вопросы по Лексикологии


Points for discussion:
The subject of lexicology.
Different approaches to the study of lexicology.
Think of the examples proving the connection of lexicology with other linguistic disciplines.
Speak on the basic meaningful unit of language.
Explain different points of view on the existence of the word.
Give the principal characteristics of a word.
Give reasons for using the terms “free” and “bound”
What is word-building?
Characterize different types of word-building.
Speak on the concept of productivity referring to word-building.
The semantic analysis of words: monosemantic and polysemantic words.
. The establishment of lexical meanings of polysemantic words.
The origin of homonyms.
Types of homonyms.
Different types of grouping of the vocabulary.
Synonymy and types of synonyms.
Antonyms and their types
Speak on the difference between a free word combination, phraseological unit (set expression) and a compound word.
Characterize the main types of set expressions in Modern English.
Speak on different approaches to classification of set expressions.
Speak on the nature of various stylistic layers of the English vocabulary.
Discuss the sub-groups of the literary layer.
Characterize the colloquial vocabulary.
What is Standard English?
State the difference between territorial and social dialects.
Speak on the peculiarities of ''Cockney'' dialect.
What variants of Modern English do you know?
What is a borrowing?
Speak on the classification of borrowings.
Give the definition of assimilation of borrowings and classify them according to the degree of assimilation.
What is the term ''dictionary'' used to denote?
Speak on the first English and American dictionaries.
Outline the main problems of lexicography.
Comment on the different types of dictionaries.
1. Analyse the literary words and expressions in the following sentences and state their function:
They sent him parcels, which, when opened, were found to contain the paternal soap and candles.
When the meal came to a termination, Mrs. Gamp having cleared away, produced the tea-pot from the top shelf.
Mr. Pickwick found that his three companions had risen, and were waiting for his arrival to commence breakfast.
2. State the nature of terms in the following passage:
There was no stock-ticker and no telephone, and the clearing house had only recently been thought of in New York, and had not yet been introduced in Philadelphia. Instead of a clearing-house service, messengers ran daily between banks and brokerage firms, balancing accounts on pass-books, exchanging bills, and, once a week, transferring the gold coin which was the only thing that could be accepted for balances due, since there was no stable national currency.
3. Comment on the type of archaisms in the following sentences:
"I could well-nigh say, thy gifts perish with thee," answered Quentin.
Quentin paid the executionists their guerdon.
Instead of the boots of the period, he wore buskins of half-dressed deer's skin.
4. Define the slang words and expressions in the following sentences:
I'm quite a heavy smoker, for one thing - that is, I used to be. They made me cut it out.
I could remember the time when I was desperately in need of fifteen shillings myself, watching the Dufton jobs peacocking it in new suits.
Ron, what are you wasting time for? Didn't I say we ought to get weaving?
5. Find vulgarisms in the following sentences. Determine their function:
1."They'll close the gap on you", William said. "They can bloody well close it", the Colonel growled.
And then he would lose his temper and swear at Cec and damn his eyes.
"Shut your heads and let Tom go on!"
Intelligence counts, not facts. Stick your education, your university. Who cares why Rome was built.
6. Pick out the affixed words. Comment on the meaning of the affixes.
Details of the antiinflation measures will be discussed at the Ministry of Agriculture tomorrow.
I jumped at the opportunity. Believe me, I jumped, in spite of its disadvantage.
3. It was the most extraordinarily dead-looking town I had ever been in. It gave the impression that its inhabitants had suddenly packed up and left it alone to face the biting winds and scorching sun.
7. Express the following using idiomatic compounds from the following list: free-handed, great-hearted, stiff-necked, light-hearted, heavy-handed.
obstinate, spending or giving away money freely, awkward and clumsy, happy or free from care, generous.
8. State to what part of speech the words in italics belong. Comment on their meaning. Translate into Russian.
He elbowed his way through the crowd. Let him have his say. She upped and threw a tea-pot at him. Life has its ups and downs. They will honeymoon in Scotland. That was a fine catch of fish. I don’t know why you’ve babied me along, but you have.
Write down in full the following shortened words: specs, UNO, i.e., UNESCO, ad, M.P., frig.
9. Comment on the different meanings of the italicized words. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1.It is not within my power to help you. 2.He is losing his powers. 3.More power to your elbow! 4.Are the powers of the prime minister strictly defined by law? 5.They have mustered sufficient sea, air and land power to win back the territory.6.The task of preserving peace lies mainly with the great powers.
10. Find restriction of meaning in the following sentences. Give reasons for the meaning shift.
1.Have you read the editorial in today's paper? 2.The City is the banking and commercial centre of London. 3.There were several cases of influenza. The worst cases were sent to hospital.
11. Comment on the extention of meaning and state whether the shift of meaning has taken place (a)from concrete to abstract, (b) from physical to mental, (c) as a transfer on the basis of functional change.
He spoke so fast that I could not follow him.
The airship sailed slowly over the city.
He works at a cotton mill.
Belgium has often been a theatre of war.
12. a) Give words homophonous with the following:
fare,flour, hair, muse, pain, soul, weak.
Transcribe the following homographs and translate them:
desert, desert; minute, minute; tear,tear.
13. Classify the following words into logical groups comprising the general and the particular:
animal, asparagus, beet, building, bull, bungalo, bush, cabbage, carrot, cat, cottage, dog, flower, football, grass, horse, mansion, plant, polo, sport, tennis, tree, villa.
14. Put the following words into groups according to their contextual associations:
air, challenger, championship, classification, dig, flower, garden, green, grow, juice, jump, language, match, meaning, outrun, overrun, participate, principles, race, sports, system, water, weed, word.
15. In the following groups of synonyms find the synonymic dominant. Comment on the shades of meaning in the synonymic group:
display, demonstrate, exhibit, show, indicate, manifest, reveal;
demand, question, ask, inquire, interrogate.
16. Pick out antonyms from the following proverbs. State whether they are root or derivational ones.
He who likes borrowing likes paying.
Promise little but do much.
Speech is silver but silence is gold.
17.Give Russian equivalents of the following English proverbs and sayings. Memorize them:
Proverbs are children of experience.
Knowledge is a treasure: but practice is the key to it.
Men make houses, but women make homes.
4. Two heads are better than one.
Better die standing than live kneeling.
Use soft words and hard arguments.
18. Complete the following phrases so that they make English proverbs and set expressions. Explain the given part.
A bird in hand.
A stitch in time.
To eat one's cake and have it.
Old bird.
Between the cup and the lip.
To grasp the nettle.
A mare's nest.
19. Give as many set expressions as possible using any of the following words:
to beat, to catch, to draw, to mind;
bone, bottom, finger, mouth;
broad, dark, safe.
20. In the following sentences define the syntactical function of the set expressions italicized. Define to what part of speech they belong. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1.And now there was this old Kruger! They had tried to keep old Kruger from him. But he knew better: there would be a pretty kettle of fish out there! 2. He had arrived on the very trick of two. She had been there twenty minutes earlier. 3. Mother, though gentle, was stubborn; but women had not been the same hard and fast convictions as men. 4. She hated that expression "The grey mare is the better horse''; it was vulgar, and she would never recognize its truth in her own case.
21. State which of the following words are used in America and which in Britain:
mail-car, mail-van, mailman, postman, mail-box, pillar-box, special delivery, express post, domestic mail, inland post, foreign mail, overseas mail, telegraph blank, telegraph form.
22. Point out words:
The meaning of which in American English is entirely different from that in British English;
The general meaning of which is the same in both American and British English.
apartment, tardy, guess, calculate, homely, mad, sick, faucet, solicitor, corn, commute, pie, lunch, cane.
23. a) Give the English spelling of the following words:
catalog, thru, humor, bark, quartet, center, pretense, inflexion, quarreled, harbor, program.
b) What are the original words borrowed from English and currently used in Russian?
бизнесмен, бутсы, бульдозер, кемпинг, мотель, сервис, хиппи, хобби.
24.Comment on the origin of the following partially assimilated borrowings. State whether assimilation is partial due to grammatical, phonetic or graphical reasons:
memoir, cafe, verandah, waltz, bacterium, phenomenon, vase.
Recommended Literature
Антрушина Г.Б. и др. Лексикология английского языка. М., 1999, с. 78-94; 104-120.
Виноградов В.В. Словообразование в его отношении к грамматике и лексикологии. В кн.: Вопросы теории и истории языка. - М., 1952.
Кубрякова Е.С. Что такое словообразование. - М., 1965
Кунин А.В. Фразеология современного английского языка. - М., 1972.
Кунин А.В. Англо-русский фразеологический словарь. - М., 1984.
М.едникова Э.М. Значение слова и методы его описания. Гл.3. - М., 1974, с. 79-88.
Соловьева М.В. Лексикология современного английского языка. М., 1997.
Смит, Логан П. Фразеология английского языка. - М., 1959. Предисловие, с.3-9.

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