CONTEXT-FREE WORDS

Смит, Brown - Браун, John Fitzgerald Kennedy - Джон Фитцжеральд Кеннеди; Cleveland Кливленд, Rhode Island - Род-Айленд, Ontario - Онтарио; Downing Street Даунинг-стрит, Foley Square Фоли-сквер.
The same is true about the titles of periodicals and the names of firms and corporations, e.g.: Life «Лайф», US News and World Report «ЮС ньюс энд уорлд рипорт», General Motors Corporation «Дженерал моторс корпорейшн», Harriman and Brothers «Гарриман энд бразерс», Anaconda Mining Company - «Анаконда майнинг компани».
Transcription is also used to reproduce in TL the names of ships, aircraft, missiles and pieces of military equipment: Queen Elisabeth - «Kyин Елизабет», Spitfire «Спитфайр», Hawk «Хок», Trident «Трайдент», Honest John «Онест Джон».
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· Дорсет, Bonners Ferry Боннерс Ферри) as well as to preserve some elements of SL spelling so as to make the TL equivalent resemble some familiar pattern (the Hercules missile ракета «Геркулес», Columbia Колумбия). Second, there are some traditional exceptions in rendering the names of historical personalities and geographical names, e.g.: Charles I-Карл I, James II Яков II, Edinborough Эдинбург.
Some geographical names are made up of common nouns and are_ translated word-for-word: the United States of America Соединенные Штаты Америки, the United Kingdom Соединенное Королевство, the Rocky Mountains Скалистые горы.
If the name includes both a proper name and a common name, the former is transcribed while the latter is either translated or transcribed or both: the Atlantic Ocean Атлантический океан, Kansas City Канзас-сити, New Hampshire - Нью-Хемпшир, Firth of Clyde - залив Ферт-оф-Клайд.
Names of political parties, trade unions and similar bodies are usually translated word-for-word (with or without a change in the word-order): the Republican Party республиканская партия, the United Automobile Workers Union - Объединенный профсоюз рабочих автомобильной промышленности, the Federal Bureau of Investigation Федеральное бюро расследований.
Ex
·ercises
I. Suggest the Russian substitutes for the following names and titles.
1. Washington Irving, Edgar Allan Рое, Dorothy Parker, James Thurber, James I, Langston Hughes, Charles Evans Hughes, Charles III, Victor Hugo, DuPont, Watt Hugh McCollum, Mike Quin, Art Buchwald, Nataniel Hawthorne, Ambrose Bierce, William Parker, William IV, Mitchell Wilson, Woodrow Wilson
Albany, New South Wales, Santa Anna (Calif), Firth of Tay, Ivory Coast, New Orleans, New Hampshire, Utah, Wyoming, New Mexico, Blenheim, Webster Springs, Wells River, Red Lake, East Greenwich, Munich, West Rocky River, West Delaware River, Cornwall, Zurich, Cape Verde Islands
Downing Street, Whitehall, Wigmore Hall, Windsor Castle, Festival Gardens, Fifth Avenue, Trafalgar Square, Charing Cross, Haymarket Theatre, Harley Street, Mansion House, Lombard Street
National Bank; Associated British Foods; Aluminium Company of Canada, Ltd; Standard Oil of New Jersey, Imperial Group; London, Midland and Scottish Railway; London Broadcasting Company; Warner Brothers; Butterworth and Dickenson, textile engineers; Independent Television News; Associated Press
Financial Times, Labour Weekly, New York Herald Tribune, Wall Street Journal, Political Affairs, Morning Star, Paris Soir

II. Translate the following words and collocations. Explain your choice of the type of equivalents.

administrative efficiency; 2. arbitration; 3. affidavit; 4. Attorney-General; 5. balance of payments; 6. to stuff the ballot; 7. casting vote; 8. close vote; 9. back-bencher; 10. to bail out; 11. election returns; 12. brinkmanship; 13. political bias; 14. brain drain; 15. income tax; 16. frame-up; 17. career diplomat; 18. red-baiting campaign; 19. breakthrough; 20. bread-line; 21. circumstantial evidence; 22. gerrymandering; 23. craft union; 24. open shop system; 25. brain washing; 26. non-contiguous States; 27. contempt of court; 28. polling date; 29. defendant; 30. color-blind; 31. conglomerate; 32. social work; 33. the Chief Executive; 34. hardware; 35. software










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