, Tiy.
Religious discontent surfaced during the reign of Amenhotep IIIs
son, Akhenaten, who sought to suppress the cult of Amun in favor of his
own patron deity, Aton, a form of the sun god Re. Although he tried to
eliminate many of the old gods, as well as Amun, he was not a monothe-
ist, denying neither his own divinity nor that of his father. In his new
capital at Amarna, a distinctive new art style developed. Akhenaten also
nexed the Egyptian provinces of southern Syria. The failure of Akhen-
xxxii¥
establishment of Dynasty 20. Ramesses III managed to fend off a fur-
withdrew from all Egyptian possessions in the east and in Nubia. An-
the Third Intermediate Period.
The Third Intermediate Period is marked by the fragmentation of au-
¥xxxiii
marriage alliance by Ahmose II, and with the Greek states leading to the
Egypt, however, remained too weak to resist the onslaught of the Per-
province ruled by a satrap of royal birth. The Persian conquest (Dynasty
fered varying degrees damage during the invasion. There was a series
xxxiv¥
especially in the south where the rulers Harwennefer and Ankhwennefer
sion and reinstatement by Roman force of arms. Cleopatra VII was
Marcus Antonius to expand Egyptian influence and restore its prestige
in the Levant. Her partnership with Antonius was used by his enemies
clash with Roman forces under the future Augustus. His victory at Ac-
Cleopatra and Antonius.
Egypt was regarded as the private property of the Roman emperor, ruled
man populace happy. Few emperors visited Egypt after Augustus, most
try without imperial permission. The Greek population in major cities„
Alexandria, Naukratis, Ptolemais, and later Antinoopolis„were al-
citizens enjoyed some privileges. While the emperors occasionally en-
tively support ancient Egyptian institutions. The Egyptian language was
were recognized. As a result, written Egyptian in the form of demotic
tury. The temples and the priests they supported grew steadily impov-
tianity, which gained official recognition under Emperor Constantine.
¥xxxv
xxxvi¥
fected their new revenues from the poll tax on nonbelievers; however,
the adoption of Arabic as the common language of the new administra-
tic had died out as a spoken language by the 15th century. It was pre-
speakers no longer knew the meaning of the words. Ancient sites, when
not despoiled or destroyed, were gradually buried and forgotten. Mem-
Very few Europeans visited Egypt during the medieval period apart
classical antiquity and interest in the country. Coptic works, including
Biblical translations, were acquired for Western libraries, and the lan-
¥xxxvii
Egyptian government. Amajor breakthrough was made by the deci-
xxxviii¥
taken to excavate sites in Nubia in danger of flooding by Lake Nasser,
the lake created by the Aswan High Dam. More recently, excavation by
the Egyptian Antiquities Service and foreign missions have shifted from
ancient Egyptian chronology and history, which still have many prob-
lems awaiting solutions. The more material that is recovered, the more
¥xxxix
ABDI-ASHIRTA(fl. 1350 BC).
expedition since 1961. The site is the origin of the many St. Menas
flasks that contained holy water.
Djedefre
. The texts are written in early
Raneferef
PAPYRUS.
Greek name for the sacred city of Abdju in
UpperEgypt
Sohag. The kings of
buried there at the site now known as Umm el-Qaab. The local god,
UpperEgypt
, were required to avoid manual labor. It was also
To enjoy an afterlife, the deceased had to have led a virtuous life
,where he would be judged in
ceremony. Various spells in the
successfully.
death. The technique of mummification was developed to accomplish
decorated coffins that might be placed in a large stone coffin or
. The family or priests would then make periodic food of-
as a home for the spirits in case the body decayed. The Egyptians ex-
MID TEXTS; RELIGION.
A-GROUP.
Aterm invented by
Predynastic Pe-
. The peo-
ple appear to have been herders and farmers. They are known from
AGRICULTURE
AHA(reigned c. 3080 BC).
of officials of his reign are known at
. Aha is probably not to be identified as
a more complex name, like Ahmose
. The most prominent prince seems
. Sister-wife of
AHMOSE I (reigned c. 1552Ð1527 BC).
Tao
, who may have been his brother,
apparently under the regency of his grandmother,
AHMOSE-NEFERTARI
AHMOSE-SIPAIR (fl. 1520 BC).
Aprince of
Deirel-Medina
AHMOSE-SIPAIR
ceeded him. The circumstances that ended the reign are unknown.
Akhenatens eventual successor,
Tutankhamun
his son, abandoned Amarna and reverted to the worship of Amun.
Akhenatens name and that of his immediate successors were later
ever, recent advances in the understanding of the geography of Aisa
ALEXANDER II (IVof Macedon) (reigned 317Ð310 BC).
Alexanderthe Great
der of the latter in 317 BC. Alexander II was imprisoned by Cas-
ruler until 305 BC, when Cassander,
PtolemyI
ian generals assumed independent kingships over parts of Alexander
the Greats empire.
ALEXANDER THE GREAT(356Ð323 BC).
of Macedon and Olympias of Epirus. Alexander succeeded to the
surrendered peacefully. Alexan-
for the country to be divided under various officials, the chief of whom
, the chief financial officer. Alexander died in Babylon
10¥
ALEXANDER, TIBERIUS IULIUS.
Alexanderthe Great
AMARAWEST
¥11
12¥
AMARNAPERIOD (c. 1352Ð1327 BC).
Aterm used by Egyptolo-
Smenkhkare
Tutankhamun
. The period is notable for innova-
as Egypts capital. The rulers of the Amarna period were
later suppressed from Egypts historical record by their successors.
AY; HOREMHEB; NEFERTITI; RELIGION.
AMENEMHAT.
The name of severalEgyptian princes of
One is known solely from an inscription on a coffin that had been
Deirel-Bahri
embalmers were mistaken in their identification of the body, which
was that of a one-year-old child. The eldest son of
was named Amenemhat but cannot be identified with this child as his
titles indicate an older individual. Another Prince Amenemhat may
AMENEMHATI (reigned c. 1985Ð1955 BC).
The Instruction of Amenemhat I
composed after his death, presumably during his sons reign.
AMENEMHAT I
¥13
AMENEMHATII (reigned c. 1922Ð1878 BC).
14¥
AMENEMHAT II
AMENEMNISU (reigned c. 1043Ð1039 BC).
AMENHOTEPI
¥15
AMENHOTEPII (reigned c. 1427Ð1400 BC).
Throne nameAkhepe-
16¥
AMENHOTEPII
responsible for the construction of many of the kings monuments,
, where he was commemorated. He was buried at Thebes.
MEMNON, COLOSSI OF.
GodÕs wife of Amun
.Amenirdis I was the daughter of
and Pebtama,and her adoption by
AMENYQEMAU
¥17
that he was the son of a previous ruler named Ameny, who in turn
might be identified with one of the obscure rulers named Amenemhat
18¥
Akingdom in Syria that was the northenmost area con-
. Aziru later defected
and became his vassal. Alater
¥19
. Afortress was constructed here during
20¥
ANKHESENPEPYI AND II.
ANKHESENMERYRE I AND II.
ANKHESENPEPYIII. (fl. 2230 BC).
Aprincess and
ANKHESENPEPYIV(fl. 2220 BC).
sarcophagus
and Takhut. She was adopted by her great-aunt
GodÕs wife of Amun
which there is no further record of her. Ankhnesneferibre is the last
attested Gods wife, although a later classical source implies that the
office continued. Her reused
sarcophagus
Deirel-
ANKHWENNEFER (reigned c. 199Ð186 BC).
name is Chaonnophris, previously wrongly read as Anchmachis. Rebel
. Ankhwennefer was driven from Thebes in 191 BC and finally
ANTHONY(c. 251Ð356 AD).
¥21
Greek name of thecity in
in 130 AD in honor of his favorite, Antinous, who had
east bank of the Nileopposite
. The inhabitants were
drawn from the major Greek cities in Egypt. The site was originally
Predynastic Period
. Antinoopolis was exca-
22¥
was eventually declared against Egypt, and Antonius was defeated at
the battle of Actium in 31 BC and committed suicide in 30 BC as Au-
gustuss forces entered
LIOS; CLEOPATRASELENE; PTOLEMYPHILADELPHUS.
ANTYEMSAF.
NEMTYEMSAF.
APEPI (reigned c. 1585Ð1550 BC).
Apophis. Throne name Aawoserre. Last or penultimate
Tao
. Apepi tried to fashion an alliance with the ruler of
Kush against the Thebans, but this attempt apparently failed. It is not
¥23
Family of Egyptian landowners and officials in the
estates. The earliest known member appears to have been Flavius
Strategius I, who died before 469. His probable son was Apion I, a
prefect
24¥
found little support in Egypt, although Athanasius was for a time de-
posed by an Arian, but it influenced several emperors and later spread
ARMANT.
UpperEgypt
Tod
now destroyed. Archaeological remains date from the
Predynastic
tal. The burials of the sacred ram
have also been located. Ar-
¥25
Berenice II
Seealso
ARSINOE IV(c. 63Ð41 BC).
Cleopatra VI Tryphaena
. She supported her brother,
was executed at the order of her sister, Cleopatra VII, in 41 BC.
ART.
for religious rather than decorative purposes. The statue was origi-
ceased could be read, causing the deceased to live again. The block
but much of this paint has worn away.
26¥
eign as a conqueror, although more intimate scenes are known from
the Amarna Period. Egyptian craftsmen were adept in the production
Henri EdouardNaville
s excavations at the site, but
28¥
ternal difficulties, and Egypt regained independence. When the As-
ter which Assyria disappeared as a political entity.
ASTARTE.
Canaanite goddess of love and fertility. Her worship spread
ATHANASIUS
¥29
of Patriarch Alexander, whom he succeeded in 326. Prior to his ac-
. Athanasius was exiled from 334…337
30¥
ATHRIBIS
thers name and his own political skills following Caesars assassi-
alongside Marcus Aemilius Lepidus and
Marcus Antonius
tus eventually forced Lepiduss resignation and clashed with Anto-
emperor, forbidding any senator to go there without imperial permis-
prefect
use of the Egyptian language in official documentation. Augustus
with the prenomen autocrator, the Greek equivalent of
imperator, his official Roman designation.
AVARIS.
Modern Tell el-Daba. Capital city of the
situated in the Delta. Very little is known of its history. It was founded
¥31
QueenAnkhesenamun
burial rites for the late monarch, as depicted in Tutankhamuns
Valley of
AYN SOKHA.
city of Suez. There are remains of
. The area has been under ex-
He continued his fathers policy of conquest and took over the local
Egyptian capital, killing the Egyptian commissioner. He still
UpperEgypt
Predynastic Period
. The black-topped red
32¥
AYN SOKHA
. Bagoas murdered Artaxerxes III in 338 BC, as well as his son
and successor, Arses, in 336 BC but was then executed by
BAHARIYAOASIS.
Wehat mehyt
ing northern oasis. An oasis in the Western Desert west of
. There are also
Alexanderthe Great
¥33
cate that Bakenrenef was executed by the new ruler.
INTERMEDIATE PERIOD.
34¥
jewelry, crowns, weapons, horse fittings, and vessels. These items are
Cairo Egyptian Museum
. The site has given its
Egyptian Antiquities Service in 1931…1934 and more recently by an
the 1960s in advance of flooding caused by the Aswan High Dam.
BAY
¥35
have been executed in year 5 of Siptah (1189 BC) by order of the
king. Since the king was a minor, it is obvious that a rival faction at
36¥
BEIT EL-WALI
KHNUMHOTEPI; KHNUMHOTEPII.
BENJAMIN (c. 590Ð661 AD).Coptic
arch Andronicus of the
Coptic Church
prefect
doubtedly aided the Arabic conquest of Egypt in 642. He was later re-
stored to office, but the division of the Christians into Coptic and or-
ATHANASIUS; CYRIL; CYRUS;
BENTESHINA(fl. 1290Ð1235 BC).
. Son of Tuppi-
Teshub, king of Amurru, and great-grandson of
¥37
CLEOPATRABERENICE III.
BERENICE IV(c. 78Ð55 BC).
Cleopatra VI Tryphaena
. When her father was expelled in 58 BC,
she was named joint ruler apparently with her mother. In 56 BC,
Berenice IVfirst married Seleucus, a Syrian prince whom she mur-
dered shortly after the marriage. She then wed Archelaus of Cap-
supporting his father-in-law. Upon his restoration, Ptolemy XII exe-
cuted his daughter.
Ptolemaic port on the Red Sea on a parallel with Aswan
around 275 BC and named after his mother,
Berenice I
main port for trade with Arabia and India during the
army, but it declined during the
have been refurbished during the 4th century AD and flourished un-
til the 6th century AD. The town was excavated by an American ex-
tor, and the collection of
38¥
BIBI UMM FAWAKHIR.
Wadi Hammamat
TARI.
BOOK OFTHE DEAD.
onward. The papyrus
to successfully reach the next world. The most important spell con-
BOSTON MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS
¥39
See also
BERLIN EGYPTIAN MUSEUM; BRITISH MU-
SEUM; CAIRO EGYPTIAN MUSEUM; LOUVRE MUSEUM;
fessor of egyptology. With funds from John D. Rockefeller, he
York on 2 December 1935.
40¥
BREASTED, JAMES HENRY
GOLD; IRON; SILVER.
British traveler. He was born in Kin-
Valley of the
was thereafter known as Bruces tomb, and made drawings. Bruce
BUDGE, SIR ERNEST ALFRED THOMPSON WALLIS
¥41
Cambridge. He joined the staff of the museum in 1883 and through
intrigue managed to oust Keeper Renouf, Birchs successor, and ob-
42¥
. The city became part
Toward the end of
¥43
Tutankhamun
Tanis
. Anew museum is slated for con-
BOSTON MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS; BRITISH MUSEUM; LOU-
44¥
he was renamed Marcus Aurelius Antoninus after his fathers acces-
with his father on 28 January 198 and succeeded his father in 211
CARTOUCHE
¥45
CATARACT.
that render navigation impossible. The First Cataract is situ-
, modern Aswan, and marks the origi-
first regarded the script as symbolic; however, Englishman
Young
46¥
CATARACT
de France in Paris in 1831. He died in Paris on 4 March 1832. Al-
though respected as a scholar, he was regarded by his contemporaries
as an arrogant and difficult man.
CHRONOLOGY.
¥47
Turin Royal Canon
48¥
CLEOPATRAV SELENE
¥49
half brother through Cleopatra Thea and former husband of her other
sister, Cleopatra IV, and finally her stepson, Antiochus X Eusebes
vasion of Syria by Tigranes, king of Armenia, and executed in Se-
leucia-on-the-Tigris in 69 BC. Because the former Cleopatra V
Tryphaena and Cleopatra VI Tryphaenaare now regarded as identi-
VSelene.
CLEOPATRAVI TRYPHAENA(d. 57 BC).
Wife of
with her daughter,
Berenice IV
the coruler was a sister of Berenice IVand counted Cleopatra V
Tryphaena as the mother and Cleopatra VI Tryphaena as the daugh-
ter, but these two are now regarded as one and the same; the desig-
nation Cleopatra Vhas now been assigned to
Cleopatra VSelene
CLEOPATRAVII PHILOPATOR (c. 69Ð30 BC).
Cleopatra VI Tryphaena
, with whom she soon fell out. Their civil war was in-
with Cleopatra and defeated her brothers forces in 47 BC during a
battle in which he was killed. Cleopatra VII Philopator was installed
as ruler of Egypt with her younger brother,
but she had become Caesars mistress and claimed him as the father
50¥
CLEOPATRAVI TRYPHAENA
Antoniuss rival,
defeated at the battle of Actium in 31 BC and, after the fall of
in 30 BC, Cleopatra VII Philopator committed suicide
LIOS; ARSINOE IV; BERENICE IV; CLEOPATRASELENE;
PTOLEMYPHILADELPHUS.
CLEOPATRABERENICE III (d. 80 BC).
. She became the official consort of her uncle,
, after he took over the throne from her father, and fol-
lowing the formers deposition in 88 BC of her father Ptolemy IX.
XI AlexanderII
CLEOPATRASELENE (fl. c. 40 BCÐ11/7 AD).
Marcus
brother,
AlexanderHelios
by Octavia, the sister of Augustus and Roman wife of Antonius, and
CLEOPATRATHEA
¥51
52¥
CLEOPATRATRYPHAENA
¥53
cilitating the Arab conquest. This in turn led to the eventual decline
of the native church, since large parts of the population eventually
was replaced by Arabic.
efforts of Marcus Simaika Pasha and established in its current position
in Old Cairo in 1908. It was taken over by the Egyptian Antiquities
Service in 1931 and enlarged in 1947. The collection contains more
. The chief deity of the town was the fertility god
also regarded as the god of the Eastern Desert. The town was an im-
. The site was partly exca-
54¥
¥55
CYRIL(c. 378Ð444 AD).
and was born in Theodosiu c.
378 and educated at the monastery of Deir Anba Macarius in the Ni-
trian Valley. He became a priest in Alexandria and succeeded his un-
heresy. He died in Alexandria on 27 June 444 and was succeeded by
ATHANASIUS; BENJAMIN; COPTIC
CYRUS (d. 642 AD).
Byzantine official. Bishop of Phasis in the Cau-
pre-
tic Church
Copts, though he was unsuccessful. Cyrus faced the Arabic invasion
render Alexandria and Egypt to the invaders and withdraw imperial
forces the following year. He died in Alexandria on 21 March 642 be-
fore the end of Byzantine rule in the city.
ATHANASIUS;
BYZANTINE PERIOD; CYRIL; DIOSCORUS; THEOPHILUS.
located. Two
and were the first built as true pyramids from the start. The pyr-
56¥
DAKHLAOASIS.
An oasis in the Western Desert west of
HerbertWinlock
¥57
Xerxes II and Sogdianus. He then married his half sister, Parysatis.
DARIUS III (reigned in Egypt 336Ð332 BC).
of Egypt. Original name Codomanus. Son of Arsames, an alleged
after the murder of Arses and then executed the ambitious
minister. Darius III faced the invasion of
Alexanderthe Great
surrendered without a struggle. After a further defeat at Gaugamela
Modern name for a site on the cliffs of the western
11
and the tombs of his successors, as well as the chief officials of the
QueenHatshepsut
by her official,
. The temple is well preserved and is fa-
, but this shrine has been largely destroyed
and a chapel. The site became a
58¥
UpperEgypt
been discovered. The area appears to have been occupied at the end
of Fine Arts
. The most important features
UpperEgypt
. The tombs were excavated and copied by
Egyptian Antiquities Service in 1897 and from 1900…1902, and the
Boston Museum of Fine Arts
in 1915 and 1990. The area has been
DEIR EL-GABRAWI.
UpperEgypt
by an Australian expedition.
Modern name for the site of the workmens vil-
Valley of
. The village was founded either by
wasworshipped there as a god, or his successor,
name appears on bricks at the site. The workmen were organized to
in the Valley of the Kings, but little mate-
¥59
. The village may have been abandoned during the reign
Tutankhamun
and reorganized during the reign of
Horemheb
60¥
DELTA.
LOWER EGYPT.
Term derived from the Greek for the cursive Egyptian
¥61
62¥
Dioscorus. The orthodox view was reaffirmed at the Council of Chal-
phlagonia. The decisions of the Council of Chalcedon and the depo-
¥63
DJEDHOR (reigned 361Ð362 BC).
64¥
vizierImhotep
DUAMUTEF.
66¥
DYNASTY2 (c. 2890Ð2686 BC).
DYNASTY8
¥67
. Anumber of rulers are known from
DYNASTY9 (c. 2160Ð2130 BC).
68¥
DYNASTY9
DYNASTY14 (c. 1750Ð1650 BC).
DYNASTY19
¥69
70¥
DYNASTY20
DYNASTY31
¥71
derthe Great
EARLYDYNASTIC PERIOD (c. 3100Ð2686 BC).
. The term
Archaic Period
most importantly, the development of writing in the form of
hiero-
ECONOMY.
ture
a crop surplus to fulfill the populations basic food needs. The excess
crops could be collected, stored, and recirculated. Egypts natural re-
72¥
EARLYDYNASTIC PERIOD
from 237 BC to 57 BC, is located. The
inscriptions include a long text, which may be the text of a ritual play.
Remains of the earlier templehave been uncovered in the founda-
tions. The Edfu
Tombs from the
there, along with a Coptic monastery. Excavations have been per-
EDWARDS, AMELIAANN BLANFORD
¥73
curate study, conservation, and excavation of Egyptian antiquities.
74¥
Abu
, modern Aswan,
UpperEgypt
. The site located on an is-
notably ivory, from which its name in Egyptian and Greek derives.
PredynasticPeriod
. The principal deity worshipped at the main
¥75
Prehistoric Period
from 7000 BC to the 4th century AD
remainsinclude the foundations of the
76¥
Merenptah
; however, the story, as described in Exodus,
is in some respects legendary. Most Egyptologists do not accept the
not the full dramatic account. It has been recently argued that the Ex-
from a Canaanite or Israelite point of view.
FAIENCE.
, votive offerings, vases, and bowls. It con-
lime, and silica, usually but not exclusively blue. The technique was
Predynastic Period
to the Arabic Period.
FARAS.
Modern Arabic name for a site in
in modern Sudan. The earliest remains
includes several churches and a cathedral with frescoes. The site was
Pennsylvania, from 1910…1913 by Francis L. Griffith for the Univer-
sity of Oxford, from 1960…1962 by the Sudan Antiquities Service,
cathedral and much inscriptional evidence. The area was flooded in
1964 by Lake Nasser, the lake formed by the waters of the Aswan
FARFARAOASIS
¥77
OASIS; SIWAOASIS.
FAYUM.
Afertile depression south of
where a large lake was
located during the Pharaonic Period. The area was developed during
Fayum.Several of the rulers were buried either in the Fayum at
. The principal god of the region was the
FAYUM PORTRAITS.
MUMMYPORTRAITS.
FIRSTINTERMEDIATE PERIOD (c. 2181Ð2055 BC).
Dynasty 11
. The era is marked
(Dynasty 11) vied for supreme author-
ity, and the period came to an end with the victory of
FOUNDATION DEPOSITS.
Aseries of ritual objects buried at the
78¥
FAYUM
other materials. They are a useful dating material for construction.
1907. Several directors later became the heads of the Egyptian An-
tiquities Service. At first it organized epigraphic work, copying texts
Deirel-
. The findings of its projects have been pub-
GALERIUS VALERIUS MAXIMIANUS, CAIUS (d. 311).
Emperor. He was born at Serdica in the Balkans. He was named Cae-
GEBELEL-HARIDI
¥79
GEBELEL-SILSILA.
. Asandstone quarry on the
80¥
GEBELEL-SILSILA
appointments, including governor of Germany and Syria. In 19 AD,
¥81
Abdel-Moneim Abu Bakr for the University of Cairo from
and Mark Lehner in 1978, 1980, and since 1989. The University of
Amaterial produced in Egypt beginning in the
. The earliest dated vessel is belongs to the reign of
82¥
was in office at the time of the Persian invasion in 525 BC. Classical
imply that the office may have
continued or been revived on a more modest scale. The tombs of the
Gods wives were built in the precinct of the
GRIFFITH, FRANCIS LLEWELLYN
¥83
. Apalace complex and associated town and
Aterm found in cuneiform documents to signify nomads,
renegades, or mercenaries. They are mentioned in the
84¥
HAPUSENEB (fl. 1470 BC). High priest of Amun
QueenHatshepsut
Valley of the Kings
during Hatshepsuts reign.
HAPY.
He is depicted as a fat, effeminate man with large breasts and marsh
plants on his head. Adifferent god Hapy with a baboon head was one
HARDJEDEF(fl. 2570 BC).
wisdom literature
West-
carPapyrus
. An isolated later text in the
Wadi Hammamat
FRE; DJEDEFRE; KAWAB; KHAFRE.
HAREM CONSPIRACYPAPYRI.
¥85
HARWENNEFER.
HARNEDJITEF(reigned c. 1770 BC).
. He succeeded as high priest of Amun and then
Upon Harsieses death, Osorkon II installed his own son,
MAMA; MAATKARE.
86¥
HARWENNEFER (reigned c. 205Ð199 BC).
mainedin control of
HATSHEPSUT
¥87
stepson became sole ruler. Hatshepsut initially built her
kings wife in the
Wadi Gabbanat al-Qurud
sarcophagus
from thistomb is now housed in the
Cairo Egyptian Museum
Valley of the Kings
. Thutmose III later attempted to
FRUBITY; WOMEN.
HATTUSILI III (fl. 1300Ð1237 BC).
. Youngest
son of Mursili II and Gassuliyawiya. He served with his brother,
fell out with his brothers successor, his nephew,
Urhi-Teshub
ated a famous peace treaty in 1258 BC. His daughter,
ferure
PUDUHEPA.
HAWARA.
was built. The re-
the Labyrinth. The area was excavated by
88¥
HATTUSILI III
HEIRESS CONCEPT.
Atheory invented by Egyptologists whereby
brother…sister marriages by the ruler. The theory was based on the in-
. This concept has now been
¥89
Egyptian Antiquities Service in 1931, and was cleared by his succes-
sor, Walter B. Emery, in 1936.
is speculated that he may have been in charge of the construction of
. Astatue from his tomb is now housed in the
Pelizaeus Museum in Hildesheim, Germany.
EMHATI; APEREL; AY; IMHOTEP; INTEFYOKER; KAGEMNI;
MERERUKA; PASER; PTAHHOTEP; PTAHSHEPSES; RAMESSES
I;REKHMIRE.
90¥
¥91
HERIHOR (fl. 1075 BC). High priest of Amun
in office. He adopted
may not have ended peacefully, as his figure on one
He may have been the first of a line of independent Theban high
UpperEgypt
. The site is virtually destroyed, but there
1929…1939, the University of Alexandria during the late 1940s, vari-
ATEN; TALATAT.
92¥
bride for him from a community family. Hesunebef remained in the
workforce after his patrons death, but the new foreman,
ferhoteps adopted son, was later accused of adulterous relations with
his wife and sexual misconduct with his daughter, who was then
passed on to Panebs son. The truth of this accusation is unclear, but
in his honor.
¥93
dition in 1927, and the
94¥
HIERATIC
conflict of power, and incumbents were often chosen not from the
Theban clergy but from priesthoods in other cities or from court offi-
cials. The reforms of
the influence of the priesthood of Amun.
, the office became more influential and hered-
itary in one family, resulting in a civil war in Thebes under
but took over his office and power. During
control Thebes through the appointment of royal princes as high
, the office was still held
by royal descendants of the dynasty, but it appears to have been sup-
GodÕs wife of Amun
. The office is again attested during the
shorn of political power.
BAKENKHONS; IUPUT; NEB-
WENNEF; PASER; WENNEFER.
HIGH PRIESTOFPTAH.
Chief religious office in the
. The lack of documentation limits knowledge of
the influence and power of this office. As administrator of the main
. There is no evidence of conflict, as is
high priest of Amun
. The officeholders
,and several
family. An inscription listing many of the officeholders and the rulers
history. The office took on new importance during the
survive. The office may have been suppressed by the Roman govern-
HIGH PRIEST OF PTAH
¥95
kingdom in central Anatolia, modern Turkey, which in the second
Anatolia and Syria. The Hittites helped destroy the kingdom of
.The Hittite
96¥
expedition of the
¥97
. The site was excavated by
98¥
IANNAS (reigned c. 1590 BC).
¥99
Ahigh official at the beginning of
. Son of the judge Ineni and the lady Sit-Djehuty. He was in
charge of building works at
of Thutmose I in the
Val-
.He married the lady Iah, by whom he had his son and suc-
cessor,
100¥
INTEFIV(reigned c. 1740 BC).
¥101
IPUT.
102¥
¥103
. The state of Israel was later annexed by the
high priestsof Amun
. The most
Menkheperre
IULIUS ALEXANDER, TIBERIUS (c. 10Ð75 AD).
Roman official.
, son of Alexander Lysimachus, head of
the Jewish community. Alexander served as governor of Judaea (c.
prefect
Vespasian
. He served on the staff of
Titus
Roman dictator. Son of
Caius Iulius Caesar and Aurelia. He had a successful political career
whole of Gaul (modern France and part of Belgium). Attacked by po-
claimed dictator. Caesar defeated his rival,
Pharsalus and followed the latters flight to Egypt, where he discov-
104¥
of
Dynasty 23
¥105
. The city later fell under
composed at a later date. Ahistorical vizier of this name is known
106¥
See
LAHUN.
KALABSHA.
Modern name for the site in
Nubia
. The temple was known during the
and was enlarged and embellished by successive rulers of
high priest of Amun
, under whom Thebesbecame vir-
. The temple
¥107
, it never regained prominence. The site
Variants Karoma, Kamama.The name of several
and mother of his heir,
. Asecond was the wife of
. Another queen, Karomama,
s Prince
Takelot II
high priest of Amun Osorkon
. The motherof
was alsonamedKamama, probably a form of the name. A
bronze
, and electrum, of the Gods
Wife
Karomama
Louvre Museum
KASHTA(fl. c. 750 BC).
Nubian ruler. He appears to have gained con-
his daughter,
GodÕs wife of Amun
KAWAB (fl. 2580 BC).
108¥
duce. These depictions leave little doubt that they are Minoans from
¥109
near the Third
C-group
. The kingdom of Kush was regarded as a major threat
province of Egypt. The site is dominated by two large brick con-
structions known as the Upper Deffufa and the Lower Deffufa of un-
certain usage. The area was excavated by
Boston Museum of Fine Arts
110¥
literature
but not necessarily wise magician. Alike-named son of
Valley
AMENHERKHEPESHEF; MERENPTAH;
, mother and daughter,
Khafre
Menkaure
mother of Menkaure. The younger was buried in a
KHARGAOASIS
¥111
; and since 1998 at El-Deir.
BAHARIYAOASIS; DAKHLAOASIS; FARFARAOASIS;
SIWAOASIS.
KHASEKHEMWY(reigned c. 2710 BC).
112¥
KHENTIKHA(fl. 2225 BC).
. Son of Ima-Pepy II, a previous governor. His
is the most impressive in the series of official tombs. He is also cred-
ited with the building of the governors palace at
1978…1981. The theory that Khentkaues I was a princess of
Sahure
ferirkare
Raneferef
Niuserre
ABUSIR PAPYRI.
ATEN; RE;
KHNUMHOTEPI
¥113
in office, and
114¥
KHNUMHOTEPII
act reign lengths. Other offering lists to deceased kings appear in
. One difficulty with these lists lies in the fact that
coregents
KOM EL-AHMAR SAWARIS
¥115
. The main
UpperEgypt
Greek Ombos. The principal surviving monument consists of a
in the form of Haroeris and their respective wives and sons. The
temple was cleared by the Egyptian Antiquities Service in 1893 and
is being published by a French expedition. The nearby town has not
KOM TALIT.
Ancient Talit, a Graeco-Roman site in the
largely destroyed. It once featured a temple to
116¥
DEIR EL-NAQLUN; GUROB; HARAGEH; HAWARA; KARA-
KOPTOS.
COPTOS.
¥117
Valley of the Kings
Valley of the
. It has stood open since antiquity and was cleared by an Amer-
Valley of the Kings
recorded by James Burton in 1825, although not cleared. American
archaeologist Kent Weeks began clearance in 1987 and found evi-
Turin Egyptian Museum
Valley of the
. It has stood open since antiquity. It was examined by British
Georges Daressy in 1888. Aplan of the tomb can be found on an
Cairo Egyptian Museum
. The kings
royal cache
Deirel-Bahri
Valley of the
by flooding. It has not been throughly excavated until recently, but it
was investigated by a French expedition beginning in 1991. The
kings
royal cache
Deirel-Bahri
118¥
Merenptah
Valley of the
. It has been stood open since antiquity. It was seen by traveler
RichardPococke
HowardCarter
1994…1995. AFrench expedition has been working in the tomb since
2002. The kings
the kings stone
sarcophagi
Tanis
Valley of the
since antiquity. It was seen by traveler
RichardPococke
1820s and Georges Daressy in 1888 and later examined by Edwin
Brock beginning in 1985. The first chambers are inscribed for
for him and usurped by his successor. It is unlikely that a double bur-
ial was intended. The
royal cache
. The head of a
sarcophagus
Valley of the
. It has stood open since antiquity. It was noted by traveler
by Edward Ayrton in 1907 and has been investigated by American ar-
chaeologist Otto Schaden since 1993. The tomb has yielded objects
QueenTakhat
, who may be Amenmesses mother. The
kings
KV11.
Valley of the
. It has stood open since antiquity. The tomb was originally in-
KV11
¥119
sarcophagus
Louvre Museum
. The kings
royal cache
Deirel-Bahri
Valley of the Kings
valley in 1738 and was cleared by James Burton during the 1820s. The
, an official of
Valley of the Kings
uity. Following Bays execution, the tomb was vandalized, and his
. The tomb was cleared by
120¥
. The kings
identified, but an alleged mummy, which was formerly in the Niagara
Falls Museum in Canada and the William C. Carlos Museum in At-
¥121
HowardCarter
Asmall, undecorated
Valley of the Kings
robbed in antiquity. Two female
Valley of the Kings
HowardCarter
and has been reexamined by a Japanese expedition since 1989. The
were found. The kings
royal cache
Tiy
, was also buried in the tomb, as frgaments of her
sarcophagus
Valley
Giovanni BattistaBelzoni
Tutankhamun
by Ay, who buried his predecessor in a lesser tomb. The kings
Asmall, one-chamber
Valley of
John GardnerWilkinson
was found. The tomb probably dates to
Valley of the
vanni BattistaBelzoni
be the original Theban tomb of
122¥
Valley of the
¥123
robbers. It uniquely mentions the kings mother and his wives. The
kings
royal cache
Deirel-Bahri
Valley of the
124¥
Asmall
Valley of the Kings
. The kings
royal cache
inthe
Valley of the
HowardCarter
several private coffins and
Valley of the
been the original occupant, as well as later material.It was examined
Yuya
QueenTiy
and father-in-law
,andhis wife, Tuya, in the
Valley of the Kings
Cairo
¥125
Valley of the Kings
It was discovered by Edward Ayrton in 1905 and cleared inside by
in 1922. The
pedition since 1998. The kings
royal
Asingle, undecorated, single-chamber
Valley of the
. It was discovered by Edward Ayrton in 1906. The tomb had
126¥
¥127
Pacific Lutheran University. It was long suggested that one of the fe-
QueenHatshepsut
firmed that the mummy in the coffin was indeed hers in 2007 by
tooth on the mummy.
Asmall, undecorated pit
Valley of the Kings
Tutankhamun
Valley of the Kings
ber and a storage annex off the antechamber. Only the burial cham-
ber was decorated with painted reliefs. These works of art depict the
funeral of the king carried out by his successor,
tomb was hastily built upon the unexpected death of the king. The
Cairo Egyptian Museum
but the inner coffin and the kings
Valley of the Kings
It was discovered by an American expedition in February 2006. It
consists of one small, undecorated chamber off the main shaft. Seven
coffins, filled mainly with funerary material and 28 storage jars, were
found inside. The tomb is dated to the end of
lahun,where the
128¥
The ancient Egyptian language belongs to the Afro-
Asiatic group of languages and has affinities with both North African
groups separated. The language did not remain unchanged but rather
hieroglyphic
writing. The next phase, Middle Egyptian, was first used
in earlier times. During its long history, the Egyptian language bor-
Ablue gemstone thought to originate in Afghanistan
Predynastic Period
routes. The gem was highly prized and dur-
LATE PERIOD (664Ð332 BC).
Aterm used by Egyptologists for the
Alexanderthe Great
LATE PERIOD
¥129
LEONTOPOLIS.
Ta-remu
, modern Tell
el-Muqdam in the Delta 50 miles north of Cairo. Capital of the 11th
LowerEgypt
. The principal deity was the lion god
. Little is left of the city now. It was examined by
LITERATURE.
130¥
LEONTOPOLIS
literature
¥131
the bee of Upper Egypt. The tutelary goddess
132¥
maat
in their daily lives to ensure passage to the next life and, ac-
cording to religious belief, their heart would be weighed against the
MAATHORNEFERURE (fl. 1245 BC).
in his year 34, c. 1245 BC. The marriage is recorded on
Gurob
BINTANAT; HENTTAWY;
MALKATA
¥133
expedition from Waseda University from 1972…1980 and
134¥
Egypt, there is no evidence of any marriage ceremonies, and it may
¥135
one wife at a time, and certainly this state of affairs was the ideal in
wisdom literature
able but was limited by economic and social pressures. Adivorced
unless guilty of adultery, in which case her financial claims were di-
Polygamy, although permitted, is rarely attested, except for the
king. Total fidelity on the part of men was not realistically expected,
girl, and the offspring were then adopted by the wife.
Aside from the royal family, ancient Egyptians did not marry their
often referred to as a sister as a term of endearment. The king as a god
could marry his sister, although this was not obligatory, and only a
and his sister,
Tao
is uncertain. The practice was revived by some of the Ptolemaic
erty.
MARUTA.
MANHATA.
MASAHARTA(fl. 1044Ð1036 BC)
High priest of Amun
have predeceased him. He was eventually succeeded by his brother,
Menkheperre
royal cache
136¥
MARUTA
MASTABA.
from thelate
Predynastic Period
onward. The super-
mudbrick or stone. Within the core of the superstructure are various
Acity-state in Syria-Palestine that became a vassal of
and forced to surrender. The captured princes were obliged to renew
their allegiance to Egypt. The city and its ruler, Biridiya, appear in the
138¥
of the nomarchs from
. The
reliefs were copied by an expedition sponsored by the
Egypt Explo-
¥139
nastic history. Its principal monument was the
, which is now in ruins but was largely rebuilt by
140¥
MENAS, ST.
ther,
.His pyramid was opened in 1837, and his
sarcophagus
was shipped to London but was lost at sea.The associated
GeorgeReisner
BostonMu-
seum of Fine Arts
MENKHEPERRE (fl. 1060Ð986 BC). High priest of Amun
ceeded his brother,
, at Thebes in year 25 of
ishment of his rivals. Menkheperre held office for approximately 50
THIRD INTERMEDIATE PERIOD.
MENNA(fl. 1395 BC).
Owner ofthe well-preserved
of the fields of the king. The scenes in his
MENTUEMHAT(fl. 700Ð650 BC).
MENTUEMHAT
¥141
large
MENTUHERKHEPESHEF.
. The name was first used for the fifth son of
(fl. 1270 BC). Alike-named son of
tombKV19
Valley of the Kings
MENTUHOTEPI (fl. 2125 BC).
Dynasty 11
FIRSTINTERMEDIATE PERIOD.
MENTUHOTEPII (reigned c. 2055Ð2004 BC).
Wadi el-Hudi
Wadi Hammamat
. The latter
142¥
master.
MENTUHOTEPVÐVII.
. Meryankhre Mentuhotep Vis known from two statues, Se-
wadjre Mentuhotep VI from a fragmentary inscription, and
Sankhenre Mentuhotep VII from some inscriptions and the
Turin
SECOND INTERMEDIATE PERIOD.
MANHATA.
MERENPTAH (reigned c. 1212Ð1202 BC).
¥143
NEFERMAAT; PASER; PTAHHOTEP; PTAHSHEPSES;
Khufus son,
; both were wivesof
Khafre
144¥
MERITAMUN (fl. 1352Ð1338 BC).
Smenkhkare
mate fate is unknown. APrincess
may be her daughter.
PERIOD; ANKHESENAMUN; ANKHESENPAATEN-TASHERIT;
¥145
ther south at Meroe. The rulers were buried in
city. Hostilities with the Egyptian authorities occasionally occurred,
146¥
MERYKARE (reigned c. 2050 BC).
wisdom literature
¥147
instability and pressure from Asiatic neighbors brought about its col-
NEWKINGDOM; OLD KINGDOM.
, he was identified with the god Pan. Near Akhmin, his wife,
ATHRIBIS; RELI-
MINSHATABU OMAR.
148¥
Tadukhepa
. The Mitannian kingdom
the Assyrians toward the end of the second millennium.
WARFARE.
bulls is less documented than that of the Apis.
Asite in
UpperEgypt
ered. The most interesting of these tombs is that of Ankhtifi, who de-
at that time. It was copied by Jacques Vandier,
¥149
HATNUB; MONS CLAUDIANUS; SERABITEL-KHADIM;
WADI EL-HUDI; WADI HAMMAMAT; WADI MAGHARA.
150¥
soul. Mummification efforts were undertaken beginning in the
. The first results were not very successful. The bodies
organs, and then covered with mud to model human features. Only a
MUMMYPORTRAITS
¥151
in the north to
Aswan
in the south.
See also
HIBA, EL-.
MURSILI III.
See
URHI-TESHUB.
MUSIC.
No textual information has survived on ancient Egyptian mu-
sic, but original instruments have been recovered, and musical in-
struments are depicted on
reliefs. Music was used as a back-
ground for songs and hymns and for dancing in a religious context or
152¥
sister,
QueenAhmose
¥153
MYT(fl. 2020 BC).
Also Tamyt. An intended minor wife or daughter
Dynasty 11
Deirel-Bahri
s excavations at the site. Her largely intact
was discovered nearby by an American expedition from the
154¥
NAKHT(fl. 1395 BC).
tronomer. The tomb is decorated with scenes of a blind harper and
NAKHTHORHEB (reigned 360Ð343 BC).
name is Nectanebos, usually rendered as Nectanebo II. Throne name
to the kings
Horemheb
NAKHTNEBEF(reigned 380Ð362 BC).
is Nectanebes, usually rendered as Nectanebo I. Throne name Khep-
. Son of Djedhor, a military officer
¥155
embarked on a major program of refurbishing Egypts
DJEDHOR; NAKHTHORHEB; WARFARE.
, Greek Ombos. Asite in
UpperEgypt
Predynastic Period
156¥
NARMER (reigned c. 3100 BC).
the royal seal of the dynasty. He may be identified with the legendary
Awife of
Valley of the Kings
158¥
are unclear. He was one of the more important rulers of the
Yantin
SECOND INTERMEDIATE PERIOD.
NEFERIRKARE (reigned c. 2475Ð2455 BC).
. According to the later
WestcarPapyrus
Sahure
RANEFEREF.
NEFERMAAT(fl. 2620Ð2580).
,probably under Snefru or
¥159
who appear on a painted fresco now housed in the Ashmolean Mu-
seum of Art and Archaeology in Oxford, United Kingdom. Her fate
ANKHESENAMUN; ANKHESENPAATEN-
NEFERTIRY(fl. 1395 BC).
Awife of King
160¥
NEFERTARI
Dynasty 11
of Dynasty 11 were both named
brother,
husbands funerary complex at
Deirel-Bahri
, married her brother,
See also
NEHESY(reigned c. 1700 BC).
Throne name Aasehre. Ruler of
Tanis
Avaris
Tell Hebua
Avaris, and his rule undoubtedly ex-
LowerEgypt
¥161
nection with war. She was one of the tutelary goddesses protecting
. She married her brother,
NEITHHOTEP(fl. 3080 BC).
The Greek form of his name is Necho. Throne
Menkheperre
or two ladies name of the royal
titulary
and on
the royal crown with the
uraeus
of
162¥
Herodotus
sister-
NEFAARUD.
¥163
and the division of the country,
KINGDOM; OLD KINGDOM; WARFARE.
was no other river. It was the main artery for irrigation and trans-
portation in Egypt. The Nile flooded annually from July to Sep-
164¥
Ankhnesneferibre
cember 586 BC. Asecond Nitocris, daughter of
tined to be the successor of Ankhnesneferibre, but her fate is un-
NIUSERRE (reigned c. 2445Ð2421 BC).
Neferirkare
Raneferef
at Abu Ghurab near
century, and a
and mortuary complex at Abusir excavated
were recovered. The
¥165
166¥
that, although the region is now flooded, its archaeological record is
. The development of the monument was
168¥
ure with a feathered crown holding a crook and flail. He was early
¥169
highpriest of Amun
Tanis
, and hisin-
TAKELOTII.
OSORKON III (reigned c. 777Ð749 BC).
170¥
Period. The site was excavated from 1896…1907 by a British expedi-
from that time were recovered. These
finds included both known and lost literary texts and a large volume
PANEB
¥171
PAPYRUS.
Plural papyri. An aquatic plant found in the swamps of an-
cient Egypt but is now extinct in that country. The name derives from
Greek and probably ancient Egyptian. The pith of the plant was cut
172¥
PAPYRUS
PASER (fl. 1300Ð1255 BC).
¥173
PEFTJAUAWYBAST(reigned c. 730 BC).
174¥
PEFTJAUAWYBAST
Turin Royal Canon
of Iput. Another queen was
PERIBSEN (reigned c. 2760 BC).
Tuna el-Gebel
of his city.
176¥
QasrIb-
from 24…25 BC and in 22 BC. The war ended around 21 BC with a
treaty that fixed the Egyptian border at Maharraqa south of Aswan
of Egypt. The ancient Egyptian term
peraa
The famous Lighthouse of Alexandria and one of the seven
¥177
PHILIPARRHIDAEUS (reigned 323Ð317 BC).
Alexanderthe Great
178¥
PHILIPARRHIDAEUS
high priests of Amun
.Pinudjem I (fl. 1064…26 BC) was the son of
UpperEgypt
. He was an effective ruler of the
¥179
180¥
Predynastic Pe-
PREHERWENEMEF
¥181
of the kings sons (
Valley of the Kings
. Alike-
Valley of the Queens
182¥
AMENEMHATI;
APEREL; AY; HEMIUNU; IMHOTEP; INTEFYOKER; KAGEMNI;
MERERUKA; NEFERMAAT; PASER; PTAHHOTEP; RAMESSES
PTOLEMAIC PERIOD (323Ð30 BC).
and his descendants. The beginning of the pe-
riod varies, as Ptolemy was in charge from 323 BC, but he did not
UpperEgypt
ever, the government was continued from
PTOLEMY
II…PTOLEMYXV.
PTOLEMY(d. 58 BC).
by an unknown mistress. When his brother became
unilaterally annexed by Rome in 58 BC. He was offered the position
of high priest at Paphos but commited suicide. The failure of his
PTOLEMY
¥183
brother, Ptolemy XII, to support him led to a rebellion in Egypt that
PTOLEMYI SOTER (c. 367Ð282 BC).
Son of Lagus and Arsinoe.
the Great
. In 323 BC, upon the death of Alexander the Great, he se-
to Cyprus and parts of Syria, Greece, and Asia Minor. He assumed
184¥
PTOLEMYI SOTER
aggressive policy in Asia in an attempt to gain control of Palestine-
royal family to strengthen his hold on power. The king appears to
PTOLEMYVEPIPHANES (210Ð180 BC).
. He faced difficulties
CleopatraI
PTOLEMYVII NEOS PHILOPATOR
¥185
186¥
her father,
PTOLEMYXII THEOS PHILOPATOR PHILADELPHUS NEOS
PTOLEMYAPION (d. 96 BC).
Cyrene
PTOLEMYEUPATOR (c. 163Ð152 BC).
coregent
PTOLEMYMEMPHITES (c. 144Ð131 BC).
PTOLEMYPHILADELPHUS (b. 36 BC).
Younger son of
Marcus
ALEXANDER HELIOS; CLEOPATRASELENE.
PUDUHEPA(fl. 1285Ð1220 BC).Queen
an important role in his government, especially in foreign policy. She
marriage of her daughter,
Maathorneferure
PUNT.
Acountry located along the Red Sea coast, probably in Soma-
otic products as incense. An expedition sent by
QueenHatshepsut
188¥
PTOLEMYAPION
and had emplacements for massive flagstaffs.
and large
Greek name for the four-sided, triangular-shaped monu-
mastabatombs
vizierImhotep
for his master,
. The stone step
each other covering the burial chamber beneath. The tomb complex
This type of complex was used during the course of the dynasty,
. The pyramids of
Khafre
Menkaure
causeway. The tombs of the
courtiers in mastabas surrounded the kings tomb.
inscribed inside the burial chamber. Pyramid con-
Valley of the Kings
midion were used to mark burials of private individuals. The use of
¥189
and were discovered in 1881. The texts were first discovered in 1880
. After the use of pyramids
-Harakhty.
QAA(reigned c. 2915 BC).
190¥
UpperEgyptia
¥191
that this was not necessarily always the case. The kings mother, if a
QV.
Valley of the Queens
Roman banker. Son
of Caius Curtius and Rabiria. He was adopted by his mothers
brother. He lent money to
and laterfinanced the kings
restoration to the throne in 55 BC to recover his debts. To obtain re-
IuliusCaesar
192¥
RAMESSES I (reigned c. 1295Ð1294 BC).
¥193
RAMESSES III (reigned c. 1186Ð1153 BC).
194¥
RAMESSES VI (reigned c. 1143Ð1136 BC).
¥195
196¥
Mendes
He-
liopolis
Apis
bull cult is attested earlier
in
Dynasty 1
appears to be located at
Saqqara
See also
REISNER, GEORGE ANDREW
¥197
198¥
REISNER PAPYRI
a composite god, like Re-Harakhty or Amun-Re. Various local
as at Heliopolis or Hermopolis conceived different myths of cre-
ation in which their god naturally played the crucial role. The only at-
enlarged through the favor of the king and staffed with priests ap-
and appease the gods. The bulk of the priests inherited their
royal family, the bureaucracy, or the military. He could also shift
priests from one temple to another. Worship was not confined to the
have been largely barred, common folk would have access to small
REPIT.
Greek Triphis. Agoddess whose principal place of worship was
UpperEgypt
Sokar-Osiris
RESHEP.
Deirel-Medina
ANAT; ASTARTE.
RIB-HADDA(fl. 1350Ð1330 BC).
200¥
private property of the Roman ruler, and Roman citizens were not al-
was undertaken, but there was no official recog-
texts. After the court was moved to Constantinople, Egypt was ruled
ROYALCACHES
¥201
through bone structure or DNAhave so far proved inconclusive. The
cliff tomb at Deir el-Bahri was reexamined by a German…Russian ex-
RUDAMUN (reigned c. 734Ð731 BC).
202¥
ecessor,
. The reliefs from the temple de-
expedition, probably to Lebanon. The area was exca-
vated by the German Ludwig Borchardt from 1907…1908. Sahures
, modern Sa el-Hagar, on
¥203
well be identifiable with the first Hyksos ruler.
NAS; KHAYAN.
SALT,HENRY(1780Ð1827).
204¥
SALT, HENRY
. The name seems to have been derived from
OsirisApis
ceased form of the Apis bull worshipped at
. The deity was
other Greek gods, like Dionysius and Aesculapius. Sarapis was pro-
coffins used in the burials of members of the royal family and high
officials that contained the wooden coffin or coffins in which the
of the deceased rested. These first appeared during the
serekh
outside. The sky goddess
. The term
sarcophagus
wooden or cartonnage coffins, but it is now generally restricted to
RISHI COFFIN; TOMB.
SATIRE ON TRADES,THE
Aliterary work composed by
SATRAP
¥205
nobility. The last Persian satrap surrendered to
Alexanderthe Great
206¥
SEAPEOPLES.
Aterm used by the Egyptians for a group of allied for-
. They first appeared as an entity in
Merenptah
Egypt but were driven back and defeated. The Sea Peoples are de-
SECOND INTERMEDIATE PERIOD
¥207
or, according to some, the middle of
SEDMENT.
208¥
SENENMUT(fl. 1479Ð1455 BC).
High official during the reign of
QueenHatshepsut
humble origin. He held the office of chief steward and tutor of
Nefrure
. He was in charge of the queens building works,
Deirel-Bahri
. An important example of his construction work at
hieroglyphs
210¥
the first Egyptian senator was not appointed until 212 AD. Severus
died in York on 4 February 211 AD and was succeeded by his son,
SERABITEL-KHADIM.
, largely replacing
Wadi
ing expeditions have been found. The site was first excavated by Ma-
queen
212¥
tombKV14
Valley of the Kings
¥213
tion. Men were certainly not expected to be monogamous in
mar-
riage
The earliest royal burials of
and
Dynasty 2
were
obliging the figure to carry out any work demanded of him or her.
214¥
for every 10 worker figures. The figures would be
SHALFAK.
¥215
216¥
Maatkare
coregent
with his father.
SHESHONQ III (reigned c. 825Ð785 BC).
¥217
SIAMUN (reigned c. 978Ð950 BC).
218¥
Egypt and is pardoned and welcomed back by the king. The story re-
LITERATURE.
SIPTAH (reigned c. 1196Ð1190 BC).
Throne name Akhenre. Probably
SITAMUN
¥219
SITRE (fl. 1290 BC).Queen
women
used for the preparation of textiles. Slaves seem to have been on the
Hesunebef
, who was freed by his patron and
220¥
of their master or mistress. The Biblical
technically slaves but were subject to indentured labor, as were all
Egyptian subjects. The position of slaves undoubtedly worsened dur-
SMATAWYTEFNAKHT(fl. 340Ð330 BC).
Achief priest of
¥221
SOBEKEMSAF.
. The more im-
portant was Sobekemsaf II, throne name Sekhemre Shedtawy, of
SECOND INTERMEDIATE PERIOD.
SOBEKHOTEP.
bering of whom is not absolutely certain. The most successful ap-
SOBEKHOTEPIII (reigned c. 1740 BC).
222¥
and she was followed by the unstable
Dynasty 13
beginning the
Sec-
ond Intermediate Period
SOKNOPAIOU NESOS
¥223
temples
dedicated to Amen-Re and the de-
ified king himself as Nebmaatre, lord of Nubia. The site also includes
224¥
Ptolemy
V
¥225
STONE.
226¥
STONE
and his coregent,
TADUKHEPA
¥227
of his reign and possibly married his successor,
228¥
TAHARQO
TALATAT.
Akhenatens temples, the blocks were reused as filling in temple con-
so have been preserved. Atalatat block from Hermopolis is the only
Tutankhamun
TALE OF THE DOOMED PRINCE,THE
Astory found in a single
. The hero is an Egyptian prince
and escape from two of his fates. Unfortunately, the manuscript is
TALE OF TRUTH AND FALSEHOOD, THE
¥229
. The hero, Truth, is falsely
accused of theft by his jealous brother, Falsehood. Truth is found
guilty by a tribunal of the gods and blinded. Falsehoods attempt to
then kill his brother is frustrated, and Truth is vindicated and avenged
by his illegitimate son. The story is notable for its admission that the
mother of Truths son.
LITERATURE.
TANIS.
mayor of Tanis. The town was decorated with monuments moved
. The town was excavated by
230¥
TANIS
ten referred to as Tao II since his predecessor, whose throne name
NEFERTARI; KAMOSE.
TAPOSIRIS MAGNA.
Acity west of
Atown of the
RomanPeriod
Breigat. It flourished from the 4th century BC to the early Arabic Pe-
riod. The principal god of the town was Soknebtunis, a form of
¥231
behalf of American heiress Mrs. Phoebe Hearst. Among the objects
Robert H. Lowie Museum of Anthropology at the University of Cal-
ifornia, Berkeley. It was later examined by Italian archaeologists
GUROB; HARAGEH; HAWARA; KARANIS; KOM KHELWA;
232¥
1991, Tell el-Balamun has been excavated by an expedition from the
TELLEL-BORG.
Afortress site in the north Sinai east of
Tell Hebua
was surveyed during the 1990s and excavated by an American expe-
TELLEL-FARKHA
. The site contains buildings and graves that date
Predynastic Period
tic Period. Tell el-Farkha was discovered by an Italian expedition in
KAFR HASSAN DAOUD; MINSHATABU OMAR; TELL
IBRAHIM AWAD.
TELLEL-HERR.
LowerEgypt
try route into Egypt from the east. The remains, which include a
TELLEL-MASKHUTA
¥233
LowerEgypt
Tell er-Rataba
pedition from the University of Toronto from 1978…1985.
TELLEL-YAHUDIYA.
have been excavated. The site has given its name to a form of
234¥
TELLEL-YAHUDIYA
, which was discovered in 1883.She was the mother of
Seealso
Tentamun, daughter of the official Neb-
seny, thus she did not have a royal pedigree since it has been previ-
daughter,
high priest of Amun
how he came to power. He had a long and apparently successful
pyramidtomb
236¥
SecondIntermediate Period
when the princes of Thebes led the
was enlarged and richly en-
dowed. Asecond major temple was built at
within the city.
Valley of the
Valley of the Queens
, while the tombs of the officials were located
in the nearby cliffs. Also on the west bank near the edge of cultiva-
Deirel-Bahri
¥237
THEOPHILUS (345Ð412 AD).
238¥
THUTEMHAT(reigned c. 720 BC).
¥239
THUTMOSE II (reigned c. 1492Ð1479 BC).
Throne name Aakhep-
240¥
the first ruler attested with a Mitannian princess, the daughter of Ar-
¥241
with votive offerings from
name, which associated the king with the goddesses
242¥
TITULARY, ROYAL
TIY(fl. 1400Ð1340 BC).
Yuya
and Tuya. She was already married in year 2 of the reign and is
and probably his elder brother, the crown prince
, who predeceased his father, as well as several daughters, no-
tah. Tiy survived into the reign of her son and is depicted at
TOMB
¥243
UpperEgypt
for the elite to be buried in rock-cut tombs in the cliffs that lined the
Valley. The scenes in the tombs could be painted on a mud plas-
ter base or more elaborately carved into the rock. The bulk of these
and elsewhere. The royal family adopted this
244¥
TOMB ROBBERYPAPYRI
Temples
TUNAEL-GEBEL
¥245
tombs
from the
to the
Roman Period
tably that of
246¥
his sister,
; and his daughter,
Tadukhepa
, to Amenhotep III and then
statue now housed in the Vatican Museum in Rome. He used his in-
UGARIT.
Amajor town and seaport on the eastern Mediterranean coast
248¥
Name for the cobra, representing the goddess
URONARTI.
¥249
VALLEYOFTHE KINGS.
Known in Arabic as Biban el-Moluk. A
secluded desert area in the cliffs on the west bank of the Nile oppo-
. There are 62
there, mainly in the eastern valley. It is probable that the first
location. Apart from kings, there are tombs of some princes and fa-
vored courtiers. The tombs were constructed by a crew of royal work-
Deirel-Medina
. The walls of the tombs were decorated
formation. The last tomb built was that of
250¥
were constructed. The
. The area
QV.
VESPASIAN (9Ð79 AD).
Roman emperor. Full name Titus Flavius
Vespasianus. Son of Titus Flavius Sabinus and Vespasia Polla. He
¥251
WADI EL-HUDI.
252¥
WADI EL-HUDI
WADI MAGHARA.
Dynasty3
. The area is noted for important royal inscriptions
AKORIS; GEBELEL-HARIDI;
GEBELEL-SILSILA; HATNUB; MONS CLAUDIANUS; MONS
PORPHYRITES; SERABITEL-KHADIM; WADI EL-HUDI;
WADI HAMMAMAT.
WADI NATRUN.
, or two ladies,Ž name in the royal
titulary
and
as the
uraeus
on the royal crown. During the
Late Period
, she is
often represented as a lioness-headed goddess.
See also
WADJMOSE (fl. 1504Ð1490 BC).
254¥
WADJMOSE
Arabs, who overran Egypt in 642 AD.
WEGAF(reigned c. 1795Ð1792 BC).
ATE PERIOD.
WEIGHING OFTHE HEART.
, representing truth and righteousness. Avirtuous heart
voured by a monster and hence denied an afterlife. The
deceased to enter the afterlife without difficulty. Aheart
¥255
Cairo Egyptian Mu-
. During his career, he managed quarrying expeditions to
Tura
, commanded a military expedition against Asiatic
Also known as Parennefer.
probablyin the reigns of
Tutankhamun
Horemheb
at Thebes by a German expedition from 1990…1993
revealed his true chronology. His son, Amenemone, served in the
BAKENKHONS; NEBWENNEF; PASER.
256¥
persuaded to devote his studies to Egyptology, and from 1821…1833
Valley of the Kings
. Wilkin-
The Manners
and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians
(1837). He died in Llandovery,
Wales, on 29 October 1875.
WINLOCK, HERBERTEUSTIS (1884Ð1950).
gist. He was born in Washington, D.C., on 1 February 1884. He was
¥257
court in their own capacity and not with a male guardian. The wife
husband was not expected. Women found it difficult to exercise their
258¥
WARFARE.
LowerEgypt
¥259
inaccurately that he was unaware of his work. Young died in London
YUYA(fl. 1390Ð1360 BC).
High official. Father of
Tiy
and father-in-
. He and his wife, Tuya, were given the honor
Valley of the Kings
Cairo
ZANNANZA(fl. 1327).
Tu-
on the way, and his father blamedthe new Egyptian ruler
260¥
YUYA
to
Ptah
and
¥261
Note:All dates before 690 BC are approximate. Some dynasties or kings
were contemporary with each other. Revisions of Egyptian chronology
are ongoing and will often differ in other publications. An asterisk in-
PREDYNASTIC PERIODC. 5000Ð3100 BC
EARLYDYNASTIC PERIODC. 3100Ð2686 BC
C. 2686Ð2181 BC
Third Dynasty
c. 2686Ð2617 BC
264¥
FIRST INTERMEDIATE PERIODC. 2181Ð2000 BC
Seventh/Eighth Dynastiesc. 2181Ð2125 B
Ninth/Tenth Dynasties
MIDDLE KINGDOM
C. 2040Ð1795 BC
Kings of Egypt
Twelfth Dynasty
¥265
Nymaatre Amenemhat III1855…1808 BC
Maakherure Amenemhat IV1808…1799 BC
SECOND INTERMEDIATE PERIODC. 1795Ð1550 BC
Khutawyre Wegaf
Sekhemkare Amenemhat V
266¥
Merkare Sobekhotep VII
Fifteenth Dynasty (Hyksos)c. 1650Ð1550 B
Salitis (Seker-her)
Meruserre Yaqub-her
¥267
Sekhemre-herhermaat Intef VII
Seqenenre Taa
Wadjkheperre Kamose
Nebpehtyre Ahmose I
1550…1525 BC
Djeserkare Amenhotep I
1525…1504 BC
Aakheperkare Thutmose I1504…1492 BC
Aakheperenre Thutmose II1492…1479 BC
Menkheperre Thutmose III1479…1425 BC
Aakheperure Amenhotep II1425…1400 BC
Menkheperure Thutmose IV1400…1390 BC
Nebmaatre Amenhotep III1390…1352 BC
Neferkheperure waenre Amenhote
p IV(Akhenaten)
Neferneferuaten Smenkhkare1338…1336 BC
Nebkheperure Tutankhamun1336…1327 BC
Kheperkheperure Ay
1327…1323 BC
Djeserkheperure Horemheb1323…1295 BC
268¥
¥269
THIRD INTERMEDIATE PERIODC. 1069Ð656 BC
Twenty-First Dynasty
270¥
¥271
LATE PERIOD
Twenty-Sixth Dynasty (Saite)664Ð525 BC
Wahibre Psamtek I
Wehemibre Nekau II
Haaibre Wahibre (Apries)589…570 BC
Khnemibre Ahmose II (Amasis)
Twenty-Seventh Dynasty
272¥
¥273
274¥
238…244 AD
Gallus and Volusianus
251…253 AD
Valerian
¥275
SATRAPS OF EGYPT
276¥
Tiberius Iulius Alexander66…70 AD
Lucius Peducaeus Colon70…72 AD
Tiberius Iulius Lupus
72…73 AD
*Valerius Paulinus
73 AD
¥277
Titus Flavius Piso
278¥
*Aurelius Appius Sabinus249…250 AD
252 AD
252…253 AD
Lucius Titinius Clodianus
otherwise Consultius (acting)252…253 AD
Titus Magnius Felix
257…258 AD
258 AD
Lucius Mussius Aemilianus
otherwise Aegippius (acting)259…261 AD
262…263 AD
264 AD
267 AD
*Tenagino Probus
270 AD
Iulius Marcellinus (acting)270 AD
270…272 AD
273…274 AD
279…280 AD
283…284 AD
Marcus Aurelius Diogenes284/286 AD
285 AD
286 AD
Caius Valerius Pompeianus287…290 AD
*Titius Honoratus
290…292 AD
292/293 AD
c. 295 AD the Thebaid with Middle
Egypt was split off and made
297 AD
297…298 AD (in rebellion)
*Aurelius Rusticianus (acting)298 AD
298…299 AD
¥279
324/325 apart from the Thebaid
303…306 AD
307 AD
Valerius Victorinus
308 AD
308…309 AD
Titinnius Clodianus
c. 310 AD
314 AD
280¥
Flavius Ulpius Erythrius388 AD
Gennadius Torquatus
396 AD
c. 422 AD
c. 443 AD
¥281
518…523 AD
Victor
631…640, 641…642 AD
PATRIARCHS OF ALEXANDRIA
The names and dates of the first eleven patriarchs are traditional. Some
of the later dates of office can vary according to authorities.
282¥
Timothy I
380…385 AD
412…444 AD
44…451 AD, deposed
451…457 AD, not recognized by
Timothy II
457…460 AD, deposed
Timothy III
60…475 AD, deposed, not
Timothy II
restored 474…477 AD
Timothy III
restored 477…482 AD, not
482 AD, not recognized by the
¥283
608…609 AD, not recognized by
631…642 AD, not recognized by
284¥
Note:An asterisk indicates large
1333 Buenos Aires
South Australian Museum
North Terrace
South Australia 5000
Museum of Victoria
286¥
Prague
Náprstkovo Muzeum
¥287
Aix-en-Provence
288¥
Place de Verdun
¥289
290¥
Georg-Treu-Platz, 1
¥291
Martin von Wagner Museum der
D-97070 Würzburg
National Archaeological Museum
292¥
Civico Museo Archeologico
24100 Bergamo
Museo Civico Archeologico*
Via dellArchiginnasio, 2
Museo Civico Archeologico P
¥293
Piazza V. Emanuele II, 14
Trieste
Via Cattedrale, 15
34121 Trieste
Turin
Via Accademia delle
I-10123 Torino
Venice
294¥
¥295
Av. Berna 45
Museu Nacional de Arqueologia
Colecção de Antiguidades
Volchonka, 12
296¥
Institute of Egyptology
¥297
Werner Abeggstrasse, 67
3132 Riggisberg
Sammlung für Völkerkunde
Yverdon-les-Bains
1400 Yverdon
Odessa Archaeological Museum
Vul. Lastochkina, 4
Aberdeen AB9 1AS
Aylesbury
Bexley
Bexley Museum
Hall Place
298¥
Williamson Art Gallery and
Wirral L43 4UE
Department of Antiquities
Blackburn Museum and Art
¥299
Archaeology and Anthropology
300¥
Oriental Museum*
University of Durham
¥301
Old Speech Room Gallery
Harrow School
KingÕs Lynn
Kings Lynn Museums
302¥
Lincolns Inn Fields
London WC2A3BP
Victoria and Albert Museum
West Park Museum
¥303
Maidstone Museum and Art
304¥
Ure Museum of Greek
Archaeology
Department of Classics
¥305
Stoke on Trent
City Museum and Art Gallery
Stoke on Trent ST1 3DW
The Wellcome Museum of
University of Wales Swansea
306¥
Windsor
¥307
University of Chicago
308¥
Brooklyn, NY11238-6052
¥309
Seattle, Washington
Seattle Art Museum
Volunteer Park
Seattle, WA98112
St. Louis, MO 63110
Toledo, Ohio
Toledo Museum of Art
310¥
General Works312
History313
Nubia324
Archaeology: General324
Archaeology: Excavations and Surveys325
Art and Architecture383
Pyramids and Obelisks385
Religion385
Mummification and Funerary Practices387
312¥
The Egyptians:An Introduction
Posener, Georges.
¥313
Ancient Egypt:Anatomy of a Civilization
OConnor, David, and David P. Silverman, eds.
314¥
Wengrow. David.
The Archaeology of Early Egypt
Wilkinson, Toby.
Genesis of the Pharaohs
. London: Thames & Hudson, 2003.
. London: Thames & Hud-
¥315
The Hyksos Period in Egypt
Pharaohs and Mortals:Egyptian Art in the Middle Kingdom
Favry, Nathalie.
Le nomarque sous le rgne de SŽsostris Ier
Fay, Biri.
The Louvre Sphinx and Royal Sculpture from the Reign of Amenemhat
Die Besiedlung €gyptens wŠhrend des Mittleren Reiches
vols. Beihefte zum Tübinger Atlas des Vorderen Orients B 66. Wiesbaden,
Germany: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, 1986.
316¥
¥317
The Amarna Age:Egypt
. The Australian Centre of Egyptol-
ogy. Warminster, G. B.: Aris & Phillips, 2001.
Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1999.
Das Ende der Amarnazeit
Beiträge 7. Hildesheim, Germany: Gerstenberg, 1978.
Martin, Geoffrey T. M.
A Bibliography of the Amarna Period and Its Aftermath:
The Reigns of Akhenaten,Smenkhkare,Tutankhamun,and Ay (c. 1350Ð1321
Akhenaten:History,Fantasy,and Ancient Egypt
Moran, William L.
318¥
King Tutankhamun:The Treasures of the Tomb
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James, T. G. Henry.
Great Pharaohs
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Fisher, Marjorie M.
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Chaemwese,Sohn RamsesÕII und Hohenpriester vonMem-
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James, T. G. Henry.
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Tyldesley, Joyce.
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Vernus, Pascal.
Affairs and Scandals in Ancient Egypt
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320¥
Jansen-Winkeln, Karl.
€gyptische Biographien der 22. und 23. Dynastie
. Wies-
„.
Inschriften der SpŠtzeit I:Die 21. Dynastie
. Wiesbaden: Otto Harras-
Die politische Geschichte €gyptens vom 7. bis zum 4.
Jahrhundert vor der Zeitwende
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Bowman, Alan K.
Egypt after the Pharaohs,332 BCÐAD 642:From Alexander
to the Arab Conquest
Burstein, Stanley.
The Reign of Cleopatra
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Augustan Egypt:The Creation of a Roman Province
and New York, Routledge, 2005.
Graeco-Roman Egypt
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Hölbl, Günther.
AltŠgypen im Ršmischen Reich
many, Philipp von Zabern, 2000…2004.
„.
A History of the Ptolemaic Empire
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Cleopatra:A Sourcebook
322¥
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Adams, William Y.
Nubia,Corridor to Africa
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324¥
Vandier, Jacques.
Manuel dÕarchŽologie Žgyptienne
. 6 vols. Paris: Éditions A.
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Abu Mina II:Das Baptisterium
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Abteilung Kairo. Archäologische Veröffentlichungen 54. Mainz am Rhein,
Rapport sur les fouilles dÕAbu-Roasch
The Brick Pyramid at Abu Rawash Number ÒIÓby Lepsius:A
Preliminary Study
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MacQuitty, William.
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Abu Simbel,Aswan,and the Nubian Temples
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Kairo. Archäologische Veröffentlichungen 86. Mainz am Rhein, Germany:
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ogische Veröffentlichungen 92. Mainz am Rhein, Germany: Philipp von
328¥
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Topography and Excavation of Heracleion-Thonis and East
Canopus (1996Ð2006). Underwater Archaeology in the Canopic Region in
. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford Centre for Maritime Archaeology, 2007.
Goddio, Franck, and André Bernard.
Sunken Egypt
Sunken Treasures
330¥
Venit, Marjorie S.
Monumental Tombs of Ancient Alexandria:The Theater of
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The Royal Tomb at el-Amarna
332¥
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Tell el-DabÕa III:Die Tierknochenfunde 1966Ð1969
. Vi-
enna, Austria: Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1976.
Boessneck, Joachim, and Angela von den Driesch.
Tell el-DabÕa VII:Tiere und
historische Umwelt im Norost-Delta im Jahrtausend anhand der Knochen-
funde der Ausgrabungen 1975Ð1986.
Vienna, Austria: Österreichische
Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1991.
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iches
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Tell el-DabÕa X:The Palace District of Avaris. The Pottery of
the Hyksos Period and the New Kingdom (Areas H/III and H/VI),Part I:Lo-
. Vienna, Austria: Östereichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2000.
Tell el-DabÕa I:Tell el-DabÕa and Qantir. The Site and Its Con-
nection with Avaris and Piramesse
. Vienna, Austria: Östereichische
Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2001.
334¥
¥335
Bagnall, Roger S., Christina Helms, and Arthur Verhoogt.
Documents from
Berenike IÐII
336¥
The New-Kingdom Temples of Buhen
Von der Way, Thomas.
Tell el-Fara”n:Buto I.Ergebnisse zum fruhen Kontext
Kampagnen der Jahre 1983Ð1989
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Abteilung Kairo. Archäologische Veröffentlichungen 83. Mainz am Rhein,
Herbert, Sharon C., and Andrea M. Berlin.
per Egypt,1987Ð1992
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The Oasis Papers III
Castel, Georges, and Laure Pantalacci.
Gardner, Iain.
Kellis Literary Texts IÐII
338¥
Willeitner, Joachim.
Die Šgyptischen Oasen
Winlock, Herbert E., ed.
Archäologische Veröffentlichungen 8. Mainz am Rhein, Germany: Philipp
„.
Der Tempel des Kšnigs Mentuhotep von Deir el-Bahari II:Die Wan-
dreliefs des Sanktuares
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Kairo. Archäologische Veröffentlichungen 11. Mainz am Rhein, Germany:
„.
Der Tempel des Kšnigs Mentuhotep von Deir el-Bahari III:Die
Kšniglichen Beigaben
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Archäologische Veröffentlichungen 23. Mainz am Rhein, Germany: Philipp
„.
The Temple of Mentuhotep at Deir el-Bahari
¥339
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Deir el-Bahari IV:The Temple of Tuthmosis IV. Statuary and Votive
. Warsaw, Poland: PWN-Éditions scientifiques de Pologne, 1984.
Deir el-Bahari I:Les inscriptions hiŽratiques du temple de
. Warsaw, Poland: PWN-Éditions scientifiques de Pologne,
La trouvaille de Deir-el-bahari
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The Temple of Deir el-Bahari
Winlock, Herbert E.
Excavations at Deir el-Bahari,1911Ð1931
. New York:
„.
340¥
¥341
Directing Deir el-Medina. The External Administration of the
Necropolis
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ogy and Ancient History, 2002.
The Tomb of Sennedjem (TT1) in Deir el-Medina.Palaeography
Helck, Wolfgang.
Die datierten und datierbaren Ostraka,Papyri,und Graffiti
. Wiesbaden, Germany: Otto Harrassowitz, 2002.
342¥
Wild, Henri.
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Blackman, Aylward.
The Temple of Derr
fentlichungen 116. Mainz am Rhein, Germany: Philipp von Zabern, 2003.
Bresciani, Edda, Daniele Foraboschi, and Sergio Pernigotti.
Dreyer, Günter.
Edel, Elmar.
344¥
Veröffentlichungen 43. Mainz am Rhein, Germany: Philipp von Zabern,
Archäologische Veröffentlichungen 25. Mainz am Rhein, Germany: Philipp
Elephantine IV:The Sanctuary of Heqaib
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ogisches Institut. Abteilung Kairo. Archäologische Veröffentlichungen 33.
Elephantine III:Die Terrassen vor den Tempeln des Chnum und
gische Veröffentlichungen 32. Mainz am Rhein, Germany: Philipp von
Elephantine XVII:Die Dekoration des Chnumtempels auf Ele-
phantine durch Nektanebos II
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Abteilung Kairo. Archäologische Veröffentlichungen 90. Mainz am Rhein,
Elephantine XI:Funde und Bauteile
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ches Institut. Abteilung Kairo. Archäologische Veröffentlichungen 49. Mainz
Elephantine XV:Die Dekorfragmente der
ptolemŠisch-ršmischen Tempel von Elephantine
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Institut. Abteilung Kairo. Archäologische Veröffentlichungen 73. Mainz am
Niederberger, Walter.
Elephantine XX:Der Chnumtempel NektanebosÕII
Deutsches Archäologisches Institut. Abteilung Kairo. Archäologische Veröf-
Elephantine XVIII:Untersuchungen zur Stadt Ele-
phantine im mittleren Reich under der Zweiten Zwischenzeit
Archäologisches Institut. Abteilung Kairo. Archäologische Veröffentlichun-
Porten, Bezalel, J. Joel Farber, Cary J. Martin, Gunter Vittmann, Leslie S. B.
MacCoull, Sarah Clackson, Simon Hopkins, and Ramon Katzoff.
phantine Papyri in English
che Veröffentlichungen 107. Mainz am Rhein, Germany: Philipp von
¥345
Elephantine XXXIV:Restitution architecturale ˆ partir des
Elephantine XVI:Befestigungsanlagen und Stadtentwicklung
in der FrŸhzeit und im frŸhen Alten Reich
. Deutsches Archäologisches Insti-
tut. Abteilung Kairo. Archäologische Veröffentlichungen 87. Mainz am
„.
Elephantine XXVIII:Die Baustrukteren der alteren Satdt (Fruhzeit und
Altes Reich)
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ogische Veröffentlichungen 108. Mainz am Rhein, Germany: Philipp von
Bingen, Jean, and Willy Clarysse.
Elkab III:Les ostraca grecs
346¥
Downes, Dorothy.
The Excavations at Esna,1905Ð1906
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Les Architraves du temple dÕEsna. PalŽographie
Sauneron, Serge.
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Caton-Thompson, Gertrude, and Ernest W. Gardner.
The Desert Fayum
don: Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 1934.
348¥
¥349
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350¥
Weeks, Kent R.
¥351
che Veröffentlichungen 63. Mainz am Rhein, Germany: Philipp von Zabern,
352¥
Perez-Die, Maria del Carmen, and Pascal Vernus.
Medina (Heracleopolis Magna)
. Vol. 1.Madrid, Spain: Ministerio de Cul-
¥353
fentlichungen 1. Berlin, Germany: Gebr. Mann, 1970.
Wadi Qitna and Kalabsha South. Vol. 1.Archaeology
Czech Republic: Charles University, 1984.
Wright, George R. H.
Kalabsha:The Preserving of the Temple
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gen 2. Berlin, Germany: Gebr. Mann, 1972.
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Kalabsha III. The Ptolemiac Sanctuary of Kalabsha
Archäologisches Institut. Abteilung Kairo. Archäologische Veröffentlichun-
Boak, Arthur E.
Karanis:The Temple,Coin Hoards,Botanical and Zoological
Reports,Seasons 1924Ð1931
. Ann Arbor: University ofMichigan, 1933.
354¥
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Papyri from Karanis
. 3rd series. London: American Philological Asso-
Pottery from Karanis
. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan,
Riad, Henry, and John C. Shelton.
A Tax-List from Karanis
Rudolf Habelt Verlag, 1975.
Shier, Louise.
Terracotta Lamps from Karanis,Egypt
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Youtie, Herbert C., John G. Winter, eds.
Papyri and Ostraca from Karanis
series. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 1944…1951.
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Tax Rolls from Karanis
. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 1936…1939.
Amer, Amin A. M. A.
The Gateway of Ramesses IX in the Temple of Amun at
. Warminster, G.B.: Aris & Philipps, 1999.
Karnak dans lÕobjectif de Georges
Legrain
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The Temple of Khonsu
Gohary, Jocelyn.
AkhenatenÕs Sed-Festival at Karnak
356¥
Reisner, George A.
Excavations at KermaIÐV
Peabody Museum of Harvard University, 1923.
La vŽgŽtation antique de Douch (Oasis
de Kharga)
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Schenkel, Wolfgang, and Farouk Gomaà.
Scharuna I. Die Grabungsplatz. Die
Nekropole. GrŠber aus der Alten-Reichs-Nekrople
Cagle, Anthony.
The Spatial Structure of Kom el-Hisn:An Old Kingdom Town
in the Western Nile Delta,Egypt
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Coulson, William D. E., and Albert Leonard.
Cities of the Delta I:Naukratis:
Preliminary Report on the 1977Ð1978 and 1980 Seasons
Kom OmboI
Morgan, Jacques de, Urbain Bouriant, Georges Legrain, Gustave Jéquier, and
Kom Ombos
. 2 vols. Vienna, Austria: A. Holzhausen,
Collier, Mark, and Stephen Quirke.
358¥
. New
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Das Sanktuar Amenophis,III im Luxor Tempel
ture 3. Tokyo: Waseda University, 1986.
Brunner, Hellmut.
Die sŸdlichen RŠume des Tempels von Luxor
Archäologisches Institut. Abteilung Kairo. Archäologische Veröffentlichun-
Epigraphic Survey.
Reliefs and Inscriptions at Luxor Termple I:The Festival
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.
80…81. Mainz am Rhein, Germany: Philipp von Zabern, 1986…1990.
360¥
¥361
Blackman, Aylward M.
The Rock Tombs of Meir
362¥
Hall, Emma S., and Bernard V
Bothmer.
. Warminster, G.B.: Aris 7
Excavations at Mendes. Vol I The Royal Necropolis
Junker, Hermann.
VorlŠufer Bericht Ÿber die Grabung der Akademie der Wis-
senschaften in Wien auf der neolitischen Siedlung von Merimde-Beni
. 6 vols. Vienna, Austria: 1929…1940.
¥363
Second Cataract Forts. Vol. II. Uronarti Shalfak Mirgissa
Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1967.
Vercoutter, Jean.
Mirgissa
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Vandier, Jacques.
364¥
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Coulson, William D. E.
Ancient Naukratis II,Part I:The Survey at Naukratis
Coulson, William D. E., and Albert Leonard.
Cities of the Delta I:Naukratis:
Preliminary Report on the 1977Ð1978 and 1980 Seasons
Gardner, Ernest A.
Naukratis II
Möller, Astrid.
Naukratis. Trade in Archaic Greece
366¥
Adams, William Y.
Qasr Ibrim:The Late Medieval Period
¥367
Le Ramesseum I:Hypostle N
368¥
Bresciani, Edda, S. Pernigotti, S. El Naggar, and F. Silvano.
Saqqara I:Tomba
di Boccori. La Galleria di Padineit
„.
La Tomba di Ciennehebu,Capo della Flotta del Re
Une rue de tombeaux ˆ Saqqarah
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The Sacred Animal Necropolis at North Saqqara:Mother of Apis
¥369
James, T. G. Henry.
370¥
„.
Moussa, Ahmed M., and Hartwig Altenmüller.
Saqqara:Das Grab des Ni-
anchchnum und Chnumhotep
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Kairo. Archäologische Veröffentlichungen 21. Mainz am Rhein, Germany:
„.
The Tomb of Nefer and Ka-Hay
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Abteilung Kairo. Archäologische Veröffentlichungen 5. Mainz am Rhein,
¥371
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Excavations at Saqqara (1907Ð1908)
. Cairo: Service des Antiquités de
„.
Excavations at Saqqara (1908Ð1909,1909Ð1910):The Monastery of
Apa Jeremias
. Cairo: Service des Antiquités de lÉgypte, 1912.
„.
Excavations at Saqqara (1911Ð1912):The Tomb of Hesy
des Antiquités de lÉgypte, 1913.
„.
Excavations at Saqqara (1912Ð1914):Archaic Mastabas
vice des Antiquités de lÉgypte, 1923.
Quibell, James E., and Angelo Hayter.
372¥
Dunham, Dows, and Jozef M. A. Janssen.
Second Cataract Forts. Vol. 1. Semna
Kumma
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Tanis
Cahiers de Tanis I
Tanis. Travaux RŽcents sur le
Tell S‰n el-Hagar. Mission Franaise des fouilles de Tanis 1987Ð1997
„.
Tanis. Travaux RŽcents sur le Tell S‰n el-Hagar 2. Mission Franaise
des fouilles de Tanis 1997Ð2000
Papyri from Tebtunis
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Tebtynis I
374¥
Grenfell, Bernard, and Arthur Hunt, and P. M. Meyer.
Tebtunis Papyris IÐIII
London: Henry Frowde and Humphrey, Milford, 1902…1933.
Tebtynis IV:Les Habitations ‡ lÕest du Temple de
Husselman, Elinor.
Papyri from Tebtunis II
. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan
Papyri from Tebtunis IV
in ršmerzeitlichen Fajum
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Rondot, Vincent.
. London: Egypt Ex-
¥375
Tell el-Maskhuta
Holladay, John S.
Cities of the Delta III:Tell el-Maskhuta
The Store-City of Pithom and the Route of the Exodus
Tell el-Yahudiya
The Mound of the Jew and the City of Onias
„.
Grabung im Asasif 1963Ð1970 I. Das Grab des Jnj-jtj.f:Die Architec-
. Deutsches Archäologisches Institut. Abteilung Kairo. Archäologische
Veröffentlichungen 4. Mainz am Rhein, Germany: Philipp von Zabern, 1971.
Das Grab des Amenemope (TT41):Theben III
„.
Grabung im Asasif 1963Ð1970 II. Das Grab des Basa (Nr. 389) in der
thebanischen Nekropole
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Kairo. Archäologische Veröffentlichungen 6. Mainz am Rhein, Germany:
„.
Grabung im Asasif 1963Ð1970 VI. Das Grab des Mutirdis
Archäologisches Institut. Abteilung Kairo. Archäologische Veröffentlichun-
„.
Sonnenhymnen in Thebanischen GrŠber:Theben I
376¥
Brack, Annelies, and Artur Brack.
Das Grab des Haremheb:Theben Nr. 78
Deutsches Archäologisches Institut. Abteilung Kairo. Archäologische Veröf-
„.
Das Grab des Tjanuni:Theban Nr. 74
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stitut. Abteilung Kairo. Archäologische Veröffentlichungen 19. Mainz am
Burkard, Günter.
Grabung im Asasif 1963Ð1970 III. Die Papyrusfunde
Deutsches Archäologisches Institut. Abteilung Kairo. Archäologische Veröf-
The Tomb of Ken-amun at Thebes
„.
Die GrŠber des Vezirs User-Amun:Theben Nr. 61 und 131
Archäologisches Institut. Abteilung Kairo. Archäologische Veröffentlichun-
Dziobek, Eberhard, and Mahmud Abdel Raziq.
Das Grab des Sobekhotep:
Theben Nr. 63
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Archäologische Veröffentlichungen 71. Mainz am Rhein, Germany: Philipp
¥377
Das Grab des Ibi
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Die GrŠber des Nacht-Min und des Men-cheper-Ra-Seneb:Theben Nr.
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gische Veröffentlichungen 34. Mainz am Rhein, Germany: Philipp von
Habachi, Labib, and Pierre Anus.
Hofmann, Eva.
Kákosy, László, Tamás A. Bács, Zoltán Bartos, Zoltán I. Fábián, and Ern
. Budapest, Hungary: Ar-
chaeolingua Alapítvány, 2004.
Theben XII:Die thebanische Nekropole
Kuhlmann, Klaus, and Wolfgang Schenkel.
Das Grab des Ibi,Obergutsver-
walters der Gottesgemahlin des Amun (Thebanischen Grab Nr. 36) I
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378¥
Lost Ramesside Tombs and Late Period Tombs in the Theban
Necropolis
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lications 33. Copenhagen, Denmark: Museum Tusculanum Press. 2007.
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Lost Tombs
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The Wall Decoration of Three Theban Tombs (TT 77,175,and 249)
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Copenhagen, Denmark: Museum Tusculanum Press, 1988.
Mostafa, Maher F.
Das Grab des Neferhotep und des Meh:Theben VIII
The Tomb of Simut (Kyky):Theban Tomb 409 at Qurnah
Warminster, G.B.: Aris & Phillips, 1997.
Das Grab des Hui und des Kel:Theben Nr. 54
Archäologisches Institut. Abteilung Kairo. Archäologische Veröffentlichun-
The Akhenaten Temple Project 4:The
Tomb of Reca
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Sen-nefer. Die Grabkammer des BŸrger-
meisters von Theben
el-Saady, Hassan.
The Tomb of Amenhab No. 44 at Qurnah
. Warminster, G.B.:
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ogisches Institut. Abteilung Kairo. Archäologische Veröffentlichungen 14.
Säve-Söderbergh, Torgny.
Private Tombs at Thebes
The Tomb of Tjanefer at Thebes
Seidel, Matthias, and Abdel Ghaffar Shedid.
Das Grab des Nacht
Das Grab des Amonmose (TT 373):Theben IV
„.
Das Grab des Djehutiemhab (TT 194):Theben VII
„.
Das Grab des Paenkhemenu (TT 68) und die Anlage TT 227:Theben VI
The Tombs of Amenhotep,Khnummose,and Amenmose at
Thebes (Nos. 294,253,and 254)
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Strudwick, Nigel, and John H. Taylor.
The Theban Necropolis:Past,Present,
and Future
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Vandier dAbbadie, Jeanne.
380¥
Veröffentlichungen 20. Mainz am Rhein, Germany: Philipp von Zabern,
¥381
Temple on the Pyramid of Thebes
Timna
Rothenberg, Benno.
The Egyptian Mining Temple at Timna
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Wadi el-Hudi
Fakhry, Ahmed.
Egyptian Art:In the Days of the Pharaohs,3100Ð320 BC
don: Thames & Hudson, 1980.
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The Encyclopedia of Ancient Egyptian Architecture
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Aufrère, Sydney, and Jean-Claude Golvin.
LÕƒgypte restituŽe
Badawy, Alexander.
A History of Egyptian Architecture
Bothmer, Bernard V.
Egyptian Sculpture of the Late Period 700 BC to AD 100
New York: Arno Press, 1969.
Davies, Nina M., and Alan H. Gardiner.
Ancient Egyptian Painting
Egyptian Rock-cut Tombs
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The Mysterious Fayum Portraits:Faces from Ancient
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384¥
Architecture and Mathematics in Ancient Egypt
Egyptian Sculpture
Cairo and Luxor
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of Texas Press, 1989.
Schäfer, Heinrich.
Principles of Egyptian Art
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Shore, A. F.
Portrait Painting from Roman Egypt
Smith, W. Stevenson.
The Art and Architecture of Ancient Egypt
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Spencer, A. Jeffrey.
Brick Architecture in Ancient Egypt
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Walker, Susan, and Morris Bierbrier.
Ancient Faces
The Pyramids of Egypt
Fakhry, Ahmed.
The Pyramids
Jenkins, Nancy.
The Boat beneath the Pyramid
King CheopsÕRoyal Ship
don: Thames & Hudson, 1980.
The Obelisks of Egypt:Skyscrapers of the Past
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Charles Scribner, 1977.
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Die Unsterblichen Obelisken €gyptens
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Votive Offerings to Hathor
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The Temple in Ancient Egypt
Har-pa-chered (Harpocrates). Die Genese eines Šgyptischen
ouchebtis
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Aufderheide, Arthur C.
The Scientific Study of Mummies
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Study of Ancient Egypt
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Horemkenesi:May He Live
Forever. The Bristol Mummy Project
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Dunand, Françoise, and Roger Lichtenberg.
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Faulkner, Raymond O.
The Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead
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The Ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts
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The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts
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Death in Ancient Egypt
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Egyptian Coffins
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Mummy:The Inside Story
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Unwrapping a Mummy:The Life,Death,and Embalming of Horemken-
Taylor, John H., and Strudwick, Nigel.
Mummies:Death and the Afterlife in
Ancient Egypt. Treasures from the British Museum
Mere Scraps of Rough Wood? 17thÐ18th Dynasty Stick Shabtis
Wisseman, Sarah U.
The Virtual Mummy
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EgyptÕs Golden Age:The
Art of Living in the New Kingdom,1558Ð1085 BC
390¥
Clothing Culture:Dress in Egypt in the First Millennium
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Five Thousand Years of Glass
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Seven Thousand Years of Jewellery
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Die Sprache der Pharaonen:Grosses Handwšrterbuch €gyptisch-
Deutsch (2800 bis 950 v. Chr.)
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Egyptian Astronomical Texts
Parker, Richard A.
The Calendars of Ancient Egypt
. Studies in Ancient Orien-
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The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus:An Ancient
Egyptian Text
David, Rosalie A., ed.
Science in Egyptology
. Manchester, G.B.: Manchester
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Nicholson, Paul T., and Ian Shaw.
Ancient Egyptian Materials and Technology
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NATURAL ENVIRONMENT
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Warminster, G.B.: Aris & Phillips, 1989.
Brewer, Douglas, Donald Redford, and Susan Redford.
. Warminster, G.B.: Aris & Phillips, 1994.
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Germer, Renate.
Flora des pharaonischen €gypten
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The Birds of Ancient Egypt
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Vienna
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€gyptisch-Orientalische Sammlung. Lieferung 10:SŠrge der dritten Zwis-
chenzeit,Teil 1
. Corpus Antiquitatum Aegyptiacarum. Mainz am Rhein, Ger-
Hein, Irmgard, and Helmut Satzinger.
Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien:€gyp-
tisch-Orientalische Sammlung. Lieferung 4:Stelen des mittleren Reiches,
einschliesslich der I und II Zwischenzeit,Teil 1
. Corpus Antiquitatum Ae-
„.
Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien:€gyptisch-Orientalische Sammlung.
Lieferung 7:Stelen des mittleren Reiches,einschliesslich der I und II Zwis-
chenzeit,Teil 2
. Corpus Antiquitatum Aegyptiacarum. Mainz am Rhein, Ger-
Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien:€gyptisch-Orientalische
Sammlung. Lieferung 18:Reliefs und Inschriftsteine des Alten Reiches I
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„.
Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien:€gyptisch-Orientalische Sammlung.
Lieferung 21:Reliefs und Inschriftsteine des Alten Reiches II
. Corpus Antiq-
uitatum Aegyptiacarum. Mainz am Rhein, Germany: Philipp von Zabern,
Hüttner, Michaela, and Helmut Satzinger.
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€gyptisch-Orientalische Sammlung. Lieferung 16:Stelen,Inschriftsteine und
. Corpus Antiquitatum Aegyptiacarum.
Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien:€gyptisch-Orientalis-
che Sammlung. Lieferung 1:Statuen des mittleren Reichs und der 18 Dynas-
. Corpus Antiquitatum Aegyptiacarum. Mainz am Rhein, Germany:
Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien:
€gyptisch-Orientalische Sammlung. Lieferung 15:Statuen des alten Reiches
Corpus Antiquitatum Aegyptiacarum. Mainz am Rhein, Germany: Philipp
Reiser-Haslauer, Elfriede.
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talische Sammlung. Lieferung 2:Die Kanopen,Teil 1
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„.
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Lieferung 3:Die Kanopen,Teil 2
. Corpus Antiquitatum Aegyptiacarum.
396¥
„.
Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien:€gyptisch-Orientalische Sammlung.
Lieferung 5:Uschebti,Teil 1
. Corpus Antiquitatum Aegyptiacarum. Mainz
„.
Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien:€gyptisch-Orientalische Sammlung.
Lieferung 8:Uschebti,Teil 2
. Corpus Antiquitatum Aegyptiacarum. Mainz
Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien:€gyptisch-Orientalische Samm-
¥397
398¥
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Osing, Jürgen.
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Carsten Niebuhr Institute of Ancient Near Eastern Studies Publications 17.
Copenhagen, Denmark: Museum Tusculanum Press, 1998.
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¥399
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Guide des antiquitŽs Žgyptiennes romaines
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Pelizaeus-Museum,Hildesheim. Lieferung 7:Reliefs des Alten Reiches,
Teil 2
. Corpus Antiquitatum Aegyptiacarum. Mainz am Rhein, Germany:
„.
Pelizaeus-Museum,Hildesheim. Lieferung 8:Reliefs des Alten Reiches,
Teil 3
. Corpus Antiquitatum Aegyptiacarum. Mainz am Rhein, Germany:
Martin-Pardey, Eva.
Pelizaeus-Museum,Hildesheim. Lieferung 1:Plastik des
Alten Reiches,Teil 1
. Corpus Antiquitatum Aegyptiacarum. Mainz am Rhein,
„.
Pelizaeus-Museum,Hildesheim. Lieferung 4:Plastik des Alten Reiches,
Teil 2
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„.
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pus Antiquitatum Aegyptiacarum. Mainz am Rhein, Germany: Philipp von
„.
Pelizaeus-Museum,Hildesheim. Lieferung 6:Grabbeigaben,NachtrŠge,
und ErgŠnzungen
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Das €gyptische Museum der UniversitŠt Leipzig
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Die €gyptische Sammlung der
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Vol. VI:Jewellery from the Earliest Times to the 17th Dynasty
„.
Catalogue of Demotic Papyri in the British Museum,Vol. IV:Ptolemaic
Legal Texts from the Theban Area
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Hieroglyphic Texts from Egyptian Stelae in the British Mu-
seum. Part 10
„.
Hieroglyphic Texts from Egyptian Stelae in the British Museum. Part 11
„.
Hieroglyphic Texts from Egyptian Stelae in the British Museum. Part 12
Select Papyri in the Hieratic Character from the Collections of
the British Museum. Parts 1Ð2
418¥
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Catalogue of Demotic Papyri in the British Museum,Vol. II:The In-
structions of ÕOnchsheshonqy (P. BM 10508)
„.
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Wooden and Model Boats
¥419
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. Baltimore: Walters Art Gallery, 1946.
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pus Antiquitatum Aegyptiacarum. Mainz am Rhein, Germany: Philipp von
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. Corpus Antiquitatum Aegyp-
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the Coptic Period
. Corpus Antiquitatum Aegyptiacarum. Mainz am Rhein,
¥421
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. Brooklyn. N.Y.:
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am Rhein, Germany, 1930… . Annually.
. Rome, 1920… . Annually.
Studien zur AltŠgyptischen Kultur
. Hamburg, Germany, 1974… . Annually.
Zeitschrift fŸr Šgyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde
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1863… . Biannually.
¥427
sity of Toronto; Ph.D., University of Liverpool) was assistant keeper in
the Department of Egyptian Antiquities at the British Museum, London,
Bierbrier.
M. L. Bierbrier.
Photo: M. L. Bierbrier.
The tomb of Ti at Saqqara, Dynasty 5.
Photo: M. L. Bierbrier.
The tomb of Ankhtifi at el-Moalla. First Intermediate Period.
Photo: M. L. Bierbrier.
Arelief of Tuthmose III at Deir el-Bahri. Dynasty 18.
Photo: M. L. Bierbrier.
Photo: M. L. Bierbrier.
Tutankhamun and
Valley of the Kings,
Bierbrier.
The WorkmanÕs
Village at Deir el-
Ahieroglyphic
VI in the Valley of
r.
Arelief of Cleopatra VII and her son Ptolemy XV Caesarion on the Temple of
Photo: M. L. Bierbrier.
The Necropolis of Tuna el-Gebel. Graeco-Roman Period.
Photo: M. L. Bierbrier.
The lighthouse at Taposiris Magna. Graeco-Roman Period.
Photo: M. L. Bierbrier.
Aview of the Cataract at Aswan before the flooding by the High Dam Project.
Photo: M. L. Bierbrier.
Aview of the site of
Bierbrier.

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