2 курс ОЗО 14.07


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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РФ



Федеральное государственное бюджетное

образовательное учреждение

высшего профессионального образования

«Алтайская государственная академия образования

имени В.М. Шукшина»




И.А. Чернова

Н
.
А
.
Швец






English for
the
second

year


bachelors of distant education





Учебное

пособие

для

бакалавров

второго

курса заочного отделения










Бийск








ФГБОУ

ВПО

«
АГАО
»








201
4



2


ББК


Печатается по решению

редакционно
-
издательского совета

ФГБОУ ВПО
«АГАО»




Рецензент:

к.ф.н., доцент кафедры иностранных языков

Бийского технологического института Е.С. Замашанская



English

for

the

second

year

bachelors

of

distant

education

[Текст]: учебное
пособие для бакалавров
второго

курса заочного отделения /

И.А. Чернова, Н.А. Швец; Алтайская государственная академия образ
о-
вания им. В.М. Шукшина.


Бийск: ФГБОУ ВПО «АГАО», 201
4
.


10
9

с.






В пособии представлен основной материал, включенный в модульную рабочую
прогр
амму по дисциплине «Иностранный (английский) язык» для бакалавров
вт
о-
рого

курса заочной формы обучения. Издание содержит теоретический и практич
е-
ский материал по английскому языку, контрольные задания и тексты по направл
е-
ниям профессиональной подготовки дл
я самостоятельного изучения, образцы ус
т-
ных тем для формирования речевых умений студентов.

Для бакалавров
второго

года обучения заочной формы всех направлений подг
о-
товки, преподавателей английского языка высших учебных заведений, а также всех
заинтересован
ных лиц.















ФГБОУ ВПО «АГАО», 201
4
.



И.А. Чернова, Швец Н.А., 201
4
.




3


Оглавление

Введение
…………………………………………………

4


Модуль
3

(семестр
3
)

…………………………………

5

Грамматический справочник
…………………………….

6

Грамматические упражнения
…………………………….

15

Грамматические тесты…………………………………..

21

Контрольная работа №
3
………………………………....

25

Устная

тема

«M
y country and my native city
»
………
…..

26

Тексты для чтения

и
перевода
…..
……………………….

32

Аннотирование и реферирование текстов………………

35

Тексты по направлениям
для чтения
,
перевода

и реферирования
……………………………………….

36



Модуль 4 (семестр 4)
…………………………………….

58

Грамматический справочник
…………………………….

59

Грамматические упражнения
…………………………….

68

Грамматические тесты…………………………………..

75

Контрольная работа
№ 4
…………………………………

79

Устная

тема

«My future profession»……………………...

80

Тексты для чтения

и

перевода
…...………………………

81

Тексты по направлениям для чтения
,

перевода

и реферирования
…………………………………………

83



Приложения
……………………………………………...

106



Сводная таблица всех времен в действительном и
страдательном залоге

…………………………………….

106



Список литературы
…………………………………..


107


4


ВВЕДЕНИЕ


Данное издание предназначено для аудиторной и самостоятельной раб
о-
ты студентов
2

курса заочного отделения. Оно соответствует модульной
учебной программе по английскому языку и содержит материал, изучаемый в
3 и 4

семестрах.

Цель курса иностранного языка в вузе


приобретение студентами ко
м-
муникативной компетенции, уровень которой на
отдельных этапах языковой
подготовки позволяет использовать иностранный язык практически как в
профессиональной (производственной и научной) деятельности, так и для
целей самообразования.

В результате освоения курса студенты должны освоить базовые правила

грамматики (на уровне морфологии и синтаксиса), базовые нормы употре
б-
ления лексики и фонетики, требования к речевому и языковому оформлению
устных и письменных высказываний с учетом специфики иноязычной кул
ь-
туры. Студенты заочного отделения должны уметь в
оспринимать на слух и
понимать основное содержание несложных аутентичных текстов, понимать
основное содержание научно
-
популярных и научных текстов, вести диалог
на иностранном языке, соблюдая нормы речевого этикета, делать сообщения
и выстраивать монолог н
а заданную тему, выполнять письменные задания, и
владеть приёмами самостоятельной работы с языковым материалом (лекс
и-
кой, грамматикой, фонетикой) с использованием справочной и учебной лит
е-
ратуры.

Представленное издание включает краткое разъяснение всего ма
териала
3

и
4

семестра: правила грамматики английского языка и соответствующие
им упражнения, тесты для самопроверки, образцы устных тем, контрольные
работы №
3

и №
4
, специальные тексты для перевода

и реферирования
, а та
к-
же методические рекомендации для сту
дентов по работе с разными аспект
а-
ми языка и видами речевой деятельности.


5


МОДУЛЬ
3



Третий

модул
ь

включает материал
третьего

семестра
, заканчивается з
а-
четом и защитой контрольной работы.

Содержание
3

модуля:


Аспекты языка:

1.
Лексика


1.1. Учебная и
деловая лексика (30 ед.)

1.2. Профессиональная лексика и термины (30 ед.)

2. Грамматика

2.1.

PASSIVE

VOICE

(Страдательный залог. Пассивные конструкции).

2.2. MODAL VERBS (
Модальные

глаголы

и

их

эквиваленты
: can (could), may

(might), must (have to, be to), should, dare, need).


Виды речевой деятельности:

1.
Говорение

Устная

тема

«My country and my native city».


2. Чтение

(понимание основного содержания текста: общественно
-
политические, публицистические (медийные) тексты по н
аправлению; пон
и-
мание запрашиваемой информации: прагматические тексты справочно
-
информационного и рекламного характера по направлению; детальное п
о-
нимание текста: общественно
-
политические, публицистические (медийные)
тексты, научно
-
популярные и научные те
ксты по направлению).

3. Аудирование
(детальное понимание текста:

прагматические тексты спр
а-
вочно
-
информационного и рекламного характера по направлению).

4. Письмо
(аннотация
и реферирование
текстов по направлению на русском
или английском
языке; письменные
проектные задания (презентации
и т.д.).


ЗАДАНИЯ ДЛЯ САМОСТОЯ
ТЕЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЫ


1.

В
ЫПОЛНИТЬ
ПИСЬМЕННО
ВСЕ
ГРАММАТИЧЕСКИЕ
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
№1
-
21

(
СТР
.

15
-
20
)
,

ИСПОЛЬЗУЯ ГРАММАТИЧЕ
СКИЙ СПРАВОЧНИК ИЛИ
ДРУГИЕ УЧЕ
Б-
НЫЕ РЕСУРСЫ
.

2.

В
ЫПОЛНИТЬ
ПИСЬМЕННО
КОНТРО
ЛЬНУЮ РАБОТУ
№3

(
СТР
.

25
)
.

3.

П
ЕРЕВЕСТИ ТЕКСТЫ
№1,2

НА РУССКИЙ ЯЗЫК
(
СТР
.

32
-
34
),

ИСПОЛЬЗУЯ
СОБСТВЕННЫЙ АКТИВНЫЙ

СЛОВАРЬ
.


4.

П
ЕРЕВЕСТИ ТЕКСТ
№3

(
ПО НАПРАВЛЕНИЮ ОБУЧЕ
НИЯ
),

ИСПОЛЬЗУЯ
СОБСТВЕННЫЙ АКТИВНЫЙ

СЛОВАРЬ
,

И
СОСТАВИТЬ
ПИСЬМЕННЫЙ
РЕФЕР
АТ

ТЕКСТА
,

ИСПОЛЬЗУЯ И
НФОРМАЦИЮ И КЛИШЕ
(
СТР
.

35
-
36
)

(
НА АНГЛИЙСКОМ
ИЛИ РУССКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ
)
.



6


ГРАММАТИЧЕСКИЙ

СПРАВОЧНИК



Изучая любое грамматическое явление, обязательно обращайте вним
а-
ние на следующие моменты:

-

внешние опознавательные (формальные) признаки изучаемой формы
или конструкции, т.е.
как её

изучать в тексте
;

-

её дифференцировочные признаки, т.е.
как её отличать

от внешне п
о-
хожих на неё форм, если такие имеются;

-

эквивалентные формы русского языка, т
.е.
как её перевести
.

Грамматика


это то, что превращает бессмысленный набор слов в с
о-
общение. Если изъят из предложения все грамматические компоненты (для
русского языка это


окончания, союзы и предлоги), предложение потеряет
смысл.

Помните, что граммат
ический строй английского языка, почти полностью
потерявший окончания падежей, рода и числа, существенно отличается от
грамматического строя славянских языков.


Рекомендации по организации работы с грамматическим материалом:


1. Проработайте теоретический
материал по теме в учебном пособии.

2. Выделите главные признаки изучаемого грамматического явления.
Запишите их в тетрадь. Запомните!

3.
Выполните тренировочные упражнения на закрепление изученной темы.

4. Проверьте усвоение грамматического материала по т
есту.

5. Выполните задания контрольной работы.


7


ТЕМА 1.
СТРАДАТЕЛЬНЫЙ ЗАЛОГ


1.1.

1.
В английском языке глагол имеет два залога: действительный (
the

A
c-
tive

Voice
) и страдательный (
the

Passive

Voice
). Глагол употребляется в де
й-
ствительном залоге, если подлежащим в предложении является лицо или
предмет, производящие действие:

John
cooked

the dinner last night.

Джон

приготовил

обед

вчера
.

Глагол в страдательном залоге выражает действие, которое направлено
на лицо или предмет,
выраженное подлежащим:

The dinner
was cooked

by John last night.

Вчера

обед

был

приготовлен

Джоном
.


2. Страдательный залог образуется при помощи глагола
to

be

в соотве
т-
ствующем времени и причастия
II

смыслового глагола. В страдательном з
а-
логе
употребляются следующие времена:


Tense


Aspect


Present



Past


Future

Indefinite (Si
m-
ple)

am

is told

are

was

were told

shall

will be told

Continuous
(Progressive)

am

is being told

are

was

were being
told


-

Perfect

have

has been told


had been told

shall

will have been told


1.2.

1.
The

Passive

Voice

употребляется в тех случаях, когда лицо, соверш
а-
ющее действие, неизвестно или представляется несущественным:

Rome
wasn’t built

in a day.

The

matter

will

be

discussed

at the next meeting
.


2. Если лицо, совершающее действие, упоминается в предложении, но
не является подлежащим, то оно занимает позицию предложного дополн
е-
ния, вводимого предлогом
by
:

The music
was composed

by Beethoven.

Музыку сочинил
Бетховен.


8


3. Как правило, предложное дополнение употребляется в предложении,
если в роли сказуемого пассивной конструкции употребляются глаголы:
build, compose, damage, design, destroy, discover, invent, make, write.

Who designed St. Paul's Cathedral? It
was designed

by Christopher Wren.

Кто спроектировал Собор Святого Павла?

Он был спроектирован Кристофером Реном.


4. Чтобы показать, кем или чем совершается действие, используются
предлоги:


By

Перед одушевленным предметом, а
также после глаголов типа:
damage
,
make
,
discover
,
write
,
etc
.

With

Указывается, какой предмет, ор
у-
дие, инструмент использован для
совершения действия.

This building was designed by Rossi.

Это здание было спроектировано Росси.

He was brought up by his aunt.

Он

был

воспитан

тётей
.

The window was broken by this stone.

Окно было разбито этим камнем.

The theatre was destroyed by fire.

Театр был уничтожен пожаром.

He was killed by a knife.

Он

был

убит

ножом
.

It was drawn with a stick.

Это

было

нарисовано

палкой
.

The bag was cut with a
razor.

Сумка была порезана бритвой.




1.3.

1.
В

английском

языке

the

Passive

Voice

могут

образовывать

глаголы
,
управляющие

предложным

дополнением
.
В

пассивной

конструкции

предлог

сохраняется
:

Active
:

We

looked

for

Mike

everywhere
.

Мы

везде

искали

Майка
.

Passive:

Mike
was looked for
everywhere.

Майка везде искали.


2.

К

числу

глаголов
,
имеющих

предложное

дополнение,
относятся
:
look
at, look for, look after, look through, send for, agree upon, rely on, touch upon, i
n-
sist on, put up with, refer to, provide for, see to, talk of, arrive at
и

некоторые

другие
:

The children
will be
well
looked after
.

За детьми хорошо присмотрят.


Тема 2.
МОДАЛЬНЫЕ ГЛАГОЛЫ



2.1.

Модальные глаголы являются одним из средств выражения
модальности
в английском языке. Эти глаголы обозначают не конкретные действия, а в
ы-
ражают лишь отношение говорящего к действию. С помощью модальных
глаголов говорящий показывает, что он считает то или иное действие во
з-
можным, невозможным, вероятным, необхо
димым, желательным и т.д. П
о-
9


этому модальные глаголы не употребляются самостоятельно, а только в с
о-
четании с инфинитивом смыслового глагола.

Модальные глаголы отличаются от других глаголов не только своим
значением, но и системой грамматических форм. Модал
ьные глаголы явл
я-
ются недостаточными, дефективными глаголами. У них отсутствует ряд
грамматических форм, которые имеют другие глаголы:

1. Модальные глаголы не имеют неличных форм (инфинитива, прич
а-
стия, герундия).

2. Модальные глаголы, кроме
can

и
may
, им
еют форму только настоящ
е-
го времени, в 3
-
м лице единственного числа не принимают окончание

s
.


I

He

She

It

We

You

They




can go


3. Глаголы
can

и
may

имеют форму прошедшего времени
could

и
might
.

4. Инфинитив смыслового глагола, следующий за
модальными глагол
а-
ми, употребляется без частицы
to
.

I

can

do

it
.

Я могу сделать это.

You needn’t worry about it.

Тебе не нужно беспокоиться об этом.

He

may

come

tonight
.

Он, возможно, придет сегодня вечером.

5. Вопросительные и отрицательные формы
предложений с модальными

глаголами образуются без вспомогательного глагола. При отрицании част
и-
ца
not

ставится непосредственно после модального глагола. В настоящем
времени
can

пишется слитно с частицей
not
.


You may not smoke here.

Вам

нельзя

курить

здес
ь
.

I

cannot

open

the

door
.

Я не могу открыть дверь.

В разговорной речи в отрицательной форме употребляются следующие
сокращения:

cannot



can

t

could

not



couldn

t

must

not



mustn’t

might

not



mightn

t

Глагол
may

с отрицанием сокращенной формы не имеет:
may

not
.

В вопросе модальный глагол ставится перед подлежащим.

Could you give us an example?

Не могли бы вы привести нам пример?




10


2.2.

Модальный

глагол

Can

(b
e able to
)


Present

Past

Future

c
an

c
ould

-

am/is/are
able to

was
/were
able to

will be able to


Выражает:

1.
Возможность
:
могу
,
умею
,
возможно

I can run very fast.

Я могу (умею) быстро бегать.

He

can

speak

French
.

Он может говорить по
-
французски.

You can get there by bus.

Вы можете добраться туда автобусом.

2.
Разрешение
:
можно

You can come at any time.

Вы можете прийти в любое время.

Can I have a cup of coffee?

Можно мне чашечку кофе?

3.
Запрещение
:
нельзя

You can’t cross the street here.

Вам нельзя переходить здесь
улицу.


Когда

эквивалент

модального

глагола

can

дублирует

уже

имеющиеся

формы

(
I

can

=
I

am

able
;
He

could
=
he

was

able
)
,
он

имеет

собственный

отт
е-
нок

значения

am
/
is
/
are
/
able

to



быть

в

состоянии
,
быть

способным
,
was
/
were

able

to



смог
,
сумел
,
удалось

(=
manage
).

He is an honest man. He is not able to do it.

Он честный человек. Он
не способен

такое сделать
.

Jack was an excellent tennis player. He

could

beat

anybody


Джек отличный теннисист. Он с
мог

всех победить
.

But once he had a difficult game against
Alf. Alf played very well but in the
end Jack was able to beat him

Но однажды у него был
а

трудная игра с Альфом. Альф играл очень х
о-
рошо, но в конце концов Джек
смог

победить
.


2.3.
Модальный

глагол

Must

(have to/be to)


Present

Past

Future

m
ust

-

-

h
ave/has to

h
ad to

w
ill have to

a
m/is/are to

w
as/were to

-


Выражает:

1.
Д
олг
,
обязательство

11


We

must

study

hard
.

Вы должны усиленно учиться.

2.
П
риказ
,
настоятельный

совет
:
должен


I

must

buy

some

bread
.


Я

должен

купить

хлеба
.

You must go there at once.


Вы должны пойти туда немедленно.


You must see the doctor immediately.


Т
ы долж
ен

сейчас же показаться врачу.

3. Запрещение:
нельзя, запрещено

You

mustn

t

smoke

here
.

Вам нельзя (запрещается) курить здесь.


Оттенки

значения

эквивалентов

глагола
must
:


Have

to



вынужден, придется (в связи с обстоятельствами).

Ann’s eyes are not very good. She has to wear glasses for reading.

Со зрением у Анны не в порядке. Ей

приходится

носить

очки
.


Jane was feeling ill last night so she had to leave the party early.

Джейн нездоровилось прошлым вечером, поэтому ей пришлось рано

уйти

с

вечеринки
.



Be

to



долженствование
,
связанное

с

планом
,
договоренностью
.

He is to meet us at the station at 5.

Он должен встретить нам на станции в 5 часов.


Для образования вопросительной и отрицательной формы эквивалента
have

to

используются вспомогательные глаголы
do
/
does
/
did
.


Why did you have to go to hospital?


Почему

тебе

пришлось

поехать

в

больницу
?

Do you have to get up early on weekends?

Тебе
приходится рано вставать по выходным?

Tom doesn’t have to work on Sundays.

Тому не приходится работать по воскресеньям.


Mustn

t

и
don

t

have

to

имеют разные значения:

-

не

должен

(
просьба
,
приказ
)

You mustn’t tell anyone what I said.


Вы не должны никому

говорить о том, то я вам сказал.


-

не

нужно

(
отсутствие

необходимости
)

She stayed in bed this morning because she didn’t have to go to work.

Она осталась в кровати утром, так как ей не нужно было идти на работу.


12


2.4.
Модальный

глагол

May

(
Be allowed to
)


Present

Past

Future

m
ay

m
ight

-

a
m/is/are allowed to

w
as/were allowed to

w
ill be allowed to.


Выражает
:

1.
Раз
решение
:*

можно
,
разрешается

May I come in? Yes, you can (may). No, you can’t (may not)

2.
Строгое

запрещение
:
не

смей

You may not leave
the room until I say so.

3.
Возможность
: (
воз
)
можно

You may often see such faces in the South of Russia.


* В современном разговорном языке в этих случаях чаще используется
глагол
can

(
may



более официальная форма)

Спросить разрешение сделать что
-
либо мож
но следующим образом:

Can/Could/May/Might I borrow your umbrella?

Краткий отрицательный ответ на такой вопрос может быть выражен
следующим образом:

No
,
don

t



просьба не делать этого

No
,
you

may

not



запрещение

No
,
you

must

not
/
can

not



запрещение исходит не от вас, это запрещено
правилами, законом и т.п.


Мы используем эквивалент модального глагола
may

(
be

a
l-
lowed
/
permitted

to

…)

когда хотим подчеркнуть, что разрешение/запрещение
исходит от кого
-
либо:

You are (not) allowed/permitted t
o wait here.


Вам нельзя (н
е

разрешается) ждать здесь.


2.5. Модальный глагол
Should


Имеет лишь одну форму и
выражает

моральный долг, обязательство,
совет, рекомендацию, порицание: должен, следует, нужен, нужно было бы,
следовало бы.

He should stay at
home.

Ему следует остаться дома.

Should

we

stay

at

home
?

Нам следует остаться дома?

I

should

not

stay

at

home
.

Мне не следует оставаться дома.


Should

может употребляться:

1.

С простым инфинитивом, если речь идет о настоящим или будущем
времени (о действии

вообще).

13


You

should

stop

smoking
.

Тебе

следует

бросить

курить
.

Tom shouldn’t drive so fast.

Тому не следует ехать так быстро.

Do

you

think

I

should

apply

for

the

job
?


Как ты думаешь, мне следует подать заявление на это работу?


2.

С

перфектным

инфинитивом
,
если

относится

к

прошедшему времени
и имеет оттенок сожаления, упрека.

The party last night was great. You should have come. Why don’t you?

Вечеринка прошлым вечером была хорошая.

Тебе следовало прийти. Почему ты не пришел?

It was his birthda
y yesterday. I should have sent him a birthday card (but I
didn’t).


У него вчера был день рождения. Я должен был отправить ему откры
т-
ку. (но я этого не сделал.)


2.6. Модальный глагол
Need


Глагол
need

употребляется только в форме настоящего времени в вопр
о-
сительных и отрицательных предложениях.

Need

he

come

here
?
Ему нужно приходить сюда?

You needn’t come so early.
Вам не нужно приходить так рано.


Выражает:

1.
Необходимость совершения действия: нужно;

есть ли необходимость

Need I do it today
?
Нужно ли мне делать это сегодня?

Need I go there at once?

Нужно ли мне идти туда немедленно?


2.
Отсутствие необходимости: не надо; нет необходимости.

He

needn

t

hurry
.

Е
му не нужно торопиться.

You needn’t change
your suit.

Вам не нужно менять пиджак.


3.
Разрешение не делать что
-
либо: можно не…

You needn’t copy your essay.

Вам можно не переписывать сочинение.

You needn’t go there today.

Вам можно не ходить туда сегодня.


Ответы на вопросы с глаголами
need

и
must

оформляются следующим
образом:


Need I go there at once? Yes
,
you

must
.

Нужно ли мне идти туда немедленно?
Да, обязательно.

No
,
you

needn

t
.
Нет, не нужно.


Must I go there at once? Yes
,
you

must
.

Должен ли я идти туда немедленно?
Да, должны.

14


No
,
you

ne
edn

t
.
Нет, не нужно.


Форма
Needn

t

have

done

о
тносится к прошедшему времени и выражает
отсутствие необходимости в прошлом (не нужно было, незачем, зря, напра
с-
но).

You

needn

t

have

come

so

early
.


Вам незачем было (не нужно было) приходить так рано.

Зря вы пришли так рано.


Глагол
need

употребляется также как обычный глагол со значением
нуждаться (в чем
-
нибудь) и имеет формы
Present
,
Past
,
Future

Indefinite
.

You

need

a

long

rest
.
-

Вам нужен длительный отдых.

I

don

t

need

the

book

anymore
.
-

Мне
больше не нужна эта книга.

Does he need my help?
-

Ему

нужна

моя

помощь
?

I

ll

need

your

advice
.
-

Мне понадобится твой совет.

He

needed

the

doctor

badly
.
-

Ему

срочно

нужен

врач
.


Сводная таблица модальных глаголов и их эквивалентов



15


ГРАММАТИЧЕСКИЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ


1.
Определите

время

и

залог

выделенных
глаголов
.
Переведите предл
о-
жения с английского языка на русский.

1.
Many accidents
are caused

by dangerous dri
ving.

2.
The problem
will be discussed

later.


3.
My sister
is being shown

a new video.

4.
The letter
was given

to him at once.

5.
The director
was being interviewed

when I

came in.

6.
The boy
has
just

been sent

to bed.

7.
A new park
will have been laid

out by summer
.

8.
He found out that the house
had been sold

to

a rich
American.

9.
Have you heard the news? The Governor
has

been shot
.

10.
Jane didn't know about the change of plans.

She

hadn
'
t

been

told
.


2.
Поставьте предложения в вопросительную и отрицательную фо
р-
мы.

1.
Warm clothes are made of wool.

2.
Some money will
be given to you.

3.
The ship has been sunk on purpose.

4.
The car is being repaired at the moment.

5.
The house was bought for 5 thousand dollars!

6.
All her affairs will have been settled before

she gets married.

7.
He said that detailed instructions had
been

given.

8.
The monument was put up before Victory Day.


9.
The old church has been reconstructed lately.

10.
The windows were being cleaned while I

was there.


3.
Выберите правильную форму
глагола (
Active

или
Passive
).

1. The children
taught / were
taught

Italian.

2. This problem
will discuss / will be discussed

a
t

the conference.

3.
The president
interviewed / was interviewed

o
n
French TV.

4.
Teachers
have given / have been given

a new

pay rise by the government.

5.
Walt Disney
created / was created

the cartoon

character of Mickey Mouse.

6.
The firm
has been making / has been made

dresses for twenty years.

7.
He
treats / is treated

the girl very badly.

8.
He said that he
had taken / had been taken

his

watch to a watchmaker's.

9.
Many new houses
have
been built / have built

this year.


4. Поставьте глаголы в предложениях в форму действительного залога.

Example:


The children
were
carefully
examined
by the doctor.

The doctor carefully
examined
the children.


1.
The pupils will be given out prizes by the

headmaster.

16


2.
Many tasty things will be made by Mother for

our party.

3.
She is being told a wonderful story by her

Granny.

4.
Yesterday my tape
-
recorder was repaired by

friend.

5.
This rule has already been explained by
our

teacher.

6.
The test had been written by the
pupils

before

the bell rang.

7.
Many folk
-
songs were used by Russian comp
o
sers in composing music.

8.
Look, trees are being planted by the childre
n
in our yard.


5.
Поставьте глаголы в предложениях в форму страдательного
залога.

1. They are building a new ring road round the city. 2. They will read this
book next term. 3. They cancelled all flights because of fog. 4. Somebody is clea
n-
ing the room at the moment. 5. I didn't realize that someone was recording our
conversatio
n. 6. They have changed the date of the meeting. 7. Dan told me that
somebody had attacked him in the street. 8. She will have translated the article by
the end of the day. 9. John had been courting Mary for a year before he proposed to
her. 10. They have
been discussing his proposal for hours.


6
.
Раскройте

скобки
,
употребляя

глаголы

в

Present, Past
или

Future Si
m-
ple Passive.

1. Bread (to eat) every day. 2. The letter (to receive) yesterday. 3. Nick (to
send) to Moscow next week. 4. I (to ask) at the
lesson yesterday. 5. I (to give) a
very interesting book at the library last Friday. 6. Many houses (to build) in our
town every year. 7. This work (to do) tomorrow. 8. This text (to translate) at the
last lesson. 9. These trees (to plant) last autumn. 10.

Many interesting games a
l-
ways (to play) at our lessons.

11. This bone (to give) to my dog tomorrow. 12. We
(to invite) to a concert last Saturday. 13. My question (to answer) yesterday. 14.
Hockey (to play) in winter. 15. Mushrooms (to gather) in autumn.


7
.
Прочитайте и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на
место и
перевод предлога, относящегося к глаголу
-
сказуемому
.

for:



1. The doctor has just been sent
for.



2.
The boys were being looked
for
everywhere but in vain.



3.
The children were much cared
for.



4.
All his daughters were well provided
fo
r.

at:



1
. After a long discussion the agreem
ent

was arrived
at.



2.
She felt that she was being looked
at.



3.
His jokes are so dull, that they are

laughed
at.

upon (on):

1. The book is very popular because very
im
portant problems
are touched
upon
in i
t.



2.
I think your proof will be relied
on (upon
).



3.
Summer was agreed
upon
as the best season for hiking.



4.
He had been spied
on
for some time before he discovered it
.

of
:




1.
The boys were well thought
of
at

school.




2.
He has never been heard
of
since.

17





3.
Her behavior was greatly disapproved
of.




4.
His novel is already much spoken
of.

to:



1.
She will be spoken
to
the moment she comes.




2.
The speech was being listened
to
with great

attention.




3.
His works are completely forgotten, they are

never referred
to.
with:

1. The situation was dealt
with
very delicately.




2.
My old life was done away
with.




3.
His rudeness will never be put up
with.


8
. Вставьте
вместо

пропусков предлоги
by

или
with
.

1.
"The Goldrush" was directed ... Charlie

Chaplin.

2.
These photos were taken ... a very cheap

camera.

3.
The gate was opened ... one of the girls.

4.
The cake
will be made ... my aunt.

5.
The cake was made ... dried fruit.

6.
I was hit ... an umbrella.

7.
I was hit ... an old lady.

8.
The garage was painted ... a new kind of pai
nt.

9.
The garage was painted ... a friend of mine
.


9
.

Переведите текст. Выберите правильную форму
глагола (
Active

или
Passive
).

The National Security Bank in San Hutomo (robbed / was robbed) last night.
A safe
(
blew
open / was blown open) and around 800 000 doll
ars
(stole / were st
o-
len). The robbery (took /
was

taken) place between midnight and 1.00 a.m. The p
o-
lice (are looking / are being looked) for two me
n

who (saw / were seen) getting i
n-
to a black car
ne
ar

the bank at about 1 o'clock last night. They (al
so

want / are also
wanted) to hear from Mr. Jack Sti
llma
n

who (worked / was worked) as a security
guard
at

the bank. Mr. Stillman (disappeared / was
disappeared
) just before the
robbery and he

(has n
ot

seen / hasn't been seen) since then.


1
0
.
Переведите
предложения
на русский язык.

A.

1. Mike can run very fast. 2. They can understand French. 3. Kate can speak
English well. 4. My brother can come and help you in the garden. 5. Can you speak
Spanish? 6. Can your brother help me with mathematics? 7. His little sister can
walk already. 8. T
he children cannot carry this box: it is too heavy. 9. My friend
cannot come in time. 10. This old woman cannot sleep at night.

B.

1. You must work hard at your English. 2. You must learn the words. 3. Must
we learn the poem today? 4. It must be very dif
ficult to learn Chinese. 5. You must
not talk at the lessons. 6. Everybody must come to school in time. 7. Don't ring him
up: he must be very busy. 8. You must not make notes in the books. 9. I must help
my mother today.

18


C.

1. May I go to the post
-
office
with Mike? 2. May I take Pete's bag? 3. Don't
give the vase to the child: he may break it.
4
. You may not cross the street when
the light is red.
5
. May I shut the door?
6
. May I invite Nick to our house?
7
. You
may go now.
8
. Don't go to the wood alone: y
ou may lose your way.
9
. It stopped
raining, and mother told us that we might go out. 1
0
. May children play with sci
s-
sors?


1
1
.
Переведите

на

английский

язык
,
употребляя

модальный

глагол

can

(
could
).

1. Я умею говорить по
-
английски. 2. Мой папа не умеет
говорить по
-
немецки. 3. Ты умеешь говорить по
-
французски? 4. Моя сестра не умеет к
а-
таться на коньках. 5. Ты можешь переплыть эту реку? 6. Я не могу выпить
это молоко. 7. Она не может вас понять. 8. Ты умел плавать в прошлом году?
9. В прошлом году я не уме
л кататься на лыжах, а сейчас умею. 10. Вы не
можете мне сказать, как доехать до вокзала? 11. Не могли ли бы вы мне п
о-
мочь? 12. Я не могу перевести это предложение. 13. Никто не мог мне п
о-
мочь. 14. Где тут можно купить хлеб?


1
2
.
Переведите на английский язык, употребляя выражение
to be able to

.

1. Ты сможешь сделать эту работу завтра? 2. Я думаю, она не сумеет
решить эту задачу. 3. Завтра я буду свободен и смогу помочь тебе. 4. Мы
сможем поехать в Нью
-
Йорк в будущем году? 5. Ты с
можешь починить мой
магнитофон? 6. Вчера я не смог повидать директора, так как он был на ко
н-
ференции, но сегодня после работы я смогу это сделать.


1
3
.
Переведите на английский язык, употребляя модальный глагол
must.

1. Я должна упорно работать над своим а
нглийским. 2. Вы должны вн
и-
мательно слушать учителя на уроке. 3. Ты должен делать уроки каждый день.
4. Вы не должны забывать о своих обязанностях. 5 Вы должны быть ост
о-
рожны на улице. 6. Она должна быть дома сейчас. 7. Мои друзья, должно
быть, в парке. 8.

Вы, должно быть, очень голодны. 9. Должно быть, очень
трудно решать такие задачи. 10. Я должен сегодня повидать моего друга.


1
4
.
Перепишите каждое из следующих предложений дважды: в проше
д-
шем и в будущем времени. Замен
и
те

модальные

глаголы

must

и

сап

э
к-
вивалентами
.

1. You must listen to the tape
-
recording of this text several times. 2. You must
take your examination in English. 3. She can translate this article without a di
c-
tionary. 4. We can't meet them at the station. 5. The doctor must examine the chi
ld.
6. He must work systematically if he wants to know French well. 7. This child
must spend more time out in the open air. 8. I can't recite this poem. 9. You must
take part in this work. 10. He can't join the party because he is busy.


19


1
5
.

Переведите

на

русский

язык
.

1. I was to wait for her at the railway station.2. We were to go to the cinema
that afternoon.3. They were to start on Monday. 4. He was to telephone the m
o-
ment she was out of danger.5. Roses were to be planted round the pond.6. There
was to
be a discussion later on. 7. We were to get there before the others. 8. He
was to tell her where to find us. 9. She was to graduate that year. 10. She was to
wear that dress at the graduation party. 11. He is to come here at five o'clock. 12.
The train was

to leave at five
-
fifteen.


1
6
.

Переведите на английский язык, употребляя модальный глагол
may
.

1. Можно мне войти? 2. Можно, я пойду гулять? 3. Если твоя работа г
о-
това, можешь идти домой. 4. Учитель сказал, что мы можем идти домой. 5.
Доктор говорит, что
я могу купаться. 6. Папа сказал, что мы можем идти в
кино одни. 7. Я думал, что мне можно смотреть телевизор. 8. Если ты не
наденешь пальто, ты можешь заболеть. 9. Не уходи из дома: мама может ск
о-
ро прийти
. 10. Будь осторожен: ты можешь упасть. 11. Не трог
ай собаку: она
может укусить тебя. 12. Мы,
возможно
, поедем за город в воскресенье.


1
7
.

Переведите на английский язык, употребляя выражение
to

be

allowed

to.

1. Мне разрешают пользоваться папиным магнитофоном. 2. Дети уже
большие. Им разрешают ходить в ш
колу одним. 3. Ему не разрешают купат
ь-
ся в этой реке. 4. Вчера ей позволили прийти домой в десять часов. 5. Нам не
позволяют разговаривать на уроках. 6. Тебе позволили взять эту книгу? 7. Я
думаю, мне не разрешат поехать с тобой за город. 8. Тебе разрешат
пойти г
у-
лять, когда ты сделаешь уроки. 9. Тебе разрешали ходить на озеро, когда ты
был маленький? 10. Когда мне разрешат есть мороженое?


18
.
Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на значение м
о-
дального глагола
should
.

1. He looked more
than

ever out of place; he should have stayed at home.

2.
The children were out dancing when they should have been learning their lessons.
3. “It is very wicked of you,” she said. “You should be ashamed of yourself”.

4. “I
am having trouble with my leg
.”

“I se
e. Well, I think you should go and see a do
c-
tor”.

5. I’ll see and speak to Maurice. He should not behave like that.

6. He came
out of the water, smiling. “You should have come earlier,” he said.

7. You should
have chosen a more suitable time to tell me tha
t dreadful news.


19
.
Дайте совет, используя модальный глагол should и слова, данные в
скобках.

E.g.

Her diction is not very good
,

(to read aloud)
s
he
should

read aloud.


1. The boy is a little pale, (to play out
-
of
-
doors) 2. I am afraid you will miss
that train, (to take a taxi) 3. There is no one in. (to try the room next door) 4. I have
20


a slight irritation in my throat, (to smoke less) 5. This child doesn't want to eat
s
oup, (not to give her sweets before dinner) 6. She makes a lot of spelling mi
s-
takes, (to copy passages out of a book)
7
. The students are unable to follow what I
am saying, (not to speak so fast)


20
.

Скажите автору нижеследующих предложений, что надо (не
надо)
было делать.

E.g.

I) I bought that book spending a lot of money.

You should not have bought the book.


2) I did not buy that book.

You should have bought the book.


1. So I took the child to the cinema. 2. We forgot to leave a message for her.
3. W
e did not wait for them because it was beginning to rain. 4. I did not put down
her address and now I don't know how to find her. 5. I did not explain to her how
to get here. 6. I bought a pair of red shoes to go with my new dress. 7. So I told her
frankly

what we all thought about her idea. 8.
I

have not seen the film, and now it
is too late because it is no longer on. 9. My pen was leaking, so I wrote with a pe
n-
cil. 10
.

I am

afraid I ate too much cake with my tea.


2
1
.

Переведите

на

русский

язык
.


1. My
sister need not write this letter: I shall phone them. 2. She need not buy
bread. 3.

You need not read so many books. 4. Nick need not go to school today. 5.

They need not translate this article. 6. They need not have written the composition.
7. I need not

have gone to the library. 8. He need not have stayed there for the
night. 9. We need not have done all this work. 10. She need not have cooked such a
big dinner.


21


GRAMMAR TESTS


Test 1 (
The Passive Voice
)

V
-
I


I. Choose the correct variant.

1.

a. Will
a laptop given to him as a birthday present?


b. Will be a laptop given to him as a birthday present?


c. Will a laptop be given to him as a birthday present?

2.

a. The bad news were broken to Susan without any preliminaries.


b. The bad news was broken t
o Susan without any preliminaries.


c. Susan was broken the bad news without any preliminaries.

3.

a. Fred was said about the new method of treatment.


b. The new method of treatment was said about to Fred.


c. Fred was told about the new method of
treatment.

4.

a. Margaret was described the subject of Sean’s research.


b. The subject of Sean’s research was described to Margaret.


c. The subject of Sean’s research was described Margaret.

5.

a. His unwanted familiarity will be put an end to.


b. An
end will be put to his unwanted familiarity.


c. To his unwanted familiarity will be put an end.

6.

a. Her knowledge were admired by everybody.


b. Everybody was admired by her knowledge.


c. Her knowledge was admired by everybody.

7.

a.
His theory is ba
sed on the supposition.


b. On the supposition is based his theory.


c. On the supposition his theory is based.

8.


a. Fun was made of his bad pronunciation.


b. His bad pronunciation was made fun of.


c. Of his bad pronunciation was made fun.

9.

a. Will

the secretary be dictated the letters after the recess?


b. Will be the letters dictated to the secretary after the recess?


c. Will the letters be
dictated to the secretary after the recess?

10.

a.
The highest standards of service were insisted in the h
otel.


b. The highest standards of service were insisted on in the hotel.


c. The highest standards of service were insisted at in the hotel.


II.
Rewrite the sentences in the Passive.

1. No one paid any attention to his words.

2. They will give you
another chance.

3. Helen suggested her new plan to Dorothy.

4. Why do they insist on the immediate answer?

5. When did they send Joan an e
-
mail message?



22


Test 1 (
The Passive Voice
)

V
-
II


I. Choose the correct variant.

1.

a.
Her efficiency and diligence
were admired by her colleagues.


b. Her efficiency and diligence was admired by her colleagues.


c. Her colleagues were admired by her efficiency and diligence.

2.

a.
With these ridiculous rules will be done away.


b. These ridiculous rules will be done
away.


c. These ridiculous rules will be done away with.

3.

a. When were the participants of the conference demonstrated new methods
of investigation?


b. When new methods of investigation were demonstrated to the participants
of the conference?


c. When
were new methods of investigation demonstrated to the participants
of the conference?

4.

a. A lot of money was suggested for the implementation of the project.


b. A lot of money was offered for the implementation of the project.


c. A lot of money were o
ffered for the implementation of the project.

5.

a. At Janet’s suspicions laught.


b. Janet’s suspicions were laughted at.


c. Janet’s suspicions were laughed at.

6.

a. An end will be put to
these absurd regulations
.


b.
These absurd regulations will be
put an end to.


c. To these absurd regulations will be put an end.

7.

a. Pamela was told about the car crash.


b. The car crash was told to Pamela.


c. Pamela was said about the car crash.

8.

a. Were you teached foreign languages at school?


b. Were you

taught foreign languages at school?


c. Was you taught foreign languages at school?

9.

a. The news were much spoken about.


b. About the news was spoken much.


c. The news was much spoken about.

10.

a. When will the flight be announced to the
passengers?


b. When will the passengers be announced the flight?


c. When will be the flight announced to the passengers?


II. Rewrite the sentences in the Passive.

1.
They offered us a lot of money for a TV movie.

2. Did Kate introduce Francis to Mrs. Ma
son?

3.
They will put an end to his irresponsible behavior.

4. When will people do away with this fatal illness?

5. The tourists always admire this splendid gothic castle.

23


Test 2 (Modal Verbs)

V
-
I


1. My wife ______ three languages.

a)
cans speak

b)
can

speaks

c) can speak

d) cans speaks

2. I ______ to go hiking with you.

a)
shall be able

b) shall

can

3. My parrot ______.

a)
can’t speak

b) can’t to speak

c) can`ts speak

4. Listen, you must _____ your parents about it immediately.

a) tell

b) t
o tell

5
.
I
______ get up early every morning.

a) haven't to

b)

don’t have to

6. ______ study English every day?

a)

do me must

b) must

we

7. Peter and Mike ______ work overtime this month.

a) have to

b) has

to

8. Henry said, that he ______ be late.

a) might

b) may

c) would

may

9. Are you going to join us?
-

______ .

a) Maybe

b) Ma
y be

10. I don’t think it ______ rain tomorrow.

a) might

b)

will might




24


Test

2 (
Modal

Verbs
)

V
-
II


1. Wife ______ never forgive him.

a
) couldn’t

b) could

2. In my youth I ______ 5 miles

without stopping.

a) could run

b) could to run

c
)
could ran

3. Our child ______ read for now.

a) doesn’t can

b) cannots

c)

can`t

4. May I speak to you, sir?


Yes, ______.

a) you do

b) you

may

5. The children ______ go to bed in time.

a) is to

b)

are to

6.

She ______ look after her little sister.

a) has to

b) have to

c) haves

to

7.

Who ______ there first?

a) musts go

b) must goes

c) must go

d) must

to go

8.

The poor man ______ recover so soon.

a) doesn’t may

b) mays not

c) may

not

9.
I think the children
______ dine with us.

a) may

b) might

10. The solution to this problem soon ______ found.

a
)
maybe

b
)
may

be



25


КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ

РАБОТА


3


I.
Put the verbs in the brackets in the appropriate form of the Passive Voice.

1. The house …. t
wo years ago (to build).

2.

… he … at the airport tomorrow (to meet)?

3. A numbe
r of priceless works of art …. i
n the earthquake (to destroy).

4. A new drug … to combat asthma in small children now (to develop).

5. The tennis court … so we couldn’t play (to use).


II.
Translate into

Russian.

1. Over 57 million students were enrolled in American schools which range
from kindergartens to high schools.

2. Everybody will be shocked by the terrible news.

3. This is a large hall. Many parties are held here.

4. Our plan is being considered
by the members of the committee now.

5. This situation was too serious. Something must have been done.



III.
Put the right modal verb (must, may/might, need, should, can/could).

1. I suppose you … think about your future not about the past.

2. … I borro
w your book?

3. It was so quiet that one … hear a leaf drop.

4. You … worry, everything is OK.

5. … we go out?



IV.

Translate into English using equivalents of the modal words.

1.
Тебе

долго

пришлось

ждать

его
?

2.
Через

две

недели

мы

сможем

поехать

за

рубеж
.

3.
Автобус

приехал

вовремя
,
поэтому

нам

не пришлось ждать.

4. Мне разрешат приехать к вам на выходные.

5. Поезд должен был прибыть в 5.


V.
Find the mistakes and correct them.

1. You needn’t to wait for me.

2. You may eat so many sweets; it is har
mful.

3. Horses can sleeping standing.

4. He has not to go to school on Sundays.

5. They were have to come tomorrow.



26


ГОВОРЕНИЕ


Обучение монологической речи осуществляется в процессе работы с
печатным текстом, на ситуативной основе и с использованием аутентичного
образца устного монологического сообщения. Студентам заочного отделения
предлагается письменный образец монологической р
ечи по определенной
теме. Алгоритм работы с этим текстом следующий:

1. Прочитайте образец монологической речи вслух.

2. Отработайте технику чтения вслух.

3. Прочитайте текст для ответа на заданные вопросы.

4. Выберите из предложенного списка наиболее част
о употребляемые
слова для заучивания.

6. Составьте план содержания монологического высказывания.

5. Перескажите содержание текста кратко.

7. Дополните и трансформируйте исходный вариант.

8. Составьте монологическое высказывание от своего имени, опираясь
на

предложенный образец.


BIYSK


Biysk is the oldest city of the Altay territory. The pages of its nearly 300
-
year
-
old history are full of most interesting events
-

sometimes dramatic, som
e-
times mysterious.

Biysk was founded in the period of great changes in

the Peter I era, when
Russia was opening up to the European civilization on the one hand and increasing
its strength in the East, on the other. For this reason Peter the Great gave an order
to erect a fortification on the confluence of the Biya and Katun
rivers to divide
possessions of the Russian Empire and the Eastern Mongolian Khanate.

On July, 18th, 1709 Russian Cossacks completed the construction of a small
wooden fortress by the source of the river Ob. The fortress was called the Bikatun
one.

In 1757

it was in the Biysk fortress where the elders of some Altaic tribes
signed the Treaty stating Russian naturalization of the Altai native population.

In 1782 by the Senate's order the fortress was granted the town status.

In 1804
when Biysk became one of t
he 8 district centers of the Tomsk province it got its
town emblem.

In the beginning of the 19th century the tzarist government began to
use the fortress as an exile place.

In the middle of the 19th century Biysk was a typical provincial town of pre
-
revolutionary Russia. It was built on with one
-
storey wooden houses. 5000 people
lived here. With the development of capitalism the town became the greatest centre
of transit trad
e with Mongolia and China. It was in Biysk where Chuysky Highway
began. The local merchants began to invest their money into industry and
transport.

Gradually Biysk was changing: industrial enterprises, banks and beautiful
stone buildings were built, electricity and telephone appeared. In 1915 Biysk was
27


connected with Barnaul and Novosibirsk by a railroad.

During the post
-
Civil War
period Biysk grew co
nsiderably thanks to heroic efforts and hardships of its pe
o-
ple. Old factories were modernized, new plants were built and the whole network
of schools and hospitals was organized.

At the Second World War more than 38.000 of Biysk soldiers fought in f
a-
mous
Siberian divisions, they fought for Moscow and Stalingrad, liberated Europe,
took Berlin. 12 industrial enterprises were evacuated to Biysk and by the end of
1941 the first products such as furnaces, boilers, trench mortars, uniform were sent
to the
front.

Many outstanding people lived in Biysk: V
italy
V
alentinovich

Bianky,
Ilia Andreevich
Mukhachyov,
Yakov Fedorovich
Savchenko,
Grigory Semenovich
Vasilyev,
Valya
Maximova,
Nikolay Ignatyevich Trofimov
and others.

PLACES OF INTEREST O
F BIYSK

Biysk is rich in

architectural monuments of the XIX
-
XX centuries: dwelling
houses, shops and churches. There are 40 architectural and historical monuments
of federal and territorial importance. They are extremely valuable because a co
n-
siderable part of old constructions h
ave been preserved. Most sights worth seeing
in Biysk are concentrated in its Old Centre, which is actually the heart of the city.

The cannons of the Biysk Fortress.
In the quiet square opposite the City Park
in the Old Centre there are two cannons to remi
nd of the times of the Biysk Fo
r-
tress. These twelve
-
pound cannons were cast in 1402 in Kamensk. There were
brought to Biysk in 1756 and set up to protect the fortress. In 1848 when the Biysk
fortress was abolished, the cannons were taken away. Nearly all
of them were sent
for remelting. Two cannons were placed on the pedestal to commemorate the 200
th

anniversary of Biysk in June, 1909.

The Uspenskaya Church
is a construction of great artistic value situated at
the bank of the River Biya. The most
distinctive trait of the Church is its silver
domes which look especially striking against the dark skies. The inside of the
Church is impressive too: the walls and the inner part of the dome bear beautiful
holy paintings. There's a priceless collection of

icons there, the most famous of
which is the Icon of Father, Son and Holy Spirits.

The Drama Theatre or the People's House
occupies a beautiful mansion in
the Old Centre on Sovetskaya Street.

The Bianky Museum of Regional Ethnography
is a red
-
brick buildi
ng located
not far from the bridge across the Biya. It is named after Vitaly Bianky who came
to Biysk and stayed here for some time to study the town and the Altay Territory.
The Department of Nature is very popular. Its exposition presents common and r
a-
re

animals and birds found in the Altai Territory: marals (Siberian stags), bears,
wolves, ulars, kabargas, and what not.

The Museum of Regional Studies
is situated in the former Asanov's Mansion.
The Museum possesses a priceless collection of archaeological

and ethnographical
exhibits devoted to the history and culture of the Altay Territory and its people.
There are six departments and seven halls in the Museum. There is a scientific l
i-
brary of 15500 volumes of books on botany, geography, zoology, philosoph
y, li
n-
28


guistics and other subjects. The Museum is believed to be one of the best in Sib
e-
ria.

The Memorial
is found in a quiet square not far from the Drama Theater. It
was constructed to commemorate the heroes from Biysk and neighboring villages
perished in

the World War II. The names of more than 9700 Biysk citizens are
written down in the Memory Book of the Altay Territory.


Vocabulary


to be full of

быть

полным



to be founded
-

быть

основанным


on the one hand
-

с

одной

стороны


on the other hand
-

с

другой

стороны


to increase
-

увеличивать



reason
-

причина

fortification
-

укрепление



fortress
-

крепость

confluence
-
слияние



to divide possessions
-

разделять

владения

to

complete
-

заканчивать
,
завершать

tribe
-

племя

treaty
-

договор





naturalization
-

вхождение

в

состав

order
-

приказ





exile
-

ссылка

transit

trade
-

транзитная торговля


merchant
-

купец

enterprise
-

предприятие




to

appear
-

появляться

effort
-

усилие





hardships
-

лишения

boiler
-
котел






furnace
-
печь

trench

mortar
-
миномет




outstanding
-

выдающийся

t
o dwell
-
жить





distinctive trait
-
отличительная

черта

v
aluable
-
ценный





dome
-
купол

c
onsiderable
-
значительный



look
-
выглядеть

t
o

preserve
-

сохранять




striking

-

замечательный

w
orth
-
стоить





inside

(
inner
)
-
внутри, внутренний

c
annon
-
пушка





impressive
-
впечатляющий

q
uiet
-
тихий, спокойный



to

bear
-
носить, содержать

t
o

remind
-
напоминать




holy
-
святой, священный

p
ound
-

пуд






mansion
-
особняк

t
o

cast
-
отливать





rare
-
редкий

t
o

abolish
-
упразднять




former
-
бывший

t
o remelt
-
переплавить




to possess
-
владеть

t
o

commemorate
-

чтить

память


exhibit
-
экспонат

a
nniversary
-

годовщина
,
юбилей


volume
-
том

a
rtistic
-
художественный



neighboring
-
соседний

b
ank
-
берег






to perish
-
погибать

в

бою



Questions to the texts:


1.

How old is Biysk?

2.

Why did Peter I give an order to make a fortification on the confluence of
the
Biya and
the
Katun?

29


3.

When was the fortress completed?

4.

What happened in 1757?

5.

When did the fortress become a town?

6.

Whose province did Biysk belong to?

7.

How did Biysk look like in
the 19
th

century?

8.

With what cities was Biysk connected by a railroad?

9.

How did Biysk change after the Civil War?

10.


What was the contribution of Biysk in the Second World War Victory?

11.


What outstanding people lived in Biysk?

12.


How many architectural and histor
ical buildings of great importance are
there in Biysk?

13.


Where are the main sights situated?

14.


Where are the Biysk cannons located?

15.


How much do they weigh?

16.


When were they set up?

17.


What is the most distinctive trait of the Uspenskaya Church?

18.


How is the m
ost famous icon called?

19.


Why did Vitaly Bianky stay in Biysk?

20.


What Altai animals are presented in the exposition in the Bianky Museum
of Regional Ethnography?

21.


Where is the Museum of Regional Studies

situated?

22.


What books does the Museum library consist o
f?

23.


Why was the Memorial constructed?

24.


How many names of Biysk citizens are written down in the Memory Book?



30


THE RUSSIAN FEDERATI
ON


Russia covers the eastern part of Europe and the northern part of Asia. It’s the
world’s largest country. Russia covers
almost twice the territory of either the Uni
t-
ed States or China. Russia is washed by twelve seas and three oceans. It confronts
the Baltic Sea in the west. The Black, Caspian, and Asov Seas wash Russia in the
south. The Arctic Ocean and conjoined seas such

as the White, Barents, Kara, La
p-
tev, and East
-
Siberian Seas are in the north. The Pacific Ocean and conjoined seas
including the Bering, Okhotsk, and Japanese Seas wash Russia in the east.

There is hardly a country in the world where such a variety of sce
nery and
vegetation can be found. We have steppes in the south, plains and forests in the
midland, tundra and taiga in the north, highlands and deserts in the east.

Russian’s main regions are the Russian (or East European) Plain, the Ural
Mountains, the We
st Siberian Plain, the Central Siberian Plateau, and the Far East.
The Russian Plain takes up the European part of Russia. There are low, rolling u
p-
lands and broad rivers there. In the north the relief of the plain is scattered with
lakes and swamps. In th
e southern part of the plain the river basins are cut by va
l-
leys and ravines. In the south, the Russian Plain is edged by the Caucasus Mou
n-
tains between the Black and Caspian Seas. The Urals form the eastern boundary of
the Russian Plain. It is held that t
he Urals separate Europe from Asia. The Urals
stretch for about 2,100 km from north to south. The highest peak, Mount Narodn
a-
ya, reaches 1,895 m, and other mountain tops range from 900 to 1,500 m. The
West Siberian Plain merges in the east with the Central

Siberian Plateau. The eas
t-
ernmost part of Russia is bounded by various mountain chains. The Far East of
Russia includes the
Kamchatka

and Chukchi peninsulas and the Kuril and Sakhalin
islands.

There are over two million rivers in Russia. The most importan
t rivers in the
European part of Russia are the Don and Volga. The Volga River, which flows in
the Caspian Sea, is of great historic, economic, and cultural importance to Russia.
In the West Siberia the greatest rivers are the Ob and Yenisey.

Russia is ric
h in
beautiful lakes. The world’s deepest lake (1,600 metres) is Lake Baikal.

On the vast territory of the country there are various types of climate, from
arctic in the north to subtropical in the south. In the middle of the country the cl
i-
mate is tempera
te and continental.

Russia ranks sixth in the world in the size of its population. The great major
i-
ty of the population of Russia are Russians. Russia is inhabited by sixty other n
a-
tionalities, and about twenty five of these minorities have their own auton
omous
republics within the Russian Federation.


Vocabulary


to occupy

surface

total area

занимать

поверхность

общая площадь

31


square
kilometer

to wash

to border on

sea
-
boarder

variety

scenery

vegetation

steppe

plain

midland

tundra

taiga

highland

plateau

desert

chain

peninsula

to separate

to
flow into

vast territory

climate

arctic

subtropical

temperate

continental

oil

coal

iron ore

copper

mineral resources

parliamentary

head of state

legislative

powers

квадратный километр

омывать

граничить с

морская граница

разнообразие, множество

пейзаж, ландшафт

растительность

степь

равнина

средняя полоса

тундра

тайга

нагорье, высокогорная местность

плато, плоскогорье

пустыня

цепь

полуостров

разделять

впадать в

обширная территория

климат

арктический

субтропический

умеренный

континентальный

нефть

уголь

железная руда

медь

полезные ископаемые

парламентский

глава государства

законодательный

полномочия

Siberian

European

the Duma

the Far East

the Baltic States

the Caucasus

the Urals

the Kara Sea

сибирский

европейский

Дума

Дальний

Восток

Прибалтийские государства

Кавказ

Уральские горы

Карское море


32


ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ ЧТЕНИЯ И
ПЕРЕВОДА


Следует помнить, что какими бы ни были задания по тексту, основой
для работы с ним является полное понимание его содержания.

Рекомендуем работу над
текстом вести в несколько этапов. Начать её
следует так: прочитайте весь текст полностью, не отвлекаясь и не заглядывая
в словарь. В тексте наверняка встретятся незнакомые слова и выражения. Н
е-
смотря на это, постарайтесь понять общее содержание текста.

Исх
одя из уже понятого общего содержания
,

приступайте к повторному
чтению. Вы заметите, что слова и выражения, которые были (или казались)
совершенно непонятными, начинают обретать смысл


ещё неясный и не с
о-
всем точный в деталях, но


смысл. Это


пример тог
о, как «работает» ко
н-
текст, т.е. окружение тех слов и выражений, которые Вам пока ещё непоня
т-
ны.

Прочитав текст второй раз, Вы увидите, что неясности каса
ются уже
только узко
специальных значений тех или иных слов и выражений. Дело


за
словарём.

Как работа
ть со словарём?

Не торопитесь захлопывать словарь, прочитав первое приведённое в
словарной статье значение слова. Как известно, английские слова многозна
ч-
ны, и одно и то же слово может иметь несколько, а иногда десятки сове
р-
шенно различных значений.

Поэтом
у лучше внимательно просмотреть хотя бы несколько первых
значений слова, выбрать правильный вариант и выписать его в свой сл
о-
варь. Наличие словаря по каждому тексту является обязательным условием
сдачи контрольной работы.

Как НЕ надо делать:

Нельзя

выписывать незнакомые слова в той форме, в которой они
встречались в тексте, и после этого искать в словаре их значение, не учит
ы-
вая контекста.

Нельзя не учитывать функцию слова в предложении. Не установив, на
какой вопрос отвечает слово и контекст, част
о можно получить совершенно
абсурдный перевод.


Read and translate 3 texts.


Text 1.
Canada

Canada is the second largest country in the world. Only Russia has a greater
land area. Canada is situated in North America. Canada is slightly larger than the
Unit
ed States, but has only about a tenth as many people. About 28 million people
live in Canada. About 80% of the
population lives

within 320 km of the southern
border. Much of the rest of Canada is uninhabited or thinly populated because of
severe natural co
nditions.

33


Canada is a federation of 10 provinces and
3

territories. Canada is an ind
e-
pendent nation. But according to the Constitution Act of 1982 British Monarch,
Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom is known as Queen of Canada. This
symbolizes the c
ountry's strong ties to Britain. Canada was ruled by Britain co
m-
pletely until 1867, when Canada gained control of its domestic affairs. Britain go
v-
erned Canada's foreign affairs until 1931, when Canada gained full independence.

Canada's people are varied. About 57% of all Canadians have some English
ancestry and about 32% have some French ancestry. Both English and French are
official languages of the country.

French Canadians, most of whom live in the provinces of Quebec, have
kept
the language and customs of their ancestors. Other large ethnic groups are German,
Irish and Scottish people. Native people


American Indians and Eskimos


make
up about 2% of the country's population. 77% of Canada's people live in cities or
towns.
Toronto and Montreal are the largest urban areas. Ottawa is the capital of
the country.

Today, maintaining a sense of community is one of the major problems in
Canada because of differences among the provinces and territories. Many Canad
i-
ans in western an
d eastern parts of the country feel that the federal government
does not pay enough attention to their problems.


Text 2.
UK Education Systems

More than 90% of students in the UK attend publicly
-
funded state schools.
Approximately 8.5 million children
attend one of the 30,000 schools in England
and Wales; in Scotland, 830,000 children attend about 5,000 schools, including
pre
-
schools and other special education schools; and Northern Ireland sends
350,000 children to 1,300 state schools. Primary schools
usually include both girls
and boys as pupils. Secondary schools may be either single
-
sex or co
-
educational.

By law, all children in England and Wales between ages 5 and 16 must r
e-
ceive a full
-
time educa
tion, while in Northern Ireland

children must begin a
t age 4.
For children under age 5, publicly
-
funded nurseries and pre
-
schools are available
for a limited number of hours each week. After the age of 16, students can attend
sixth form colleges or other further education institutions. Both options offer ge
n-
eral education courses in addition to more specific vocational or applied subjects.

National curriculum core subjects


5 to 11 year olds (Key stages 1 and 2):

English, Maths, Science, Design and technology, Information and Comm
u-
nication Technology (ICT),

History, Geography, Art and design, Music, Physical
education

Schools also have to teach religious education and are encouraged to prove
personal, social and health education (PSHE) and citizenship, and at least one
modern foreign language.

National
curriculum core subjects


11 to 14 year olds (Key stage 3):

English, M
aths, Science, Design and technology, Information and Comm
u-
nication Technology (ICT), History, Geography, Modern foreign languages, Art
and design, Music, Citizenship, Physical educatio
n.

34


Schools also have to provide: Careers education and guidance (during Year
9), Sex and Relationship Education (SRE), Religious education.

Throughout key stages 1
-
3 pupils are routinely tested in Standard Asses
s-
ment Tests (SATs) but these are being phased

out by the Government.


Key stage 4


GCSE:

At GCSE level,
students have to take English, M
aths, science, IT, citize
n-
ship and physical education.

The GCSE is a single
-
subject examination set and marked by independent
examination boards. Students usually

take up to ten (there is no upper or lower li
m-
it) GCSE examinations in different subjects, including mathematics and English
language.

After taking GCSEs, students may leave secondary schooling; alternatively,
they may choose to continue their education
at vocational or technical colleges, or
they may take a higher level of secondary school examinations known as AS
-
Levels after an additional year of study. Following two years of study, students
may take A
-
Level (short for Advanced Level) examinations, whi
ch are required for
university entrance in the UK.

Post
-
secondary and Higher Education

Approximately 1.8 million students are currently enrolled in the UK higher
education system; about one third of young people go on to higher education at age
18 (with al
most 50% of students in Scotland), and an increasing number of "m
a-
ture" students are studying either full
-
time or part
-
time for university degrees.

Undergraduate degrees take three years to complete in England, Wales and
Northern Ireland, while at Scottish

universities they last four years. At the graduate
level, a master's degree is normally earned in a single year, a research master's d
e-
gree takes two years and a doctoral degree is often completed in three years.

Professional courses, such as medicine, v
eterinary medicine, law and teac
h-
ing, usually are undertaken as five
-
year undergraduate degrees.




35


АННОТИРОВАНИЕ И РЕФЕ
РИРОВАНИЕ

ТЕКСТА ПО НАПРАВЛЕНИ
Ю


Аннотация

-

это предельно сжатая характеристика материала, заключ
а-
ющаяся в информации
o

затронутых в источниках вопросах. Аннотация
включает характеристику основной темы, проблемы объекта, цели работы и
ее результаты. В аннотации указывают, что нового несет в себе данный д
о-
кумент в сравнении с другими, родственными по тематике и целевому наз
н
а-
чению. Аннотация может включать сведения об авторе первичного докуме
н-
та и достоинствах произведения, взятые из других документов.

Рефератом

называется текст, передающий основную информацию по
д-
линника в свернутом виде и составленный в результате ее смысл
овой пер
е-
работки. Осуществляя компрессию первоисточников, аннотация и реферат
делают это принципиально различными способами. Если аннотация лишь
перечисляет те вопросы, которые освещены в первоисточнике, не раскрывая
самого содержания этих вопросов, то реф
ерат не только перечисляет все эти
вопросы, но и сообщает существенное содержание каждого из них. Можно
сказать, что аннотация лишь сообщает, о чем написан первоисточник, а р
е-
ферат информирует о том, что написано по каждому из затронутых вопросов.

Отсюда

следует, что аннотация является лишь указателем для отбора
первоисточников и не может их заменить, в то время как реферат вполне м
о-
жет заменить сам первоисточник, так как сообщает все существенное соде
р-
жание материала.

Общие требования, предъявляемые к н
аписанию
аннотаций и рефер
а-
тов
, следующие: 1) объем колеблется от 500
-
2000 печатных знаков; 2) с
о-
блюдение логичности структуры, которая может отличаться от порядка и
з-
ложения в оригинале; 3) соблюдение языковых особенностей, что включает в
себя следующее: и
зложение основных положений оригинала просто, ясно,
кратко; избежание повторений, в том числе и заглавия статьи; соблюдение
единства терминов и сокращений; использование общепринятых сокращ
е-
ний; употребление безличных конструкций типа «рассматривается…, а
нал
и-
зируется…, сообщается…» и пассивного залога; избегание использования
прилагательных, наречий, вводных слов, не влияющих на содержание.

Качество аннотирования и реферирования текста по направлению оц
е-
нивается с учётом объёма и правильности извлечённой
информации, аде
к-
ватности и реализации коммуникативного намерения, содержательности, л
о-
гичности, смысловой и структурной завершённости, нормативности текста,
корректного использования лексико
-
грамматических моделей, характерных
для языка английских реферато
в и аннотаций.

Учитываются

умения

студента
выделять ключевые предложения

в
составе абзаца, достигать максимальной смысловой компрессии, выделять
избыточную информацию по внешним формальным признакам,
формулир
о-
вать главную идею

текста и
высказывать своё мне
ние по прочитанному
.

Объём реферата 10
-
15 предложений.

36


КЛИШЕ ДЛЯ АННОТИРОВА
НИЯ

И РЕФЕРИРОВАНИЯ ТЕКС
ТОВ


1. The title of the text is …
-

Название

текста

….

2. The author of the text is …
-

Автор

текста



3. The material of the text is devoted to …
-

Материал

текста

посвящён



4. The text deals with the problem of …
-

Текст

рассматривает

проблему


5. The main idea of the text is ....
-

Основная

идея

текста



6. From the first passage (paragraph) we learn …
-

Из первого абзаца мы
узнаём …

7. The next

part of the text deals with …
-

Следующая часть текста ра
с-
сматривает …

8.
Paragraph

3
discusses

(
the

fact

that
) …
-

Абзац 3 обсуждает …

9.
Further

the

author

dwells

on


-

Далее автор останавливается на …

10.
The

next

part

gives

information

on


-

Следующая часть текста пред
о-
ставляет нам информацию о …

11. According to the text (to the author) …
-

В соответствии с тем, что г
о-
ворится в тексте (что говорит автор), …

12. The author remarks (stresses, underlines, states, declares, points out )

...
-

Автор отмечает (подчёркивает, констатирует, указывает) …

14.
The

last

part

of

the

text

tells

us


-

Последняя часть текста рассказ
ы-
вает нам …

15.
In

my

opinion
, …
-

По моему мнению, …



ТЕКСТЫ
ПО НАПРАВЛЕНИЯМ

ДЛЯ ЧТЕНИЯ, ПЕРЕВОДА

И РЕФЕРИРОВАНИЯ


Text

3


Направление

Педагогическое образование

профиль

Русский язык и Литература


NOVEL, DRAMA AND SHORT STORIES

There are different genres in literature: prose fiction, poetry, literary crit
i-
cism, etc. Novel, drama and short stories are the most typical
samples of prose.

What distinguishes a novelist from a dramatist? The following points must
be noted here. A dramatist is a man who tells a story in dialogue. A novelist tells a
story in narrative. He may not use any dialogue or use very little, but a dra
matist
cannot use anything else. A novel may be composed of conversation, of descri
p-
tion, of narrative, any or all of these, and it may take many forms; but a play is e
n-
tirely composed of talk, even when there is a great deal of action in it; and its form
is much more restricted than that of the novel.

Not all the writers, even men of genius, are capable of writing both plays
37


and novels. It may be said even of these authors that each of them is usually bette
r
at one form than at another.

In the last years J
ohn Galsworthy and Somerset
Maugham are superb examples of novelist
-
playwrights while G.B. Shaw is an e
x-
ample of a man who was born a dramatist and not a novelist.

The basis of all great novels and plays is a character. It is essential that the
characters
should be superbly original and recognizable as real men of their time.
Some novels ramble from the birth of hero or heroine, through a life
-
time, and to
death itself, others magnify the events of a few hours; and others again, assemble
at one spot many pe
rsons whose lives are quickly sketched. But the novel is more
than a presentation of events. The inner life of characters, their temperament,
moods, fantasies, and momentary observations are as essential to it as the other a
c-
tion.

And what is essential to
a short story? One can define it as a piece of prose
fiction, limited in length. It is the most flexible of all prose forms. As one of the
leading contemporary writers, H.E. Bates, has pointed out, a short story can be a
n-
ything from a prose
-
poem without pl
ot or character to an analysis of the most
complex human emotions. The most distinguished short story writers of the twe
n-
ties are Katherine Mansfield, A.E. Coppard, H.E. Bates, Elizabeth Bowen, She
r-
wood Anderson, V.S. Pritchet and Frank O'Connor.



Направление

Педагогическое образование

профиль

Изобразительное искусство

Направление

Дизайн


LEONARDO

DA

VINCI

(1452
-
1519)

Leonardo
'
s

fame

as

an

artist is based on eighteen paintings that came down to
us, some of them incomplete, some damaged as a result

of his experimental tec
h-
niques. Leonardo's art surpassed the achievements of his time. In an era when the
continuing power of the Church competed in men's mind with the revived authority
of Classical antiquity, for Leonardo there was no authority higher t
han that of an
eye, which he characterized as "the window of the soul". When Leonardo began
his campaign to modernize painting the artist was still a craftsman and a guild
member; before the High Renaissance was over, a great master could live like a
princ
e.

Leonardo da Vinci was born in Tuscany. By 1469 he was Verrocchio's a
p-
prentice. In Verrocchio's workshop Leonardo obtained the best education of his
time.

The Adoration of the Magi

is Leonardo's first masterpiece. It was commi
s-
sioned in 1481 for a church outside Florence. It was, never carried any further than
the monochrome underpaint Leonardo used the pyramidal composition. The
groups are based on the actions of the component figures and dissolve as soon as
they move. Leonardo

did not know it, but this discovery was made in Greece in the
38


5
-
th century B.C. In this work Leonardo started with the moment of feeling, form
came next.

The Madonna of the Rocks
, of 1483, is one of the earliest and the most f
a-
mous Leonardo's pictures. It

was intended for the Oratory of the Immaculate Co
n-
ception in Milan. The doctrine of the Immaculate Conception means that the Vi
r-
gin was freed from the taint of the Original Sin. Leonardo has interpreted this doc
-
trine dramatically. He represented Mary in
the midst of a dark world of rock forms.
In this strange rocky grotto, where the sun never seems to strike and the plants
grow thick but colourless, the Christ Child manifests his Divinity as he blesses the
infant St. John, himself taken under the Virgin's

protection. And, like a prophecy
of the Baptism of Christ by St. John in the Jordan, a river winds away among the
pale peaks. This painting makes Leonardo a typical artist of the High Renaissance.


Направление

Биология


профиль

Биоэкология


LIVING
ORGANISMS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT

Part 1

An organism's surroundings and all the factors which influence it constitute
its environment. The complex relations between organisms and their environment
can be seen in a very brief consideration of food supply.

Th
e green plants are at the base of the system of food relations in the organic
world. They take from their surroundings only simple inorganic .materials


w
a-
ter, carbon dioxide, oxygen, inorganic nitrogen, and various mineral salts. From
these simple substa
nces plants build carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. With the e
x-
ception of a few bacteria and molds, all other organisms depend upon the green
plants for their food supply. Herbivorous animals consume plants directly. Carni
v-
orous animals eat other animals
which may in turn be herbivorous. Some are o
m-
nivorous; that is, they eat both plants and other animals. The types of plants in a
particular environment determine to a large extent what kinds of animals can i
n-
habit that environment. As we shall see later, t
he presence of a particular organism
in a given environment may influence all the others found there. The basic physical
and chemical factors in the environment are also of the utmost importance.

Oxygen is an absolute requirement for most organisms; it is

likewise abu
n-
dant in most surroundings. Land
-
dwelling species obtain oxygen from the air; most
aquatic species utilize the oxygen dissolved in water; If as sometimes happens in
experimental or otherwise limited environments, the oxygen supply of organisms

is
cut off the organisms will die.

Quite as important as oxygen is water which is a universal component of pr
o-
toplasm. It provides the essential medium for the chemical processes of life and the
transport of materials. The amount of water available deter
mines what types of o
r-
ganisms will occur in an environment, how fast they will grow, and the rate of
many of their basic life processes.

39


Carbon dioxide in the environment is essential for photosynthesis. If either
carbon dioxide or inorganic nitrogen is a
bsent or deficient, the growth of photosy
n-
thetic plants is limited or prevented. This, in turn, affects the animal population.

Equally important are such physical factors as light, temperature, and gravity.

"
Biology

a

Basic

Science
"

by

Elwood

D
.

Heiss
.


Направление

Педагогическое

образование

профил
и

География
;

Биология и География


THE FORMATION OF THE PLANET

However details differ, al
l

theories of terrestrial origin follow two main lines
of thought. One proposes that a star came near enough to the sun so that its gravit
a-
tional attraction raised giant tidal waves on the solar body. At the point of closest
approach the wave crest broke aw
ay into space, cooled and became planets, half of
them attached to the invader, the other remaining with their mother sun. Against
this “tidal theory” stands the no less venerable “nebular hypothesis”. It postulates
that the Sun was once surrounded by a ro
tating nebula, or envelope, of gas and
dust. Centrifugal force caused the nebula to bulge at the equator and cast forth a
series of rings. The rings then coalesced into planets.

Generations of astronomers have revised and discarded various modifications
of

these two basic ideas. The currently popular theory is a refinement of the neb
u-
lar hypothesis. As almost all astronomers now agree, it
assumes

that all stars
evolved from primordial clouds of sparse gas and cosmic dust, drifting randomly in
space. Compell
ed by gravitation, they massed,

contracted, rotated. Internal pre
s-
sures and temperatures rose until in the last white
-
hot stages of collapse they began
to radiate as stars. Most of these vast turbulent clouds tended to divide, condensing
around two vortice
s and thus giving birth to the binary

(double) stars that make up
more than half the stellar popula
ti
on. Others, like our North Star, separated into
triplets that appear to the eye as one.

But in certain instances

-

perhaps one in 100

-

the distribution of

matter and
balance of forces were such that instead of dividing a cloud formed a single nucl
e-
us. One was our sun, an infant star growing and glowing in the centre of a rotating
disk of inchoate matter the diameter of our solar system. As the disk spun, gr
owing
even flatter, it separated into rings, and within the rings whorls of denser matter
accumulated under the influence of gravity. The whorls collided, intermingled, co
l-
lecting ever larger masses of matter. In time

-

perhaps it took 100 million years

-

the nuclei of the whorls which were composed mostly of the heavy elements co
n-
densed into the planets. Inside the whorl from which our Earth congealed, a stil
l

smaller one coagulated into our moon.




40


Направление

Педагогическое

образование

профил
и

Экология и
География


ANIMALS NEED HELP. EARTH IS IN DANGER

People have lived on our planet for many years. They lived and live on di
f-
ferent continents, in different countries. People depend on their planet, on the sun,
on animals and plants around them.
People must take care of Earth.

Our ecology becomes worse and worse with every new day. Many species of
animals and birds are disappearing nowadays. People destruct wildlife, cut down
trees to make furniture. They forget that people can’t live without tree
s and plants,
because they fill air with oxygen. And, of course, great problems are population
and animals’ destruction.

The main reason of pollution is rubbish. Most of our rubbish goes to big
holes in the ground, called ‘dumps’. But dumps are very danger
ous for our life b
e-
cause they are full of rats, which can carry infections away from dumps. Another
way to get rid of rubbish is to burn it. But the fires make poisons, which go into the
air and pollute it.

Pollution isn’t the only actual problem. Every da
y a big number of animals
disappear. People kill animals for different aims: e.g. people hunt whales for their
meat and oil, elephants for their tusks, crocodiles for their leather and so on. And
also animals are used for medical experiments. Modern life i
s bad for animals,
birds, fish. The air isn’t fresh and the water isn’t pure. They don’t have good meal
and facilities for the life. You can find their names in the Red Book.

Of course, people can’t stay indifferent to these problems. There are a lot of
sp
ecial organizations, which try to save our nature. The most known are: The Ro
y-
al Society for the prevention of cruelty to animals (The RSPCA), the World Wil
d-
life Fund (WWF) and Greenpeace.

The RSPCA tries to protect animals from bad use. It operates big na
tion
campaigns aimed at lost pets, circus animals.

The WWF rescued several species of animals, mammals as well as birds.
This organization also helped to create more than 250 National parks.

Greenpeace began its work 20 years ago from saving whales. And
now
Greenpeace is a world
-
famous organization, which saves plants, animals and pe
o-
ple. These organization, want to rescue animals, to help them to survive and to
save jungle rain forests, which are in danger of destruction. And they also help a
n-
imals ‘beca
use many of them have already gone as they have nowhere to live.
Their homes, the trees, have disappeared.

We must save wild animals. And we must find the right way to save land,
people and animals. We must take care of nature, because we are part of it.




41


Направление

Педагогическое

образование

профил
и

Биология и
Химия


PERIODIC TABLE

The periodic table is a tabular display of the chemical elements, organized
on the basis of their atomic numbers and chemical properties. Elements are pr
e-
sented in increasing atomic number. The main body of the table is a 18 × 7 grid,
and elements with the same number of valence electrons are kept together in
groups, such as the halogens and the noble gases. Due to this, there are gaps that
form four distin
ct rectangular areas or blocks. The f
-
block is not included in the
main table, but rather is usually floated below, as an inline f
-
block would make the
table impractically wide. Using periodic trends, the periodic table can help predict
the properties of v
arious elements and the relations between properties. As a result,
it provides a useful framework for analyzing chemical behavior, and is widely used
in chemistry and other sciences.

Although precursors exist, the current table is generally credited to Dmi
tri
Mendeleev, who developed it in 1869 to illustrate periodic trends in the properties
of the then
-
known elements; the layout has been refined and extended as new el
e-
ments have been discovered and new theoretical models developed to explain
chemical behav
ior. Mendeleev's presentation also predicted some properties of
then
-
unknown elements expected to fill gaps in his arrangement; most of these
predictions were proved correct when those elements were discovered and found to
have properties close to the pred
ictions.

All elements from atomic numbers 1 (hydrogen) to 118 (ununoctium) have
been synthesized. Of these, all up to and including
californium exists

naturally; the
rest have only been artificially
synthesized

in laboratories, along with numerous
syntheti
c radionuclides of naturally occurring elements. Production of elements
beyond ununoctium is being pursued, with the question of how the periodic table
may need to be modified to accommodate these elements being a matter of ong
o-
ing debate.

Russian chemistr
y professor Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev and German
chemist Julius Lothar Meyer independently published their periodic tables in 1869
and 1870, respectively. They both constructed their tables in a similar manner: By
listing the elements in a row or column i
n order of atomic weight and starting a
new row or column when the characteristics of the elements began to repeat. The
success of Mendeleev's table came from two decisions he made: The first was to
leave gaps in the table when it seemed that the correspon
ding element had not yet
been discovered. Mendeleev was not the first chemist to do so, but he was the first
to be recognized as using the trends in his periodic table to predict the properties of
those missing elements, such as gallium and germanium. The
second decision was
to occasionally ignore the order suggested by the atomic weights and switch adj
a-
cent elements, such as cobalt and nickel, to better classify them into chemical fam
i-
lies. With the development of theories of atomic structure, it became ap
parent that
Mendeleev had listed the elements in order of increasing atomic number.

42



Направление
Педагогическое образование

профиль
Безопасность жизнедеятельности


CHEMICAL SAFETY PROVISIONS

By working in chemical laboratories one should comply with the
various e
n-
vironmental regulations relating to infectious waste, define a hazardous waste,
package it and deal with waste requiring special handling or disposal procedures.
Care should be taken to see that chemicals are not only stored, transported and
hand
led safely, but also that they are disposed in a way that harms neither equi
p-
ment and plumbing, nor other people. When chemicals are carried by hand, they
should be placed in a carrying container or acid
-
carrying bucket to protect against
breakage and spil
lage. When chemicals are transported on a wheeled cart, the cart
should be stable under the load and have wheels large enough to negotiate uneven
surfaces without tipping or stopping suddenly.

Every chemical should have a specific storage space. They shou
ld not be
stored on counter tops where they can be knocked over or in hoods where they i
n-
terfere with proper air flow. Flammable liquids should be stored in ventilated sto
r-
age cabinets and far from ignition sources. All containers must be labeled (inclu
d-
in
g such harmless items as distilled water). The label should contain the proper
name of the chemical and, if appropriate,
a statement of hazards, precautions, dates

of purchase or synthesis, and the name of the user. Do not use chemicals from u
n-
labeled cont
ainers.

As for equipment, all waterlines connecting apparatus to water outlets must
be copper tubing with proper metal fittings or high pressure water hoses fitted with
proper clamps. The bursting pressure of the hose must safely exceed the highest
pressu
re attainable in the water mains (100 psig). Mechanical vacuum pumps used
in laboratories pose common hazards. These are the mechanical hazards associated
with any moving parts and the chemical hazards of contaminating the pump oil
with volatile substances

and subsequently releasing them into the lab. If a vacuum
pump is required for lower pressures, the pump must be fitted with a cold trap to
condense the volatiles.

For removing solvents or water from samples and to dry laboratory glas
s-
ware electric ovens
are often used in laboratories. These ovens if not properly
vented or used in a hood, discharge the volatile substances into the laboratory a
t-
mosphere which can accumulate in toxic concentration. Small amounts of vapour
can accumulate inside the oven and m
ix with the air to form explosive mixtures.
That is why ovens should not be used to dry any chemical known to possess toxic
vapours in order to avoid an explosion hazard.

In all laboratories where chemicals are used there is the hazard of splashes of
dust

particles entering the eyes. Pressurized or vacuum vessels may explode or i
m-
plode sending shrapnel through the lab. When testing samples on some equipment,
pieces can chip and enter the eye. All of these activities, and many others, require
the use of eit
her safety glasses, chemical goggles or face shields.

43


In order to protect the lungs it is necessary to use respirators. There are many
shapes and sizes of respirators and in order to be effective it must be properly fi
t-
ted. In situations where splashing or

spills may occur it is wise to protect the body
with lab coats. All electrical wiring and construction must conform to standard
safety practice. High voltage equipment must be labeled: Danger, High Voltage.


Направление

Туризм


профиль
Технология и орган
изация туроператорских и турагентских
услуг

CHINA

China is the one of the largest countries in the world. The total area of the
country is over million square kilometers. As to population China has the largest
population in the world. 1,313,973,713 billion

people inhabit this country. This
means that one out of every five people in the world is Chinese, and by the year
2020, there will be 1.4 billion Chinese people on the planet.

China is a great country, and it has the only man
-
made creation which is vi
s-
ib
le from outer space
-

The Great Wall. China has a recorded history of nearly four
thousand years. It was a monarchy until 1949 when Mao Tse Tung became the
head of the state. Since that year China has been a Socialist Republic.

In 1976, China started its C
ultural Revolution, which ended in 1976 when
Chairman Mao died. And now China is in the hands of Deng Xiaping, who has
given the country free enterprise. Doors are now open to the rest of the world. And
you can even come to China to study there.

Regarding

studying in China, each foreign student is required to share a
room with one Chinese student, which is very common. Days start very early, so
they'll have to get up at about six o'clock.

There are morning exercises in the open air, and foreign students wi
ll be i
n-
vited to join it. Breakfast is at about six thirty, and all meals are communal. Their
classes will probably be in English and Chinese, they'll begin at seven thirty.
Lunch is at twelve, and then more classes until six.

After school, students
usually go to the cinema. In fact it's very difficult to
get tickets, because going to the cinema is so popular. People also like to go for
walks, to play cards or to just sit outside talking. The air in the streets is not pollu
t-
ed, because there are few c
ars but literally millions of bicycles.

Chinese food is legendary that's why you can find it in most cities in the
world, and people like it very much. If you want to visit China you'll have to get a
visa. As a matter of fact, there are many cities that y
ou can visit with just an ord
i-
nary visa, and others that you need to get a visa from the local police station in o
r-
der to travel. Nowadays there is a very good train service and also an internal air
service, but that it'll be better if you travel by train
because you'll see so much
more of the country. China is worth seeing. And you'll never forget it if you do vi
s-
it it.




44


Направление
Землеустройство и кадастры

профили
Землеустройство
,
Управление недвижимостью


PROPERTY MANAGEMENT

Property management is th
e operation, control, and oversight of real estate
as used in its most broad terms. Management indicates a need to be cared for, mo
n-
itored and accountability given for its useful life and condition. This is much akin
to the role of management in any busine
ss.

Property management is also the management of personal property, equi
p-
ment, tooling and physical capital assets that are acquired and used to build, repair
and maintain end item deliverables. Property management involves the processes,
systems and manp
ower required to manage the life cycle of all acquired property
as defined above including acquisition, control, accountability, responsibility,
maintenance, utilization and disposition.

One important role of a "property manager" is that of liaison between

the
ownership or landlord can call it their property providing a buffer for those owners
who are desiring to distance themselves from their tenant constituency. Duties of
property management generally will include a minim
um of these basic primary
tasks
:

The full and proper screening or testing of an applicant's credit, criminal hi
s-
tory, rental history and ability to pay.

Lease contracting or accepting rent using l
e-
gal documents approved for the area in which the property is located.

Mitigation and remedia
tion regarding any maintenance issues, generally
within a budget, with prior or conveyed consent via a Limited Power of Attorney
legally agreed to by the property owner.

There are many facets to this profession, including managing the accounts
and finances

of the real estate properties, and participating in or initiating litigation
with tenants, contractors and insurance agencies. Litigation is at times considered a
separate function, set aside for trained attorneys. Although a person will be respo
n-
sible fo
r this in his/her job description, there may be an attorney working under a
property manager. Special attention is given to landlord/tenant law and most co
m-
monly evictions, non
-
payment, harassment, reduction of pre
-
arranged services, and
public nuisance ar
e legal subjects that gain the most amount of attention from
property managers. Therefore, it is a necessity that a property manager be current
with applicable municipal, county, state and Federal Fair Housing laws and pra
c-
tices.




45


Направление

Педагогичес
кое образование

профиль

История и Право


THE CRIMEA: WHY WE WENT TO WAR

by Jean Davis

(Extract)

It was perhaps the most pointless war in British history. It ended, after two
years of suffering and deaths, in an armistice. The dispute which led to war co
n-
cerned protection of the Holy Places in Palestine, then part of the Ottoman Empire.

In February 1853, Czar Nicholas I sent an envoy to Constantinople charged
to win for Russian Orthodox Christians the same concessions as those made to
France. The Sultan,
advised by the British
ambassador,

granted rights in the prote
c-
tion of the Holy Places but refused to
recognize

Russia as protector of the Chri
s-
tians. Diplomatic failures led Russia, in July 1853, to occupy the Danube provin
c-
es, of Moldavia and Wallachia.
When she ignored an ultimatum to evacuate them,
Turkey declared war on her. The Turks immediately attacked the Russians in Mo
l-
davia, and in November 1853, the Russian fleet destroyed the Turkish squadron at
Sinope in the Black Sea. After the ultimatum to t
he Czar to withdraw from the
Danubian principalities had failed, Britain and France declared war on Russia. In
September 1854

60,000 Allied troops landed in the Crimea and soon defeated the
Russians at the battle of Alma, leaving Sebastopol open to attac
k. The Russians
under the brilliant leadership of Todleben, set about making Sebastopol impregn
a-
ble. They held out for a year in one of the most famous sieges in history. But by
now an Allied attack on Sebastopol was impossible until the following spring.
The
armies faced a Crimean winter for which they were totally unprepared. Weather
and personal conflicts were bitter. Cholera raged in
Sebastopol.
British soldiers,
cut off from their supplies, were cold, starving and ill.

By late spring, however, the sol
diers were in serious action again. The Ru
s-
sians were defeated in the battle of Chernaya, but were again victorious in the s
e-
cond battle for Redan. However,
Malakoff

was captured by the French, and on
September 9 the Russians at last evacuated Sebastopol.
After a series of indecisive
battles and an Austrian threat to enter the war, Russia agreed to an armistice. The
treaty of Paris gave the Allies a victory on paper. The Black Sea was declared ne
u-
tral, excluding both Russian and Turkish warships from it. Bu
t Russian ambitions
were not destroyed. As early as 1870, she repudiated the Black Sea clause.

As a result of the war faults in the domestic rule of the participants became
evident.
The Russian people, for instance, better
realized

the inefficiencies of t
he
administration and demanded reform.

(
The

Times
,
November

14, 1854)




46


Направление

Педагогическое образование

профиль

Дошкольное

образование


CHARACTERISTICS OF CHILDREN IN KINDERGARTEN AGE

The children have the need to explore, to know and to act on the world around
them, that’s how they construct and advance in their knowledge. They need to
make decisions, to plan and to carry out actions, to control the atmosphere around
them. For that rea
son it is necessary to provide the children experiences of mental,
psychomotor, linguistic, social and emotional nature
that enriches

their life and f
a-
cilitate the total development of their potentialities in the diverse areas of their pe
r-
sonality, as well

as in later learning. The capacity of perception of children in ki
n-
dergarten age is impressive. Lauren Fingeret (2007) realized a study in which a
group of children of 5 years old saw the film
“The March of the Penguins”
and
used the book of the same name

with the intention of determining whichever i
n-
formation the students learned from the film and how the professor used the text in
the unit that contemplates the study of the penguins to maximize its impact. An
oral assessment of the students was made befo
re reading the book and watching the
film and it was made again after reading the text four months later. Regular visits
to the class were made with the purpose of observing the use of the text. It was
possible to verify that the students learned and retai
ned an enormous amount of
knowledge on penguins.

Between the 3 and 6 years of age, the children have an extraordinary deve
l-
opment of their abilities and motivations; to think about what they do, to predict
the result of their actions, the use of language a
nd remembering experiences, sho
w-
ing that they are significant for their integral growth.

Nevertheless, recent studies have demonstrated that the academic level that
generally is in superior levels to kindergarten is extremely low. That’s not the ser
i-
ous pa
rt of the issue. What
is
worrying is that the interpersonal relations and the
adaptation of the small children to new social groups different from home are more
and more distorted. One of the possible causes of this problem is the deficiency in
respects to

the material and tools in relation with the needs of the teachers and the
children. Of course that this is a problem that is urgent to solve, and it is precise to
try an excellent preparation, but the material deficiency does not have to be an e
x-
cuse for
not doing a concerted effort. It shouldn’t be an excuse to not incorporate
the new pedagogical theories that would replace the material deficiencies with cr
e-
ativity and imagination, trying an optimal development of the children. It is nece
s-
sary to try to i
mprove the intellectual and emotional development of the children
and to enable the teachers better.

Concerning the development of the vocabulary of the kindergarten children,
the students learn anywhere between 2,000 to 3,000 words per year.

This makes us wonder on the vocabulary that is taught to the children, on
methods that are used for it and on what is expected with learning the vocabulary.
To choose what vocabulary to teach in depth is crucial. The impact that reading
and writing has on
vocabulary cannot be ignored. That is an important reason to
47


impart daily reading activities for the children. The use of structured sentences is a
good way to consolidate the basic knowledge with them. This is especially effe
c-
tive when they are accompanyi
ng the content with a specific subject or unit of
study. These structured sentences can be used in paper cards, or in spaces that the
Knowledge Forum provides.


Направление

Педагогическое образование

профиль

Начальное образование


HOW DO YOU KNOW IF YOU WA
NT TO BECOME

AN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER?

As you start looking into the courses, certificates and any other requirements
to becoming an elementary education teacher, perhaps you should first consider
this question. How do you know if you want to become
an elementary school
teacher? After all you will be assisting young children to grow and learn so it is
best to be sure this is what you truly want.

Along with the points we provide in our article below to help you in answe
r-
ing this question, you need to r
emember that a career in elementary education is
not just a job. These elementary school students will look to you for guidance in
developing in academic studies as well as in their social lives. Your affect upon
them will continue for a lifetime and help
or hinder them in reaching their goals in
life.

Most elementary school teachers find that they will teach more than one su
b-
ject to their students. Are you well rounded in your own education and experien
c-
es? If not, you would be wise to further your own edu
cation by going back to
school and gathering more experience and skill in whatever subject(s) you deem
yourself weak in.

Another essential ingredient if you are considering becoming an elementary
school teacher is that you are well organized in your own li
fe. A person who is di
s-
organized will find it that much more difficult to actually teach a group of young
children because they will find themselves easily wandering away from the curri
c-
ulum that has been set.

Another guideline in determining if you want t
o be in elementary education is
quite simply do you like elementary age children? You might want to make a list
of what you like about kids and what you don’t like about them. Which side has
the most points? This could give you more insight into whether yo
u want to be an
elementary teacher or not.

Going beyond your own liking of young children, communication with them
is also a big part of being an elementary education teacher. You have to be able to
get your message, the lessons you are teaching, across to

the children. How do you
talk to children that age now? How do they react to the way you communicate?

Another guideline to determining if you are suited to being an elementary e
d-
ucation teacher is to talk to elementary school teachers. Find out from them
what it
is like. Just be sure to talk to ones that have been doing it for a few years. If poss
i-
48


ble, try to spend some time within their classes. See what they do, how they do it
and how they interact with the children. This will let you know whether you ha
ve
the fortitude it takes to be an elementary school teacher.

Realizing that you will bear a great responsibility as one of the important
foundational people within an elementary school student’s life as he or she grows
into maturity, look at yourself, at
who you are. What kind of person do others see?
Is it someone who can fulfill this responsibility? These are some of the last points
to ponder to know the real answer to “how do you know if you want to become an
elementary school teacher?”


Направление

Пед
агогическое образование

профиль

Физическая культура


SPORTS DAYS

Sports days, sometimes referred to as field days, are events staged by many
schools and offices in which people take part in competitive sporting activities, o
f-
ten with the aim of winning
trophies or prizes. Though they are often held at the
beginning of summer, they are also staged in the autumn or spring seasons, esp
e-
cially in countries where the summer is very harsh. Schools stage many sports days
in which children participate in the spo
rting events. It is usually held in elementary
schools, or grades Kindergarten
-
8th Grade.

In schools which use a house system a feature of the school is the compet
i-
tion between the houses; this is especially brought out during sporting events such
as an in
ter
-
house sports day.

Games that are played on school sports days can be wide and varied. They
can include straightforward sprints and longer races for all age groups as well as
egg and spoon races. Three legged races are run as well as sack race
s and pare
nt
and child races.

Additional games are traditionally run in Ireland and the UK, such as whee
l-
barrow races and games such as horseshoes.

There have been a number of controversies surrounding school sports days
in recent years, many of which have been
publ
icized

by the media.

Some schools have abolished or heavily altered sports days on the grounds
that they are too competitive and may damage pupils' self
-
esteem. This often r
e-
flects the schools' attitude towards competitive sports or competitiveness in ge
n-
e
ral. This view has been condemned as "political correctness" by many comment
a-
tors, notably by journalist Melanie Phillips in her 1996 book All Must Have Priz
es.

In June 2005, Country Life magazine published a report claiming that school
sports days have be
come excessively competitive due to overbearing and "over
-
zealous" parents, who place too much pressure on their children to succeed. The
report also revealed that many schools have banned "mothers and fathers" races
due to fighting and cheating.

Since the

mid
-
1990s, a number of schools and education authorities have
banned photography and filming with video cameras at sports days and other
49


school events. Some authorities cite general privacy issues as justification for the
ban. Others have raised concerns
about pedophiles, which in turn has sparked a
c-
cusations of hysteria and moral panic. Many parents have expressed anger at being
unable to take photographs or videos as souvenirs of these events, and the ban has
been
criticized

by some as a paranoid over
-
re
action to public concerns about ped
o-
philia and child safety issues.

Sports day in Japan

is usually held on a Saturday or Sunday in Japanese
schools. During weeks preceding the sports day, students practice their events
which they would like to show their p
arents and friends, within their class of phy
s-
ical education, which often includes tamaire, performances by the school band and
presentations by various school clubs as well as individual and group competitive
events. These practices, and the sports days t
hemselves, normally take place on the
schools' fields, which provide little relief from the he
at and sun.

Some schools
have responded by scheduling their sports days during cooler months and by e
n-
couraging their students to drink water regularly. Currently
, the event occurs most
often in the autumn (September/October), or in the spring (May/June). In primary
schools in Hokkaidō, the event is usually held between the later part of May
and
the earlier part of June.

Many large organizations have sports days fo
r their employees. One notable
example is the UK Her Majesty's Civil Service which holds a number of depar
t-
mental sports days.


Направление

Педагогическое образование

профиль

Технология


COLD

AND

HOT

FORGING
:
AN

OVERVIEW

Among all manufacturing processes,
forging technology has a special place
because it can be used to produce parts of superior mechanical properties with mi
n-
imum waste of material.

Forging can be produced at multiple temperature levels. Room temperature
(or heat added process) forging is com
monly called cold forging. This process is
less costly, less heat energy consuming, provides greater dimensional accuracy,
and can be very efficient for mass production of small parts (less than 50lbs). The
downfall is that it requires much larger pressur
es to form the metal requiring large
machinery and more frequent tool wear.

At the other end of the temperature spectrum is hot forging, where the work
piece is heated up to about 75% of its melting temperature. As the temperature of
the work piece, prior
to forging approaches the melting temperature, the flow stress
and energy required to form the material is decreased. Therefore, the strain rate or
rate of production can be increased. This is a more expensive approach to metal
forging and can be detriment
al, leading to die failure by thermal stresses.

Generally, forging is a metal shaping process in which a malleable metal
part, known as a blank, billet or work
-
piece, is worked to a predetermined shape by
one or more processes such as hammering, upsetting,

pressing, rolling and so forth.
50


Cold forming is a precision category of forging which does the same thing without
heating of the material (room temperature), or removal of material.

Forging results in metal that is stronger than cast or machined metal par
ts.
This stems from the grain flow caused through forging. As the metal is pounded
the grains deform to follow the shape of the part, thus the grains are unbroken
throughout the part. Some modern parts take advantage of this for a high strength
-
to
-
weight r
atio.

Many metals are forged cold, but iron and its alloys are almost always
forged hot. This is for two reasons: first, if work hardening were allowed to pr
o-
gress, hard materials such as iron and steel would become extremely difficult to
work with; second
ly, steel can be strengthened by other means than cold
-
working,
thus it is more economical to hot forge and then heat treat. Alloys that are amen
a-
ble to precipitation hardening, such as most alloys of aluminum and titanium, can
also be hot forged and then
hardened. Other materials must be strengthened by the
forging process itself.


Направление

Менеджмент

профили

Информационный менеджмент, Производственный менеджмент

Направление

Профессиональное обучение

профиль

Экономика и управление


MARKETING CONCEPT

Marketing concept

is at the very heart of modern marketing. It helps to d
e-
velop the goals and directions of the organization. The basic philosophy of any
firm should focus on the

satisfaction of the customer
. Under the concept it is the
customer who become
s the centre of the firm, and all the resources and activities of
the firm are directed at generating customer satisfaction. To achieve success, the
firm should take the following steps. First, the firm
communicates

with its pote
n-
tial customers to assess t
heir needs for goods and services. Then the firm must
d
e-
velop a good or service

to satisfy (to fill, to meet) those needs
. And then the firm
continues to seek ways to provide customer satisfaction. This process is an applic
a-
tion of the marketing concept, o
r
marketing orientation
.

Utility

is one of the main principles of the marketing concept. Utility is the
ability of a good or service to satisfy a human need. There are four kinds of utility.
Form utility

is converting production
inputs

into finished products. The questions
of size, shape and features are determined here.
Place utility

is making a product
available at a location where customers wish to purchase it.
Time utility

is making
a product available when customers wish to purchas
e it.
Possession utility

is
transferring title

or
ownership

of a product to the buyer for an acceptable price.

The adoption of the marketing concept in the world was caused by several
factors. First, there has been an increase in
competition

in both natio
nal and inte
r-
national markets, forcing organizations to place greater emphasis on consumers
and their satisfaction.

51


The second factor is the high level of
consumer knowledge
and

sophistic
a-
tion
. Consumers are more aware of product alternatives and prices th
an ever b
e-
fore. As consumers become increasingly aware of the various options available,
only those products and services that are ‘need satisfying’ will be purchased.

The third factor is highly developed
communication systems
. Due to these
systems a high
level of consumer awareness has developed. The communication
system has informed consumers of faulty products, price increases, and fraudulent
advertising. Increased awareness enables people to be more discriminating in their
purchase decisions.

Finally, t
he need for
innovative products

has forced firms to place the cu
s-
tomer first. The phrase ‘new and improved’ indicates the consumer appetite for
new and supposedly better products. Yet, in spite of this hunger, nearly 80
-
90% of
all new products introduced o
n the market fail. That is why a successful new pro
d-
uct introduction means knowing the needs and buying habits of the
target co
n-
sumers
.

Implementation
of the marketing concept begins and ends with marketing
information about customers. First it helps to de
termine what customers need,
and later it helps
to evaluate

how well the firm is meeting those needs.


Направление

Профессиональное обучение

профиль

Транспорт


AUDI
:

BODYSHELLS
,

SPACE

FRAME

AND

E
-
TRON

B
ODYSHELLS

Audi produces 100% galvanised cars to
prevent corrosion and was the first
mass
-
market vehicle to do so, following introduction of the process by Porsche,
c.1975. Along with other precautionary measures, the full
-
body zinc coating has
proved to be very effective in preventing rust. The body's r
esulting durability even
surpassed Audi's own expectations, causing the manufacturer to extend its original
10
-
year warranty against corrosion perforation to currently 12 years (except for a
l-
uminium bodies which don't rust).

An all
-
aluminium car was brough
t forward by Audi, and in 1994 the Audi
A8 was launched, which introduced aluminium space frame technology (called
Audi Space Frame). Audi introduced a new series of vehicles in the mid
-
1990s and
continues to new technology and high performance. Prior to t
hat effort, Audi used
examples of the Type 44 chassis fabricated out of aluminium as test
-
beds for the
technique.

S
PACE FRAME

Replacing the Audi V8 in 1994, the Audi A8 debuted with an aluminium
space frame (the "Audi Space Frame" or ASF) which saves weigh
t and improves
torsion rigidity compared to a conventional steel frame. The weight reduction is
somewhat offset by the Quattro four
-
wheel drive system which is standard in most
markets. Nonetheless, the A8 is usually the lightest all
-
wheel drive car in the

full
-
size luxury segment, also having best
-
in
-
class fuel economy. The disadvantage of
52


the aluminium frame is that it is very expensive to repair and requires a specialized
aluminium bodyshop.

A
UDI E
-
TRON

The next phase of technology Audi is developing is
the e
-
tron electric drive
powertrain system. They have shown several concept cars as of March 2010, each
with different levels of size and performance. The original e
-
tron concept shown at
the 2009 Frankfurt Motor Show is based on the platform of the R8 an
d has been
scheduled for limited production. Power is provided by electric motors at all four
wheels. The second concept was shown at the 2010 Detroit Motor Show. Power is
provided by two electric motors at the rear axle. This concept is also considered to

be the direction for a future mid
-
engined gas
-
powered 2
-
seat performance coupe.
The Audi A1 e
-
tron concept, based on the Audi A1 production model, is a hybrid
vehicle with a range extending Wankel rotary engine (роторно
-
поршневой
двигатель, двигатель Ванк
еля) to provide power after the initial charge of the
battery is depleted. It is the only concept of the three to have range extending c
a-
pability. The car is powered through the front wheels, always using electric power.


Направление

Педагогическое образование

профили

Информатика, Математика и Информатика


DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING (DSP)

Digital signal processing is one of the most powerful technologies
that shape
science and engineering in the twenty
-
first century. Revolutionary chan
ges have
already been made in a many fields: communications, medicine, radar and sonar,
music reproduction, oil prospecting,
etc
. Each of these areas has developed a deep
DSP technology, with its own algorithms, mathematics, and specialized tec
h-
niques. Thi
s combination of breadth and depth makes it impossible for any one i
n-
dividual to master all of the DSP technology that has been developed.

Digital Signal Processing is distinguished from other areas in computer sc
i-
ence by the unique type of data it uses:
signals
. In most cases, these signals orig
i-
nate as sensory data from the real world: seismic vibrations, visual images, sound
waves, etc. DSP is the mathematics, the algorithms, and the techniques used to
manipulate these signals after they have been
converted into a digital form.

The roots of DSP are in the 1960s and 1970s when digital computers first
became available. Computers were expensive at that time, and DSP was limited to
only a few applications. The first efforts were made in four key areas:

1)

radar and sonar, where national security was at risk;

2)

oil exploration, where large amounts of money could be made;

3)

space exploration, where the data are irreplaceable;

4)

and medical imaging, where lives could be saved.

The personal computer revolution
of the 1980s and 1990s caused new appl
i-
cations of DSP. Besides being used in military and government areas, DSP was
suddenly offered by the commercial marketplace. Anyone who thought they could
make money in the rapidly expanding field became suddenly a D
SP vendor. DSP
53


reached the public in such products as: mobile telephones, compact disc players,
and electroni
c voice mail.

Today, DSP is a basic skill needed by scientists and engineers in many
fields. As an analogy, DSP can be compared to a previous tech
nological revol
u-
tion: electronics. In the field of electrical engineering nearly every scientist and e
n-
gineer has some skill in basic circuit design. Without it, they would be lost in the
technological world.
DSP
has the same future
.


Направление
Психолого
-
педагогическое образование


профиль
Психология и социальная педагогика


QUALIFYING AS A SOCIAL PEDAGOGUE

Similar to other academic disciplines, social pedagogy is a degree
-
level
qua
l
ification

(higher education) of usually 3.5 years. There are different
education
routes to qualify as a social pedagogue, which vary from country to country:

Germany

In Germany social pedagogy and social work have merged into one course


‘Soziale Arbeit’
-

since 2007 graduates holding after successful study a double d
e-
gree: S
ocial Worker and Social Pedagogy. Social Pedagogy can be studied at
Fachhochschule (Universities of applied Sciences) and universities, social ped
a-
gogy is offered as Bachelor of Arts

(3.5 years)with 1 semester of practical plac
e-
ment as part of the curricul
um
-

Graduates will have the ability to place their pr
o-
fessional activity in legal and socio
-
political perspective and
analyze

it. The inte
r-
play of work experience in their placement and theoretical work in the university
prepares the graduates to work with

clients, in the field of administration and ma
n-
agement of social
organizations
. For a deeper more research based study Social
Pedagogy can be studied after the Bachelor as Master of Arts (2 years).

Social Pedagogy is multidisciplinary


the study includes
:

Psychology
,
Sociology
,

social work
,
Social Management
,
Law and Politics
,
Professional Concepts
(
such as
Mediation, Therapy, Supervision, communication concepts
),

Media
,
Economy
,
S
o-
cial Justice
,
Health
,
Theatre pedagogy

Denmark

Danish social pedagogues u
sually qualify at Seminariets (seminariums),
which offer 3.5 year courses that include 3 placements in different pedagogic se
t-
tings throughout the period of studies. Some seminariums also offer short courses
on social pedagogy in English. Further studies a
t MA level often combine social
pedagogy with interlinked disciplines, such as social work, sociology or psychol
o-
gy, and can be pursued at several universities.

Czech Republic


Czech social pedagogues usually study at the university level (there is also
po
ssibility to study at the college where they will get a DiS. degree). Social Ped
a-
gogy is offered as a Bachelor study
programme
. For research based studies, Social
Pedagogy can be studied as Master programme after finishing the Bachelor degree.
54


The academic
s separate Social Pedagogy from the social work and they look at
them as at two separate disciplines.

North America

In the United States, Arizona State University's School of Social Transfo
r-
mation offers a
Master of Arts

degree in social and cultural pedagogy. The 30
-
unit
program requires 10 three
-
credit courses. The core courses (9 credits) include
Foundations of Social Transformation, Research Methods, and Social and Cultural
Pedagogy: Theoretical and Practical Issues.
Students complete five elective cour
s-
es (15 credits) and then either a thesis or a capstone project (6 credits). The pr
o-
gram develops students' capacity to analyze non
-
formal education policies and
practices and examine the educational impact of a range of

institutions, organiz
a-
tions and associational spaces. It provides training and skills for work in settings
such as: adult education, community organizing, literacy programs, museum ed
u-
cation, dis/ability programs, youth and sports programs, peace educatio
n, enviro
n-
mental education, religious organizations, health education, civic education, Indi
g-
enous and tribal communities, for
-
the
-
job and on
-
the
-
job training.

United Kingdom

More recently, several universities have started to offer social pedagogy as a
di
stinct degree or have included modules on social pedagogy in their teaching pr
o-
grammes on social work or youth work courses. The George Williams YMCA Co
l-
lege in London and the Robert Gordon University in Aberdeen both offer a BA in
social pedagogy. Vocatio
nally based courses for the children and young people's
workforce are also available.


Направление

Психология


WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A PSYCHOLOGIST

AND A PSYCHIATRIST?

The question sounds like the setup for a joke, but it's an important difference

to
understand whether you are a student of psychology or a consumer searching for a
mental health provider. The terms "psychologist" and "psychiatrist" are often used
interchangeably to describe anyone who provides therapy services. While ps
y-
chologists an
d psychiatrists both conduct psychotherapy and research, there are
significant differences between the two professions.

Education, Training, and Credentials

The simplest answer lies in the educational background required for each pr
o-
fession. A psychiatrist

has a degree in medicine and a psychologist has a doctoral
-
level degree in psychology. However, there are a number of other distinctions that
make each profession quite unique.

Psychologists receive graduate training in psychology and pursue either a Ph.D
.
(Doctor of Philosophy) or PsyD (Doctor of Psychology) in clinical or counseling
psychology. Doctorate programs typically take five to seven years to complete and
most states require an additional one or two yearlong internship in order to gain l
i-
55


censure.

Other states require an additional year or two of supervised practice b
e-
fore granting full licensure.

The title of "psychologist" can only be used by an individual who has completed
the above education, training, and state licensure. Informal titles such

as "couns
e-
lor" or "therapist" are often used as well, but other mental health care professionals
such as licensed social workers can also claim these titles.

Psychiatrists are physicians that have specific training in the assessment, dia
g-
nosis, treatment,

and prevention of mental illnesses. Psychiatrists attend medical
school and receive an M.D. After finishing their medical training, they also co
m-
plete an additional four years of residency training in mental health. In addition to
this, some receive addit
ional training in a specific area of interest such as geriatric
psychiatry, child and adolescent psychiatry, addictions and other areas.

Prescribing Medications

A second important distinction between the two careers is that psychiatrists can
prescribe medi
cations, while in most states psychologists cannot. However, there
has been a recent push to grant prescribing powers to psychologists. Some states
such as New Mexico and Louisiana now grant prescribing privileges to medical
psychologists holding a post
-
do
ctoral master’s degree or equivalent in clinical ps
y-
chopharmacology.

Kevin McGuinness, chairman of the Commissioned Corps Mental Health Fun
c-
tional Advisory Group, writes, "For those interested in a career in psychology as a
prescriber, it is important to k
now that certain federal employees and uniformed
commissioned officers (Army, Air Force, Public Health Service, Navy, etc.) that
are licensed in one state as a medical psychologist may prescribe an any other state
to which they are assigned by the federal
government."

Which is better?

If you are considering a career as a therapist, you will need to determine which
career path is best for you. Are you interested in conducting psychotherapy, admi
n-
istering psychological tests, and conducting research? If so,
a career as a psychol
o-
gist may be the best choice for you. On the other hand, if you have an interest in
medicine and want to be able to prescribe medications to your patients, a career in
psychiatry might be your ideal choice.

If you do not want to invest

five to eight years in graduate training, consider
pursuing a career as a licensed social worker or counselor. These professionals are
also qualified to provide mental health services depending up training and exper
i-
ence. Both social work and counseling t
ypically require two or three years of gra
d-
uate study.

Psychiatric nursing is another great career option for students interested
in medicine. Advanced Psychiatric Nurses hold a master's degree or higher in ps
y-
chiatric
-
mental health nursing and are able to

assess patients, diagnose disorders,
provide psychotherapy.




56


Направление
Психо
лого
-
педагогическое образование


профили
Психолог
ия образования


WHAT

IS

SCHOOL

PSYCHOLOGY
?

A school psychologist is a type of psychologist that works within the educatio
n-
al
system to help children with emotional, social and academic issues. The goal of
school psychology is to collaborate with parents, teachers, and students to promote
a healthy learning environment that focuses on the needs of children.

School psychology is s
till a relatively young profession. The National Associ
a-
tion of School Psychology (NASP) was established and formally recognized as a
doctoral specialty by the American Psychological Association (APA) in 1968. In
2002, U.S. News and World Report named scho
ol psychology one of the top ten
"hot professions." Many school psychologists in the field are retiring, creating a
demand for qualified school psychologists.

What Do School Psychologists Do?


School psychologists work with individual students and groups o
f students to
deal with behavioral problems, academic difficulties, disabilities and other issues.
They also work with teachers and parents to develop techniques to deal with home
and classroom behavior. Other tasks include training students, parents and t
eachers
about how to manage crisis situations and substance abuse problems.

According to the National Association of School Psychology (NASP), there are
five major areas where school psychologists provide services: (1) consultation, (2)
evaluation, (3) int
ervention, (4) prevention, and (5) research and planning. School
psychologists also act as educators by helping others understand more about child
development, behavioral problems and behavior management techniques.

While most work in elementary and second
ary schools, there are a number of
different areas where school psychologists might find employment. Private clinics,
hospitals, state agencies and universities are possible sectors of employment. Some
school psychologists also go into private practice and

serve as consultants, esp
e-
cially those with a doctoral degree in school psychology.

What Are the Pros and Cons of a Career in School Psychology?

Benefits of a Career in School Psychology

School psychologists are able to help students succeed.

Since most s
chool psychologist work in elementary to secondary school settings,
they enjoy a predictable schedule.

School psychologists are able to collaborate with a variety of community me
m-
bers, including counselors, teachers, parents, and students.

Downsides of a C
areer in School Psychology

Difficulties with students or parents can lead to high stress levels.

Work
-
related stress and frustration can lead to burnout.

School psychologists often face hectic schedules and an overload of clients.




57


Направление
Социальная

работа

п
рофиль
Психосоциальная работа с населением



FUNDING OF SOCIAL SERVICES

The general principle in most countries which provide social services is that all
employed people hand over part of their income to central fund which finances the
services
anyone might need. An example is the National Insurance Scheme in Bri
t-
ain, under which people pay a certain fixed sum every week out of their wages.
Then, if a person is unemployed or too ill to work, he may draw back from the ce
n-
tral fund certain benefits
. These are weekly cash payments which will cover the
most basic needs for the unemployed persons and their dependent family. When
the persons reach retiring age, they are entitled to draw a pension from the central
fund.

Another way in which people contri
bute to a central fund is through taxation.
A proportion of tax money is reserved for cash benefits to needy people. Other
money is

provided by charity organizations.

There are many other social services in which help is given not in money but
in the

form of amenities, or facilities, or personal advice or care. For example,
some children, for a variety of reasons, cannot enjoy a normal life in their own
homes. They may need to be placed in foster homes or in residential establis
h-
ments for children, of
ten only for short periods. Special care is also needed by the
mentally ill, the severely handicapped, and the old, who can no longer fend for
themselves.

These services are called «personal» because they offer help in terms of the
special needs of certain

individuals. The needs of physically handicapped people,
for example, vary greatly from one person to the next, and so they have to be a
s-
sessed individually. Another reason for the title «personal» is that the help is often
given by another person. Someon
e in distress needs advice, guidance, sympathy,
understanding, and reassurance. If you can imagine yourself suddenly blinded in an
accident, you can understand that you will need a lot more than a weekly payment
from the government. You will need advice ab
out education, possible employment,
about Braille, and about how to manage your affairs. A person with the skill and
understanding to help who works in the appropriate social services department is
usually called a social worker. Help in various emergencie
s is also provided by
volunteer charity workers.




58


МОДУЛЬ
4


Четвертый

модуль включает материал
четвертого

семестра, заканчив
а-
ется
экзаменом

и защитой контрольной работы.

Содержание
4

модуля:


Аспекты языка:

1.

Лексика

1.1.

Учебная
и деловая лексика (30 ед.)

1.2.

Профессиональная лексика и термины (30 ед.)

2.

Грамматика

2.1.

NON
-
FINITE

FORMS

OF

THE

VERB
:
PARTICIPLES

(
Неличные

формы

глагола
:
причастия
).

2.2.


NON
-
FINITE

FORMS

OF

THE

VERB
:
INFINITIVE (
Неличные

формы

глагола
:
инфинитив
).

2.3.

NON
-
FINITE FORMS OF THE VERB: GERUND (
Неличные

фо
р-
мы
:
герундий
).

Виды речевой деятельности:


1.

Говорение

Устная тема «
My

future

profession»
.

2.

Чтение
(понимание основного содержания: публицистические, научно
-
популярные и научные тексты; тексты
-
интервью со специалистами и учен
ы-
ми данной
профессиональной области; понимание запрашиваемой


информ
а-
ции: научно
-
популярные и прагматические тексты (справочники, объявления
о вакансиях); детальное понимание текста: научно
-
популярные и обществе
н-
но
-
политические тексты по проблемам данной науки/отрасл
и).

3.

Аудирование
(детальное понимание текста: научно
-
популярные и общ
е-
ственно
-
политические тексты по проблемам данной науки/отрасли).

4.

Письмо
(аннотация
и реферирование
теста по направлению на
русском
или
английском языке).


ЗАДАНИЯ ДЛЯ САМОСТОЯ
ТЕЛЬНОЙ РАБОТ
Ы

1.

В
ЫПОЛНИТЬ
ПИСЬМЕННО
ВСЕ ГРАММАТИЧЕСКИЕ У
ПРАЖНЕНИЯ
№1
-
1
3

(
СТР
.

68
-
75
)
,

ИСПОЛЬЗУЯ ГРАММАТИЧЕ
СКИЙ СПРАВОЧНИК ИЛИ
ДРУГИЕ
УЧЕБНЫЕ РЕСУРСЫ
.


2.

В
ЫПОЛНИТЬ
ПИСЬМЕННО
КОНТРОЛЬНУЮ РАБОТУ
№4

(
СТР
.

79
)
.

3.

П
ЕРЕВЕСТИ ТЕКСТЫ
№1,2

НА РУССКИЙ ЯЗЫК
(
СТР
.

81
-
82
),

И
С-
ПОЛЬЗУЯ СОБ
СТВЕННЫЙ АКТИВНЫЙ СЛ
ОВАРЬ
.


4.

П
ЕРЕВЕСТИ ТЕКСТ
№3

(
ПО НАПРАВЛЕНИЮ ОБУЧЕ
НИЯ
)
,

ИСПОЛ
Ь-
ЗУЯ СОБСТВЕННЫЙ АКТИ
ВНЫЙ СЛОВАРЬ
,

И С
ОСТАВИТЬ
ПИСЬМЕННО
РЕФЕР
АТ

ТЕКСТА
,

ИСПОЛЬЗУЯ ИНФОРМАЦИЮ

И КЛИШЕ
(
СТР
.

35
-
36
)

(
НА АНГЛИЙСКОМ
ИЛИ РУССКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ
)
.

59


ГРАММАТИЧЕСКИЙ СПРАВОЧНИК


ТЕМА 1. НЕЛИЧНЫЕ ФОРМЫ ГЛАГОЛА. ИНФИНИТИВ
.


Инфинитив



это
неличная форма глагол
а
, которая называет действие и
обладает признаками глагола и с
у
ществительног
о
.

Инфинитив соответств
у
ет
в р
у
сском языке неопределенной

форме глагол
а
, которая

отвечает на вопр
о-
сы
чт
о делат
ь
?
чт
о сделат
ь
?

to write



писать, написат
ь
;

to open



открывать, открыть.

Формальным признаком инфинитива

является

частица
t
o
, которая не
имеет самостоятельного значения и не принимает
у
дарени
я
. Однако

частица

t
o
в

некоторых сл
у
ч
аях

оп
у
скается или
у
потребляется

в конце

предложения

без глагол
а
, если глагол

был

у
помян
у
т ране
е
.


1.1.

Формы инфинитива


Voice


Tense


Acti
v
e


Passi
v
e



In
d
ef
i
n
ite


to
write


to

b
e

written



Вы
р
ажают действи
я
,

одн
о
вр
е
мен
н
ые

с действием

глаг
о
ла
-

ска
з
у
емого


C
on
tinu
ou
s



to
b
e

writi
n
g


-


Perfect



to

h
a
ve

writi
n
g


to

h
a
ve be
e
n written



Вы
р
ажают действи
я
, п
р
е
д-
шествующие действию

гл
а-
г
о
ла
-

сказуемого


Perfect

С
о
nti
nu
ous



to

h
a
ve be
e
n

writi
n
g


-


Примечание
:

Отрицательная частица
not
ставится перед инфинитиво
м
:
not

to ask, not to

be asked

и т.д.


1.2. Ф
у
нкции и
н
ф
ин
и
тива


Функции

Пр
и
меры

Пер
е
в
о
д

1. Подлежащ
е
е

T
о

m
а
n
ag
e

t
h
i
s

i
n
d
u
stria
l

c
o
m
p
le
x

is

not

e
a
sy

Управлять (уп
р
авлени
е
)
этим п
р
омышлен
н
ым

комплексом нелегко.

2
. Ча
с
ть

ска
з
уемого

а)

с
о
став
н
о
го

г
ла
г
ольно
г
о

Russia
h
a
s

to

expand

its ec
o-
no
m
ic ties with
o
t
h
e
r
n
ati
o
ns.

Россия долж
н
а расш
и-
р
ять свои эко
н
омич
е-
ск
и
е

связи с д
р
угими
народами

60


б)

имен
н
о
й ч
а
стью

сказу
е
мого
п
о
сле

подле
ж
ащег
о
, вы
р
аже
н-
н
о
г
о

словами

ai
m
, p
ur
pose

-

цель,
duty

-

долг, обязан
н
о
ст
ь
,
task

-
задач
а
,
m
et
ho
d

-

мето
д
,

wi
s
h

-

жела
н
и
е
,
р
lan



план и

д
р
.
,

и глаг
о
ла

-

связки

to be
,

ко
то
рый
либ
о

не пе
р
ев
о
дитс
я
,

либо

пе
р
е
водится

словами


а-
к
л
ючаться

в

том
,

ч
т
о(бы)
"
,

"
с
о-
The aim

of
t
h
is exp
e
ri
m
ent is
to
raise
the

efficiency
o
f

pr
o-
d
u
cti
o
n.

Цель

э
т
ого экспериме
н-
та

-

п
о
высить

(за
к
люч
а-
ется в

то
м
,

ч
т
обы

п
о
в
ы-
сить
) эффективн
о
сть
произ
в
од
с
тва

3. Д
о
п
о
лнение

He

wants

t
o
g
e
t
i
n
f
o
r
m
ati
o
n

as

s
o
on as possibl
e
.

Он
х
о
че
т

по
л
у
чить и
н-
ф
о
р
мацию как

м
о
жн
о

с
к
орее

4. Оп
р
е
деление

The
t
h
e
m
e

to

b
e

discussed

is
i
m
por
ta
nt



T
h
at scie
n
tist

was t
h
e
first

to
p
ub
l
ish

t
h
e

n
e
w

data

of t
h
e
exp
e
ri
m
ent

Тема,

к
о
то
р
ая будет

о
б-
суждена

(
н
у
жн
о
,

мож
н
о

обс
у
дит
ь
),

очень

важна


Тот

ученый

п
е
р
в
ым
оп
у
бликовал

н
о
вые
данные

эксп
е
р
имента

5.
Обстоятельство

To

ex
pand

k
nowled
g
e you
m
u
st read
m
u
ch

Ч
т
обы

расш
и
р
ить зн
а-
ния

d
ы

должны много
читать


1.3. Инфинитивные обороты

С
л
ож
н
о
е до
п
о
лнение
(
C
omple
x
Ob
je
c
t)


сос
т
оит

из: с
у
ществитель
н
ого



общ
е
м

п
адеж
е
)

или м
е
стоимения

(
в

объек
т-
н
о
м

падеже

m
e,

hi
m
,

he
r
,

us,

y
o
u
, the
m
)

+ инфинитив

смы
с
лово
г
о

глаг
о
л
а


Гла
г
олы



ск
а
зуемы
е
,

п
о
сле

котор
ы
х
у
потребля
е
т
с
я

слож
н
о
е
д
о
п
о
лнение

Пр
и
меры

Пер
е
в
о
д

I

г
р
упп
а
:

глаг
о
лы
,

выража
ю
щие

желание

(
нежелани
е
):
to wa
n
t, to wis
h
, to li
k
e, s
h
o
u
ld
(w
ou
l
d
) li
k
e, to
d
isli
k
e, to
h
ate

I

w
ant

y
o
u to

c
o
m
e t
o
m
o
r
ro
w.


I

li
k
e

p
e
ople

t
o

tell
t
h
e tr
u
th.

Я х
о
чу,

ч
т
обы Вы

п
р
ишли за
в
тра.


Мн
е

н
р
авится, когда

люди

гово
р
ят п
р
авду

II

г
р
уппа:

г
лаголы
,

выража
ю
щие

чувственные

во
с-
пр
и
ятия

и

о
щ
у
щени
я
:

to

see
,
to

watc
h
,

t
o

n
o-
tice
,
to

hear
,
to

feel
.

Частица

“to”

в

э
т
о
м случае пе
р
ед

инфин
и-
тив
о
м не

у
потребля
е
т
с
я

We

s
a
w

t
h
e

eng
i-
neer leave

the l
a-
b
o
rat
o
ry.

М
ы видели,

к
ак

и
н-
женер

вышел из л
а-
бор
а
т
о
рии.

61


I
I
I

г
р
упп
а
:

глаг
о
лы
,

выража
ю
щие

умственную

де
я-
тельност
ь
:
to

ex
pect,

t
o t
h
i
n
k, to
b
elieve, to
sup
po
se, to

co
n
s
i
d
er, to fin
d
,
t
o
k
now, to
s
u
s-
pect

They
e
xpect

us

to

co
m
e.

Он ожида
е
т
,

ч
то

мы

п
р
иде
м
.

IV

г
р
уппа:

глаг
о
лы
,

выража
ю
щие

п
о
бужд
е
ние
,

доп
у-
ще
н
и
е
:


to

m
a
k
e (
заставлять
), to
g
et, to or
d
er, to

as
k
,

t
o

allow, to

let

He

m
ade

m
e do

it
again.

They

o
r
der
e
d
u
s to

co
m
e.

Он заст
а
вил

меня

сделать

э
т
о

е
ще

раз.

Они п
р
иказа
л
и нам

п
р
ийти.


1.4.
С
л
ож
н
о
е
п
о
длежащее (Complex

Su
b
ject)


с
о
с
т
о
ит

из

существител
ь
ного



о
б
щем падеж
е
)

или

место
и
мения (в

имен
и-
тельн
о
м падеж
е
:
I,

y
ou
,

h
e
, s
h
e, it, we, t
h
ey
)
+ инфинити
в
,

стоящий
п
о
с
ле

ск
а-
зуемо
г
о


Глаго
л
ы
-
с
к
а
з
у
е
мые
, с

которыми
у
потр
е
бляется сл
о
жное
подлежащее


I.

В ст
р
а
да
т
е
л
ь
ном

залог
е
:


to

know
,

to

annou
n
ce
,

to

b
e
lie
v
e
,

to

consi
d
er
,

to

ex
p
ect
,

to

repo
r
t
,

t
o

s
a
y
,

t
o

st
a
te
,

to

suppose
,

to

think
,

to

understand



The

d
e
le
g
a
tion

is

known

to a
r-
rive

soon.


The

d
e
le
g
a
tion

was

announced
to

ha
v
e arrive
d
.


The

d
e
le
g
a
t
ion

i
s bel
i
eved

to be

ar
r
iving

now.


The

d
e
le
g
a
t
ion

i
s considered

to
be

large.


The

d
e
le
g
a
tion

is

expected

to
be

met

at

10.


The

d
e
le
g
a
tion

was

reported

to

have

b
een

met.



Известн
о
,
ч
т
о

д
е
легация
приб
у
дет

скор
о
.



Об
ъ
явлен
о
,

ч
т
о делегация
прибыл
а
.


Пола
га
ю
т
,
ч
т
о делегация
прибывает сей
ч
ас
.


Считаю
т
,
ч
т
о

д
е
легация
многочисленн
а
.


Считаю
т
,
ч
т
о

д
е
легацию
встретят

в 10.


Сообщили,

ч
т
о делегацию

встретили.




He

is said to be

is stated to be

is supposed to be is
thought

to be

is understood to be


a great sp
e-
cialist

Говорят, что

Утверждают, что

Предполагают, что

Думают, что

Понятно, что

он большой
специалист

II.

В дейс
т
в
и
т
ельном

залог
е
:


S
he

see
m
s to

w
o
rk

m
uch.


Он
а
,

кажется
м
ного раб
о-
62



1.5.
Конструкция с предлогом
For

(t
he For
-
to
-
Infinitive Construction)


Оборот состоит из:



For +

существительного

в общем падеже


+
ин
ф
инитив

местоимения

в именительном падеже


В этой констр
у
кции

действи
е
, выраженное

инфинитиво
м
, относится

к
с
у
ществительному

или местоимени
ю
, которым

предшеств
у
ет

предлог
for
.
Весь оборот выст
у
пает как сложный

член
предложени
я
, способный

выпо
л-
нять ф
у
нкции подлежащег
о
, части

сказ
у
емог
о
, обстоятельства

или определ
е-
ни
я
.



Как след
у
ет
из таблицы, перевод

оборота

зависит от выполняемой

им

ф
у
нкции, при этом

предлог
for

оп
у
скаетс
я
, а весь оборот переводится

прид
а-
точным

предложением

соответственно

ф
у
нкции.





t
o

s
eem
,


to

ap
p
ear
,

to

prove


She

appears

to

b
e

stu
d
y
ing

now.


He

proved

to

b
e a

good eng
i-
neer.


тае
т
.


Он
а
,

оказ
ы
ва
ет
ся
, сей
ч
а
с
у
ч
и
тс
я
.


Он оказался х
о
рошим и
н-
женером

III.

С г
л
аголом

to

be+прила
г
а
т
ельно
е
:


li
k
e
l
y
,

unli
k
e
l
y,

ce
r
tai
n
,

sure


The

w
e
at
h
e
r

is

l
i
ke
l
y

to chang
e
.


She

is

unlikely

to

arri
v
e toda
y
.



He

is sure to

c
om
e
.


По
г
од
а
,

в
е
роятно, измени
т-
ся.


Маловероятно,
ч
т
о

она
приедет

с
ег
о
дн
я
.


Он обязательно

придет.

Ф
у
нкция

Пример

Перевод

1.Подлежащее

It

is

necessary

for

a doctor to
be patient.

Врачу

необходимо быть терпел
и-
вы
м
.

2.Часть сказ
у
ем
о-
го

It

is

for

her

to decide

Это

она

должна решить

3.Обстоятельство

He

stepped

aside

for her to
pass.

О
н

отошел

в

сторон
у
, чтобы

она
могла пройти.

4.Определение

The
f
i
rst thing
f
or h
i
m

t
o
d
o

i
s
t
o
ring he
r

up.

Перво
е
,

что

он должен сделат
ь
,

это
позвонить ей

63


ТЕМА 2.
НЕЛИЧНЫЕ ФОРМЫ ГЛАГОЛА.
ПРИЧАСТИ
Е
.


П
р
ичастие
-

э
т
о неличная форма

глаг
о
ла, имеющая
п
р
изнак
и прилаг
а-
тельного и

глаг
о
ла.

Существуют простые и сложные

формы

п
р
ичасти
я
.



Acti
v
e

Passi
v
e

Partici
p
le I

asking

be
in
g

a
s
k
e
d

Partici
p
le II

-

ask
e
d

Perfect

Partici
p
le

having asked

h
a
vi
n
g be
e
n

a
sk
e
d


2.
1
.
Причас
т
ие

I
.
Ст
р
адатель
н
ый

залог


(Par
t
iciple I.

Passive voice)


b
eing
+
Partici
p
le II


bei
n
g

a
s
k
e
d

bei
n
g

read


Функция

Способ

пе
р
ев
о
да

Пр
и
мер

1. Оп
р
е
деление

1. П
р
ичастие страдател
ь-
н
о
го

за
л
о
га (с

суффиксами

-
щийс
я
,
-
вшийс
я
,

-
мый)




2. Определительн
ое

п
р
и-
да
точное

п
р
едл
о
жени
е

The

question

bei
ng discussed

at

the confer
e
n
ce

are

very
i
m-
por
ta
n
t.

1.

В
о
п
р
о
сы,
об
с
у
ж
д
а
емые
на к
о
нфе
р
енции,

очень ва
ж-
ны.

2.

В
о
п
р
о
сы,

к
о
т
о
рые о
б-
с
у
ж
д
а
ю
т
ся

на к
о
нфе
р
енции,

очень важны

2. Обс
т
оятел
ь-
ство

1.
Обс
т
оятельстве
н
ное

п
р
идаточн
ое

п
р
едл
о
жение,

так

как, когда







2
.
Пр
и+с
у
щес
т
вительное

Being acted

u
p
o
n
b
y

heat the

subst
a
nce cha
n
ges

its c
o
m
pos
i-
tion


1
.
К
о
г
д
а

вещ
е
с
т
во

подве
р-
гае
т
ся воздейс
т
вию

т
е
п
л
а
,
о
но меняет свой
с
о
став


2.
При
в
о
зде
й
с
т
вии
тепла

вещес
т
во

меняет свой
с
о
став




64


2.
2
.
Perfect
P
a
rti
c
iple


Acti
v
e
:



h
a
v
i
ng + Partici
p
l
e II

(
hav
i
ng
a
sk
e
d
)


Passive
:



h
a
v
i
ng be
e
n

+

P
a
rtici
p
le II
(
h
a
vi
n
g been a
s
ked
)


В п
р
едл
о
жен
и
и

выполняет

л
ишь функцию

обс
т
о
я
тельс
т
ва.




2.
3
.
Конструкция

«
Сложное дополнение с причастием
»

(
The Objective Participial
Construction
)


Сложное

дополнение

с причастием

состоит из:


существительного

в общем падеже

или


+

причастие

личного местоимения

в объектном падеже


В сложном

дополнении

у
потребляются

Participle I (Active,
Passive) и
Participle II.

Н
а

р
у
сский

язык

сложное

дополнение

переводится

придаточным

пре
д-
ложением

с

союзами

чт
о
,
чтобы
,
ка
к
.


We

saw

her

approaching

the

house
.



Мы видели, (что) как она подходит к дому
.



Залог

Способ перевода

Пример

Perfect Participle

Active

Переводится деепр
и-
частием

совершенного вида

на

в,
-
я.

Having developed the
device the scientist
used it in his research.

Разработав прибор,
ученый использовал
его в своем новом и
с-
следовании.

Perfect Participle
Passive

Придаточным обст
о-
ятельственным

предложением,

начинающимся со
ю-
зами:
после того,
как; так как
.

Having been deve
l-
oped this device was
used in our research.

После того как этот
прибор разработали,
его использовали в
нашем исследовании.

65


I

want

it

done

quickly
.



Я хочу, чтобы это было

сделано быстро


2.
4
.

Конструкция «
Сложное подлежащее

с причастием»

(
The

Subjective

Participial

Construction
)


Причастие

в

составном

глагольном

сказ
у
емом

стоит

после

глаголов

т
и-
па

assu
m
e,

consider,

regard



считать;
observe



наблюдат
ь
; show



показ
ы-
вать

и др. Перевод начинается с глагола в страдательном

залог
е
,

которы
й

передаетс
я

неопределенн
о
-
личны
м

ил
и

безличны
м
предложением



сч
и-
тают
,
оказываетс
я
и
др.
,

посл
е
чег
о
след
у
е
т
сою
з
ка
к

ил
и
чт
о
.
Остальна
я

часть предложени
я

переводитс
я
дополнительны
м
придаточны
м
предлож
е-
ние
м
,
сказ
у
емо
е

которого
соответств
у
е
т

английскому

причастию:


Protons

were

observed

leaving

various

ele
m
ents
.




Наблюдал
и
, как

протоны вылетают
из различных

элементов.


Причастие может вводиться союзом
as
. В этом сл
у
ч
а
е
, кроме
у
казанного
выше

перевод
а
,

возможен

и

дословный

перево
д
.


Substances

are

defined

as

having

a

definite

invariant

co
m
position
.




Вещества

определяютс
я

ка
к

имеющи
е

определенны
й

неизменны
й

соста
в
.


(
Определен
о
,
что

веществ
а

имею
т

определенны
й

неизменны
й

соста
в
.
)




66


ТЕМА 3. НЕЛИЧНЫЕ ФОРМЫ ГЛАГОЛА. ГЕРУНДИЙ.


Ге
р
у
ндий

-

это неличная форма глаг
о
л
а,
обладаю
щ
а
я свойств
а
ми сущ
е-
ствите
л
ьного и гла
г
о
ла.

Существуют простые и сложные

формы

ге
р
у
нди
я
.



Voice

(
За
л
о
г)

Acti
v
e

Passi
v
e

I
n
def
i
nite

asking

bei
n
g

a
s
k
e
d hav
i
ng

Perfect

hav
i
ng a
s
ked

be
e
n

as
ked


Хара
к
терн
ы
м

п
р
изнаком

ге
р
унди
я

яв
л
яе
т
ся

наличие

пе
р
ед

ни
м
:

1
) п
р
едл
о
г
а
,

2
) п
р
итяжатель
н
о
г
о

мес
т
оим
е
ния

или

3
) существит
е
льного

в

п
р
итяжательн
о
м

или о
б
щем

падеж
е
.


3.
1
.
Функции ге
р
у
ндия

в

п
р
едложении


Функция

Способ
перевода

Пример

Подлежащее

Ин
ф
ин
и
тив
,

существител
ь
н
ое

Re
a
ding
technical literat
u
re is

u
s
e-
f
u
l.

Читать

(чтен
и
е
) те
х
ническую л
и-
тературу

п
о
лезно

Часть

сказу
е-
мого

Ин
ф
ин
и
тив
,

существител
ь
ное

O
u
r

aim

is
reading
En
g
lish well.

Наша

цель


х
ор
о
шо
читать п
о
-
английски

Д
о
п
о
лнение

Ин
ф
ин
и
тив
,
с
у
щ
е-
с
т
ви
т
ельн
ое
, п
р
ид
а-
точн
ое

д
о
п
о
лнител
ь-
ное

п
р
едл
о
жение

Не li
k
es

reading
.

Он любит

чи
т
а
ть
(чтени
е
).

Оп
р
еделение

При
л
а
г
а
т
ельное
,

существител
ь
ное

T
h
ere are all facilities f
o
r
w
o
rking
in our

r
e
ading
r
o
o
m
.

В нашем
чи
т
а
л
ь
н
о
м
зале

есть

все

усл
о
вия для

р
а
б
о
т
ы
.

Обс
т
оятельс
т
во

Существител
ь
ное

с
предлого
м
,
деепр
и-
час
т
ие
, п
р
идаточн
ое

п
р
едл
о
жение

After
reading

t
h
is bo
o
k he

lea
r
n
e
d

m
u
ch

use
f
ul i
n
f
o
r
m
ati
on
.


П
рочи
т
ав
эту книгу,

о
н

узнал
много п
о
лез
н
о
й инф
о
р
мации.




67


3.
2
.
Сложн
ы
й

герун
д
иальный

оборот


Пер
е
в
о
дитс
я
, как п
р
ав
и
л
о
,

п
р
идаточным
п
р
ед
л
о
жением,

подлежащее
к
о-
т
о
р
о
г
о соответствует п
р
итяжатель
н
о
му

мес
т
о
и
мению

или существительному

в

п
р
итяжательном падеж
е
, а сказуемое
-

ге
р
у
ндию этого

о
б
о
р
от
а
. Выб
о
р т
и-
па

п
р
идаточн
о
го п
р
едл
о
жен
и
я п
р
и

пе
р
еводе зависит
о
т того, каким членом

п
р
ед
л
о
жения

я
в
л
я
етс
я

ге
р
у
ндий.


существительное (
‘s
)

притяжательное местоимение

+

герундий


1.
По
д
лежа
щ
е
е
.


Her stu
d
ying

En
g
lish will
g
r
eatly
h
elp
h
er
i
n f
u
t
u
re.

To,

ч
т
о
она и
з
у
ч
ает
английский

язы
к
,

о
ч
ень

п
о
м
о
же
т

е
й в

будущ
е
м
.


2
.

Дополнение
.


We

k
no
w
o
f
h
i
s

st
u
dyi
n
g
En
g
lis
h
.

М
ы знаем (о
т
о
м
), что
о
н

и
з
у
ч
ает
английский

язы
к
.


3.
Обс
т
о
я
т
ельс
т
в
о
.


In s
p
ite

o
f
his

being

ill
he

c
a
me to his clas
s
es.

Нес
м
о
т
ря

на

т
о
,

что
о
н

б
ы
л б
о
лен
,

о
н
п
р
и
шел на заня
т
и
я
.


68


ГРАММАТИЧЕСКИЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ


1
.

Переведите

след
у
ющие

предложения

с инфинитивом

в ф
у
нкции:


а
)
подлежащего

1
.

To see is to believe.

2
.

It’s unpleasant to deal with people like Mr. Brown.

3
.

W
hether to leave or not has not been decided yet.

4
.

How to convince

him

is a proble
m
.

5
.

W
here to hang a picture
m
ust be decided right now.

6
.

W
hich advice to follow is your own business.

7
.

It was difficult to answer this question.

8
.

To give a true picture of the surrounding
m
atter is the task of natural sc
i-
ence.

9
.

To
explain this si
m
ple fact is not very easy.


б
)
части

сказ
у
емого

1
.

To read a lot is to know a lot.

2
.

He doesn’t work as Managing Director now.

3
.

She would like to see a
m
ovie tonight.

4
.

Mr. Jones would rather stay ho
m
e at the weekend.

5
.

Kate began to
learn English when she was six.

6
.

He continued to work at his project.

7
.

His intention is to get into parlia
m
ent.

8
.

He is to prepare the inco
m
e state
m
ent by Monday.

9
.

New sources of cheap energy are to be found.


в
)
дополнения

1. She had learned to
dance at school.

2. He found it i
m
possible to raise the question at the
m
eeting.

3. I don’t know whether to apply for a job or not.

4. The experi
m
ental results are not easy to interpret.

5. The latest paper by
W
ittler is rather difficult to understand.

6.
He is happy to have passed all the exa
m
s successfully.

7. Jane is ready to give an interview.

8. Do you want to go to the lecture?

9. She likes to sing English songs.


г
)
определения

1
.

W
e shall study
m
i
nerals to be obtained in this
m
ountain.

2
.

The first
scientist to discover this pheno
m
enon was Lavoisier.

3
.

There are
m
any exa
m
ples to illustrate the rule.

4
.

The procedure to be followed depends upon the substance.

5
.

Here are so
m
e
m
ore figures to be referred to later.

69


6
.

There was only one signal to be de
tected.

7
.

There is nothing to be surprised at.

8
.

Here are the papers to be signed.

9
.

There was nobody to speak to.


д
)
обстоятельства

1
.

To enter an institute you have to take entrance exa
m
s.

2
.

You are too young to understand it.

3
.

To understand the i
m
portance of the event you should know all the facts.

4
.

He was clever enough to answer any question.

5
.

To
m
aster English you
m
ust work hard.

6
.

Laws were not
m
ade to be broken, laws were
m
ade to stay within.

7
.

She put on her coat so as not to be cold.

8
.

I was too busy to see anyone.

9
.

He was so weak as to be unable to work.


2
.

Переведите след
у
ющие предложени
я
, обращая внимание на
у
потре
б-
ление

сложного дополнения.


1
.

I supposed him

to be about fifty.

2
.

I believed her to be in
St. Petersburg
.

3
.

W
e
knew them

to be right.

4
.

They thought us to be experienced enough to carry out this work.

5
.

He considers her to be a good singer.

6
.

W
e expected him

to arrive soon.

7
.

Do you expect the docu
m
ents to be signed to
m
orrow?

8
.

He expects them

to finish the
work as soon as possible.

9
.

I suppose him

to know about it.


3
.
Переведите

след
у
ющие

предложени
я
.


1
.

He is known to be a great book
-
lover.

2
.

The
m
e
m
bers of the co
mm
ittee are expected to co
m
e to an agree
m
ent.

3
.

Many buildings were reported to have been
da
m
aged by the fire.

4
.

The experi
m
ent is believed to be
а

f
ailure.

5
.

She see
m
s to know the subject well.

6
.

He happened to be at ho
m
e at that ti
m
e.

7
.

There seem

to be no changes in the trade relations between these two cou
n-
tries.

8
.

There proved to be
m
any di
ff
i
culties in solving the
m
atter.

9
.

There happened to be
m
any people there at that ti
m
e.

10
.
The ship can be expected to arrive at the end of the week.




70


4
.

Подчеркните

F
or
-
to
-
I
n
f
i
nitive

C
onstruction
в

предложения
х
.
Предлож
е-
ния

переведит
е
.


1
.

It
was i
m
possible for
m
e to solve this problem

m
yself.

2
.

She was waiting for so
m
ebody to co
m
e.

3
.

The lady was speaking too fast for
m
e to get her.

4
.

He asked for the papers to be brought.

5
.

I am

anxious (
мне

очень

хочетс
я
) for Mr. S
m
ith to succeed in all
he u
n-
de
r
takes.

6
.

The best thing for you to do is to
m
eet hi
m
.

7
.

He spoke loud enough for you to hear.

8
.

She was i
m
patient for him

to be gone.

9
.

There was really nothing for him

to do there.

10
.

For a force to exist there
m
ust be two objects involved.


5
.

В следующих

предложениях определите тип инфинитивной констру
к-
ции и переведите предложения.


1
.


The engineers
of that

plant are said to have constructed a new device.

2
.

W
e want you to see the new university building.

3
.

The
co
m
pany is

believed to have lost a lot of
m
oney last year.

4
.

W
e suppose the construction of that building to be co
m
pleted in a week.

5
.

The construction of that building is supposed to be co
m
pleted in a week.

6
.

He is sure to call on us today.

7
.

She waited for him

to speak.

8
.

They are certain to cope with the problem

facing the
m
.

9
.

W
e think them

to build the pipeline next
m
onth.

10
.

This pipeline is thought to be built next autu
m
n.


6
.
Определите

форму

и

ф
у
нкцию

сложных

форм

причастий

в

след
у
ю-
щих

предложениях

и
переведите

их на р
у
сский

язык.


1
.

The question being discussed now is very i
m
portant.

2
.

Yesterday the professor told us about his experi
m
ents being carried at his
laboratory.

3
.

The large house being built in our street is a new school.

4
.

Being packed
in plastic cases the goods arrived in good condition.

5
.

Being

asked

whether

he

intended

to

return

soon,

he

a
n
swered

that

he

would

be

away

for

a

couple

of weeks.

6
.

Having
f
ul
f
illed

the

ter
m
s

of

the

contract,

we

re
f
used

to

ad
m
it

the

claim

(
признать

претензию
)

of the f
i
rm.

7
.

Havin
g

collecte
d

al
l

th
e

necessar
y

m
ateria
l

fo
r

th
e

report
,

h
e

starte
d

wri
t-
in
g

it.

8
.

He left the office, having finished all the work planned for that day.

71


9
.

Having been sorted the goods were placed in a warehouse.

10
.

Having been sent to the wrong fax nu
m
ber, the
m
essage was not received
by the addressee.

11
.

The film

being shown now is very interesting.

12
.

Being asked for help, he gave us explicit instructions.

13
.

Having written the translation, I gave it to the
teacher.

14
.

Having been written the translation was given to the teacher.

15
.

Having been co
m
piled very carefully the
m
anual contained all the nece
s-
sary instructions.


7
.
Переведите

след
у
ющие

предложени
я
,
у
ч
иты
в
ая

правила

перевода

сложного дополнени
я
.


1
.

I saw him

painting her portrait.

2
.

He would like the work finished as soon as possible.

3
.

They watched the fire being put out.

4
.

The chief wants the job done by to
m
orrow.

5
.

She wants this na
m
e re
m
e
m
bered.

6
.

The passers
-
by watched the house being
pulled down.

7
.

I’ve never heard his na
m
e
m
entioned.

8
.

W
e watched him

slowly approaching the gate.

9
.

He would like the incident forgotten.

10
.

None of us noticed the papers thrown away.

11
.

W
e noticed the engines being carefully packed in cases.

12
.

They

watched the tree being planted.

13
.

He wanted the
m
an found.

14
.

Have you ever seen a film

being shot?

15
.

I heard your book
m
entioned in their discussion.


8
.
Переведите след
у
ющие предложени
я
,

у
ч
иты
в
ая особенности перевода
оборота "именительный

падеж +
причасти
е
".


1
.

The taxi could be seen waiting outside.

2
.

So
m
ewhere a long way off a telephone bell rang and a voice could be heard
speaking.

3
.

All
m
atter should be regarded as built up of ato
m
s.

4
.

The problem

appeared solved when new discoveries in this field of science
were
m
ade.

5
.

The

predo
m
inance

of

viscosity

is

outwardly

shown

by

Reynold’s

nu
m-
ber

being

very

s
m
all

for

steady flow (
у
становившееся

течени
е
).

6
.

To the writer’s knowledge si
m
ilar rocks have
not been reported as existing
else
-

where.

7
.

Mendeleev should be regarded as having discovered the law of periodicity
of the che
m
ical ele
m
ents.

72


9
.
К

след
у
ющим

английским

предложениям подберите их р
у
сские э
к-
виваленты,

обращая внимание

на
временную форму

и
форму

залога

г
е-
р
у
нди
я
.


1.

I hate disturbing people.

2.

I hate being disturbed.

3.

He doesn’t like asking questions.

4.

He doesn’t like being asked que
s-
tions.

5.

W
illiam

likes being read to.

6.

W
illiam

likes reading.

7.

Jane

is against sending the doc
u-
m
ents abroad.

8.

Jane is against being sent abroad.

9.

Ann denies being helped.

10.
Ann denies having been helped.

11.
Mike
mentioned

visiting

Mr. Green
f
rom

ti
m
e to ti
m
e.

12.
Mike
m
entioned having visited
Mr. Green.

13.
He

is

proud of

having won
f
i
rst
prize.

14.
He is

proud

of

having

a friend
like you.


a
)
О
н не любит, когда
ему

задают в
о-
просы.

b
)

О
н не любит задавать вопросы.

c
) Терпеть

не

мог
у
,

когда

мне мешаю
т
.

d
) Терпеть не могу беспокоить

людей.

e
) Джейн против

того, чтобы посылать
док
у
менты за
границ
у
.

f
) Джейн против того,

чтобы ее

посыл
а-
ли за границ
у
.

g
) Уильям

любит читат
ь
.

h
)
Уилья
м
любит
,
когд
а

ему
читаю
т
.


i
) Майк

у
помян
у
л

о

то
м
, что он навещ
а-
ет
м
-
ра Грина время

от времен
и
.

j
) Майк

у
помян
у
л о то
м
, что он нав
е-
стил

м
-
ра Грин
а
.

k
)
О
н
гордится те
м
, что выиграл первый

приз.

l
)
О
н

гордится

те
м
,

что

имеет такого
др
у
г
а
, как ты.

m
) Анна

отрицает, что ей оказали

п
о-
мощь.

n
) Анна отрицает, что ей помогаю
т
.


1
0
.
В след
у
ющих предложениях определите

временн
у
ю форму гер
у
ндия
и переведите

их.


1
.

She couldn’t get used to being treated so kindly.

2
.

She couldn’t get used to the old
m
an treating her so kindly.

3
.

Miss
W
hite was surprised at not having been asked anything.

4
.

Miss
W
hite was surprised at her
m
other not having asked anything.

5
.

The Man
aging Director insisted on flying to Chicago.

6
.

The Managing Director insisted on our flying to New York.

7
.

Victor is proud of having won the prize.

8
.

Victor is proud of her having won the prize.

9
.

W
e suspected her of
having told

us a lie.

1
0
.

They
insisted on the docu
m
ent being signed.

1
1
.

I hope he
apologized

for having kept you waiting.

1
2
.

He hates
criticizing

people.

1
3
.

He hates being
criticized
.


73


1
1
.
Переведите

предложения

с гер
у
ндием

в ф
у
нкции:


a)
подлежащего

1
.

Packing goods for export is a

highly specialized job.

2
.

Interrupting people is bad
m
anners.

3
.

Dancing has not begun yet.

4
.

Reading science
f
i
ction is a
f
ascinating pasti
m
e.

5
.

W
alking develops leg
m
uscles.

6
.

Gardening is beco
m
i
ng
m
ore popular.

7
.

There is no denying the fact.

8
.

It isn’t worth while going there.

9
.

Is it any good doing it?

10
.

It is useless talking about it.


б
)
части

сказ
у
емого

1
.

His greatest pleasure was travelling.

2
.

She couldn’t help s
m
iling.

3
.

Mr. Taylor’s

suggestion is worth discussing.

4
.

The chair
m
an
kept on speaking though nobody was listening to him

any
longer.

5
.

I am

against his
m
entioning Jane’s na
m
e.

6

These words are not worth re
m
e
m
bering.

7
.

I am

for discussing it at once.

8
.

The
m
i
nister went on talking for two hours.

9
.

Don’t keep interrupting
m
e while I’m

speaking.

10
.

He couldn’t help ad
m
i
ring her.


в
)
дополнения

1
.

I am

very tired of arguing with you.

2
.

He was surprised at having been asked about it.

3
.

She denies having spoken to hi
m
.

4
.

You
m
ust excuse
m
y not
answering you before.

5
.

I don’t re
m
e
m
ber hearing the legend before.

6
.

The child deserves (
засл
у
живает
) praising.

7
.

Do you
m
i
nd
m
y s
m
oking?

8
.

I hope you will forgive
m
y disturbing you.

9
.

They accuse
m
e of having dealt with hi
m
.

10
.

You
m
ay rely on his setting
m
atters right.


г
)
определения

1
.

There are different ways of solving this proble
m
.

2
.

Young people are excited at the idea of purchasing audio
-
visual equip
m
ent.

3
.

W
e have a plan for
m
odernizing the factory.

4
.

I have no intention
of staying here any longer.

74


5
.

Don’t
m
i
ss the opportunity of hearing this pianist.

6
.

A laser is a device for
m
aking and concentrating light waves into an intense
bea
m
.

7
.

He was in the habit of doing things thoroughly.


д
)
обстоятельства

1
.

It was planned

to put the plant into operation 3 years after signing the co
n-
tract.

2
.

Before reaching a final decision the
m
arket research group is to collect
so
m
e infor
m
ation.

3
.

W
ithout waiting for our answer he turned and left us.

4
.

On seeing Sofia he stopped to ta
lk to her.

5
.

In spite of being busy, he did all he could to help you.

6
.

He left without saying good
-
bye.

7
.

He gave a few exa
m
ples instead of explaining the rule.


12
.
П
ереведите

предложения
.


1
.

Mr. Brown doesn’t
m
i
nd being sent to Liverpool.

2
.

Miss
Parker drea
m
s of being an actress.

3
.

Mrs.

Hilton drea
m
s of her husband beco
m
i
ng a lawyer.

4
.

E
m
ily got used to speaking before a big audience.

5
.

Mr. Fork is worth voting for.

6
.

The cere
m
ony of changing the guard at Buckingham

Palace attracts a lot of
tourists.

7
.

He had a strange feeling of having co
m
e to a deadlock.

8
.

W
e understood his desire of
m
aking a success of his undertaking.

9
.

W
alking fast doesn’t burn quite as
m
any calories as running slowly.

10
.

The project was adopted without anybody objec
ting to it.

11
.

No one appreciates their singing so loudly.

12
.

Reading Agatha Christie is the nation’s favourite pasti
m
e.

13. Such people are not worth speaking about.

14
.

W
e gave up all hope of seeing him

again.

1
5
.

The head of the delegation was against

the agree
m
ent being signed.

1
6
.

He returned without anybody having noticed his absence.

1
7
.

W
e won’t achieve anything by arguing.


1
3
.

Переведите

след
у
ющие

предложени
я
, содержащие

гер
у
ндиал
ь-
ный

оборот.


1
.

His having given up the job disappointed us.

2
.

The president’s refusing to take steps aroused everybody’s indignation.

3
.

Your threatening them

m
ade us angry.

4
.

The papers not co
mm
enting on the event was
m
ost surprising.

75


5
.

The

two

countries

exchanging

delegations

is

m
ost

i
m
portant

for

establis
h-
ing

friendly

relations

between the
m
.

6
.

His knowing English will help him

in his work.

7
.

Howard was surprised at his chief not having asked him

anything.

8
.

Helen was disappointed at Peter not having been invited.

9
.

They insisted on our flying to Liverpool.

10
.

There is no possibility of

our seeing him

this week.


GRAMMAR TESTS


Test

1
(Infinitive, Gerund)

V
-
I


I. Choose the correct variant.


1.
I want ____ the house where Pushkin was born.


a) see



b) to see

2. I would like you ____ his invitation.


a)
accept


b) to accept

3. Teachers make me ____ homework well.


a) do



b) to do

4. The child was made ____ to bed at 9 p.m.


a) go



b) to go

5. Please, let me ____ the news and then we’ll go out.


a) watch


b) to watch

6.
Teddy’s words made me ______ uncom
fortable.

a) feel



b) to feel


c) feeling

7. I have never heard Helen ______.


a) sing


b) to sing


c) singing

8. Do you remember _____ your last exam? Was it hard?


a) take


b) to take


c) taking

9. What about _____ to the cinema tomorrow?

a) to go


b)
going


c) having gone

10. The safe showed no sign of _____.

a) t
ouching


b)
being touched

c)
having been touched


II. Translate the sentences from English into Russian.


1.
Why do you insist on our returning back home?

2. We had some difficulty in finding

the right candidate for this job.

3. My friend is really good at driving cars.

4.
I am sorry for keeping you waiting.

5. The hungry boy was accused of stealing apples.


76


Test

1

(Infinitive, Gerund)


V
-
II


I. Choose the correct variant.


1. You mustn’t
____ to me like that.


a) talk



b) to talk

2. I think, we’d better ____ of here.


a) get



b) to get

3. So, why not ____ there right away?


a) go



b) to go

4. May I ____ in?


Yes, please.


a) come


b) to come

5. Will you help me ____ this box?


a) move


b) to move

6. Granny didn’t want my Mom ______ my Dad.


a) marry


b) to marry


c) marrying

7. Our English teacher told us ______ shy and speak English as much as possible.


a) not to feel

b) not feel


c) feeling

8. I don’t feel like _____ this article tod
ay.


a) reading and to translate


b) to read and translating


c) reading and translating

9. Our teacher suggests _____ test next week.


a) writing


b) being written


c) having been written

10. I really appreciate _____ this opportunity. I’ll do my best.


a
) giving




b) being given


c) having been given


II. Translate the sentences from English into Russian.


1. What does your mother have against our going to the club?

2. In spite of facing problems he kept on smiling.

3. I am sick and tired of doing this work.

4. They are not interested in investing their money into our business.

5. I am thinking of finding a new job.



77


Test
2

(Participles)

V
-
I


I. TRANSLATE INTO RUSSIAN:


1.

The laboratory being built in our University

is very large.

2.

The professor was speaking to the students working in the lab.

3.

Having arrived at the station I called the porter.

4.

Asking question he showed great interest to the subject.

5.

We investigated the phenomena connected with energy.


II. CHOOSE THE
RIGHT VARIANT:


1.
написанный


a) written


b) writing


c) wrote

2.
написав

a) written


b) being written

c) having written

3.
пишущий

a) writting


b) being written


c) having written

4.
танцуя

a) dancing


b) danced


c) having danced

5.
передающий

репортажи

a) reporting


b) reported


c) having reported


III TRANSLATE INTO ENGLISH:


1.

С
тудент ушел, взяв домашнее задание.

2.

Э
тот студент, сидящий у окна, вчера сделал интересный доклад.

3.

Я

прочел несколько книг этого автора, переведенных на русский язык.

4.

В
нимательно прочитав доклад, я нашел в нем несколько ошибок.

5.

М
агазин откроется в том доме, строящемся на площади.
















78



Test 2

(Participles)

V
-
II


I. TRANSLATE INTO RUSSIAN:


1. Having said that, he left the room.

2. Most of the scientists invited

to the conference were leading specialists in var
i-
ous branches of economics.

3. All the roads leading to the centre were blocked by trucks.

4. In most countries there is a tax on things sold in shops.

5. Having been recorded, his speech was attentively li
stened to.




II.

CHOOSE THE RIGHT VARIANT:


1. живущий

a) living


b) lived


c) having lived

2.
прожив

a) living


b) lived


c) having lived

3.
живя

a) living


b) lived


c) having lived

4.
подтвержденный

a) confirming


b) confirmed


c) having confirmed

5.
строящийся

a) building


b) being built

c) having built


III. TRANSLATE INTO ENGLISH:


1.

Потеряв ключ, я не смог войти.

2.

Сочинения, написанные некоторыми современными детьми, очень
интересны.

3.

Полученные вчера новости удивили всех.

4.

Я купил книгу, содержащу
ю информацию о США.

5.

Мистер Блэк сидел на диване, читая книгу.

79


КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ

РАБОТА


4


I.

Insert
to

where necessary and translate the sentences into Russian.

1.
I saw him (to) cross the street.

2.
She would like (to) be invited to concert.

3.
She cannot bear him (to) speak like that.

4.
Do your parents make you (to) study English?

5.
I like people (to) tell the truth.


II.
Translate into Russian paying attention to the Complex Object constructions.

1.
I would like you to forget it.

2.
We want the plan to be accepted.

3.
They don’t wish the problem to be solved.

4.
Would you like the fact to be revealed?

5.
We expected the article to be prepared.


III.
Put the verbs in the brackets in right form (the Infinitive or the Gerund).

1.
Although I was in a hurry, I stopped _____ to him (talk).

2.
Would you mind ______ the front door (close)?

3.
I can’t help ______ about that awful accident (think).

4.
I enjoy ______ very much (travel).

5.
I really must stop ______ (smoke).


IV.
Translate
into Russian paying attention to the forms of the Participles.

1.
Yesterday the professor told us about his experiments being carried at his
laboratory.

2.
All the roads leading to the centre were blocked by trucks.

3.
Most of the scientists invited to th
e conference were leading specialists in
various branches of economics.

4.
Having been recorded, his speech was attentively listened to.

5.
Not having taken the key, I could not enter the house.


V.
Translate into English paying attention to the forms of
the Participles.

1.
Туристы, приезжающие в Лондон, посещают музеи.

2.
Проект, выполненный группой студентов, оказался очень интересным.

3.
Объяснив правило, учитель привел несколько примеров.

4.
Дом, строящийся на этой улице, будет очень красивым.

5.
После

того, как факс был отправлен на неправильный адрес, он не
дошел адресату.



80


ГОВОРЕНИЕ


My
Future Profession


Choosing a career to follow is probably one of the most important decisions
one ever makes. Everyone is an architect of his own fortune. Before
you make a
decision about your road in life you have to do a lot of thinking about who you are,
about the things you like to do and the things you can do well. You

should

dete
r-
mine

your

abilities

and

inclinations
.


It’s my strong belief, that every profes
sion from teacher to mechanic, from
gardener to cosmonaut, from artist to businessman demands certain personal qual
i-
ties. It means that when choosing a future career you must be realistic about your
interests and abilities.

Good education is also very impo
rtant. School gives bac
k-
ground knowledge. We get specialized knowledge at universities or other instit
u-
tions of higher learn
ing.

The next thing you should consider and which is no less important is job
prospects. You should know whether the profession you’
ve chosen will guarantee
you steady wages, independence, security, good working conditions, a certain pos
i-
tion in society, if there are chances for promotion. You should take into account
your future employment, how to avoid unemployment and be able to app
ly your
knowledge and skills in other fields of human activity. These factors are very i
m-
portant to learn the profession very well and esta
blish yourself in life.

Is every profession honorable? There is the only answer
-

Yes! I suppose the
main factor her
e is man’s attitude to his work. But the prestige of some professions
is so high that many
young people seek to join them.

Practically all of us dream of becoming a film actor, a pop singer or a ban
k-
er. I should say the dreams are one thing and reality is
another thing. Society needs
not only actors, singers, bankers, writers, but also doctors, drivers, teachers, scie
n-
tists, shop assistants, farmers
-

people to work in dif
ferent spheres of life.

Since childhood kids have been trying to choose their way in
life. There are
too many wonderful professions around. As years pass their minds change. Fort
u-
nately there are lucky people who chose their profession in childhood and since
that time they have been doing everything possible to acquire proficiency. But the
y
are not too many.

Nowadays most people think that profession is good when it brings in mo
n-
ey. There is no doubt that a person who has enough money has few worries b
e-
cause he can solve all life problems, he can travel a lo
t, enjoy a better.

To my mind
have enough money for your work is quite normal but if you can’t find satisfaction,
pleasure, delight, enjoyment, which is no less important, than a good pay and a
high ranking position, money is nothing, it won’t make you happy.

81


ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ ЧТ
ЕНИЯ

И
ПЕРЕВОДА


Read and translate 3 texts.


TEXT 1.
AUSTRALIA

The Commonwealth of Australia is a federal state. It has got six states: New
South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia, Tasmania
and two internal territories. The
official language is English. Australia is situated in
the south
-
west of the Pacific Ocean. The area of this country has got 7,687,000
square kilometers.

Australia is the largest island in the world and it is the smallest continent.
The Dutch were the firs
t Europeans to visit Australia. In 1770 the English captain
James Cook discovered the east coast of Australia. Nearly 20 million people live in
Australia. Australia's climate is dry and warm. Australia is situated in the southern
hemisphere and that's why
there is summer, when we have winter and there is wi
n-
ter, when we have summer. It is interesting to know that January is the hottest
month in Australia.

The most of Australia is a semi
-
desert so most people in Australia live in
South
-

East. The climate is

hot and Australian boast that they can sleep out
-
of
-
doors all the year round. The sun shines in winter and in summer. Snow and ice are
rare, except the high mountains. There is not much rain, and drought is a constant
anxiety. In bad times, and in the dri
est parts, many animals may die for want of
w
a
ter.

Australia is separated from many countries. The animals in Australia have a
lot of original, and they are interesting, for example, dingoes (wild dogs), koala
bears, kangaroos. The kangaroo and koala have
got the pouch in which they carry
their cubs. There are many birds in the country, too. One can see parrots and coc
k-
atoos. The emu is the most interesting bird in Australia. It is big and can't fly.
There are many rivers and lakes in the country.

Australia

is an industrial country. It has coal, nickel, zinc, gold. Several fa
c-
tories and plants work in the country. Australia is one of the most important pr
o-
ducers of metals and minerals. It exports wool production, meat, fruit, sugar.

The capital of the countr
y is Canberra. The city became the capital in 1927.
Federal Government works in Canberra in the government buildings. It is interes
t-
ing to know that there are no industrial plants in Canberra. The population of Ca
n-
berra is about 300,000 people. There are m
any sights in the city. They are the
Building of the Australian Academy of Sciences, the Australian National Univers
i-
ty and others.

There are two big industrial cities in Australia: Sydney and Melbourne. The
habited part of the country is situated near oce
an. Melbourne, Sydney, Brisbane
and others are the ports of the country. Australia is a part of the British Empire.
Formerly the head of the state is the Queen, but in fact Australia is independent,
self
-
governing state.



82


TEXT 2.
JOBS WORKING WITH CHILDRE
N

There are many jobs that involve working with children. Apart from the
well
-
known jobs of teachers, pediatricians, etc. many other opportunities are avai
l-
able in this field. The varied career options which involve working with children
can be fun. In cas
e of part
-
time jobs working with children, there is a provision for
flexible timings which one can choose to his satisfaction.

The careers working with children can be categorized into broad groups like
education, medical and social service. Each of these

fields offer an opportunity to
help children in their development. Few of the jobs dealing with children are e
x-
plained below.

School Teacher

It is one of the major career option available among the different jobs dea
l-
ing with children. A school teacher ha
s to work with children in the age group of 4
-
12 years. They have to teach fundamental concepts of mathematics and reading to
children. One has to attain a graduation degree from college in order to become a
teacher. Since, each and every child has a diffe
rent attitude, way of thinking and
behavioral traits, the teachers have to be careful in dealing with kids.

Pediatrician

It is one of the high paying jobs that involve working with children. A pedi
a-
trician is one who deals with medical problems of infants,

children and also ad
o-
lescents. A college degree (4 years) followed by medical school degree are the r
e-
quirements for becoming a pediatrician. After completion of formal education, the
candidates have to complete a residency program or internship term prio
r to co
n-
ducting actual practice. Pediatricians are not just responsible for children's physical
well
-
being. They also look after the kids to cure their behavioral problems, anxiety
and developmental disorders, etc.

Child Psychologist

The job of a child ps
ychologist is not similar to that of doctors
-

who pr
e-
scribes medicines only. The former has to deal with problems related to mental and
social development in children. Child psychologists also help children in recove
r-
ing from traumatic events of the past
-

which must have had a great impact on their
mind. One has to have good communications skills in order to become a child ps
y-
chologist. Those who have worked as a teacher, care worker, learning support a
s-
sistant, etc. in the past can seriously think about
this job option. Attaining a Ph.D.
in Psychology can open many opportunities of high paying jobs working with chi
l-
dren.




83


ТЕКСТЫ
ПО НАПРАВЛЕНИЯМ

ДЛЯ ЧТЕНИЯ, ПЕРЕВОДА И РЕФЕРИРОВАНИЯ


TEXT

3


Направление

Педагогическое образование

профиль

Русский язык и Литература


THE

ESSENTIALS

OF

POETRY

What is poetry? It's a question which has been asked many times since the
world began and it has received a number of widely differing answers. Samuel
Taylor Coleridge, for example, attempting to define
prose and poetry declared:
«Prose is words in their best order; poetry is the best words in the best order»


but that is clearly inadequate and inexact. Coleridge's friend the famous English
poet William Wordsworth wrote that poetry is «the spontaneous ov
erflow of po
w-
erful feelings and emotions» which is also not enough. The Oxford English Di
c-
tionary says that «poetry is composition in verse or metrical language» and that is,
probably, as close as we shall ever get in a few words.

Admitting some exceptions

we understand that in general poetry must be
metrical, however irregular or even unrythmic. Furthermore, it must be based r
a-
ther upon qualities of imagination than those of matter of fact; it must illuminate
rather than explain, it must deal with things a
nd thoughts of the spirit rather than be
limited to the obvious, with that which is permanent rather than that which is tra
n-
sitory.

Amongst most essential qualities of poetry come sincerity, clarity and si
m-
plicity. Without them there can be no true poetry. Form and characteristic metres
are also very important.

Every national tongue has the metres most familiar to its stresses and infle
c-
tion, most suited to its idioms and its syntax. In English the main and
the most
characteristic metre is the five
-
foot iambic, which has gradually come to dominate
almost all poems and verses with the great exception of Spencer, who wrote
ninelined stanzas closely knit by the elaborate pattern of their rhyming sequence.

Apart
from the great Spencer, «the poets' poet» there are some other world
famous poets of England. At least Shakespeare, Milton, Wordsworth, Keats, Burns
should be mentioned. They were fine craftsmen in poetry making good use of di
f-
ferent poetic devices: allite
ration, metaphors, adjectives, vowels and consonants,
repetitions and their proper connections.




84


Направление

Педагогическое образование

профиль

Изобразительное искусство

Направление

Дизайн


IMPRESSIONIST’S STYLE OF PAINTING

The Impressionists, especially Monet, devoted themselves to capturing in
paint the fugitive effects of light falling on objects, and the play of reflections.
They tended therefore (especially Monet and Sisley) to attribute greater importance
to colour than

to form. They allowed themselves a very free style of execution;
they did not blend the colours together imperceptibly, but left the brushstrokes
clearly visible all over their canvases. We know Renoir to be an Impressionist
roughly from 1869 to 1881 for
nearly fourteen years. But he was not wholly I
m-
pressionist, as were Monet, Pissarro and Sisley. During some nine years) he often
covered his canvas with little hastily brushstrokes; but he used this procedure
chiefly in landscapes, where this method of wor
king was justified, since it suited
the rendering of masses of foliage, of bushes and blades of grass, of the thousand
and one reflections on water and the vibrant sunlight falling on objects; for exa
m-
ple, in such pictures as "The Grand Boulevards", "The G
arden" and "The Gree
n-
house". When he was painting figures, however, he abandoned this method in f
a-
vour of using larger areas of colour. The "Nude in the Sunlight" and "The Swing"
(both in the Louvre), which were painted out
-
of
-
doors, are not done with litt
le se
p-
arate brushstrokes.

On the other hand, in some of his studio pictures such as "The Seamstress"
and "In the Studio" (done in 1876, right in the middle of his Impressionist period),
Renoir covered the canvas with shimmering little "commas" of paint wh
ich make
the coloured areas positively vibrate. It is important to stress that Renoir never felt
obliged to adhere strictly to one particular method; we know him to change his
technique whenever he felt like it. As a result, it is sometimes not at all easy

to date
some of his canvases; after painting several pictures in one fashion, he would paint
another in which he went back to an earlier way of working, just when one would
have been justified in thinking that he has abandoned it for good.

* It bega
n to dawn on them



им стало
ясно

(
их

осенило
).


Направление

Биология


профиль

Биоэкология


LIVING ORGANISMS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT

Part 2

Light furnishes, through photosynthesis, virtually all the energy of the Orga
n-
ic world. Furthermore, it has many direct influences, such as those on the growth
patterns and flowering habits of plants and the migratory and sex cycles of some
animals.

In general, life processes cease at about the freezing point of water (0°C or
32°F)

and at about 80°C or 176°F (the boiling point of water is 100°C or 212°F). A
85


few kinds of plants and animals can endure lower or higher temperatures, but for
optimum development most organisms have relatively narrow temperature ranges.
Some plants and ani
mals are characteristic of low
-
temperature zones; others, of
high
-
temperature zones. The daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations are i
m-
portant, too, in the growth and developmental processes of both plants and animals
and in the feeding, mating and mig
ratory habits of many animals.

Such a fixed environmental factor as gravity may control both form and fun
c-
tion. Most plants and animals are directly responsive to gravity. Roots of plants
normally respond positively, that is, they grow downward; shoots re
spond neg
a-
tively


they grow upward. Balance in an animal is a gravitational response, and
the size of an animal is in part controlled by the relation between its structure and
gravity.

All these and many other factors are aspects of an organism's
environ
ment
.
Over a long period of time plants and animals may become modified and thus
adapted to particular features of an environment. For example, aquatic plants and
animals have much less structural rigidity than terrestrial types; they need less su
p-
port in
the buoyant water. Active aquatic animals such as fish are streamlined and
move rapidly

against the resistance of the water. Birds are similarly streamlined for
easier movement against the resistance of air. Birds have another adaptation in
their light, ho
llow bones which result in light body weight.

Similar adaptations occur with respect to temperature and moisture cond
i-
tions. Thick layers of fat and heavy coats of fur characterize many animals in the
low
-
temperature regions. The leaves of plants that gro
w in hot, dry regions are o
f-
ten covered by thick deposits of wax that reduce the water lost by evaporation.

Colour phenomena of several types are generally considered to be adapt
a-
tions. Numerous animals, from tiny insects to polar bears, have camouflaging

co
l-
ours at one time or another. Foliage dwellers may be gre
e
n, ground dwellers brown
or gray.

Many animals have hard shells, spines, or other specialized structures which
afford them protection against natural enemies that inhabit their environment. Such

characteristics have obvious survival values.

Because of their relation to the factors in their physical environment and to
each other, the organisms of the world are tied together in a very complex pattern.
One type frequently depends upon another for f
ood, protection, proper conditions
for growth and development.

"
Biology

a

Basic

Science
"

by

Elwood

D
.
Heiss
.




86


Направление

Педагогическое

образование

профил
и

Экология и
География


GLOBAL WARMING

"Global warming" has been introduced by the scientific
community and the
media as the term that encompasses all potential changes in climate that result from
higher average global temperatures. Hundreds of scientists from many different
countries are working to understand global warming and have come to a cons
ensus
on several important aspects. In general, Global warming will produce far more
profound climatic changes than simply a rise in global temperature.

An analysis of temperature records shows that the Earth has warmed an a
v-
erage of 0.5°C over the past 10
0 years. This is consistent with predictions of global
warming due to an enhanced greenhouse effect and increased aerosols. Part of the
current global warmth is associated with the tropical El Nino, without which a re
c-
ord global temperature would probably
not have occurred.

The Earth's climate is the result of extremely complex interactions among
the atmosphere, the oceans, the land masses, and living organisms, which are all
warmed daily by the sun's energy. This heat would radiate back into space if not
f
or the atmosphere, which relies on a delicate balance of heat
-
trapping gases
-

i
n-
cluding water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane
-

to act as a nat
u-
ral "greenhouse", keeping in just the right amount of the sun's energy to support
life.

For t
he past 150 years, though, the atmospheric concentrations of these ga
s-
es, particularly carbon dioxide, have been rising. As a result, more heat is being
trapped than previously, which in turn is causing the global temperature to rise.
Climate scientists ha
ve linked the increased levels of heat
-
trapping gases in the a
t-
mosphere to human activities, in particular the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil, and
natural gas for heating and electricity; gasoline for transportation), deforestation,
cattle ranching, an
d rice farming.

As the Earth's climate is the result of extremely complex interactions, scie
n-
tists still cannot predict the exact impact on the earth's climate of these rising levels
of heat
-
trapping gases over the next century. The current best estimate i
s that if
carbon dioxide concentrations double over preindustrial levels, according to the
scientific possible scenarios, an atmospheric doubling of carbon dioxide could o
c-
cur as early as 2050.

In 1995, scientists with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climat
e Change
-

the authoritative international body charged with studying this issue
-
reached a
conclusion in the Second Assessment Report, which summarizes the current state
of scientific knowledge on global warming, also called climate change.

For the first t
ime ever, the Panel concluded that the observed increase in
global average temperature over the last century "is unlikely to be entirely natural
in origin" and that "the balance of evidence suggests that there is a discernible h
u-
man influence on global cli
mate."


87


Направление

Педагогическое

образование

профил
и

География
,
Биология

и

География



THE CONTINENTS CONGEAL

In the morning of time the newly formed Earth was a ball of anarchic matter,
haloed by light gases, hurtling down the dusty corridor of its orbit. Some theorists
believe that at this interlude of its formation, full grown but as yet featureless, the
Earth’
s slowly accumulated substance must have been cold by cosmic standards
-

perhaps not more than a few hundred degrees Fahrenheit. Others think the Earth
must have been heated to incandescence by the squeeze of gravitation and the fri
c-
tion of its passage thr
ough the solar cloud. But most agree that at some time during
the first half billion years of existence the Earth must have passed through a molten
or partially molten stage induced by gravitational compression or the release of e
n-
ergy by radioactive eleme
nts. The heaviest substances sank to

the core, the lighter
minerals floated to the surface and the others arranged themselves generally b
e-
tween.

It may have taken a few centuries for the surface rocks to freeze, or a few
thousand years or, as some say, a m
illion years. The first crystallization probably
took place deep in the interior, so that the mantle hardened before the crust, thus
sealing in the Earth’s metallic core the primeval heat that rages there undiminished
to this day.

It was in this epoch that

the platforms of the continents took shape. As years
rolled into centuries, titanic outpourings of white
-
hot rock, recurring in regions
where the terrestrial crust was weakest, may have built up highlands of light pr
o-
togranit; and around these the contine
nts eventually formed. Or it may have been
that the outpourings of light granitic materials were concentrated in a few great
pools; later, hardened into stone, they were lifted above the surrounding heavier
basalt by pressures from below to become protocon
tinents. No one knows for ce
r-
tain how or when the map got its present lineaments. Most geophysicists hold that
the continents have built up gradually and that the process of continent building is
stil
l

going on in volcanic areas today. But any hypothesis a
bout the formation of
the continents is stil
l

difficult to sustain, however, for every assumption must rest
in turn on other assumptions about the formation of the planet as a whole and its
present internal composition.


Perhaps the deepest challenge
confronting geophysics today is to explain why
all of the Earth’s granite has been concentrated in a few Continental masses, divi
d-
ed by vast tracts of granitless ocean floor.




88


Направление

Педагогическое

образование

профил
и

Биология

и

Химия


SODIUM

Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin: natrium) and
atomic number 11. It is a soft, silvery
-
white, highly reactive metal and is a member
of the alkali metals; its only stable isotope is 23Na. The free metal does not occur
in nature, but i
nstead must be prepared from its compounds; it was first isolated by
Humphry Davy in 1807 by the electrolysis of sodium hydroxide. Sodium is the
sixth most abundant element in the Earth's crust, and exists in numerous minerals
such as feldspars, sodalite a
nd rock salt. Many salts of sodium are highly water
-
soluble, and their sodium has been leached by the action of water so that chloride
and sodium are the most common dissolved elements by weight in the Earth's bo
d-
ies of oceanic water.

Many sodium compounds

are useful, such as sodium hydroxide (lye) for
soapmaking, and sodium chloride for use as a deicing agent and a nutrient. Sodium
is an essential element for all animals and some plants. In animals, sodium ions are
used against potassium ions to build up c
harges on cell membranes, allowing
transmission of nerve impulses when the charge is dissipated. The consequent need
of animals for sodium causes it to be classified as a dietary inorganic macro
-
mineral.

Sodium at standard temperature and pressure is a sof
t metal that can be rea
d-
ily cut with a knife and is a good conductor of electricity. Freshly exposed, sodium
has a bright, silvery luster that rapidly tarnishes, forming a white coating of sodium
hydroxide and sodium carbonate. These properties change at e
levated pressures: at
1.5 Mbar, the color changes to black, then to red transparent at 1.9 Mbar, and fina
l-
ly clear transparent at 3 Mbar. All of these allotropes are insulators and electrides.

When sodium or its compounds are introduced into a flame, they
turn it ye
l-
low, because the excited 3s electrons of sodium emit a photon when they fall from
3p to 3s; the wavelength of this photon corresponds to the D line at 589.3 nm.
Spin
-
orbit interactions involving the electron in the 3p orbital split the D line in
to
two; hyperfine structures involving both orbitals cause many more lines.

Sodium is generally less reactive than potassium and more reactive than lit
h-
ium. Like all the alkali metals, it reacts exothermically with water, to the point that
sufficiently lar
ge pieces melt to a sphere and may explode; this reaction produces
caustic sodium hydroxide and flammable hydrogen gas. When burned in dry air, it
mainly forms sodium peroxide as well as some sodium oxide. In moist air, sodium
hydroxide results. Sodium met
al is highly reducing, with the reduction of sodium
ions requiring
−2.71 volts but potassium and lithium have even more negative p
o-
tentials. Hence, the extraction of sodium metal from its compounds (such as with
sodium chloride) uses a significant amount o
f energy.




89


Направление
Пе
дагогическое образование

профиль
Безопасность жизнедеятельности


TECHNOLOGICAL HAZARDS

Radiation contamination

When nuclear weapons are detonated or nuclear containment systems are
abused, airborne radioactive particles (nuclear
fallout) can scatter and irradiate
large areas. Not only is it deadly, but it also has a long
-
term effect on the next ge
n-
eration for those who are contaminated. Ionizing radiation is hazardous to living
things, and in such a case much of the affected area
could be unsafe for human
habitation. During World War II, United States troops dropped atomic bombs on
the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. As
a
result, the radiation fallout
contaminated the cities' water

supplies, food sources, and half of the

populations of
each city were stricken with disease.

The Soviet republics of Ukraine and Belarus are part of a scenario like this
after a reactor at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant suffered a meltdown in 1986.
To this day, several small towns and

the
city of Chernobyl remain abandoned and
uninhabitable due to fallout.

Chemical contamination

Many technological risks are associated with the release of hazardous su
b-
stances which could affect human healt
h or the environment by contami
nation in
accident con
dition or with the production of such substances under certain cond
i-
tions as fire.

Considering the amount and distribution of facilities using hazardous mat
e-
rials throughout the world, the risks posed by them to societies and the enviro
n-
ment it has to be
considered as an increasing global problem.

The
following list indicates
the type of actions which can constitute techn
o-
logical hazards: release of chemicals to the atmosphere by explosion, fire; release
of chemicals into water (groundwater,
rivers
etc.)
by tank rupture, pipeline rupture,
chemicals dissolved in water (
fire), oil spills in marine en
vironment; contamination
by waste management activities; releases and contaminations as a consequence
of m
ilitary actions (e.g. de
pleted uranium), or destruc
tion of facilities; releases as
consequence of the industrial use o
f biological material (e.g. vi
ruses, bacteria, fu
n-
gi).

Transportation accidents

An aviation accident is defined as an occurrence

associated with the oper
a-
tion of an aircraft in which a per
son is fatally or seriously injured, the aircraft su
s-
tains damage or structural failure or the

aircraft is missing or is com
pletely ina
c-
cessible.

The category of the vehicle can range from a helicopter, an airliner, or a
space shuttle. The world's worst a
irliner disaster is the Tenerife crash of 1977,
when miscommunications between and amongst air traffic control and

an aircrew
caused two fully
-
laden jets to collide on the runway, killing 583 people. In Sri
Lanka when 1,700 people died in the Queen of the
Sea train disaster. Other notable
90


rail disasters are the 1989 Ufa
accident
in Russia which killed 574, and the 1917
Modane train accident in France which killed 540.


Направление
Туризм


профиль
Технология и организация туроператорских и турагентских
услу
г

SPAIN

Spain, officially the Kingdom of Spain, is a member state of the European
Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Its mainland is
bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land
boundary with
Gibraltar; to the north by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay;
and to the northwest and west by the Atlantic Ocean and Portugal. Spanish territ
o-
ry also includes the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean, the Canary Islands in
the Atlantic Ocean off the

African coast, and two autonomous cities in North Afr
i-
ca, Ceuta and Melilla, that border Morocco. With an area of 504,030 km², Spain is
the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union after France
and the world's 51
st

largest country.

Because of its location, the territory of Spain was subject to many external
influences, often simultaneously, since prehistoric times and through the dawn of
Spain as a country. Conversely, the country itself has been an important source of
influence to
other regions, chiefly during the Modern Era, when it became a global
empire that has left a legacy of over 400 million Spanish speakers today


making
it the world's second most spoken language by native speakers.

Spain is a democracy organized in the for
m of a parliamentary government
under a constitutional monarchy. It is a developed country with the ninth or tenth
largest economy in the world by nominal GDP, and very high living standards, i
n-
cluding the tenth
-
highest quality of life index rating in the
world. It is a member of
the United Nations, European Union, NATO, OECD, and WTO.

Mainland Spain is dominated by high plateaus and mountain ranges, such as
the Sierra Nevada. Running from these heights are several major rivers such as the
Tagus, the Ebro,

the Duero, the Guadiana and the Guadalquivir. Due to Spain's g
e-
ographical situation and orographic conditions, the climate is extremely diverse;
discounting the mountain climate, it can be roughly divided into five areas:

1)

a

Continental Mediterranean climate in the inland areas of the Peni
n-
sula (largest city, Madrid).

2)

an Oceanic climate in Galicia and the coastal strip near the Bay of
Biscay or (largest city, Bilbao). This area is often called Green Spain.

3)

a Semiarid climate

or arid Mediterranean in the southeast (largest city,
Murcia).

4)

a Mediterranean climate region extends from the Andalusian plain
along the southern and eastern coasts up to the Pyrenees, on the seaward side of the
mountain ranges that run near the coast. A
lso in Ceuta and Melilla (largest city,
Barcelona). Localized Subtropical climate areas exist in the coasts of Granada and
Málaga (Costa Tropical).

91


5)

a Subtropical climate in the Canary Islands (largest city, Las Palmas).
The rain in Spain does not stay main
ly in the plain. It falls mainly in the northern
mountains.


Направление
Землеустройство и кадастры

профили
Землеустройство
,
Управление недвижимостью


LICENSING

IN PROPERTY MANAGEMENT

Canada

In Canada, the laws governing property management and
landlord/tenant r
e-
lations are generally speaking a Provincial responsibility. Each Province and Terr
i-
tory makes its own laws on these matters. In most cases any person or company
can offer property management services, and there are licensing requirements.

Other than specific laws in each Province and Territory governing these matters,
they are governed by English Common Law, except in the Province of Quebec
where the Civil Code is used in place of English Common Law. In some cities, the
Provincial Legislat
ion is supplemented by City by
-
laws.

British Columbia
-

licen
s-
ing of property managers is regulated by the provincial government and licensing
by the BC Real Estate Council (BCREC).

Ontario
-

no licensing is required to o
p-
erate, however ACMO
-

the Associat
ion of Condo Managers of Ontario is a self
-
governing body for certification and designation of its members who run buildings
with more than 600 units. (RECO) the real estate council of Ontario regulates l
i-
censed realtors in Ontario.

New Zealand

Residential

property managers in New Zealand currently come in two types
:
t
hose that are licensed and those that are unlicensed. The New Zealand Gover
n-
ment reviewed whether all forms of property management need any legislation.

Following completion of the review, the

Associate Minister of Justice, Hon Nathan
Guy, announced on 2 July 2009 that no new occupational regulation would be i
m-
posed on property managers. New Zealand licensed property managers offer a full
and complete service with qualified professionals who co
llect rent through an a
u-
dited trust account to protect both investment property owners and tenants. Also
licensed property managers adhere to the Real Estate Institute of New Zealand
property management code of practice which outlines industry best practic
es for
dealing with the public. Unlicensed property managers do not require any registr
a-
tion, minimum knowledge or skill, or adhere to any code of practice to offer a
property management service.

Consequently, the services offered in New Zealand are varied

where both l
i-
censed and unlicensed property managers have a mixed track record in delivery
services to this industry.

The Unit Titles Act 2010 sets out the law for the owne
r-
ship and management of unit title developments, where multiple owners each hold
a
unit title. The Act covers the set
-
up of such developments, body corporate go
v-
ernance, the rights and obligations of the body corporate and unit owners, discl
o-
sure between buyers and sellers, dispute resolution etc. The Unit Titles Regulations
2011 provide

operational guidelines. The body corporate is responsible for fina
n-
92


cial and administrative functions relating to the common property and the deve
l-
opment. All unit owners are members of the body corporate. A body corporate can
delegate some of its powers a
nd duties to a body corporate committee and a pr
o-
fessional body corporate manager may be contracted to provide ser
vices.

The Residential Tenancies Act 1986 sets out the rights and responsibilities
of residential landlords and tenants, including the require
ment to have a written
tenancy agreement and the need to lodge tenancy bonds (if one is required) with
the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment. Commercial leases are
covered by the Property Law Act 1952.

United States

Most states require proper
ty management companies to be licensed real e
s-
tate brokers if they are collecting rent, listing properties for rent or helping negot
i-
ate leases. A property manager may be a licensed real estate salesperson but gene
r-
ally they must be working under a license
d real estate broker. Most states have a
public license check system on
-
line for anyone holding a real estate salesperson or
real es
tate broker's license.
A few states, such as Idaho, Maine, and Vermont do
not require property managers to have real estate
licenses. Other states, such as
Montana, Oregon, and South Carolina, allow property managers to work under a
property management license ra
ther than a broker's license.

Washington State r
e-
quires property managers to have a State Real Estate License if they

do not own
the property. Owners who manage their own property are not required to have a
real e
state license in many states;

however, they must at least have a business l
i-
cense to rent out their own home. Owners who do not live near the rental property
ma
y be required, by local government, to hire the services of a property manag
e-
ment company.

In California, third
-
party apartment property managers must be licensed with
the California Department of Real Estate as a Real Estate Broker. A broker's l
i-
cense is
required for any person or company that, for compensation, leases or rents
or offers to lease or rent, or places for rent, or solicits listing of places for rent, or
solicits for prospective tenants, or negotiates the sale, purchase or exchanges of
leases
on real property, or on a business opportunity, or collects rents from real
property, or improvements thereon, or from business opportunities.

England

In England there is no statutory regulation of property management comp
a-
nies. Companies which manage ren
ted residential property are often members of
the Association of Residential Letting Agents. Companies or individual landlords
who accept tenancy deposits for "assured shorthold tenancies" (the usual form of
residential tenancy) are required by statute to
be members of a Tenancy Deposit
Scheme.

Companies which manage apartment buildings are often members of the A
s-
sociation of Reside
ntial Managing Agents (ARMA).

ARMA is a trade association
for firms that manage private residential leasehold blocks of flats in England &
Wales. ARMA promotes high standards of leasehold management by providing
advice, training and guidance to its member firms of managing agents. ARM
A also
93


produces guidance materials for leaseholders and Residents Management Comp
a-
nies. With over 280 firms in membership, ARMA also campaigns for improv
e-
ments in the legislation governing the leasehold sector.


Направление

Педагогическое образование

профиль

История и Право


SAINT PETERSBURG

Saint Petersburg is the second largest city in Russia and one of the most
beautiful cities in the world. It was founded in 1703 by Peter the Great as the wi
n-
dow to Europe. Thousands of workmen were brought from all

parts of Russia to
build a new city on the swampy land at the mouth of the Neva River. Peter the
Great was in a hurry. The work was fast and hard, and workmen dropped dead by
hundreds. But the work went on. In 1712 Saint Petersburg, a city of great beauty
,
with palaces, cathedrals, churches, government buildings became the capital.

U
n-
der later rulers the new capital of the Russia Empire grew rapidly in wealth and
beauty. Architects were brought from Western Europe to lay out the city in harm
o-
nious squares.

Buildings were constructed in gray and rose
-
colored granite. The
Hermitage and the Winter Palace, the homes of the Russian czars, were equal to
any in Europe.

When the First World War began in 1914, the German
-
sounding name Saint
Petersburg was changed to

Petrograd. After the October Revolution the city was
renamed after Vladimir Lenin. During the Great Patriotic War the city suffered a
great deal. The German armies laid siege to it in 1941, and for the next year and a
half it was cut off from the rest of
the country Daily shelling and air raids d
e-
stroyed parts of the city. Thousands of people were killed. Rebuilding took years.

Now Saint Petersburg is an important industrial, cultural, and educational
center. It is also a large transport center. The first
railroad line connected Saint P
e-
tersburg with Tsarskoye Selo. Then the famous Nicholas Railroad line from Saint
Petersburg to Moscow was constructed. Now there are five railroad stations, two
airports, a seaport, two bus terminals, a sea passenger terminal
, and a river passe
n-
ger terminal.

The population of the city grew fast. At the beginning of the 20th century it
was about one million, by 1941
-

it was about two million people, in the seventies
-

it was about four million, and it is near six million peopl
e. Diversity is one of the
main features of Saint Petersburg. A lot of geographical names in the city are russ
i-
fied Finnish, and some are just translations from the Finnish language, for exa
m-
ple: the Neva River, the Moika, the Karpovka, Ligovsky Prospect,
Kalinkin
Bridge, Zayachy Island and many others. Saint Petersburg now, as in the past, is
the city of many nations and religions. Some of the streets still keep the names of
ethnical communities, which were there, for instance: Italianskaya Street,
Greches
ky Prospect, Shvedsky Pereulok, Angliysky Prospect and An
g
liyskaya
Embankment, and others. In the city there are a lot of churches and temples repr
e-
94


senting different religions groups: O
r
thodox, Roman Catholic, Lutheran Churches,
Moslem Mosques, Synagogues
and a Buddhist Temple as well.

Saint Petersburg is a wonderful city: at every turn there is something to catch
your eye. There are spacious squares and circles and the streets are wide and
straight. Palace Square, Senate Square, St. Isaac`s Square, Trinity

Square and Arts
Square
-

they all are historical places, shaped with famous buildings and have
stri
k
ing monuments. Alexander Column, the highest structure of this kind in the
world, rises on Palace Square.


Направление

Педагогическое образование

профиль

Начальное образование


BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

Elementary school children are a unique group. They are creative, fun and
independent, but they can be challenging, especially in the classroom. Behavior
problems in school with this age group a
re common as they learn to test their limits
and assert their independence. Understanding the causes of misbehavior and how
to deal with them can make a classroom flow more smoothly.

Causes of Misbehavior

Some students misbehave because they are bored or
do not understand the
rules and expectations. Others act out to get attention from other students, their
parents or the teacher. Some students have learning disabilities that may show up
as misbehavior, and others act out in response to or as a way to cope

with a neg
a-
tive home environment. Still others may see their parents or siblings behave in ce
r-
tain ways and copy that behavior.

Types of Behavior Problems

According to The Parent Institute, common discipline issues for elementary
school children include t
alking out of turn, disrupting class, being irresponsible or
careless, disobeying rules and whining. Some, such as bullying, fighting, defiance
and lying, can start out small, but escalate into more serious problems if not dealt
with properly.

Effects of B
ehavior Problems

In a survey done in 2012, Scholastic found that 62 percent of educators said
that behavior issues are interfering with teaching, and 53 percent said they would
like to spend less time on discipline issues and student supervision. They stat
ed
that behavior problems are a distraction to the learning environment, and disru
p-
tions caused by misbehavior take away time that could otherwise be spent on clas
s-
room instruction.

Reducing Misbehavior

Working together, teachers and parents can take steps

to reduce misbehavior.
According to the Institute of Education Sciences, pinpointing what causes students
to act out can help the teacher intervene before it happens, possibly avoiding bad
behavior altogether. Positive reinforcement by praising students w
hen they behave
properly and minimizing downtime by keeping children engaged in activities are
95


also good strategies. Establishing rapport and clear, consistent rules and expect
a-
tions also can cut down on behavioral problems.

by

Marie

Anderson
,
Demand

Media


Направление

Педагогическое образование

профиль

Дошкольное образование


CHILDHOOD EDUCATION PROS AND CONS OF PRESCHOOL

Preschool is the earliest a child can be enrolled in school. Some parents count
down the days until the child is old enough to attend,
others wish it would never
come. This means that whether or not a child attends preschool is completely up to
the parents. It is a big decision and one that should not be made lightly. By deci
d-
ing to send your child to preschool, you are laying the foundat
ions for the rest of
the child's educ
a
tion.

Pros

Preschool has many advantages it can offer its students. Children who attend
preschool are learning vital skills that will be used later. The preschool goal isn't so
much to teach the children new subjects
as it is to prepare them for the learning to
come. It is effectively learning how to learn. Things that a preschooler learns i
n-
clude how to follow a teacher's directions, standing in lines, to raise their hands for
asking question, how to get along with ot
her children, and how to use scissors and
glue.

Preschool offers a variety of activities that help encourage a child's develo
p-
ment. While parents can copy many of these activities, teachers do have resources
available that parents don't.

While the child is

in preschool, the parent has a few hours a day freed up to
either work, catch up on errands, or just spend some time relaxing. For busy pa
r-
ents just a few hours break from a young child is a godsend.

Studies have shown that children who attended preschool

are more likely to
finish high school and graduate college, are more fluent readers in elementary
school, are less likely to be placed in special education class and are less likely to
have multiple arrests. How much of this is actually related to prescho
ol and how
much of it is simply connecting unrelated aspects of the children's lives is up to
some speculation. Many preschools are private and for a child to be able to attend a
private preschool, their parents would have to be able to afford it, so it st
ands to
reason that a child from a stable home with parents who can afford a private school
shows they care about the child's education. In doing so, they will have similar st
a-
tistics.

Cons

There are many reasons why parents would rather their children did
n't go to
preschool. One of the main ones is that parent is worried about the child's separ
a-
tion anxiety. Some preschoolers have a very hard time dealing with their fear of
losing their parents. Consider if the benefits of sending the child is worth the ad
ded
fear and stress on him or her.

96


Most of the sicknesses school age children get can be linked back to the
school. When large numbers of children are in one place one, even a moderately
sick child can pass on their germs to dozens of others. Young childre
n have a way
of getting into places where germs thrive.

Some resources claim that preschool has a negative effect on the child's social
and emotional development, however, the site that makes this claim provides very
little information on how or why this s
upposedly occurs. In fact the few negatives
listed are not developmental problems, they are merely the consequences of a
bored child.

Whether or not a parent chooses to send their child to preschool or waits until
they are old enough for kindergarten, it's

important that the parent checks all their
options. There are different types of preschools available. Checking out all of the
options is the only real way for a parent to know if they are making the right dec
i-
sion for their child.

By

Tamara Haddock


Напр
авление

Педагогическое образование

профиль

Физическая культура


ENERGY DRINKS LINKED TO TEEN HEALTH RISKS

The uplifting effects of energy drinks are well advertised, but a new report
finds consumption among teenagers may be linked with poor mental health
and
substance use.

Researchers are calling for limits on teen’s access to the drinks and reduction
in the amount of the caffeine in each can.

The paper by researchers at the University of Waterloo and Dalhousie Un
i-
versity, published in Preventive Medicine,

found that high school students prone to
depression as well as those who are smoke marijuana or drink alcohol are more
likely to consume energy drinks than their peers.

“While it remains unclear why these associations exist, the trend is a concern
because

of the high rate of consumption among teenagers,” said Sunday Azagba, a
researcher at the Propel Centre for Population Health Impact at the University of
Waterloo and lead author on the paper. “These drinks appeal to young people b
e-
cause of their tempora
ry benefits like increased alertness, improved mood and e
n-
hanced mental and physical energy.”

Among the 8210 high school students surveyed, nearly two thirds reported u
s-
ing energy drinks at least once in the past year, with more than 20 percent consu
m-
ing t
hem once or more per month. Younger high school students were more likely
to consume energy drinks than older ones.

“Marketing campaigns appear designed to entice youth and young adults,”
said Azagba. “It’s a dangerous combination, especially for those at
an increased
risk for substance abuse.”

97


Energy drinks have been associated with a number of negative health effects,
including cardiovascular symptoms, sleep impairment and nervousness and nausea.
The side effects are caused by the beverages’ high concentr
ation of caffeine.

“Given the negative effects of excessive caffeine consumption as well as the
coincident occurrence of the use of energy drinks and other negative behaviors in
teens, the trends we are seeing are more than cause for concern,” said Azagba.

In recent years energy drink sales have skyrocketed, with sales forecasted to
reach $20 billion in 2013 in the United States alone.

“In our opinion, at the very least steps should be taken to limit teens’ access to
energy drinks, to increase public awaren
ess and education about the potential
harms of these drinks and to minimize the amount of caffeine available in each
unit,” said Azagba. “This won’t eliminate the problem entirely, but steps like these
can help mitigate harm to our youth that appears to be

associated with consumption
of these drinks. This is something we need to take seriously. Change won’t happen
without a concerted effort.”

The study was based on data from the 2012 Student Drug Use Survey, co
n-
sisting of a representative sample of junior a
nd senior high school students from
three provinces in Atlantic Canada.

Wednesday, March 5, 2014


Направление

Педагогическое образование

профиль

Технология


THOMAS EDISON

Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847


October 18, 1931) was an Amer
i-
can inventor
and businessman. He developed many devices that greatly influenced
life around the world, including the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and a
long
-
lasting, practical electric light bulb. Dub
bed "The Wizard of Menlo Park",

he
was one of the first inv
entors to apply the principles of mass production and large
-
scale teamwork to the process of invention, and because of that, he is often credi
t-
ed with the creation of the first industrial research laboratory.

Edison was a prolific inventor, holding 1,093 U
S patents in his name, as well
as many patents in the United Kingdom, France, and Germany. More significant
than the number of Edison's patents was the widespread impact of his inventions:
electric light and power utilities, sound recording, and motion pic
tures all esta
b-
lished major new industries world
-
wide. Edison's inventions contributed to mass
communication and, in particular, telecommunications. These included a stock
ticker, a mechanical vote recorder, a battery for an electric car, electrical power,

recorded music and motion pictures.

His advanced work in these fields was an outgrowth of his early career as a
telegraph operator. Edison developed a system of electric
-
power generation and
distribution to homes, businesses, and factories


a crucial dev
elopment in the
modern industrialized world. His first power station was on Pearl Street in Manha
t-
tan, New York.

98


Thomas Edison is most well
-
known for his invention of the light bulb. Co
n-
trary to popular belief, Edison did not invent the light bulb; it had
been around for
a number of years. The electric lights at the time, however, were unreliable, expe
n-
sive, and short
-
lived. Over twenty distinct efforts by other inventors the world over
were already underway when Edison entered the light bulb invention race
.

By creating a vacuum inside the bulb, finding the right filament to use, and
running lower voltage through the bulb, Edison was able to achieve a light bulb
that lasted for many hours. This was a substantial improvement, and one that led
with more
improvements, to making the light bulb practical and economical.

Of course, Edison also later invented the entire electric utility system so he
could power all those light bulbs, motors and other appliances that soon followed.


Направление

Менеджмент

профи
ли

Информационный менеджмент, Производственный менеджмент

Направление

Профессиональное обучение

профиль

Экономика

и

управление


THE FOUR C’S

Some marketers have supplemented the four
P’
s with new ways of thinking
about marketing. The firm must look at the marketing effort from the point of view
of customer, rather than the company. Here
the four Cs

must be considered:

1)

Customer needs.

The firm aims to find a solution to a customer
‘proble
m’ by offering the right combination of products and services to satisfy pa
r-
ticular customer needs. What does the customer need to solve a problem? For e
x-
ample, people don’t have time to cook


we offer the solution of frozen dinners.
Pay
-
as
-
you
-
go was a d
ream solution for parents worried about children running up
big phone bills. The company must identify customer needs so that products that
meet these needs can be developed.

2)

Customer cost.
The price paid by the customer for the product. Does
the customer

perceive the cost

of the product as fair, or is it too expensive? It i
n-
cludes the ‘price’ related to not buying another product of the same or another
type. For example, someone who buys a sophisticated mobile may not then have
the money to buy a laptop c
omputer that they wanted.

3)

Convenience.
How convenient is it to find your product? Is it easy, or
does the customer have to make an effort? Distributing products in the way that is
most convenient for each type of customer. The firm has to decide how many
new
shops to open and where they should be.

4)

Communication
with the customer. How should you communicate
with your customers? Customers are informed about products through advertising
and so on. But communication is two
-
way because customers also communicat
e
with the firm. For example, through telephone helplines. This is a good way for the
firm to find out more about what its customers want, and to change or improve its
offering, and to get ideas for new offerings.

99



Robert F. Lauterborn

proposed a four Cs classification in 1993. The Four Cs
model is more consumer
-
oriented and attempts to better fit the movement from
mass marketing to niche marketing.




Product part of the Four Ps model is replaced by
‘Consumer’
shifting the
focus to satis
fying the consumer needs. Another C replacement for Product is
‘C
a-
pable’
. By defining offerings as individual capabilities that when combined and
focused to a specific industry, creates a custom solution rather than pigeon
-
holing a
customer into a product.




Pricing is replaced by
‘Cost’

reflecting the total cost of ownership. Many
factors affect Cost, including but not limited to the customer’s cost to change or
implement the new product or service and the customer’s cost for not selecting a
competitor’s pr
oduct or service.



Placement is replaced by
‘Convenience’
. With the rise of internet and hybrid
models of purchasing, Place is becoming less relevant. Convenience takes into a
c-
count the ease of buying the product, finding the product, finding information
ab
out the product, and several other factors.



Promotions feature is replaced by
‘Communication’

which represents a
broader focus than simply Promotions. Communications can include advertising,
public relations, personal selling, viral advertising, and any fo
rm of communication
between the firm and the consumer.


Направление

Профессиональное обучение

профиль

Транспорт


HONDA

CR
-
V


According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)
Crash Test Ratings,
The Honda CR
-
V is rated "good" in
frontal

and side
-
impact

crash tests by the IIHS, rollovers also proved satisfactory. However it is
rated "marginal" in the roof strength test.


For the 2010 model year, the CR
-
V receives modest style, powertrain, and
equipment changes. The exterior changes

include a redesigned front fascia with a
new horizontal
-
slat chrome grille and honeycomb
-
designed lower front grille, new
front bumper, and revised taillights. The rear bumper is also redesigned, as well as
new five split
-
spoke 17
-
inch alloy
wheels for EX

and EX
-
L models.

The interior gains minor changes, such as improved seat fabrics, and wider
driver & front
-
passenger armrests. The audio head unit controls are altered and the
information display backlighting in the gauges is blue instead of the previous

black. USB audio input is standard in the EX
-
L trim while hands
-
free Blu
e-
tooth

connectivity is exclusive to the EX
-
L trim equipped with navigation sys
tem.

Horsepower is increased from 166 to 180 for 2010 and mileage is improved by
1 MPG for both front
-
whe
el and all
-
wheel drive models. EPA ratings are now
21/28 MPG city/highway and 21/27 MPG city/highway respectively. Specified oil
weight changed from 5W
-
20 to 0W
-
20 from previous years with a change to the
100


K24Z6 en
gine.

Prices are increased between $300 and

$900 depending on trim
level. The 2010 model went on sale in the United States on Sept
ember 10, 2009.

The CR
-
V facelift made available to European markets (as well as South Afr
i-
ca) features new added luxuries not previously seen before, and not available
to
Japanese, Asian, or American markets. Xenon (HID) headlights are available for
the first time, as are 18" alloy wheels (19" optional), GPS/DVD navigation system,
and a premium sound system with USB audio input. A panoramic glass moonroof
is standard on
upper spec models, and all models feature chrome exterior door
handles. Externally, the vehicle also features complete body color
-
coding, on all
lower body plastic cladding (models sold elsewhere in the world feature dark grey
plastic lower cladding). The
range of available colours has expanded greatly, and
includes many new shades unique to the European model, including Premium
White pearl and Ionized Bronze.

Honda's Real Time 4WD system on the CR
-
V utilizes a dual hydraulic pump
centre/rear differential a
nd 4WD transfer case. The dual pump system employs two
pumps, one driven by the drive shaft from the transfer case at the front of the veh
i-
cle, and the other driven by the rear differential. When there is a pressure diffe
r-
ence of greater than 3% between th
ese two pumps, a clutch that connects the front
and rear axles begins to engage. The greater the difference in axle speeds, the more
torque is applied to the rear. This system would most accurately be called ‘aut
o-
matically engaged four wheel drive’ because

the driver has no control over when
the system engages. To allow the ABS braking system to function properly, the
4WD clutch will disengage if the brakes are applied. The B20Z engine sends 52%
of the torque to the rear wheels or whichever wheel has the mo
st traction.

Later model CR
-
Vs equipped with automatic transmissions also have a lockup
torque converter and Grade Logic program which aids the CR
-
V when climbing
steep inclines by keeping the transmission in the lower gear. The 2007+ 4WD sy
s-
tem was
improved and sends an additional 20% more torque to the rear tires than
earlier models.

When driven off road, CR
-
Vs with the 4WD

System are typically used in the
Green Laning

or
Two
-
tracking

type of off
-
roading. Also the CR
-
V had 8.9 inches
(230

mm) of Gro
und clearance. The CR
-
V is moderately capable when driven off
of the pavement. It can successfully navigate mild off road conditions, such as
smooth dirt trails and if proper tires are used it can handle moderate amounts of
snow.


Направление

Педагогическо
е образование

профили

Информатика, Математика и Информатика


HOW SHOPPERS WITH SMARTPHONES ARE CHANGING

THE RETAIL LANDSCAPE

On a traditional list of Christmas Eve activities, shopping wouldn't rank very
high, given that most stores are locked up tight. But in a reflection of how the
world of retailing is changing, consumers with a hankering for the best post
-
101


Christmas bargain
will be able to make their choice without doing anything more
than tapping out an order on their smartphone or tablet. Those who consider
Christmas Eve should be reserved for more festive or religious activities may say
"bah humbug," but for a retailer lik
e Future Shop, which is seeing increasing visits
to its website from smartphone and tablet users, it's more like "bring it on.

"Future
Shop started seeing a noticeable uptick in visits to its website from mobile devices
about some months ago, which trigger
ed the development of an iPhone app.

Analysts talk about the "digital revolution" or "digital transformation" that is
changing the retail world, as consumers use smartphones and tablets for everything
from product research and price comparison in the stor
e aisles to purchases. Retai
l-
ers in turn are developing mobile apps to provide product information, coupons,
promotions or consumer ratings. The total number of sales from mobile devices is
still small. But the digital transformation doesn't seem likely to

slow down.

Still there is a minority of shoppers who are using handheld devices, and
sales via mobile are only a small fraction of total revenue. But the business case for
mobile and e
-
commerce is not necessarily the small numbers that people are se
e-
ing.

Analysts talk about the different shopping experience, and the need for r
e-
tailers to have a strong presence wherever customers might find them, whether that
is in their store, online or via a mobile device. The interest in tapping into mobile
apps extends
beyond retailers to those running the shopping malls and centres
which are eager to get more consumers in the main doors.

Another question is security. It depends on the consumer making a co
n-
scious decision to use the app, but technology also exists that w
ould allow malls to
track shoppers via their cellphones.

Two malls tried out the technology last month,
but quickly turned it off, because there's a line that shouldn’t be crossed. The su
c-
cess of any mobile strategy for a retailer is to gain the trust of t
he consumer. If the
consumer feels tracked, then it's not a very good strategy.


Направление
Психолого
-
педагогическое образование


профиль
Психология и социальная педагогика


SOCIAL WORK & SOCIAL PEDAGOGICS


Social Pedagogical workers help people


young
and old


to live as ind
e-
pendently as possible again. Their work centres around providing temporary, long
-
term and permanent support to people who have relational, family, developmental
and educational problems as well as support to people with a handicap,

a temp
o-
rary or structural psychosocial limitation, a mental disorder or illness. The support
they offer consists of supervision and/or home support or home treatment as well
as support and treatment in an institution. Social pedagogical workers passionate
ly
help people function to the best of their ability.


The professional field of social pedagogical workers is very broad. Grad
u-
ates can find careers in a substantial number of institutions including institutions
for the mentally
-
handicapped, penitentiary

institutions (prisons and forensic ps
y-
102


chiatric centres), juvenile psychiatric hospitals, detox centres, social care centres,
Bureau Jeugdzorg (Office for Juvenile Care), Boddaert centres, etcetera. In general
hospitals the social pedagogical workers perfo
rm their duties in a number of diffe
r-
ent departments including children’s wards. If you have affinity with the target
group of senior citizens, you can also work as a social pedagogical worker in nur
s-
ing homes and rest homes. Social pedagogical workers can

also help (multi
-
problem) families, offering support to parents in upbringing their children.

Differences between Social Work & Social Services

and Social Work & Social Pedagogics


There is a distinct overlap between the professional fields of these two

study
programmes that both lead to a Bachelor’s Degree in Social Work. In many instit
u-
tions social workers and social pedagogical workers are colleagues and collaborate
closely. There are some differences in emphasis, though.


Social pedagogical workers
mainly support young people and adults in
groups. The Social Work & Social Pedagogics study programme prepares its st
u-
dents for group work but also pays ample attention to working with individuals.
The study programme is characterized by its focus on apply
ing agogical methods
such as musical therapy, drama and visual arts.


Social workers usually help (adult) individuals or families. The Social Work
& Social Services study programme focuses on social work methods used in the
fields of psychosocial work, (s
exual) violence support and debt coaching.



Направление
Психолого
-
педагогическое образование,


профили

Психология

образования


IMPORTANT CONTRIBUTORS TO THE FOUNDING

OF SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY

Lightner Witmer

Lightner Witmer

has been acknowledged as the founder of school psychology.
Witmer was a student of both Wilhelm Wundt and James Mckeen Cattell. While
Wundt believed that psychology should deal with the average or typical perfo
r-
mance, Cattell's teachings emphasized indivi
dual differences. Witmer followed
Catell's teachings and focused on learning about each individual child's needs.
Witmer opened the first psychological and child guidance clinic in 1896 at the
University of Pennsylvania. Witmer's goal was to prepare psycho
logists to help
educators solve children's learning problems, specifically those with individual di
f-
ferences. Witmer became an advocate for these special children. He was not f
o-
cused on their deficits per se, but rather helping overcome them, by looking at

the
individual's positive progress rather than all they still could not achieve. Witmer
stated that his clinic helped "to discover mental and moral defects and to treat the
child in such a way that these defects may be overcome or rendered harmless
throug
h the development of other mental and moral traits". He strongly believed
103


that active clinical interventions could help to improve the lives of the individual
children.

Since Witmer saw much success through his clinic, he saw the need for more
experts to h
elp these individuals. Witmer argued for special training for the experts
working with exceptional children in special educational classrooms. He called for
a "new profession which will be exercised more particularly in connection with
educational problems
, but for which the training of the psychologist will be a pr
e-
requisite".

As Witmer

believed in the appropriate training of these school psychologists, he
also stressed the importance of appropriate and accurate testing of these special
children. The IQ testing movement was sweeping through the world of education
after its creation in 19
05. However, the IQ test negatively influenced special ed
u-
c
a
tion. The IQ test creators, Lewis Terman and Henry Goddard, held a nativist
view of intelligence, believing that intelligence was inherited and difficult if not
impossible to modify in any meaning
ful way through education. These notions
were often used as a basis for excluding children with disabilities from the public
schools. Witmer argued against the standard pencil and paper IQ and Binet type
tests in order to help select children for special e
ducation. Witmer's child selection
process included observations and having children perform certain mental tasks.

Granville Stanley Hall

Another important figure to the origin of school psychology was Granville Sta
n-
ley Hall. Rather than looking at the ind
ividual child as Witmer did, Hall focused
more on the administrators, teachers and parents of exceptional children. He felt
that psychology could make a contribution to the administrator system level of the
application of school psychology. Hall created th
e child study movement, which
helped to invent the concept of the "normal" child. Through Hall's child study, he
helped to work out the mappings of child development and focused on the nature
and nurture debate of an individual's deficit. Hall's main focus

of the movement
was still the exceptional child despite the fact that he worked with atypical chi
l-
dren.

Arnold Gesell

Bridging the gap between the child study movement, clinical psychology and
special education was the first person in the United States to

officially hold the title
of school psychologist, Arnold Gesell. He successfully combined psychology and
education by evaluating children and making recommendations for special teac
h-
ing. Arnold Gesell paved the way for future school psychologists.


Направление

Психология


MOTIVATION

Throughout history people have looked everywhere for the forces that move
them


outside themselves, in supernatural entities; within themselves, in their own
needs and desires; and in the society in which they live. The
idea that each of us is
but a pawn of fate. That good fortune and bad luck help to determine our destinies
104


is hard to shake. Yet wanting to believe that we can control our lives, most of us
subscribe to the concept of man, the rational master. Those who ne
ed unambiguous
explanations, clearly based on simple cause
-
and
-
effect relations, see human beings
as machines and point to man is an island unto himself, some theorists have pr
o-
posed that social forces exert a strong influence on human motivation. This is
the
theory of social determinism. But social determinism cuts two ways: we are, ind
i-
vidually, influenced by society, but collectively, we build society and are able to
change it.

The belief that we are often unaware of our true motives is a very old one, b
ut
it was Freud who developed it most fully. Another influential view of motivation
grew out of Darwin’s theory of evolution. It argues that the basic motivating force
in humans, as well as in animals, is a set of biological drives, and that those m
o-
tives
that cannot be traced directly to one of these drives are acquired motives, or
secondary drives. These secondary drives are seen as being derived from the pr
i-
mary biological drives.

The biological approach holds that on organism is motivated to take action

only when its equilibrium is disturbed, when some important ingredient is lacking
or is present in excess, and when the involuntary and automatic processes of h
o-
meostasis cannot restore equilibrium. But our bodily needs do not always call forth
appropriat
e conscious needs. This can be explained in part, but none entirely, by
conditioning.

Though some would explain motivation entirely on the basis of a physiolog
i-
cal striving for equilibrium and the elimination of tension, there are other kinds of
striving t
hat cannot be explained in this way. The striving to know, to explore, to
create, and even to play is not necessary for survival, security, or equilibrium. They
may actually in duce, rather than reduce, tension. The human need for stimulation
is so strong
that prolonged exposure to an environment in which external stimul
a-
tion is kept at a minimum can be severely disturbing, even intolerable, although
biological needs may be satisfied.


Направление
Социальная работа

п
рофиль
Психосоциальная работа с
населением



THE ROLES PERFORMED BY SOCIAL WORKERS

Every occupational category is expected to perform a set of occupational
roles. Associated with the roles are a number of job functions that can best be d
e-
scribed as the tasks or activities one performs within a specific role. There are 10
roles and nearly 40 distinct functions expected of social workers. Most social
workers engage in several practice roles.

The Social Worker as Advocate: The main purpose o
f the social worker is to
assist clients in upholding their rights to receive resources and services or to activ
e-
ly support causes intended to change programs and policies that have a negative
effect on individual clients or client groups.

105


The Social Worke
r as Teacher: The social worker should prepare clients or
the general public with knowledge and skills necessary to prevent problems or e
n-
hance social functioning. Much of social work practice involves teaching clients or
client groups to deal with trouble
some life situations or to anticipate and prevent
crises.

The Social Worker as Counselor/Clinician: The social worker helps clients
improve their social functioning by helping them better understand their feelings,
modify their behaviors, and learn to cop
e with problematic situations.

The Social Worker as Case Manager: The social worker tries to achieve co
n-
tinuity of service to individuals and families through the process of connecting cl
i-
ents to appropriate services and coordinating the utilization of tho
se services. The
social work role of case manager is of critical importance for clients who must ut
i-
lize multiple services provided by several different programs or agencies. This is
especially true for vulnerable and highly dependent populations such as c
hildren,
the seriously disabled, and the frail elderly.

The Social Worker as Workload Manager: Social workers must simultaneou
s-
ly provide the services needed by clients and adhere to the workload management
requirements of the employing social agency. In o
ther words, they must balance
their obligations to both clients and agency.

The Social Worker as Staff Developer: The social worker facilitates the pr
o-
fessional development of agency staff through training, supervision, consultation,
and personnel managem
ent.

The Social Worker as Administrator: The social worker is to plan, develop,
and implement policies, services, and programs in a human services organization.
In the administrator role, the social worker assumes responsibilities for implemen
t-
ing the agen
cy policies and managing its programs.

The Social Worker as Social Change Agent: The social worker participates in
the identification of community problems and/ or areas where the quality of life
can be enhanced, and to mobilize interest groups to advocat
e for change or new r
e-
sources. Social work's dual focus on both the person and environment requires that
the social worker facilitate needed change in neighborhoods, communities, or lar
g-
er social systems.

The Social Worker as Professional: The social work
er should engage in co
m-
petent and ethical social work practice and contribute to the development of the s
o-
cial work profession. Basically, a professional is a person whose actions are
thoughtful, purposeful, appropriate, responsible, and ethical. It is inc
umbent on the
social worker to practice in a manner that reflects the highest professional stan
d-
ards.




106


ПРИЛОЖЕНИЯ


Сводная таблица всех времен в действительном

и страдательном залоге


Aspect

Tense

Voice

Active

Passive

Simple

/
Indefinite

действие
как факт (обы
ч-
ное, постоянное, повтор
я-
ющееся)

Present

V
,
V
-
s

ask
,
asks

(я спрашиваю часто,
обычно, всегда)

be V
-
ed, V3

am
,
is
,
are

asked

(меня спрашивают часто,
обычно, всегда)

Past

V
-
ed
,
V
2

asked

(спросил, спрашивал к
о-
гда
-
то)



was
,
were

asked

(
меня
спросили когда
-
то
)

Future

shall, will V

shall, will ask

(
я спрошу
)



shall, will be asked

(
меня

спросят
)

Continuous

/
Progressive

действие как процесс (н
е-
законченное, длящееся)

Present

be V
-
ing

am, is, are asking

(
я спрашиваю сейчас
)

be being V
-
ed, V3

am, is, are being asked

(
меня спрашивают сейчас
)

Past


was
,
were

asking

(я спрашивал в тот м
о-
мент)


was
,
were

being

asked

(меня спрашивали в тот
момент)

Future


shall
,
will

be

asking

(я буду спрашивать в тот
момент)


-

Perfect

действие завершенное,
предшествующее какому
-
то моменту, соотнесенное
с ним

Present

have V
-
ed, V3

have, has asked

(
я уже спросил
)

have been V
-
ed, V3

have, has been asked

(
меня уже спросили
)

Past


had

asked

(я уже спросил к тому м
о-
менту)


had

been

asked


(меня уже спросили к т
о-
му моменту)

Future


shall
,
will

have

asked

(я уже спрошу к тому м
о-
менту)


shall
,
will

have

been

asked


(меня уже спросят к тому
моменту)

P
erfect

Continuous

действие, начавшееся в
прошлом и беспрерывно
продолжающееся вплоть
до какого
-
нибудь момента

Present

have been V
-
ing

have, has been asking

(я уже спрашиваю в теч
е-
ние …)


-

Past


had

been

asking

(к тому моменту я уже
спрашивал в течение …)


-

Future


shall
,
will

have

been

asking

(к тому моменту я уже
буду спрашивать в теч
е-
ние …)


-


107


СПИСОК
ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ


1.

Английский язык для студентов
-
заочников. Гуманитарные специальн
о-
сти [Текст]: учебное пособие / Л.В. Хведченя, О.И. Васючкова, Т.В.
Елисеева и др.


Минск: Высшая школа, 2002.


464 с.


ISBN

985
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06
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ний по грамматике / С.И. Блинова, Е.П. Чарекова, Г.С. Чернышева,
Е.И. Синицкая.


СПб.: Союз, 1998.


384 с.


15000 экз.


ISBN

5
-
87852
-
061
-
3.

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Бонди, Е.А.

Английский язык для студентов
-
историков [Текст]
: уче
б-
ник.
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2
-
е изд., испр . и доп .
/ Е.А. Бонди.


М
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Английский язык для студентов географических ф
а-
культетов

[Текст]
:
у
чеб
ное

пособие. Ч. I.
/ М.А. Васильева.


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з-
дательство «Менеджер», 2001.


208 с.
-

ISBN 5
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8346
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0138
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3.

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Васильева, М.А.

Английский язык для студентов географических ф
а-
культетов

[Текст]
:
у
чеб
ное

пособие. Ч. II.
/ М.А. Васильева.


М.: И
з-
дательство «Менеджер», 2001.


256 с.
-

ISBN 5
-
8346
-
0139
-
1
.

6.

Грамматика английского языка =
English

Grammar
. Часть 2 [Текст]:
учебно
-
методическое пособие / Сост.: В.В. Иванова; Бийский пед. гос.
ун
-
т им. В.М. Шукшина.


Бийск: БПГУ им. В.М. Шукшина, 2009.


119 с.


50 экз.

7.

Саинова, Д.З.

Английский язык для студенто
в
-
биологов [Текст] =
English for biologists: учебник для студентов высших учебных завед
е-
ний, обучающихся по специальности "Биология" / Д.З. Саинова.
-

К
а-
зань: Изд
-
во Казанского университета, 1985.
-

206 с.

8.

Социальная работа

[
Электронный ресурс
]



Электронный журнал

http://www.bemidjistate.edu/academics/publications/social_work_journal/iss
ue18/article4.html

9.

Сборник дополнительных текстов и

упражнений по специальностям
ИТ

[Текст]:
у
чебно
-
методическое посо
бие для студентов 1 и 2 курсов /
И.С.

Солунова
,

Л.Ф.

Демидова,
С.В.

Лосева,
О.Ю.

Климова,
Н.И.

Ко
з-
лова,
Е.А.

Филатова,
Ж.В.
Нагоркина
//
под ред.

Лезё
вой

Т.И.


М.:
МГУПИ, 2012.



93 с.

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Сбор
ник дополнительных текстов и упражнений по специальностям
ТИ
и ПР
[Текст]:

у
чебно
-
методическое пособие для студентов 1 и 2
курсов

/

С.В.

Лосева,
Е.А.

Демчинская,
Т.Н.

Ватлина,
М.А.

Алёшин,
С.А.

Шелепова
,
Н.А.

Семёнова,
М.В.

Колюцкая,
И.С.
Солунова
//
под
ред.
Лезёв
ой

Т.И.


М.: МГУПИ, 2012.



109 с.

11.



Лезёва
,

Т.И.

Сборник дополнительных текстов и упражнений по сп
е-
циальности «Маркетинг». Marketing Essentials 1 часть.
[Текст]:

Учебно
-
методическое пособие для студентов 1, 2 и 3 курсов.


М.: МГУПИ,
2012.


122 с.

108


12.


www.thomasedison.org/index.php/education/inventions/

13.

www.educationspace360.com

14.


www.wikipedia.org




109





Учебно
-
методическое издание



Ирина Александровна Чернова

Наталья

Алексеевна

Швец



English for the second year

bachelors

of

distant

education




Учебное пособие для бакалавров

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Редакционно
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Алтайской государственной академии образования

им. В.М. Шукшина
-

659333, г. Бийск, ул. Короленко, 53.

Типография Алтайской государственной академии образования

им. В.М. Шукшина
-

659333, г. Бийск, ул. Короленко, 55/1.



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