Метод. (МУ и контр. задания по англ. яз. для студентов КМЕН заоч. ф. обучения) Сорокина Т.В.


МИНОБРНАУКИ РОССИИ
ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ БЮДЖЕТНОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ ВЫСШЕГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ
«ВОЛГОГРАДСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»
КАМЫШИНСКИЙ ТЕХНОЛОГИЧЕСКИЙ ИНСТИТУТ (ФИЛИАЛ)
ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОГО ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОГО БЮДЖЕТНОГО ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОГО
УЧРЕЖДЕНИЯ ВЫСШЕГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ
«ВОЛГОГРАДСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»
Кафедра «Иностранные языки и Гуманитарные науки»
Методические указания
и контрольные задания
по английскому языку
для студентов заочной формы обучения
(направления подготовки «Экономика», «Менеджмент»)
Методические указания

Волгоград
2016
УДК
Методические указания и контрольные задания по английскому языку для студентов заочной формы обучения (направления подготовки «Экономика», «Менеджмент»).: Методические указания /Сост.Т.В.Сорокина, ВолгГТУ.– Волгоград, 2016.– 56с.
Учебно-методические указания предназначены для контроля знаний у студентов направлений подготовки «Экономика», «Менеджмент» (заочной формы обучения).
Рецензенты: к.ф.н. Алещанова И.В.

Печатается по решению редакционно-издательского совета
Волгоградского государственного технического университета
© Волгоградский
государственный
технический
университет, 2016

ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ
Основной целью обучения английскому языку студентов заочной формы обучения в техническом вузе является овладение ими базовыми умениями и навыками для самостоятельной работы с иноязычными источниками по извлечению полезной информации по специальности вуза.
Перевод (устный, письменный) используются: а) как средство обучения; б) для контроля понимания прочитанного; в) в качестве возможного способа передачи полученной при чтении информации.
В процессе достижения цели обучения решаются воспитательные и общеобразовательные задачи, способствующие повышению общеобразовательного и культурного уровня студентов.
Студенты заочной формы обучения в рамках программы по иностранному языку, при меньшем количестве аудиторных занятий, обязаны освоить тот же объем знаний по предмету, что и студенты очного отделения. Чтобы компенсировать ограниченное количество аудиторных занятий и учесть разный уровень базовой подготовки студентов, программа подразумевает пошаговое (от простого к сложному) овладение грамматическим и лексическим материалом, необходимым для чтения иноязычной литературы по профилю вуза. Таким образом, студенты, не обладающие достаточными навыками по английскому языку, имеют возможность постепенно освоить все разделы программы. Студенты, имеющие определенный уровень подготовки по иностранному языку, совершенствуют его.
Предоставленные методические указания могут быть использованы, как преподавателями, так и студентами, при проведении контрольных занятий по проверке уровня знаний по английскому языку.
Составитель
1. ВЫПОЛНЕНИЕ КОНТРОЛЬНЫХ ЗАДАНИЙ
И ОФОРМЛЕНИЕ КОНТРОЛЬНЫХ РАБОТ
Количество контрольных работ, выполняемых на каждом курсе, устанавливается учебным планом института. Каждое контрольное задание предлагается в четырех вариантах. Студент выполняет один из них в соответствии с последними цифрами студенческого шифра: студенты, шифр зачетной книжки которых оканчивается на 1, 2 или 3, выполняют вариант № 1; на 4, 5 или 6 – № 2; на 7, 8, – № 3; на 9, 0 - №4.
Контрольная работа должна быть представлена в формате А4 с контрастной распечаткой текста.
При наборе текста контрольной работы следует использовать следующие параметры:
- для основного текста – шрифт Таймс, кегль 14;
- интервал одинарный;
- абзацный отступ 0,7 см;
- автоматическая расстановка переносов;
- для библиографических списков, таблиц – кегль 12;
- устанавливать поля следующих размеров:
- верхнее поле – 20 мм,
- нижнее поле – 25 мм,
- левое и правое поля – 20 мм.
Подготовленная к сдаче на проверку контрольная работа предусматривает наличие:
- титульного листа с указанием фамилии и инициалов, академической группы, номера и варианта контрольной работы;
- выполненных контрольных заданий в указанной последовательности;
- листа с перечнем использованной литературы;
- чистого листа для рецензии.
Если контрольная работа выполнена не в соответствии с указаниями или не полностью, она возвращается без проверки.
Исправление работы на основе рецензий
При получении от рецензента проверенной контрольной работы следует внимательно прочитать рецензию, ознакомится с замечаниями и проанализировать отмеченные в работе ошибки.
Руководствуясь указаниями рецензента необходимо проработать еще раз учебный материал. Все предложения, в которых были обнаружены орфографические, лексические и грамматические ошибки, а также неточности в переводе, следует переписать начисто в исправленном виде в конце данной контрольной работы.
Только после того, как будут выполнены все указания рецензента и исправлены все ошибки, можно приступить к изучению материала очередного контрольного задания и его выполнению.
Отрецензированные и исправленные контрольные работы являются учебными документами, которые необходимо сохранять; во время зачета или экзамена производится проверка усвоения материала, вошедшего в контрольные работы.
Контрольная работа №1
(1 курс, 1 семестр )Условия успешного выполнения контрольного задания № 1
Для правильного выполнения данного контрольного задания необходимо усвоить следующие разделы курса английского языка по рекомендованному учебнику английского языка:
Имя существительное. Множественное число. Артикли и предлоги как показатели имени существительного. Выражение падежных отношений в английском языке с помощью предлогов и окончания -s. Существительное в функции определения и его перевод на русский язык.
Имя прилагательное. Степени сравнения имен прилагательных.
Числительные.
Местоимения: личные, притяжательные, вопросительные, указательные и отрицательные.
Времена группы Indefinite действительного залога. Спряжение глаголов to be и to have.
Простое распространенное предложение: прямой порядок слов, обратный порядок слов вопросительного предложения.
Оборот "there+be".
Словообразование - основные префиксы и суффиксы. Словосложение. Использование слов, одинаковых по форме, представляющих собой различные части речи (конверсия).
После изучения всего указанного выше материала приступите к выполнению задания.
Используйте следующие образцы выполнения упражнений:
Образец выполнения 1 (к упр. 1).
Грамматическая функция окончания -s.
Lectures and seminars are delivered by experienced lecturers. Лекции и семинары проводят опытные лекторы. Lectures-множественное число от имени существительного, а lecture-лекция.
Chetford Castle stands on a hill outside the town. Замок Четфорд располагается на холме за городом. Stands - 3 лицо единственного числа от стандартного глагола, to stand - Present Indefinite
My friend's son is a student at Kamyshin Technology Institute. Сын моей подруги - студент Камышинского технологического института
Friend's - окончание притяжательного падежа имени существительного в единственном числе.Образец выполнения 2 (к упр. 2)
Особенности перевода на русский язык английских имен существительных, употребляющихся в функции определения, стоящего перед определяемым словом.
The 40-meter-high arch which is the entrance to the Volga-Don Navigation Canal rises in the south of Volgograd. Сорокаметровая арка, которая открывает Волго-Донской канал, возвышается к югу от Волгограда.
Mary studies at Kamyshin Technology Institute. Мери учится в Камышинском технологическом институте.
Образец выполнения 3 (к упр. 5)
The history of Moscow began on the 4th of April 1147. История Москвы началась 4 апреля 1147 г. Began - Past Indefinite, Active от неправильного глагола to begin
The Kremlin is the oldest part of Moscow. Кремль - самая древняя часть Москвы. Is - ед. число, Present Indefinite от нестандартного глагола to be, Active .
The complete course of English in our Institute lasts for four terms. Полный курс английского языка в нашем институте длится 4 семестра. Lasts - Злицо, ед. число, Present Indefinite Active от стандартного глагола to last.
Образец выполнения 4 (к упр. 8)
We study at Kamyshin Technology Institute. - Who studies at Kamyshin Technology Institute?
We study at Kamyshin Technology Institute. - Where do we study?
We study at Kamyshin Technology Institute. -What Institute do we study at?
Вариант 1
I. Перепишите данные ниже предложения.Определите по грамматическим признакам, какой частью речи является слово, оформленное окончанием -s, и какую функцию это окончание выполняет, т. е. служит ли оно:
а) показателем 3 лица единственного числа в Present Indefinite;
б) признаком множественного числа имени существительного
в) показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительног (см. образец выполнения 1).
Переведите письменно предложения на русский язык.
St. Basil’s Cathedral was built in the 16-th century and is one of themost beautiful cathedrals in Moscow.
When he comes to the office he studies documents, speaks with the people who ask for help and discusses the order of the day with the manager.
My hobby is to collect scarce books.
Sometimes I played with the doll’s house, which was older than Grandmother herself.
The Gulf Stream affects the climate of the west coast of Europe, the British Isles and Ireland.
II.. Перепишите следующие предложения и письменно переведите их, учитывая особенности перевода на русский язык определений, выраженных именем существительным (см. образец выполнения 2).
Annual United Towns Day was traditionally celebrated all over the world
This number one trade partner left for the USA lately.
Non-waste technologies, energy saving and life-style changes are steps towards an eco-efficient society.
It’s natural that minicomputers advent with extensive memories and possibilities will lead to a new higher level in information culture.
In the United States the most popular form of folk dancing since the earliest days has been square dancing.
III. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы сравнения и письменно переведите их на русский язык.
One of the most famous buildings in England is St. Paul's Cathedral.
Moscow University is not so old as the Russian Academy of Science.
Red Square is as beautiful as the Kremlin.
Lake Baikal is the deepest and the most beautiful lake of Russia.
Being situated on both banks of the Svisloch – river, in summer Minsk even more beautiful when the parks and gardens are green and with many flower- beds in them.
IV. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения, обращая особое внимание на перевод неопределенных и отрицательных местоимений и наречий.
No park in London is as popular as Hyde Park.
There is nothing interesting in the newspaper today.
Mr. Wright sent some spare parts to an airline.
The first two weeks passed all too quickly but he did not find any uranium.
You must write down every new word in the vocabulary.
V. Перепишите данные ниже предложения, определите в них видовременные формы глаголов и укажите их инфинитив; переведите предложения на русский язык (см. образец выполнения 3).From a legal point of view, a joint-stock company counts as a separate person.
Our scientific society took part in the conference last week.
It will take you much time to get to this part of the town.
We listened to the latest news over the radio.
When entering into a partnership, an agreement is drawn up defining the rights, responsibilities and liabilities of each partner.
There were a lot of leaves on the ground in the park.
VI. Прочитайте и письменно переведите на русскийязык весь текст.
Great Britain
1. Great Britain or the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is formed of the following parts: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. It is situated on the British Isles, lying to the west of the continent of Europe. Great Britain is separated from the European continent by the North Sea and the English Channel. On the western coast Great Britain is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and by the Irish Sea, separating England from Ireland. The total area of the Untied Kingdom is 244.000 sq. kilometers. The population of Great Britain is more than 56 million.
2. The mountains are an important feature of the geography of the country: their position largely determines the direction, length and character of the rivers. The highest mountains are in the central and northern parts of Scotland, in Wales and in the North-West of England. There are many rivers in Great Britain: the Thames, the Severn and others, but they are not long. Most of the rivers are connected with one another by canals. Great Britain is known for its typically maritime climate with frequent rains, strong winds and continuous fogs. The weather is greatly influenced by the cool wind that blows from the sea.
3. Great Britain has a well-developed industry. Coal is the main source for the development of British industry. One of the leading industries of Great Britain is the textile industry (Liverpool, Manchester). Iron, steel and various machines are also produced there (Birmingham, Sheffield). Shipbuilding and motor industry are highly developed too (Glasgow). London, the capital of the country, situated on the river Thames, is one of the biggest commercial centres of the world. As for the agriculture, the country is famous for the cattle and sheep breeding.
4. Great Britain is a Parliamentary monarchy. The power of the Queen (or the King) is limited by the Parliament and the Cabinet. Parliament consists of the House of Lords and the House of Commons. The Cabinet is headed by the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister is usually the leader of the party that has a majority in Parliament.
VII. Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы к тексту.
What is Great Britain formed of?
Where is it situated?
What industries are developed in Great Britain?
What does Parliament consist of?
VIII. Поставьте вопросы к подчеркнутым словам (см. образец 4).
Many spectators were happy to take part in big cultural events.
Belorus suffered greatly during the Second World War.
The Parliament of the U.K. consists of two Houses: the House of Lords and the House of Commons.
Вариант 2
I. Перепишите данные ниже предложения. Определите по грамматическим признакам, какой частью речи является слово с окончанием -s и какую функцию это окончание выполняет в предложении, т. е. служит ли оно:
Показателем 3 лица ед. числа глагола в Present Indefinite,
Признаком множественного числа имени существительного;
Показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного (см. образец выполнения 1).
Письменно переведите предложения на русский язык.
The Petersburg manager does as much work as his colleagues in Stockholm.
Spring is the season when Nature returns to life.
Caruso’s voice was superior to most other operatic voices of his days.
Echoes are caused by sound waves bouncing back off the walls.
Russia has a mixed economy.
II. Перепишите следующие предложения и письменно переведите их, учитывая особенности перевода на русский язык определений, выраженных именем существительным (см. образец выполнения 2).
Jack must arrive before the conference to General Manager.
Office buildings stand on both sides of the streets.
The British Parliament delegation will visit the USA next week.
One of the main characteristics of the present-day global “computerization” in the world is the boom in personal computers.
Sound waves move more quickly through the air ( about 340 metres each second at 20 C).

III. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы сравнения и письменно переведите их на русский язык.
It takes less time to read a text than to translate it.
Reading is the most useful way of learning new words and expressions.
Frozen foods are better than canned because all vitamins are preserved in them, and they are easy to cook.
Ecological problems of today also mean how to keep the ozone screen in the lower atmosphere, how to lower radiation and noise levels, what to do with the radioactive waste.
Travelling by air is the fastest as well as time saving.
IV. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующиепредложения, обращая особое внимание на перевод неопределенных и отрицательных местоимений и наречий.
Nobody knew about it.
Everything is ready to open the shop.
In spring or summer there is nothing better than a hiking holiday.
If there is something wrong with the execution of the order, the buyer can make a complaint.
No speaker touched on this urgent problem.
Give me any magazine to read for pleasure.
V. Перепишите данные ниже предложения, определите в них видовременные формы глаголов и укажите их инфинитив, письменно переведите предложения на русский язык (см. образец выполнения 3).We call our language the mother tongue.
Mrs. Brown called her sister on the telephone and asked her how she was feeling.
I shall go to the office in the morning.
Somebody came up with the idea of forming a group to spread the risk- and marine insurance was born.
It is pleasant to walk in such modern shoes.
Why didn't you attend the lectures of Professor Lebedev?
VI. Прочитайте и письменно переведите на русский язык весь текст.
The United States of America
1. The USA is situated in the central part of the North American Continent. The USA also includes Alaska on the edge of the Arctic. The total area of the USA is over nine million square kilometres.
2. The main rivers of the USA are the following: the Mississippi, the greatest and the largest in the USA (2348 miles), the Colorado and the Columbia, the Saint Lawrence River and the Hudson River. The country has thousands of lakes in all kinds and sizes. It is important to remember that the great Lakes make up the largest group of lakes in the country and the greatest collection of fresh -water lakes in the world.
3. The USA is a highly developed industrial country. It is necessary to know that the USA produces coal, iron and natural gas. There are many large industrial centres in the USA. New York is the largest financial and business centre in the world Chicago and Detroit are the biggest centres of heavy industry. California is the biggest centre of the automobile industry and all kinds of machine building. San Francisco and Seattle are the centres of shipbuilding. Philadelphia produces agricultural machines and locomotives.
4. The USA is a federal republic consisting of 50 states each of which has its own government. The capital of the country is Washington in the District Columbia (D. C). The President of the country elected for four years is the head of the state and the government. The congress consists of two houses, the House of Representatives and the Senate, hi the USA there are two main political parties: the Democratic Party and the Republican Party.
VII. Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы к тексту.
Where is the USA situated?
Does the USA include Alaska?
Is the USA a highly developed country?
Who is the head of the state and the government?
How many political parties are there in the USA?
VIII. Поставьте вопросы к подчеркнутым словам в письменной форме (см. образец 4).
The U.K. has deposits of zinc, gas, oil, chalk, iron ore and lead .Winter temperature in Great Britain seldom falls below zero.
The red stripes on the flag of the USA proclaim courage, the white stripes proclaim liberty and the field of blue stands for loyalty.
Вариант 3
1. Перепишите данные ниже предложения. Определите по грамматическим признакам, какой частью речи является слово с окончанием -s и какую функцию это окончание выполняет в предложении, т. е. служит ли оно:
а)показателем 3 лица единственного числа в Present Indefinite
б)признаком множественного числа имени существительного;
в)показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного (см. образец выполнения 1).
Письменно переведите предложения на русский язык.
These urgent measures can stop the crisis.
The supervisor regards him as his powerful ally.
The Thimes has reported the US mortgage crisis.
The English often grumble about the weather but you should not pay much attention to an Englishman’s complaints about his own climate.
Londoners like to get out of town on Sundays.
П. Перепишите следующие предложения и письменно переведите их, учитывая особенности перевода на русский язык определений, выраженных именем существительным (см. образец выполнения 2).
Traffic noises are very harmful, so there are special silensers that are fitted in petrol and diesel engines.
The Volgograd State Technical University trains specialists in different engineering fields.
A well-known architect told us about the master- plan of construction of Volgograd.
The protection of the climate and biodiversity may be realized through political decisions, such as, taxation measures, for example, forced reductions in carbon dioxide emissions or by passing national laws to stop release of destructive gases to the ozone layer.
The creation of the personal computer industry will allow a lot of problems in culture and education to be solved.
III. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы сравнения, и письменно переведите их на русский язык.
The more we study, the more we know. The more we know, the more we forget. The more we forget, the less we know. The less we know, the less we forget. The less we forget, the more we know. So why study?
East or West, home is best.
Better late than never.
Travelling is the best way of learning a lot of foreign countries and helpful in learning foreign languages as the quickest way toacquire practical skills of speaking and understanding foreign speech.
When you do healthful things your body and your mind become
strongerIV. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения, обращая особое внимание на перевод неопределенных и отрицательных местоимений и наречий.
Holmes knocked at the door, but nobody answered.
The share price rises when the company’s profits have increased for whatever reason.
I made the goods ready for collection, but the buyer had to do everything else .Two young Englishmen travelling in Spain asked for white coffee but no waiter understood the word “white”.
Some of my friends like to go cruising on the Volga or the Dnepr.
If delivery is late, the buyer can cancel the order without sending any reminders.
V. Перепишите данные ниже предложения, определите в них видовременные формы глаголов и укажите их инфинитив; письменно переведите предложения на русский язык (см. образец выполнения 3).The weather was charming, so I decided to take a walk.
Commercial banks are the public or private banks which people use for their everyday money matters.
I shall have a drink before having my lunch.
A twelve-year-old child inherits 10,000 dollars, which he won,t be able to touch until he’s 18.
The man did not understand the meaning of the traffic sign.
A few years ago, a report on the global environmental situation was published by the United Nations.
VI. Прочтите и письменно переведите на русский язык весь текст.
Washington D. С.Washington D. С. is the capital of the USA. The city is named after George Washington, the first president of the United States of America. For ten years Philadelphia was the capital of the country, but as many states wanted to be the capital-city of their territory, it was agreed to build the capital-city on a neutral territory, belonging to no state. That is why it was built in the District of Columbia (D. C). The territory was found between Virginia and Maryland. Washington is not the largest city in the United States. It has a population of 900, 000 people. Washington is a one-industry town. That industry is government. It does not produce anything, except very much scrap paper.
Washington has many historical places. In the very centre of the city risesthe huge dome of the Capitol. The US Congress sits there. It is the biggest building of the city, situated on the Capitol Hill. It is not allowed to build houses higher than the Capitol in Washington.
There is White House in Washington, the home of the President. All the Presidents of the USA lived there except George Washington, who only laid the foundation of the building.
The tall structure of the Washington Memorial "the pencil" (500 feet high) can be seen from miles around. Visitors to Washington are shown the Lincoln Memorial and the Jefferson Memorial as well. Vernon is a place not far from Washington. George Washington's plantation and residence were situated there. It is there where he died. Now it is George Washington's Museum.
VII. Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы к тексту.
What city is the capital of the USA?
Whom is the city named after?
Why is Washington built in the District of Columbia?
Is Washington the largest city in the USA?
Washington is a one-industry town, isn't it?
What historical places are there in Washington?
VIII. Поставьте вопросы к подчеркнутым словам в письменной форме (см. образец 4).
Agatha Christie attended special courses to become a nurse.
The stories and novels of Agatha Christie are very popular and very readable.
Agatha couldn’t speak distinctly in the presence of people because she was very shy.
Вариант 4
I. Перепишите данные ниже предложения. Определите по грамматическим признакам, какой частью речи является слово с окончанием -s, и какую функцию это окончание выполняет в предложении, т. е. служит ли оно:
а) показателем 3 лица единственного числа в Present Indefinite;
б) признаком множественного числа имени существительного;
в) показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного (см. образец выполнения 1).
Письменно переведите предложения на русский язык.
St. Paul's Cathedral is the best Renaissance Church in Europe.
Autumn is the season of mists, of wind days, of biting winds, of beautiful sunsets and miserable chilly days when it drizzles.
London consists of many parts and they are all very different from each other.
An Englishman’s house is his castle.
Communication between man and computer does not replace man’s creative abilities but expands them.
П. Перепишите следующие предложения и письменно переведите их, учитывая особенности перевода на русский язык определений, выраженных именем существительным (см. образец 2).
Computers led mankind to radical changes in the big economic organisations management.
The world public opinion is a powerful factor for the solution of international problems.
During World War II sound waves bounced back from the submarine helped to detect it.
People who work in noisy environments are encouraged to wear ear protectors.
A national strategy of sustainable development is to ensure further economic development and protecting the resources base and the environment for the further generations benefit.
Ш. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы сравнения, и письменно переведите их на русский язык.
There are many beautiful parks in London; the largest of them is Hyde Park, which is famous for its Speaker's Corner.
Say well is good, do well is better.
Those do least, who speak most.
Physical fitness is the state in which your body is the best possible condition for you.
At once the clothes became popular with young people, and, in a few months, they were being sold as fast as they could be made.
IV. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения, обращая особое внимание на перевод неопределенных и отрицательных местоимений и наречий.
1. The English language is spoken everywhere, almost in every country of the world.
We found this informatin nowhere else.
Nobody told us to bring notebooks for today's lesson.
Agatha Christie started writing thanks to some chance.
The importer only had to pay for the goods to be transported from Rotterdam to his warehouse, I paid for everything else.
Ask anybody for help.
V. Перепишите данные ниже предложения, определите в них вид-временные формы глаголов и укажите их инфинитив, письменно переведите предложения на русский язык (см. образец выполнения 3).The City is the country's financial and business centre.
The talks resulted in adoption of documents reflecting the wide range of questions.
Sweden was one of the first countries to adopt a comprehensive law on recycling .A delegation will arrive in two days to Delhi's Palam Airport.
The first measures to prevent pollution were taken in the 1960s.
Englishmen are naturally polite and never tired of saying “Thank you” or “ I’m sorry”.
VI. Прочтите и письменно переведите на русский язык весь текст.
LONDON
London can be divided into several parts among which Westminster, the West End, the City and the East End are most well - known.
Westminster is the historic and government part of London. Buckingham Palace is the London residence of the Queen. Running in a straight line from Buckingham Palace to Admiralty Arch is a roadway, which has on its northern side St. James's Palace and on the other side St. James Park. Originally today the Palace is the official residence of the Court.
The West End. It is at all times crowded with busy people. For most people who are thinking of having good time the West End offers an opportunity of having it. The largest and the best hotels, the best theatres and restaurants, the last word shops of all kinds are to be found in the West End. The most important of the national museum are in the West End with the exception of the British Museum, which is in Bloomsbury. The national Gallery, which contains one of the most important collections of pictures, is on the North side of the Trafalgar Square.
The City. The City of London officially covers about one square mile. To most people the City of London means the Bank of England, the Royal Exchange, the Lord Mayor, the Mansion House, St. Paul's Cathedral, the old Bailey (the Central Criminal Court) and the Tower of London. Originally intended as a fortress the Tower of London has served both as a palace and as a Prison.
London's East End. This district is far from being picturesque. The streets are narrow, old and drab. The buildings are low and unimpressive. Millions of Londoners live here. Most of them are workers of London. It is the people whom you will notice in the East End. Here is an uninhabited cheerfulness that you will not find elsewhere in the capital, or in the whole Britain.
VII. Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы к тексту.
1. What is the historic, the government part of London? Where do Londoners or visitors to London who are thinking of having a good time and can afford it usually go?
2. Where are the best London theatres, hotels, restaurants and most fashionable shops situated?
3. What is the working class area of London?
4. What is characteristic of the East End?
VIII. Поставьте вопросы к подчеркнутым словам (см. образец 4).
A few days ago I had to buy a present for my cousin.
The meeting will take place in two days.
Most of the customers prefer self-service supermarkets.
Контрольная работа 2
(1 курс, 2 семестр)
Условия успешного выполнения задания № 2
Для правильного выполнения данного контрольного задания необходимо усвоить следующие разделы курса английского языка по рекомендованному учебнику английского языка:
1. Видовременные формы глагола: Indefinite, Continuous, Perfect- Present, Past, Future.
2. Модальные глаголы can, may, must и их эквиваленты. To be able, to be allowed, to have to, to be to.3. Простые неличные формы глагола: Participle 1, Participle 2 и их функции.4. Определительные и дополнительные придаточные предложения: придаточные обстоятельственные предложения времени и условия.
5. Словообразование.
После изучения указанного материала приступайте к выполнению задания. Все предложения в упражнениях выполняются письменно. Используйте следующие образцы выполнения упражнений.
Образец выполнения 1 к упражнению 1
1. Pr. Sokolov is invited to deliver a course of lectures on economics at our University. Профессор Соколов приглашен читать курс лекций по экономике в нашем университете.
Is invited - от правильного глагола to invite, Present Indefinite Passive.
2. The English language lab is very well-equipped - Лаборатория английского языка очень хорошо оснащена.
Is equipped- от правильного глагола to equip, Present Indefinite Passive.
3. 1 have been to Moscow many times. Я был в Москве несколько раз.
Have been- от неправильного глагола to be, Present Perfect Active.Образец выполнения 2 к упр. 2
1. Students coming to Volgograd to study usually live in residential halls. Студенты, приезжающие в Волгоград учиться, обычно живут в общежитиях.
Coming-Participle 1, определение.
2. Last time the lecturer had no time to answer all the questions asked by students. Прошлый раз у лектора не было времени, чтобы ответить на все вопросы, заданные студентами.
Asked-Participle 2, определение.
3. This problem has not been discussed yet. Эту проблему пока не обсудили.
Has not been discussed- Participle2, часть глагола сказуемого в Present Perfect Passive от глагола to discuss
4. Attending this professor’s lectures we learned a lot of interesting facts about the work of the companies. Посещая лекции этого професора, мы узнавалили много интересных фактов по работе компаний.
Attending - Participle I, обстоятельство
Вариант 1
I. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них глагол - сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на особенности перевода пассивных конструкций (см. образец перевода 1.).
I am told she has done a great deal for him.
The traffic officer stopped the car and prevented a possible road accident.
When so much has been written about Strickland, it may seem unnecessary that I should write more.
The car driver did not obey the traffic rules and so he was fined by the traffic officer.
Mr. John's car is painted blue on one side and red on the other.
The road was blocked and we couldn't get to our office in time.
I was afraid you had forgotten me.
II. Перепишите следующие предложения. Подчеркните Participle 1, Participle 2 и установите функции каждого из них, т. е. укажите, является ли оно определением, обстоятельством или частью глагола сказуемого; предложения переведите на русский язык (см. образец 2).
The road is safe for crossing, but it is blocked for traffic.
Mr. N. was hurrying to his work when the policeman stopped him.
While reading certain traffic rules we learn a lot that make the roads safe.
Who is that man crossing the road where the traffic is heavy?
5. Through the open door came a low, groaning sound, being issued out of the dark mist which covered shore and sea alike.
III. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркнитев каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент; предложения переведите на русский язык.
As our meeting was to be held at 3 p. m. we had to finish our work earlier than usual.
You needn't go to the library; I shall bring all the necessary books for you.
He is very busy today, as he has to complete his work.
The building of Children's Theatre is to be completed in two years.
All citizens shall observe the laws.
Will they be allowed to pass examinations ahead of time?
IV. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните и определите вид придаточных предложений, переведите предложения на русский язык.
The book we spoke about is not mine.
You needn't waste time if you don't want to attend this concert.
Everybody knows that the friend in need is a friend indeed.
After the march for civil rights Martin Luther King was put into jail.
Those who live in the country like to go to a big city and spend their time visiting museums and art galleries, looking at shop windows and dining at exotic restaurants.
V. Прочтите и переведите на русский язык весь текст.Text
Economics is a social science studying economy. Why study economics? In fact, people do it for countless reasons. For many people concern for the economy goes no further than the price of tuition or the fear of losing a job. Many others, however, are becoming aware that their job prospects and the prices they pay are somehow related to national trends in prices, unemployment, and economic growth. Although few people think in terms of price indexes and graphs, most of us now recognize the importance of major economic events. And that's why so many people worry about such abstractions as unemployment rates, inflation, economic growth, etc.
Economics has deep routs in, and close ties to, social philosophy.
An issue of great importance to philosophers, for example, is distributional justice.Why are some people rich and others are poor? And, whatsoever the answer, is it fair? A number of nineteenth century social philosophers wrestled with these questions and out of their musings economics as a separate discipline was born.
As a scholarly discipline, economics is two centuries old. The first scientist who made extraordinary contributions in economics was Adam Smith.
Almost a century later, as capitalist enterprises began to spread, there appeared the massive critique of capitalism: Karl Marx's "Capital".
In 1936 John Maynard Keynes published 'The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money". Economics was supposed to help government monetary and fiscal policies to tame the worst ravages of business cycles.
What exactly is the subject that the economists from Smith to Marx to the present generation have analyzed?
Economics is the study of how societies use scarce resources to produce valuable commodities and distribute them among different people.
As you begin your study of economics, keep in mind that economics will teach you a new way of looking at the world. In some cases, you will find that the topics we discuss are completely unfamiliar to you. But most of the time you will be looking at things that you already know about from a different perspective. You will discover, for example, that the complex decisions of huge multinational corporations are based on some of the same principals that guide everyday choices like whether to take a day off or to stay up late studying.
VI. Прочтите еще раз весь текст и ответьте письменно на вопросы.
What is economics? What does it study?
Why do people study economics? Give your personal opinion.
Вариант 2
I. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них глагол - сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обратите внимание на особенности перевода пассивных конструкций (см. образец 1).
The problems of economy were discussed by all scientists, the press and the public.
He was reading when I went in soon after tea.
The plan of research work will be carried out by him in time.
While the bags were being brought he stood aside.
He had a streaming cold in the head and he was feeling rather ill.
I was shaken and frightened and didn’t trust myself and anyone.
She had raised her veil and he saw she had been crying.
II. Перепишите следующие предложения. Подчеркните Participle 1, Participle 2 и установите функции каждого из них, т. е. укажите, является ли оно определением, обстоятельством или частью глагола сказуемого, предложения переведите на русский язык (см. образец 2).
1. I kept silence for a while, thinking of what Stroeve had told me.
2. His last novel published a month ago is very popular with young people.
3. When asked I was glad to report about our scientific work at the meeting.
4. Sally saw the advertisement of a play being acted at the neighbouring town.
5. Gripping his bag, Manson leaped from the train and walked quickly down the platform/ searching eagerly for some sign of welcome.
III. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент, предложения переведите на русский язык.
1. I have left my textbook at home. May I have yours?
He will not be able to finish his work in time.
Does the dean receive students today? No, he doesn't. He is to receive students on Monday.
The case to be heard at the court on Friday is very interesting.
Yesterday my friend had to return home to take his notes for the seminar.
You needn't come here so early.
IV. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните и определите вид придаточных предложений, переведите предложения на русский язык.
The man that you want to see has just left.
We shall settle the matter after we discuss it.
As he ate the cottage pie that was his portion he felt Blodwen’s eye fastened on him.
If you stay in the library you will look through the latest magazines.
About an hour had passed when he heard the key softly turned, and the door opened
V. Прочтите и письменно переведите на русский язык весь текст.Market and Command Economies
Economics is a science that analyzes what, how, and for whom society produces. The central economic problem is to reconcile the conflict between people's unlimited demands with society's ability to produce goods and services.
In industrial Western countries markets are to allocate resources. The market is the process by which production and consumption are coordinated through prices.
In a command economy, a central planning office makes decisions on what, how, and for whom to produce. Economy cannot rely entirely on command, but there was extensive planning in many Soviet bloc countries.
A free market economy has no government intervention. Resources are allocated entirely through markets.
Modern economies in the West are mixed and rely mainly on the market but with a large dose of government intervention. The optimal level of government intervention remains a problem which is of interest to economists.
The degree of government restrictions differs greatly between countries that have command economies and countries that have free market economies. In the former, resources are allocated by central government planning. In the latter, there is not any government regulation of the consumption, production, and exchange of goods. Between the two main types lies the mixed economy where market and government are both of importance.
VI. Прочтите весь текст еще раз и ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы.
What is the central economic problem of a society?
What is the market?
In what way does a free market economy differ from a command economy?
Вариант 3
I. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них глагол - сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обратите внимание на особенности перевода пассивных конструкций (см. образец 1).
I wondered where Mrs Maudsley was.
Washington, the capital of the United States of America, was named after the first President of the United States.
He is coming here tomorrow morning.
He UN emerged when World War II was coming to its final stage.
5.I have never seen her confused before.
It was not going to be so simple as he had expected.
Are you sure you have omitted nothing?
II. Перепишите следующие предложения. Подчеркните Participle 1, Participle 2 и установите функции каждого из них, т. е. укажите, является ли оно определением, обстоятельством или частью глагола - сказуемого, предложения переведите на русский язык (см. образец 2).
Do you know the professor delivering lectures in the history of economics?
A moment later the other sailor climbed beside him, then both stood idly smoking and talking.
I was sitting in the café, reading a newspaper.
He has heard some interesting news today.
Waking as the sun crept over his pillow, he yawned, sat up and perceived that another day had arrived.
III. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркнитев каждом из них модальный глагол и его эквивалент, предложения переведите на русский язык.
Will you be able to spend the coming vocation in Moscow? I hope I will.
One must read much to know the language well.
You will have to pay for the newspaper.
We were unable to do that work.
I cannot answer your questions because I don't know the meaning of these words.
You must repeat the modal verbs to know this grammar material well.
The students are not allowed to use any dictionaries doing the test.
IV. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркнитеи определите вид придаточных предложений, переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. The house they live in is on the other side of the street.
When we want to tell other people what we think, we can do it in many ways.
If he affected her at all, it was inevitable that she should love or hate him.
We know that the more we study and read the more we understand English.
When I reached London I found waiting for me an urgent request that I should go to Mrs Strickland’s as soon after dinner as I could.
V. Прочтите и переведите на русский язык весь текст письменно.MICROECONOMICS AND MACROECONOMICS
Most students taking economics for the first time are surprised by the breadth of what they study. Some think that economics will teach them about the stock market and what to do with their money. Others think that economics deals exclusively with problems like inflation and unemployment. In fact, it deals with all these subjects. But they are peaces of a much larger puzzle.
The easiest way to get a feel for the breadth and depth of what you will be studying is to explore briefly the way economics is organized. First of all, here are two major divisions of economics: microeconomics and macroeconomics.
Microeconomics deals with the functioning of individual industries and the behavior of individual economic decision-making units1: single business firms2 and households. Microeconomics explores the decisions that individual business and consumers make. The choices of a firm about what to produce and how much to charge and the choices of households about what to buy and how much of it to buy help to explain why the economy produces the things it does. Another big question that microeconomics deals with is who gets the things that are produced. Wealthy households get more output than do poor households, and the forces that determine this distribution of output are the province of microeconomics.
Macroeconomics, in its turn, deals with the functioning of national economic complex and behavior of the main classes and social groups.
VI. Прочтите еще раз весь текст и ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы.
What are the two major divisions of economics?
What does microeconomics deal with?
What does macroeconomics deal with?
Вариант 4
I. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них глагол - сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обратите внимание на особенности перевода пассивных конструкций (см. образец 1):
We can also classify branches of economics according to the approach or methodology that is used.
He turned his head slowly and looked at her.
The women throughout the world are opposing war and are actively working for peace and justice.
The principles of equality, sovereignty and self - determination are being supported by all people interested in peace.
I‘ve known that little girl since she was a tiny child.
He’s been spending the summer down here for his health.
I hope you don’t mind that you are not invited.
II. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните Participle I, Participle II и установите функции каждого из них, т. е. укажите, является ли оно определением, обстоятельством или частью глагола - сказуемого; предложения переведите на русский язык (см. образец 2).
While working at one of the enterprises of our city my friend is a part-time student of our University at the same time.
I found the room furnished with a Spartan simplicity.
But a week later, feeling himself betrayed, hysterical and in terror, Herbert betrayed his wife.
Being very tired I couldn't help him.
Sam looked up relieved. Dear Old Bates was standing in the lighted doorway.
III. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент; предложения переведите на русский язык.
We cannot translate the text without a dictionary because it is a very difficult text.
You speak so loudly that 1 am unable to understand you.
He was not allowed to take books from the University library.
Shall I have to come again?
You needn't hurry; the train is to start only in fifteen minutes.
6. The students must study hard in order to become good specialists.
IV. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните и определите вид придаточных предложений, переведите предложения на русский язык.
Thank you very much for the present you bought for me.
Bateman proposed that he himself should go instead of the manager who had been suggested.
When autumn comes we shall return to our routine: to our work and study.
Evidently she was afraid lest her child should get into trouble.
It’s rather strange that the information he has asked for should reach him three days later.
V. Прочтите и переведите на русский язык весь текст письменно.Microeconomic analysis offers a detailed treatment of individual decisions about particular commodities. Microeconomists tend to offer a detailed treatment of one aspect of economic behaviour, but ignore interactions with the rest of the economy in order to preserve the simplicity of the analysis. A microeconomic analysis of miners' wages would emphasise the characteristics of miners and the ability of mine owners pay. It would largely neglect the chain of indirect effects to which a rise in miners’ wages might give rise. For example, car workers might use the precedent the miners' pay increase to secure higher wages in the car industry, thus being able to afford larger houses, which burned more coal in heating systems. When microeconomic analysis ignores such indirectly induced effects it is said to be partial analysis.
Macroeconomics emphasizes the interactions in the economy as a whole. For example, macroeconomists typically do not worry about the breakdown of consumer goods into cars, bicycles, televisions, and calculators. They prefer to treat them all as a single bundle called "consumer goods" because they are more interested in studying the interaction between households' purchases of consumer goods and firms' decisions about purchases of machinery and buildings.
VI. Прочтите еще раз текст и письменно ответьте на вопросы.
What does microeconomics do?
What do most microeconomists leave out of their analysis?
What does macroeconomics do?
Контрольная работа З(2 курс, 1 семестр)
Условия успешного выполнения контрольного задания № 3
Для того, чтобы правильно выполнить задание 3, необходимо усвоить следующие разделы курса английского языка по рекомендованному учебнику:
Функции и значение слов it, that, since. Выделение отдельных членов предложения при помощи оборота it is (was). . . that (who). Заменители существительного that (those), one (ones).
Пассивные формы (Passive Voice) в трех временах всех групп Indefinite, Continious, Perfect.
Функции глаголов to be, to have, to do.
4.Инфинитив в функции подлежащего, определения, дополнения и обстоятельства цели.
5.Согласование времен. Бессоюзное подчинение.
Образец выполнения к упражнению 1
1. Many goods and services (to buy) by the government. - Many goods and services were bought by the government. Многие товары и услуги покупались правительством.Were bought - Past Indefinite, Passive Voice.
2.The form of the government of the USA (to base) on the Constitution in 1787. - The form of the government of the USA is based on the Constitution in 1787. Форма правления США основана на Конституции, принятой в 1787.
Is based - Present Indefinite, PassiveVoice.
Образец выполнения к упражнению 2
1. Paris was the centre of the fashion world, and everyone else here (to try) to copy the top French designers. - Paris was the centre of the fashion world, and everyone else here tried to copy the top French designers. Париж был центром мировой моды, и все пытались копировать модели лучших французских дизайнеров.
Tried-Past Simple, Active Voice
Образец выполнения к упражнению 3
1. Most people go down to their nearest shopping street to buy something from a “chain “ store.- Многие люди идут на ближайшую улицу оживленной торговли, чтобы купить что-нибудь в сетевом магазине.
To buy - инфинитив цели
Вариант 1
I. Перепишите следующие предложения, поставьте глагол в скобках в необходимую видовременную формую. Переведите предложения на русский язык (см. образец выполнения 1).
You ever (to have) any serious illness?
I (to listen) to you for the past half an hour, but I can’t understand what you (to speak) about.
The door (to unlock). She (to wonder) who (to leave) the door open.
When there (to be) a harvest failure, the producers' supply (to decrease).
When I (to be) little, my mother (to use) to feed me.
II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, учитывая разные значения слов "it, that, one, as, for".
It was so hot that I couldn’t sleep/
It's easy to be brave from a safe distance.
One must take part in scientific work.
The investigator was working in the laboratory for four hours.
As the Moon moves, it seems to change shape.
III. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, обращая внимание на перевод конструкции it is (was). . . that (who).
It is the young man who was accused of violating public order.
It is the University that trained highly qualified specialists in economics.
IV. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, имея в виду различные значения to be, to have, to do.
We have two ears and only one tongue in order that we may hear more and speak less.
We have to be at the meeting this afternoon.
He isn’t so clever as I believed him to be.
Our task is to finish this work in time.
How far do we have the capability to produce the needed product?
It was obvious that nobody intended to do anything.
It is getting cold.
V. Перепишите следующие предложения, поставьте глагол в скобках в нужную видовременную форму, учитывая закон согласования времен и бессоюзное подчинение, и переведите их. (см.образец выполнения 2).
The man told me that he (to graduate from) theUniversity in four years.
He said that it (to be) difficult to deal with these off-shore companies.
The teacher thought the students of the group (to be able to) understand a new text.
Ann asked her friends what colour they (to be going) (to paint) the living room.
Could you tell me why you (to look) so upset.
VI.Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, обращая внимание на функцию инфинитива. (см. образец выполнения 3).
1. Sometimes we know how to gain a victory but seldom how to use it.
2. To be or not to be – that is the question.
3. It’s wrong to look down on those who are less fortunate than ourselves.
4. I like to walk out and look at the stars at night.
5. Long ago people used only their eyes to look at the Moon.
VII. Прочитайте и переведите весь текст письменно. Составьте краткую аннотацию к тексту.
If you want to market your product abroad for the first time you will find the task difficult. The international market is highly competitive, with very many manufacturers chasing the same customers.
It is very difficult to take business away from current suppliers. To be successful, the newcomer must have a compelling offer to make the customer switch to his product.
In business and industrial marketing, there are three compelling things: price, function and source.
Price. A lower price can be a tie-breaker. A substantially lower price can be compelling offer. But it does not mean that the order always goes to the lower bidder. The product must always satisfy the function.
Function. The product must always perform the function for which it is intended and meet quality standards. However, in a world of rapid technological development customers are always looking for new products that do the job better, faster, more efficiently.
Source. A company’s reputation for quality and reliability of delivery are increasingly important. Quality and timely delivery are essential to customers.
Purchasing people are primarily interested in price. Engineers are primarily interested in functions. Management is interested in source. Marketing communications, therefore, must be on three levels: our prices are competitive, our products are good or superior, our company is dependable. Each message must be targeted for the right audience and efficiently delivered through the right channel.
Articles and advertising in technical and professional publications, trade shows and exhibitions, seminars and symposia, technical and product bulletins – all are the basic tools of the industrial marketer. The extensive use of advertising builds in the minds of consumers the company’s image for quality.
VIII. Переведите письмо, ответьте на него по-английски.
Dear Sirs,
We have learnt that you are producing for export hand-made shoes and gloves in pure hide and other natural materials. There is a steady demand here for high - class goods of this type, especially, in the brighter colours. Sales are not high, but a good price can be obtained for fashionable design. Will you please send us your catalogue and full details of your export prices and terms of payment, together with any samples you can let us have.
We look forward to hearing from you.
Yours faithfully.Вариант 2
I. Перепишите следующие предложения, поставьте глагол в скобках в необходимую видо-временную формую. Переведите предложения на русский язык (см. образец выполнения 1).
1. The workers (to be) on a strike for three weeks when the agreement on pay (to reach).
2. He (to drive) to work for half an hour when suddenly his car (to break down).
Yesterday afternoon it still (to rain) when I (to get) home.
Jane’s clothes (to be) wet. She (to wash) her dog.
Hardly we (to go) to bed when somebody (to knock) at the door.
II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, учитывая разные значения слов "It, that, one, as, for since".
Since that man is a specialist in that branch of management it is necessary to learn his opinion on that subject.
It’s very hot in the daytime on the Moon. It appears to have no life.
He works as a company official in one of the committees.
A telescope was invented. Since then, people have used telescopes to study the Moon.
Tonight’s concert will be put off till next week, as one of the singers has hurt his throat.
III. Перепишите предложения и переведите их, обращая внимание на перевод конструкций "it is (was). . . that (who).
It is the shareholders that vote for the board of directors.
It was the book that you must take from the library.
IV. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, имея в виду различные значения to be, to have, to do.
I don’t want there to be any misunderstanding.
I think you should have told them you were angry.
There is no doubt that he is a good dealer.
They haven't met since their schooldays.
He has to stay in town for two days.
You are to discuss his paper in details.
Do you think Tom works harder than Jerry?
V. Перепишите следующие предложения, поставьте глагол в скобках в нужную видовременную форму, учитывая закон согласования времен и бессоюзное подчинение, и переведите их (см. образец выполнения 2).I knew she (to be determined) to move ahead in business career.
At last he sold all the goods and we (to be) free.
He said that he (to study) this subject at the university.
We were told that our parents (to come back) on Saturday.
The customs officer asked Dan if he (to have got) anything to declare.
VI. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, обращая внимание на функцию инфинитива. (см. образец выполнения 3).
Some people live to work, others work to live.
Old wood is best to burn, old wine to drink, old friends to trust, and old authors to read.
Many people wanted to learn more about the Moon.
Every doctor has a nurse to help him.
Do you know how to put up a tent.VII. Прочитайте и переведите весь текст письменно. Дайте краткую аннотацию к тексту.
NATURE OF MANAGERIAL WORK
In for-profit work, management has as its primary function the satisfaction of a range of interested parties. This typically involves making a profit (for the shareholders), creating products at a reasonable price (for customers), and providing rewarding employment opportunities (for employees). In nonprofit management, the importance of keeping the faith of donors is added. In most models of management, shareholders vote for the board of directors, and the board then hires senior management.
The management of a large organisation may have three levels:
Senior management (or "top management" or "upper management")
Middle management
Low-level management, such as supervisors or team-leaders.
Management operates through various functions, often classified as planning, organizing, leading/motivating and controlling.
Planning: deciding what needs to happen in the future (today, next week, next month, next year, over the next five years, etc.) and generating plans for action.
Organizing: making optimum use of the resources required to enable the successful carrying out of plans.
Leading/Motivating: exhibiting skills in these areas for getting others to play an effective part in achieving plans.
Controlling: monitoring - checking progress against plans, which may need modification based on feedback.
Public, private, and voluntary sectors place different demands on managers, but all must retain the faith of those who select them (if they wish to retain their jobs), retain the faith of those people that fund the organization, and retain the faith of those who work for the organization. If they fail to convince employees of the advantages of staying rather than leaving, they may tip the organization into a downward spiral of hiring, training, firing, and recruiting. Management also has the task of innovating and of improving the functioning of organizations.
VIII. Переведите и ответьте на письмо по-английски.
Dear Sirs,
An enquiry has come in from a company owing several high-class hotels and our country. They are opening a new hotel and have asked us to submit quotations for furniture and equipment in accordance with the attached list.
The furniture and equipment must be up-to-date design, and it would have to be delivered in time for opening of the hotel in October. Will you please let us know, therefore, whether you have the goods in stock and if not, how long it takes to complete an order for quantities required. We shall also be glad to have an estimate of the number of cases required and the cost of packing.
We look forward to your reply.
Yours faithfully.Вариант 3
I. Перепишите следующие предложения, поставьте глагол в скобках в необходимую видовременную формую. Переведите предложения на русский язык (см. образец выполнения 1).
1 .Susan (to type) some letters when the boss (to ask) her into his office.
2. She (to look) tired. She (to type) letters all morning.
3. When we (to meet) our friends they already (to know) the news.
4. What you (to do) when I (to phone) you yesterday?
5. He (to feel) sick because he (to eat) too much.
II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, учитывая разные значения слов "it, that, one, as, for".
One must learn new words before reading the text.
This investigation is of great importance for the development of our science as the one mentioned above.
This article is as interesting as that one.
Could you help me to look for my glasses?
It is necessary for me to decide it for myself; nobody can help me in this matter.
III.Перепишите предложения и переведите их, обращая внимание на перевод конструкций it is was). . . that (who).
It is the company that wants to be successful in the foreign market.
It is the Board of directors that determines the strategy of the company.
IV. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, имея в виду различные значения to be, to have, to do.
These magazines are published weekly.
I went to the swimming - pool and so did my friend.
You can stay out late if you like. You don’t have to come home early.
The British Sovereign is to visit Japan next year.
Unemployment benefit systems don’t vary considerably from country to country.
Cheques can be accepted only with a bank card.
Do you know how it shoud be done?
V. Перепишите следующие предложения, поставьте глагол в скобках в нужную видовременную форму, учитывая закон согласования времен и бессоюзное подчинение, переведите их (см.образец выполнения 2).I don’t know why they (not to keep) their promise to take us with them.
They thought he (to be back) in a minute
The director approved the method they (to adopt).
Didn’t you know they (to leave) for London?
He asked me whether I (to go back) there the following year.
VI. Перепишите предложения и переведите их, обращая внимание на функцию инфинитива. (см. образец выполнения 3).
It is better to have a little than nothing. /Syrys P. /
A man is never too old to learn. /Middleton. /
Kate came from Russia to visit Jack.
To begin skateboarding, put one foot on the skateboard and push forward with the other foot.
A bump between the nose and forehead is said to be present in people who have natural elegance and love of beauty.
VII. Прочитайте и переведите весь текст письменно. Составьте краткую аннотацию к тексту.
In most economies government revenues come mainly from direct taxes on personal incomes and company profits as well as indirect taxes levied on purchase of goods and services such as value added tax (VAT) and sales tax. Since state provision of retirement pensions is included in government expenditure, pension contributions to state-run social security funds are included in revenue, too. Some small component of government spending is financed through government borrowing.
Government spending comprises spending on goods and services and transfer payments.
Governments mostly pay for public goods, that is, those goods that, even if they are consumed by one person, can still be consumed by other people. Clean air, national defense, health service are examples of public goods. Governments also provide such services as police, fire-fighting and the administration of justice.
A transfer is a payment, usually by the government, for which no corresponding service is provided in return. Examples are social security, retirement pensions, unemployment benefits and, in some countries, food stamps.
VIII. Переведите и ответьте на письмо по-английски.
Dear Sirs,
We have received your quotations of 1 February and the samples of men' s suiting we asked for, and thank you for these. While we appreciate the good quality of your products, we find the prices of these materials rather high for the market we supply, as materials of this type are exported by European manufacturers at prices from 10% to 15% below yours. Your prices make it impossible for us to complete on the market. We would like to place our order with you, but must ask you to reduce your prices if possible.
Yours faithfully.Вариант 4
I. Перепишите следующие предложения, поставьте глагол в скобках в необходимую видовременную формую. Переведите предложения на русский язык (см. образец выполнения 1).
1. I (not to have) my watch so I (not to know) the time.
2. After the stewardesses (to serve) lunch to passengers, they (to calm down).
3. Jerry (to be) very nervous, for he never (to fly) in an aeroplane before.
4. He (to play) football when the ball (to hit) his head.
5. He (to clean) the car when the phone (to ring), so he (not to answer).
II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, учитывая разные значения слов "it, that, one, as, for. "One must choose a profession one likes.
Where have you been? We have been waiting for you for half a day!?
As you have worked all night, you must have a rest.
The colour of silver is grey, that of gold is yellow.
You must close the window for it is rather cold.
III. Перепишите предложения и переведите их, обращая внимание на перевод конструкций it is (was)... that (who).
I was the last who expressed opinion on the problem discussed at our classes.
It was in 1945 on the 24 of October that the Charter of the United Nations was ratified.
IV. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, имея в виду различные значения to be, to have, to do.
1. Actually most snakes are harmless, and some do a great deal of good by eating such animals as field mice and rats.
2. Have you ever thought that a person’s appearance reveals more than we realise?
3. We can see the Moon only if the lighted part is turned to the Earth.
4. He had to telephone to hospital to find out what the doctor had told his wife.
5. I’d like the letter to be sent at once.
6. When don't national currencies serve as units of account?
7. The situation seems to be changing.
V. Перепишите следующие предложения, поставьте глагол в скобках в нужную видовременную форму, учитывая закон согласования времен и бессоюзное подчинение. и переведите их (см. образец выполнения 2).
1. They thought you (to speak) English well.
2. Do you know if Jane (to receive) a letter from her American pen-pal?
3. I was sorry I (can’t meet) her after classes.
4. I had no idea whose book it (to be).
5. Nick promised Jane that he (to write) to her as soon as he (to arrive).
VI. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, обращая внимание на функцию инфинитива. (см. образец выполнения 3).
It is usually convenient to make money the unit of account and standard of deferred payment.
Once in 5 years the Parliament has to be dissolved and general election has to take place.
To manage modern machines workers must be educated.
I hope to be sent to the conference.
Children like to invent things and test them.
VII. Прочитайте и переведите весь текст письменно. Составьте краткую аннотацию к тексту.
Money has four functions: a medium of exchange or means of payment, a store of value, a unit of account and a standard of deferred payment. When used as a medium of exchange, money is considered to be distinguished from other assets.
Money as the medium of exchange is believed to be used in one half of almost all exchange. Workers exchange labor for money, people buy or sell goods in exchange for money as well.
People do not accept money to consume it directly but because it can subsequently be used to buy things, they wish to consume. To see the advantages of a medium of exchange, imagine a barter economy, that is, an economy having no medium of exchange. Goods are traded directly or swapped for other goods. The seller and the buyer each must want something the other has to offer. Trading is very expensive. People spend a lot of time and effort finding others with whom they can make swaps. Nowadays, there exist actually no purely barter economies, but economies nearer to or farther from the barter type. The closer is the economy to the barter type, the more wasteful it is.
VIII. Переведите письмо, ответьте на него по-английски.
Dear Sirs,
We have seen samples of Irish wine glasses at a trade fair and would like to import a large quantity of them. However, you have heard the manufacturer in question tends to pack his products rather carelessly, with the results that consignment often includes large number of broken glass.
Send an order to the Irish giving detailed instruction as how the goods are to be packed and the containers marked: to wrap each item separately in paper, to limit the weight of any one carton to 5 kg., to mark all cartons "fragile".
We look forward to your reply.
Yours faithfully.Контрольная работа 4
(2 курс, 2 семестр)
Условия успешного выполнения контрольного задания № 4
Для того, чтобы правильно выполнить задание, необходимо усвоить следующие разделы курса английского языка по рекомендованному учебнику:
1.Основные сведенрш о сослагательном наклонении, условные предложения трех типов.
Сложные формы Infinitive and Participle.
Обороты, равнозначные придаточным предложениям: объектный инфинитивный оборот (Complex Object), субъектный инфинитивный оборот (Complex Subject), независимый причастный оборот (The Absolute Participle Construction), герундиальный оборот (The Gerund Construction).
Используйте следующие образцы выполнения упражнений:
Образец выполнения к упражнению 1
l. The material to be used has been carefully examined. Вещество, которое будет применяться, тщательно исследовано.
We want the material to be examined in our laboratory. Мы хотим, чтобы это вещество было исследовано в нашей лаборатории.
The material is said to have been examined in our laboratory. Говорят, что вещество было тщательно исследовано в нашей лаборатории.
Образец выполнения к упражнению 2
1. Having finished the test the students wrote down the results. Закончив испытание, студенты записали результаты.
2. The test having been finished the students wrote down the results. После того, как испытание было закончено, студенты записали результаты.
Вариант 1
I. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения, принимая во внимание, что инфинитив в функции определения и особенно объектный и субъектный инфинитивные обороты большей частью соответствуют придаточным предложениям (см. образец выполнения 1).
History is known to inform us what bad government is.
The plan proved to be a great success.
The conference to be held in a few months will consider various ways of establishing the contact among scientists of different countries.
We suppose the calculations to be completed in a month.
The manager asked for the letter to be sent off at once.
II. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения, учитывая различия в переводе зависимого и независимого причастного оборота (см. образец выполнения 2).
Having been translated into many languages, the book became known all over the world.
The investigator being very experienced, the investigation didn't last long.
The lesson having been over, the students left the class.
She didn’t return with us, having been asked to a supper party.
When Ashendon, having warmly shaken their hands, closed the door behind the pair he heaved a great sigh of relief.
III. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения, учитывая разные возможности передачи герундия и герундиальных оборотов на русский язык.
1. Serving as a medium of exchange is presumed to have for centuries been an essential function of money.
2. The higher the inflation rate is, the greater the probability of introducing a temporary unit of account alongside the existing units for measuring medium of exchange is.
3. Though recently introduced, Euro can be used for purchasing by credit cards and travellers' cheques nowadays.
4. You remember saying to me once that there wasn’t anything in the world you wouldn’t do for me.
5. After carefully examining the room several times I returned my attentionto the mountain.
IV. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие сложные предложения, содержащие придаточные предложения условия.
1. Goods would actually be more expensive if the means of payment were different from the units of account.
2. What measures would a seller take if money did not fulfil its function as a store of value properly?
3. If I had put it into words all I think I should have said nothing.
V. Прочитайте и переведите весь текст письменно. Дайте краткую аннотацию к тексту.
Serving as a medium of exchange is presumed to have for centuries been an essential function of money.
The unit of account is the unit in which prices are quoted and accounts are kept. In Britain, for instance, prices are quoted in pounds sterling; in France, in French francs. It is usually convenient to use the same unit to measure the medium of exchange as well as to quote prices and keep accounts in. However, there may be exceptions. During the rapid German inflation of 1922-23 when prices in marks were changing very quickly, German shopkeepers found it more convenient to use US dollars as the unit of account. Prices were quoted in dollars though payment was made in marks. The same goes for Russia and other post-communist economies who used the US dollar as a unit of account, keeping their national currencies as means of actual payment. The higher is the inflation rate, the greater is the probability of introducing a temporary unit of account alongside the existing units for measuring medium of exchange.
Money is a store of value, for it can be used to make purchases in future. For money to be accepted in exchange, it has to be a store of value. Unless suitable for buying goods with tomorrow, money will not be accepted as payments for the goods supplied today. But money is neither the only nor necessarily the best store of value. Houses, stamp collections, and interest-bearing bank accounts all serve as stores of value.
VI. Переведите письмо, ответьте на него письменно.
Dear Sirs,
We are producers of tinned food products to an importer overseas. We offer our standard lines and our new product (tinned bilberry juice). We can guarantee delivery in within 3 weeks of receiving your order. Please, place your order promptly as we expect considerable response from other foreign customers to their special offer. We look forward to your reply.
Yours faithfully.Вариант 2
I. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие пред ложения, принимая во внимание, что инфинитив в функции определения и особенно объектный и субъектный инфинитивные обороты большей частью соответствуют придаточным предложениям (см. образец выполнения 1).
1. Some demonstrators are reported to have been arrested by the police.
2. The plan to be discussed will greatly affect our methods of producing these products.
3. The delegation is likely to arrive in a day.
4. My father likes dinner to be in time.
5. We wanted our teacher to explain this rule once more.
II. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения, учитывая различия в переводе зависимого и независимого причастного оборота (см. образец выполнения 2).
Having built up savings during their working life, they often put their money into bonds to ensure income during old age.
The translation having been written the teacher began to correct it.
He started the motor and drove off, waving gaily, to go towards his parents’ house.
Having tried various topics of conversation, I asked her to tell me who all the people at table were.
I stood on the highest hill looking into the sky as if searching for some answer.
III. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения, учитывая разные возможности передачи герундия и герундиальных оборотов на русский язык.
Not all executive officers are equally skilled at running the business.
Riches are for spending. /Bacon F. /
Making decisions is an important function of management.
She was not asked to being kept waiting.
I have only just discovered that I cannot bear being watched doing anything so badly.
IV. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие сложные предложения, содержащие придаточные предложения условия.
1. They would have lost out if they had kept their money in non-interest-bearing accounts or under the bed.
2. If technical progress and productivity increase, each generation will have a higher living standard than the previous generation.
3. If he had wanted to do it, I suppose it could have been done.
V. Прочитайте и переведите весь текст письменно. Дайте краткую аннотацию к тексту.
Inflation is a steady rise in the average price and wage level. The rise in wages being high enough to raise costs of production, prices grow further resulting in a higher rate of inflation and, finally, in an inflationary spiral. Periods when inflation rates are very large are referred to as1 hyperinflation.
The causes of inflation are rather complicated, and there is a number of theories explaining them. Monetarists, such as Milton Friedman, say that inflation is caused by too rapid increase in money supply and the corresponding excess demand for goods.
Therefore, monetarists consider due government control of money supply to be able to restrict inflation rates. They also believe the high rate of unemployment to be likely to restrain claims for higher wages. People having jobs accept the wages they are being paid, the inflationary spiral being kept under control. This situation also accounts for rather slow increase in aggregate demand.
On the other hand, Keynesians, that is, economists following the theory of John M. Keynes, suppose inflation to be due to processes occurring in money circulation. They say that low inflation and unemployment rates can be ensured by adopting a tight incomes policy.
VI. Переведите и ответьте на письмо по-английски.
Dear Sirs,
Three weeks ago we reminded you of the outstanding balance in our favour of $3, 750. According to our records, you have yet settled the account.
Please give the matter your immediate attention and let us have your payment by 15 th March.
Very truly yours.Вариант 3
I. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения, принимая во внимание, что инфинитив в функции определения и особенно объектный и субъектный инфинитивные обороты большей частью соответствуют придаточным предложениям (см. образец выполнения 1).
I expect him to translate this interesting detective novel in a month.
The poem to be recited was written by Robert Burns.
July 4 is considered to be the National Holiday of the United States (Independence Day).
I want you to go to the library yourself and find what you need.
Seeing her enter the room everybody stood to greet her.
II. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения, учитывая различия в переводе зависимого и независимого причастного оборота (см. образец выполнения 2).
Having solved many scientific and technical problems, our scientists, engineers and workers could launch the first spaceship.
There being no more problems the chairman closed the conference.
Governments thinking that tight monetary policies are desirable, these policies may mean higher unemployment and lower output.
She walked down the aisle, not changing her expression, and went to the tail of the plane and sat down there.
I kept silence for a little while, thinking of what Stroeve had told me.
III. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения, учитывая разные возможности передачи герундия и герундиальных оборотов на русский язык.
1. Combating the financial crisis is a complex task uniting efforts at the national and international levels.
2. I am proud of being a student of the University.
3. Reading English newspapers is a good way of learning new words and expressions.
4. We happened then to cross the street and the traffic prevented us from speaking.
5. I do apologise for not having changed, but I was terrified of being late.
IV. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие сложные предложения, содержащие придаточные предложения условия.
If there were no international law it would be difficult to regulate the relations between states.
If international law could not influence the course of international relations, it would have lost its significance.
If you knew how lonely I was and how unhappy, you would have a little mercy.
V. Прочитайте и переведите весь текст письменно. Дайте краткую аннотацию к тексту.
In practice, many of the people who have money in banks are the old. Having built up savings during their working life, they often put their money into bonds to ensure income during old age. These people lose out when there is unexpected inflation and the real value of the bonds falls. They also lose out if they are keeping what they have in non-interest-bearing accounts or under the bed.
The young, and especially those just entering middle age, often take out a large mortgage to move onto a large house and bring up a family. Having borrowed a fixed sum to buy a house, they profit when unexpected inflation increase house prices and income without a corresponding increase in the sum they must repay to the bank or building society.
Unexpected inflation redistributes from the old to the young. With technical progress and productivity increase, each generation is likely to have a higher living standard than the previous generation. Further redistribution from the old to the young increases the inequality between generations.
VI. Переведите и ответьте на письмо по-английски.
Dear Sirs,
Six members of our staff will be coming to London on business from 28 th of May to 1st of June. Would you therefore please reserve the following accommodations for five nights:2 single rooms
2 double rooms for bed and breakfast
As my wife will be joining me in London on Saturday, 2 nd June, I shall need 1 double room with bed and breakfast for this date. Please bill this accomodation to me at my private address as above.
Please confirm this booking.
Yours faithfully.Вариант 4
I. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения, принимая во внимание, что инфинитив в функции определения и, особенно, объектный и субъектный инфинитивные обороты большей частью соответствуют придаточным предложениям (см. образец выполнения 1).
1. Economics is said to be based on the concept of surplus value.
2. We consider education to be one of the main methods in fighting poverty.
3. The problem to be considered at our conference on Monday is very interesting.
4. Economy is certain to operate as an important factor in consolidating the existing social relations.
5. He ordered the documents to be checked carefully.
II. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения, учитывая различия в переводе зависимого и независимого причастного оборота (см. образец выполнения 2).
1. The sun having risen, they continued their way.
2. The issues won’t be considered in detail at the present session, the press having the right to be present.
3. The goods having been unloaded, the workers left the port.
4. One evening in the following spring. Apothecary Hay, having shut up his shop, took his customary stroll towards the road.
5. Three nights later, Theresa having announced that she would be out for the evening, Quigly arranged to have dinner with his mother.
III. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения, учитывая разные возможности передачи герундия и герундиальных оборотов на русский язык.
1. On receiving the answer of the firm, we handed all the documents to our legal adviser.
He is proud of having won the first place at the contest.
Raising funds is frequently the simplest phase of setting up a business.
Victoria displayed a distinct pleasure at being allowed to tell her story.
When I had asked him what first gave him the idea of being a painter, he was unable or unwilling to tell me.
IV.Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие сложные предложения, содержащие придаточные предложения условия.1. If there were no international law it would be difficult to regulate the relations between businesses.
2. When they take economics for the first time most students are surprised by the breadth of what they study.
3. I think if I had ever lived in such a beautiful place, I should never have the courage to leave it!
V. Прочитайте и переведите весь текст письменно. Дайте краткую аннотацию к тексту.
Demand is the quantity of a good that buyers wish to buy at each price. Other things equal, at low prices the demanded quantity is higher.
Supply is the quantity of a good that sellers wish to sell at each price. Other things equal, when prices are high, the supplied quantity is high as well.
The market is in equilibrium when the price regulates the quantity supplied by producers and the quantity demanded by consumers. When prices are not so high as the equilibrium price, there is excess demand (shortage) raising the price. At prices above the equilibrium price, there is excess supply (surplus) reducing the price.
There are some factors influencing demand for a good, such as the prices of other goods, consumer incomes and some others.
An increase in the price of a substitute good (or a decrease in the price of a complement good) will at the same time raise the demanded quantity.
As consumer income is increased, demand for a normal good will also increase but demand for an inferior good will decrease. A normal good is a good for which demand increases when incomes rise. An inferior good is a good for which demand falls when incomes rise.
As to supply, some factors are assumed as constant. Among them are technology, the input price, as well as degree of government regulation. An improvement in technology is as important for increasing the supplied quantity of a good as a reduction in input prices.
Government regulates demand and supply, imposing ceiling prices (maximum prices) and floor prices (minimum prices) and adding its own demand to the demand of the private sector.
VI. Переведите и ответьте на письмо по-английски.
Gentlemen:
We saw your women's dresses and suits at the London Fashion Show held in New York on October l7. The lines you showed for teenagers, the 'Swinger' dresses and trouser suits, would be most suitable for our market.
Would you kindly send us your quotation for spring and summer clothing that you could supply to us by the end of January.We would require 2,000 dresses and suits in each of the sizes 10-14, and 500 in sizes 8 and 16. Please quote с i. f.Chicago prices. Payment is normally made by letter of credit.
Thank you for an early reply.
Very truly yours.СОДЕРЖАНИЕ
Предисловие
Контрольная работа №1
Выполнение и оформление контрольного задания
Условия успешного выполнения контрольного задания №1
Образец выполнения 1
Образец выполнения 2
Образец выполнения 3
Образец выполнения 4
Вариант 1
Вариант 2
Вариант 3
Вариант 4
Контрольная работа №2
Выполнение и оформление контрольного задания Условия успешного выполнения контрольного задания №2
Образец выполнения 1
Образец выполнения 2
Вариант 1
Вариант 2
Вариант 3
Вариант 4
Контрольная работа № 3
Выполнение и оформление контрольного задания
Условия успешного выполнения контрольного задания №3
Образец выполнения 1
Образец выполнения 2
Образец выполнения 3
Вариант 1
Вариант 2
Вариант 3
Вариант 4
Контрольная работа № 4
Выполнение и оформление контрольного задания №4
Условия успешного выполнения контрольного задания №4
Образец выполнения 1
Образец выполнения 2
Вариант 1
Вариант 2
Вариант 3
Вариант 4 3
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Составитель: Татьяна Владимировна Сорокина
Методические указания
и контрольные задания
по английскому языку
для студентов заочной формы обучения
(направления подготовки «Экономика», «Менеджмент»)
Методические указания
Под редакцией авторов
Темплан 2016 г., поз. № 19К.
Подписано в печать 00.00.2016 г. Формат 60×84 1/16.
Бумага листовая. Печать офсетная.
Усл. печ. л. 3,5. Уч.-изд. л. 3,31.
Тираж 30 экз. Заказ №
Волгоградский государственный технический университет
400005, г. Волгоград, пр. Ленина, 28, корп. 1.
Отпечатано в КТИ
403874, г. Камышин, ул. Ленина, 5.

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