Пособие для магистрантов 2017


МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ
Федеральное государственное автономное
образовательное учреждение
высшего образования
«Южный федеральный университет»
ИНЖЕНЕРНО-ТЕХНОЛОГИЧЕСКАЯ АКАДЕМИЯ
Г. А. Краснощекова, Т. А. Нечаева
ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC AND SCIENTIFIC PURPOSES
учебное пособие
Издательство Южного федерального университета
Таганрог
2017
ББК 81. 2 -Англ. - 92
УДК 621.37/39 (075.8)
Авторы: Г.А. Краснощекова, Т. А. Нечаева ”ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC AND SCIENTIFIC PURPOSES”: Учебное пособие. – Таганрог ИТА ЮФУ, 2017. - с.
Под общей редакцией Г. А. КраснощековойУчебное пособие предназначено в качестве базового учебного материала для совершенствования коммуникативной компетенции магистрантов, использующих английский язык в своей практической деятельности.
Пособие предназначено для аудиторной и самостоятельной работы.
Рецензенты:
© Южный федеральный университет, 2017
© Краснощекова Г.А., 2017
© Нечаева Т.А., 2017
ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ
Учебное пособие “ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC AND SCIENTIFIC PURPOSES” предназначено для магистрантов всех специальностей в качестве базового учебного материала. Пособие может быть также использовано широким кругом лиц с различным уровнем владения языком для совершенствования иноязычной профессионально-ориентированной коммуникативной компетенции.
Ключевые моменты
в пособии представлены тексты по актуальным темам и проблемам;
тексты аутентичны, взяты из оригинальных изданий, релевантны;
работа с пособием дает возможность развивать и совершенствовать коммуникативную компетенцию, которая необходима специалистам, использующих английский язык в профессиональных целях;использование данного пособия способствует развитию межличностных отношений, т.к. упражнения направлены на общение и взаимодействие (Questions on the text. Discussion Points);
использование пособия обеспечивает самовыражение обучающихся в устной и письменной речи на английском языке.
Содержание и подход
Пособие состоит из самостоятельных разделов (Units), в которых представлены тексты, а также упражнения различной сложности и направленности.
Структура разделов (Units)
Для обеспечения успешного использования данного учебного пособия, а также для улучшения ориентации магистрантов в учебном материале, все разделы (Units ) имеют единую структуру.
Тексты (Texts)
В каждом разделе (Unit) представлен аутентичный текст, который предваряется пред - текстовыми и после - текстовыми упражнениями. Базовые тексты (A, B) представлены описательным текстом, тематически связаны друг с другом, но касаются различных сторон темы или расширяют ее.
Упражнения (Exercises)
Упражнения направлены на контроль понимания текстов, совершенствование лингвистической компетенции
Лексика (Words)
Лексика закрепляются в различных языковых и коммуникативных упражнениях (matching , definitions, synonyms, word-building, translation).
Итог (Discussion Points)
В конце каждого раздела (Unit) предлагается перечень коммуникативных заданий для обсуждения проблем в группе и подготовки презентации.
Словарь (Vocabulary)
В вокабуляр включены все активные слова в алфавитном порядке. В этом разделе представлены слова и сочетания, которые носят тематический характер.
Материалы для дополнительного чтения (Supplementary Reading)
В данном разделе представлены аутентичные тексты, дающие дополнительную информацию. Тексты этого раздела рекомендуется использовать при выполнении упражнений (Answer the Questions), а также при итоговом обсуждении текстов каждого раздела (Discussion Points).
Важной составной частью учебного пособия является раздел, связанный с элементами Academic writing. Умение писать и анализировать научные тексты является центральным по отношению к остальным исследовательским компетенциям. Практика написания емкого и убедительного научного текста начинается с первых студенческих работ и не заканчивается никогда, поэтому учебное пособие может быть полезным как магистрантам, пишущим свое первое эссе, так и специалистам, пишущим научную статью. Построение учебного пособия позволяет использовать его как последовательно, так и выборочно для решения конкретных проблем. Принципы академического письма лежат в основе международной научной
коммуникации. А поскольку международная научная коммуникация неразрывно связана с публикацией текстов, то эти принципы определяют требования, предъявляемые как к университетским эссе, так и к статьям в зарубежных рецензируемых научных журналах.
Умение писать научные тексты развивается и совершенствуется на протяжении всей жизни. Академическое письмо представляет собой сложный и многоплановый комплекс умений. Этот комплекс умений включает в себя не только лингвистические (языковые, синтаксические и стилистические), но прежде всего металингвистические компетенции, такие как логика, анализ, критическое мышление, объективность и уважение к иным идеям и чужим текстам. Именно этих умений зачастую не хватает нашим студентам и молодым специалистам.
Академическое письмо и его более высокая ступень, называемая в США «риторикой и композицией», представляет собой научную дисциплину, которая помогает преподавателям всех остальных дисциплин развивать у студентов способность генерировать собственные мысли и выстраивать собственную аргументацию, организуя все это в предельно точной и ясной текстовой форме.
При работе с пособием преподаватель сам может определить конкретные методические приемы в зависимости от уровня подготовки магистрантов и целей обучения. Разделы могут изучаться в представленной последовательности или выборочно. Тематика и характер текстов и заданий пособия обеспечивают формирование у магистрантов умений и навыков профессионального общения.
СОДЕРЖАНИЕ
Unit 1 Mind and Brain ………………………………………………….....7
Unit 2 Evolution of Ecology……………………………………………..27
Unit 3 Education………………………………………………………….46
Unit 4 Science and technology…………………………………………..64
Unit 5 Academic and professional events……………………………….80
Unit 6 Academic writing……………………………………………….....86
Unit 7 Scientific research………………………………………………...93
Unit 8 International cooperation programs……………………………...95
Unit 9 Preparation of a presentation……………………………………101
Unit 10 Academic writing……………………………………………….122
Unit 11 Academic correspondence……………………………………..130
Supplementary material…………………………………………………139
Vocabulary………………………………………………………………163
Unit 1. MIND and BRAIN
Lead-in:
A computer required hardware to perform its function. In addition, the hardware need software to make it run. Without software, hardware would be useless and without hardware, software cannot be used. Brain is like the hardware and mind is like the software. However, in reality, the difference between brain and mind are more complicated than software and hardware.
In our culture, we sometimes use the words brain and mind interchangeably even though they really do refer to separate, although often overlapping, concepts. The brain is an organ but the mind is not. The brain is the physical place where the mind resides. The electronic impulses that create thought are contained in a vessel. With the brain, you coordinate your moves, your organism, and your activities and transmit impulses. However, you use the mind to think. You can muse at what happened, what is scheduled and what maybe will happen.
The mind is the manifestations of thought, perception, emotion, determination, memory and imagination that takes place within the brain. Mind is often used to refer especially to the thought processes of reason.
Pronunciation:
Task 1
Memorize the pronunciation of the following words.
retrieve [ rɪˈtriːv ]
reshuffle[ riːʃʌfl̩ ]
discern [ dɪˈsɜːn ]
prominent [ prɒmɪnənt ]
impartial [ ɪmˈpɑː.ʃəl ]
grasp [ ɡrɑːsp ]
expectation [ˌekspekˈteɪʃn ]
plethora [ ˈpleθərə ]
immovable [ ɪˈmuːvə.bl̩ ]
response [ rɪˈspɒns ]
imbalance [ ˌɪmˈbæləns ]
alter [ ˈɒltər ]
Word study:
Task 2
Form the necessary parts of speech.
noun verb adjective
------ intend -----
operation -----
-----
----- attach -----
response ----- -----
----- ----- assassinated
----- ----- altering
instruction ----- -----
----- disappear -----
----- observe
-----
Pre-reading:
Task 3
Before reading the text, answer the following questions.
What springs to your mind when you hear the words “brain” and “mind”?
Where does your brain stop and your mind start?
Do computers have brain?
What is the most mindless job you have ever done?
Have you ever been in two minds about anything?
Who is the brainiest person you know?
Is there a time when you went out of your mind with anger or worry?
Can you think of something difficult you were able to do when you put your mind to it?
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Reading A
Task 4
Read the text and be ready to discuss it.

Examining the Difference between the Brain and the Mind
The human brain, then, is the most complicated organization of matter that we know.
Isaac Asimov
The brain - reactive
Mind- Proactive, an emotional scale
Everything is always suspended in the mind until received - manifested through opinion, expectation, or intention.
The brain functions on a logical systematic process similar to a computer. Information is stored and retrieved as a computer. The long-term memory can be viewed as the hard drive whereas short-term memory is the RAM. The eyes can be seen as the monitor, as you may have already noticed there are literally billions of operations processed to come up with the picture we see. The brain is impartial and does not take a position on any of its activities and as if the body simply reacts to environmental cues. The brain cannot tell the difference between imagination, such as a dream, or reality. If you close your eyes and imagine ordering a pizza and then you open your eyes and actually order the pizza, your brain will go through the exact same electrical process, accessing the exact same parts of the brain in the same order. It is the mind that gives the difference between the two states by attaching to it a certain sequence of emotional insurrections, drawn from an emotional scale, based on your position on an event (do I like or dislike etc...) this is opinion, expectation, or intention.
It is the act of trying to reconcile the mind and the brain that is the poison of humanity.
The mind is not the brain although the mind is what structures the brain. The individual is neither the brain nor the mind but the embodiment of the process by which the two interact. Imagine there to be a current of energetic movement passing like sand through an hourglass.
As sand falls through the hourglass, it is important to observe the forces that perpetuate or restrict its motion. The mass of the sands matter in conjunction with the gravitational pull of the much larger body of matter beneath will determine how quickly the sand passes through the hole. The smaller the hole the slower the flow until the hole gets so small that a single grain of sand stops the entire flow altogether.
In contrast, if the hole opened wider the sand would flow faster until the sand would start to pass completely unrestricted. Now take a moment and picture this hourglass in an infinite pile of sand that appears to be coming from a bright light and slowly materializing into its grains; these are all possibilities coming into fruition, the future.
Below is a massive pile of sand, the result of a lifetime of outpouring; much larger than the mass above but still disappearing into the same body of light, this of course is all the memories, fragments of familiarity and conditioning, the past.
A lot of spiritual practice and psychological methodology is trying to take one part of the mind and have it deal with another part of the mind. There is never any real progress as all you get is a lot of reshuffling in the mind. This is what predominantly happens in any sort of therapy, but the mind cannot resolve the mind as the mind is never trying to be anything.
It is important to recognize that one perfect sense (emotion) is divided into five sensory perceptions (empiricism). Memories that are more prominent in the brain are easier to remember or recall because they are of higher emotional intensity. For example on September 11, 2001, everybody knew exactly where he or she were, what he or she were doing, who was around them, what they were wearing etc... Because of how emotionally intense it was when the two towers came down, it created a state of super focus. As was the same when JFK was assassinated, when your child was born, or when a loved one died.
The five senses all act in the same way; you will be able to recall intimate details of a certain moment if there was a distinctive smell, an abnormal sight, a loud noise, an odd taste or a weird feeling (touch). These will serve in the same way as markers of previous statements of position. For example if you have a moment that you find yourself in emotional turmoil feeling the loss of a person in your life you may remember times in your life when you felt connected, but you will notice that even the memory will be primarily held in place by one sense... a lot of the time it is sight. A picture will immediately bring an emotional response. It can be any of the senses though, for example if you recall an intense session of lovemaking it will be more the sense of touch that will hold the moment in place...
As you can see, the brain is just the hard drive that holds the information. It is the mind that needs to be observed and understood, how the parts of the mind interact and instruct the saving of the information. It is also interesting to observe that most of today's mental illnesses are treated by altering the way the hard drive (brain) accesses the information with drugs instead of spending more time on reconstructing how the information is put there. This is of course because it is very difficult for even the most intelligent of people to grasp that there is even a difference.
Word study:
Task 5
Compose word combinations matching a line in A with a line in B.
A B
systematic process
to pass like
the five senses
the brain like the body
billions of
the brain is just the hard drive
the smaller the hole
one perfect sense
brain memory will disappear
mind needs the slower the flow
that holds the information
is divided into five sensory perceptions
to be observed and understood
similar to a computer
the hard drive
act in the same way
operations
reacts to environmental cues
sand through an hourglass
Task 6
Match the definitions.
retrieve information
impartial
gravitational pull
come to fruition
rigid
prominent
alter
expansion
relationship
restrict
the result that you wanted to achieve from a plan or idea
stiff, hard, and difficult to bend or move
to make small changes to a piece of clothing so that it fits better
not prejudiced towards or against any particular side or party; fair; unbiased
the process of increasing in size and filling more space
to search for, find, to gain access to (stored information).
important and well known
the way in which two or more people or things are connected with or involve each other
to keep something within strict limits
the natural phenomenon of attraction between physical objects with mass; the weakest of the four fundamental forces of nature
Task 7
Match the words with similar meaning.
A B
difference
prominent
react to
intention
pile
go through
source
predominantly
restrict
plethora purpose, aim
prevailing
pass through
limit
significant
distinction, diversity, variety
extra, redundant
heap, accumulation
derivation, root
respond to
Task 8
Give the Russian equivalents to the following.
it is important to recognize, go through the exact same electrical process, difference between imagination, a single grain of sand, source of happiness and misery, immovable rigid memory structure, expansion of consciousness, emotional response
Task 9
Translate the following word combinations into English.
реагировать на окружающую среду, наблюдать за чем-либо, ограничивать избыток чего-либо, результат отношений, держать в памяти, сила притяжения, структура памяти, ограничивать себя, преимущественно, эмоциональный отклик
Task 10
Match an adjective (A) and a noun (B).
A B A B
emotional
energetic
brain
glass
interesting
single
stationary
physical
mental
gravitational
intimate
hard pull
exercise
grain
light
pile of sand
partners
sight
insurrections
illnesses
tube
position
memory 13. massive
14. abnormal
15. bright m) world
n) movement
o) drive
Task 11
Match these sentences halves (as given in the text).
The mind has
The smaller the hole
If everything was going the same speed
The body reacts
Memories that are more prominent in the brain
Brain is just the hard drive that
One perfect sense is divided into
The brain functions on a logical systematic process
Holds information
are easier to remember
similar to a computer.
to environmental cues
the slower the flow
five sensory perceptions.
then nothing would be moving
no opinion

Task 12
Which preposition goes with the following verbs?
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00???????
8496305016500similarattachrelatetry
be able
reacthold on
challenge
needTask 13
Look at the expressions below. Use a dictionary to check any words and phrases you did not understand.
1.the country suffered a brain drain
2.he’s really brainy
3.can I pick your brains later?
4.we need to do some brainstorming
5.I’ve had a brainwave
6.he went out of his mind(with anger)
7.cast your mind back
8.he put it out of his mind
9.have/keep an open mind on difficult issues
10.put your mind to it
11.she’s not in her right mind
12.he’s in two minds
13.the job was completely mindless
14.I can see it in my mind’s eye
15.it was totally mindless vandalism
Task 14
Replace the phrases in bold with an expression from the previous exercise.You may need to change the form of the words or phrases to fit the sentence.
All the people in the office met to share their ideas.
He is a little bit crazy and unstable.
I am sure you can solve the problem if you really try hard.
The residents all agreed the attack on the library was without any reason whatsoever.
I have never seen her so angry, she completely lost control.
There was a huge number of skilled and professional people leaving.
I do not know the answer myself so I would like to get some of your ideas.
He decided to consider all the possibilities and not decide on one answer immediately.
This work is the most boring, repetitive thing I’ve ever done. I don’t have to use my brain at all.
She was always really clever at school.
The policeman asked me to remember something that happened a long time ago.
There are a couple of things that I am unable to decide about.
She’d never been there but when I described the island, she could imagine what it looke like.
It was taking a long time to think of something but suddenly I had a fantastic idea.
She couldn’t change wht had happened so she decided not to think about it any more.
Speaking:
Task 15
Answer the following questions.
What did you think when you read the headline?
What springs to mind when you hear the words “brain” and “mind”?
What do we keep in mind?
The mind is not the brain. Yes? No?
What are the four parts of the mind?
Where are our memories kept?
What are five sensory perceptions people possess?
When does brain memory disappear and why?
Only people have mind and brain. Yes/No
Task 16
Make a list of mind and memory functions.
MIND BRAIN
Task 17
Speak on brain using the mind map.

-1562106032500
Reading B

Task 18
Read the text, try to catch its essentials and be ready to do the tasks.
Are There Differences between the Brains of Males and Females?
Differences between the human male brain vs female brain have historically served to emphasize women’s subservient role in society. That men and women are different, everyone knows that.
However, aside from external anatomical, primary, and secondary sexual differences, scientists know also that there are many other subtle differences of how men and women process language, information, emotion, cognition, etc.
One of the most interesting differences appear in the way men and women estimate time, judge speed of things, carry out mental mathematical calculations, orient in space and visualize objects in three dimensions, etc. In all these tasks, women and men are strikingly different, as they are too in the way their brains process language. This may account, scientists say, for the fact that there are many more male mathematicians, airplane pilots, bush guides, mechanical engineers, architects and racecar drivers than female ones.
On the other hand, women are better than men in human relations, recognizing emotional overtones in others and in language, emotional and artistic expressiveness, esthetic appreciation, verbal language and carrying out detailed and pre-planned tasks. For example, women generally can recall lists of words or paragraphs of text better than men can.
The "father" of sociobiology, Edward O. Wilson, of Harvard University, said that human females tend to be higher than males in empathy, verbal skills, and social skills and security seeking, among other things, while men tend to be higher in independence, dominance, spatial and mathematical skills, rank-related aggression, and other characteristics.
When all these investigations began, scientists were skeptical about the role of genes and of biological differences, because cultural learning is very powerful and influential among humans. Are girls more prone to play with dolls and cooperate among themselves than boys, because they are taught to be so by parents, teachers and social peers, or is it the reverse order?
It is no secret that boys and girls are different—very different. The differences between genders, however, extend beyond what the eye can see. Research reveals major distinguishers between male and female brains.
Scientists generally study four primary areas of difference in male and female brains: processing, chemistry, structure, and activity. The differences between male and female brains in these areas show up all over the world, but scientists also have discovered exceptions to every so-called gender rule. You may know some boys who are very sensitive, immensely talkative about feelings, and just generally do not seem to fit the “boy” way of doing things. As with all gender differences, no one-way of doing things is better or worse. The differences listed below are simply generalized differences in typical brain functioning, and it is important to remember that all differences have advantages and disadvantages.
Processing
Male brains utilize nearly seven times more gray matter for activity while female brains utilize nearly ten times more white matter. What does this mean?
Gray matter areas of the brain are localized. They are information- and action-processing centers in specific splotches in a specific area of the brain. This can translate to a kind of tunnel vision when they are doing something. Once they are deeply engaged in a task or game, they may not demonstrate much sensitivity to other people or their surroundings.
White matter is the networking grid that connects the brain’s gray matter and other processing centers with one another. This profound brain-processing difference is probably one reason you may have noticed that girls tend to more quickly transition between tasks than boys do. The gray-white matter difference may explain why, in adulthood, females are great multi-takers, while men excel in highly task-focused projects.
Chemistry
Male and female brains process the same neurochemicals but to different degrees and through gender-specific body-brain connections. Some dominant neurochemicals are serotonin, which, among other things, helps us sit still; testosterone, our sex and aggression chemical; estrogen, a female growth and reproductive chemical; and oxytocin, a bonding-relationship chemical.
In part, because of differences in processing these chemicals, males on average tend to be less inclined to sit still for as long as females and tend to be more physically impulsive and aggressive. Additionally, males process less of the bonding chemical oxytocin than females. Overall, a major takeaway of chemistry differences is to realize that our boys at times need different strategies for stress release than our girls.
Structural Differences
A number of structural elements in the human brain differ between males and females. “Structural” refers to actual parts of the brain and the way they are built, including their size and/or mass.
Females often have a larger hippocampus, our human memory center. Females also often have a higher density of neural connections into the hippocampus. As a result, girls and women tend to input or absorb more sensorial and emotive information than males do. By “sensorial”, we mean information to and from all five senses. If you note your observations over the next months of boys and girls and women and men, you will find that females tend to sense a lot more of what is going on around them throughout the day, and they retain that sensorial information more than men do.
Additionally, before boys or girls are born, their brains developed with different hemispheric divisions of labor. The right and left hemispheres of the male and female brains are not set up exactly the same way. For instance, females tend to have verbal centers on both sides of the brain, while males tend to have verbal centers on only the left hemisphere. This is a significant difference. Girls tend to use more words when discussing or describing incidence, story, person, object, feeling, or place. Males not only have fewer verbal centers in general but also, often, have less connectivity between their word centers and their memories or feelings. When it comes to discussing feelings and emotions and senses together, girls tend to have an advantage, and they tend to have more interest in talking about these things.
Blood Flow and Brain Activity
While we are on the subject of emotional processing, another difference worth looking closely at is the activity difference between male and female brains. The female brain, in part thanks to far more natural blood flow throughout the brain at any given moment (more white matter processing), and because of a higher degree of blood flow in a concentration part of the brain called the cingulate gyrus, will often ruminate on and revisit emotional memories more than the male brain.
Males, in general, are designed a bit differently. Males tend, after reflecting more briefly on an emotive memory, to analyze it somewhat, and then move onto the next task. During this process, they may also choose to change course and do something active and unrelated to feelings rather than analyze their feelings at all. Thus, observers may mistakenly believe that boys avoid feelings in comparison to girls or move to problem solving too quickly.
These four, natural design differences listed above are just a sample of how males and females think differently. Scientists have discovered approximately 100 gender differences in the brain, and the importance of these differences cannot be overstated. Understanding gender differences from a neurological perspective not only opens the door to greater appreciation of the different genders, it also calls into question how we parent, educate, and support our children from a young age. 

Task 19
What is the meaning of the underlined words? Translate the following sentences.
The gray-white matter difference may explain why, in adulthood, females are great multi-taskers, while men excel in highly task-focused projects.
In part, because of differences in processing these chemicals, males on average tend to be less inclined to sit still for as long as females and tend to be more physically impulsive and aggressive.
The differences between male and female brains in these areas show up all over the world, but scientists also have discovered exceptions to every so-called gender rule.
When it comes to discussing feelings and emotions and senses together, girls tend to have an advantage, and they tend to have more interest in talking about these things.
The smaller the hole the slower the flow until the hole gets so small that a single grain of sand stops the entire flow altogether.
As with all gender differences, no one-way of doing things is better or worse.
Speaking and writing:
Task 20
Answer the following questions.
How do men and women estimate time?
Who is better in human relations?
What is/are the difference(s) between genders in mind and brain?
What is the function of gray matter?
Is the number of structural elements in the human brains different?
What is “cingulate gurus”?
How many gender differences have been discovered?
Task 21
Write out the words you find most important for understanding the text and write a brief summary of the text.
Rendering:
Task 22
Render the text into English.
От веса мозга зависит вес в обществе
Доктор биологических наук, руководитель отдела эмбриологии НИИ морфологии человека РАМН Сергей САВЕЛЬЕВ.
Башковитые лентяи — Сергей Вячеславович, в энциклопедиях написано, что самый тяжелый мозг у европеоидов — 1375 граммов, а самый легкий у коренных австралийцев — всего 1185 граммов. Почему их Бог обделил?
— Бог тут ни при чем, дело тут в географической изоляции, — объяснил профессор Савельев. — Еще десятки тысяч лет назад люди распределились по разным районам земного шара, и их мозг формировался в зависимости от окружающей обстановки. Поиск вариантов выживания в изменчивом климате и развил мозг европеоидов до нынешнего размера. Счастливчикам же, заселившим теплые края, не было нужды чересчур напрягать свой мозг, отчего он, видимо, и притормозил с массой.
— Как известно, мужской мозг тяжелее женского в среднем на 130 граммов. Почему дам так обделили в «небесной канцелярии»?
— 130 граммов — это разница, характерная для европейцев. Меньше всего отличий в массе мужского и женского мозга у бурят и африканцев — примерно 85 граммов. У англичан и шведов — около 150 граммов. А японки уступают своим благоверным по массе мозга аж на 168 граммов.
— Такая большая разница не мешает нам понимать друг друга?
— Мешает. Не зря мужчин и женщин сравнивают с жителями разных планет. Кора больших полушарий мужчины содержит около 11 миллиардов нервных клеток, а женщины — около 9, то есть на 2 миллиарда меньше. И очень мало нейронов у дам в ассоциативных областях: у мужчины приблизительно там миллиард нейронов, а у женщины — 300 000. А это очень важные области, они участвуют в процессах запоминания, учения и мышления, и результаты их деятельности составляют то, что обычно называют интеллектом. Этот недостаток никак не компенсируешь. Хоть сто учителей наймите — умнее женщина не станет. Если субстрата нет, то и учить нечего.
— Всегда считалось, что самый большой мозг у Тургенева — 2012 граммов. Но потом выяснилось, что русского гения «перевесил» Байрон с мозгом в 2230 граммов.
— Данные по мозгу Байрона не совсем корректны: есть сведения о патологических процессах в его головном мозге. Вообще весьма показательно, что большая масса мозга обычно является следствием болезни. Так, максимальная масса мозга в 2850 граммов была обнаружена у 21-летнего идиота, страдавшего эпилепсией.
— А вообще люди с большим количеством мозга (не берем патологии) обладают высоким интеллектом?
— Не всегда. Скажем так: они имеют больше шансов стать гениями. При средней массе мозга человека 1400 граммов у одаренных личностей головной мозг в 72% случаев превышает среднюю массу. И по расчетам, у человека с массой мозга выше среднего в 6 раз больше шансов оказаться обладателем особых способностей, чем у обладателя небольшого мозга. Но это не значит, что все люди с небольшим мозгом бездарны. Просто вероятность возникновения выдающихся способностей снижается. Более того, измерения массы мозга людей разных социальных групп, наклонностей и реализованных способностей показали, что очевидных связей между массой мозга и одаренностью нет. Вероятнее всего, одаренность зависит не от массы мозга, а от массы его конкретных отделов. Например, зрительное поле может иметь объем от 3 до 6 тысяч кубических миллиметров. Человек с маленьким мозгом, но максимальным зрительным полем будет большим ценителем живописи, а человек с большим мозгом, но маленьким зрительным полем вряд ли поймет, для чего люди малюют красками холсты.
— Как часто одаренные люди появляются на свет?
— Один на тысячу.
— Извилины предков отличались от наших?
— Масса мозга за последние сто лет увеличилась на 40 граммов.
— Значит, умнеем?
— Возможно, причина — в прогрессе человечества. А может, изменения связаны со смешением этносов. Лично я склоняюсь к мнению, что на форму и строение мозга культурное развитие общества не влияет.
Вес мозга гениев
Байрон Джордж Гордон (поэт) — 2230 г
Тургенев Иван Сергеевич (писатель) — 2012 г
Бисмарк Отто фон Шенхаузен (политик) — 1807 г
Маяковский Владимир (поэт) — 1700 г
Ландау Лев Давидович (ученый, физик) — 1580 г
Павлов Иван (ученый, физиолог) — 1457 г
Ковалевская Софья (ученый, математик) — 1385 г
Владимир Ульянов-Ленин (политик, диктатор) — 1340 г
Overall speaking:
Task 23
Organize your knowledge on the topic and present a report on one of the following points.
Myths about mind and brain.
How my brain works.
Do you do anything to look after your brain?
How much of brain we use.
Different functions of the brain.
Do you know what Left Brain, Right Brain means?
What does ‘brainstorm’ mean?
The differences between male and female brains.
Respond to the following quotes:
“The mind is not a vessel to be filled, but a fire to be kindled.”
"My mind is my laboratory" — Albert Einstein
Most of the scientists and thinkers believe that brain and mind are one and cannot be separated. Give pros and cons
While brain is considered a physical thing, and the mind is considered mental.
While brain has a definite shape, mind does not have one.
We can see and touch the brain whereas it is not possible with mind. Yes/No
The brain is an important organ in the human body whereas the mind is not like that.
The brain has a definite place in the head, but with regard to mind, it is only supposed to be in the brain.
Task 24
Project work.Write an essay: “The possibilities of mind and brain”
Imagine you are giving a lecture on mind and brain. What information would you present?
Organize your presentation on some interesting information and facts about mind and brain.
Organize the discussion on the topic “The brain is an important organ in the human body whereas the mind is not like that”.
Unit 2. The Evolution of Ecology
Lead-in:
"Ecology, the unifying science
in integrating knowledge
of life on our planet, has become
the essential science
in learning how to preserve it."
Ecology is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including humans, and their physical environment; it seeks to understand the vital connections between plants and animals and the world around them. Ecology also provides information about the benefits of ecosystems and how we can use Earth's resources in ways that leave the environment healthy for future generations.
Ecologists study these relationships among organisms and habitats of many different sizes, ranging from the study of microscopic bacteria growing in a fish tank, to the complex interactions between the thousands of plant, animal, and other communities found in a desert.
Pronunciation:
Task 1
Practice the reading of the following words and translate them into Russian.
dynamic [ daɪˈnæmɪk ]
rigorous[ ˈrɪɡərəs ]
synergy [ ˈsɪnədʒi ]
virtually [ ˈvɜːtʃuəli ]
heterodox [ ˈhetərədɒks ]
resist [ rɪˈzɪst ]
stretch [ stretʃ ] elucidate[ ɪˈluːsɪdeɪt ]
sustain[ səˈsteɪn ]
holistic [ həˈlɪstɪk ]
advocate [ ˈædvəkeɪt ]
dimension[ ˌdaɪˈmenʃən ]
biodiversity [ ˌbaɪəʊdaɪˈvɜːsɪti ]
crucial [ ˈkruːʃl ]
Task 2
Make sure you can read these international words correctly and translate them into Russian.
ecology, historical, discipline, system, coral reefs, characteristic, geology, German, physician, natural, synergy, molecular biology, pollution, climate, industry, theory, dynamics, evolutionary,
Task 3
Give the missing forms for the words from the text that are in the table below.
Noun Adjective Adjective Verb
history ----- influential -----
tradition ----- decisive -----
----- active ----- economize
system ----- ----- manage
----- theoretical applicable -----
----- environmental ----- optimize
----- distinct valuable -----
humanity ----- ----- drink

Pre-reading:
Task 4
Before reading the text, answer the following questions.
Which term characterizes the human impact on the environment?
What is an ecosystem?
What does an ecologist do?
What is recycling?
What is pollution?
How does pollution affect rivers, oceans, and our ecosystem?
What are people doing to stop or control pollution?
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Reading A
WHAT IS ECOLOGY?
The scientific discipline of ecology is dynamic, steeped in historical tradition but adapting to its changing environment and building its own ecological network of interactions with other disciplines. Society has become increasingly aware that we are losing crucial parts of our ecosystem, and that the activities of human beings are threatening the sustainability of the biosphere as a life-support system for humanity.
The word "ecology" did not exist when Charles Darwin published his journal, The Voyage of the Beagle, but one can argue that Darwin's account launched ecology as a discipline. Darwin began by reminding his readers that he had previously published volumes on coral reefs,volcanic islands, and the geology of South America. His integration of the physical and biological dimensions of the places where the Beagle stopped, complemented by influential contemporary work by the English naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace, defined a new and synthetic way of looking at nature—in which the patterns characteristic of particular regions found explanation in a unifying, dynamic framework. The term "oekologie" came later, the inspiration of the German scientist and physician Ernst Haeckel, but it was the theories of Darwin and Wallace that created the rich understanding of this science.
Ecology sprang from a marriage between geology and natural history, rooted in observation, but answering a need for a conceptual framework. From its early roots, it became increasingly rigorous and quantitative, and a century later provided the natural discipline for responding to the environmental challenges highlighted by Rachel Carson, Paul Ehrlich, and others.
Fields like ecotoxicology, which studies the fate, transport, and effects of chemicals in the environment, and conservation biology, which seeks to preserve biodiversity, were spawned, closely linked to ecology, but much more applied in focus. The synergy among the disciplines was constructive, but it also tended to blur the distinctions in the public eye between the science of ecology and the application of ecological principles to the management of natural resources. Ecology is a scientific discipline, like physics or molecular biology, whose practitioners are driven by the search for patterns and process in nature. Their findings can inform political decisions about resource use, pollution, climate change, and other environmental issues; but advocacy regarding decisions about our environmental priorities is outside the discipline of ecology. Still, for many people, "ecologist" became a term applied to anyone who wanted to save the planet, or selected parts of it, which made no more sense than calling someone who marvels at the night sky an astronomer.
The application of ecological principles to environmental problems did not suddenly occur with the publication of Silent Spring in 1962; that, like ecology as a whole, had much older roots. The fishing industry provided an early case study nearly a century ago, when the distinguished Italian biologist Umberto D'Ancona puzzled over the causes of fluctuations in the fisheries of the Adriatic. Fortunately, D'Ancona was to marry the daughter of the great Italian mathematician, Vito Volterra, who had become interested in applying his skills in formal mathematics to the study of biological and social systems. Volterra is famous among mathematicians for his contributions to the theory of functionals and integral equations, but is even better and more widely known for the equations he and Alfred Lotka derived independently to describe the dynamics of interacting species. Nevertheless, the greatest contribution Volterra made was not in his specific equations, but rather in the heterodox idea that sophisticated mathematical methods could be used to understand the dynamics of natural systems. The equations of Volterra and Lotkaare taught today in virtually every first course in ecology, and the application of mathematical and computational methods has expanded into every branch of ecology, giving us, for example, integrated models that deal with the interaction between a changing climate and the growth of forests and other vegetation. The influence of mathematics and computation in biology as a whole has also expanded in the last decade, and fields like systems biology (the study of the interplay among the parts of biological systems, like molecular or metabolic systems) and computational biology (with its use of mathematics and computation) have become essential parts of any modern biology department. It should not be lost, however, that through the contributions of Volterra and those who followed his example, ecology was the first sub discipline of biology to become quantitative.
The writings of Darwin and Wallace clearly influenced the development of ecology; but perhaps even more fundamentally, they also launched the field of evolution. The scientific discipline of ecology has thus been, in some sense, a key node in an ecology of scientific disciplines. From its roots in natural history, it has built partnerships with botany and zoology; with geology and paleontology; with mathematics; and with evolutionary studies, from molecular biology to population genetics and development. It has not ignored physics and engineering along the way, in its need to understand the mechanics of how animals and plants grow and move, or how they capture energy and resist stress—why, for example, trees are shaped the way they are. Ecologists make their living by recognizing the interconnectedness of different parts, and different disciplines.
What we must do now, however, is to unify science and the social sciences and humanities further in the service of preserving the earth. That challenge is stretching ecology in new directions. To sustain the planet, we must be able to protect the goods and services ecosystems provide, and that requires knowing what they mean to us. In large part, that is the domain of economics. Bringing ecology and economics together is not new, and most land-grant universities have strong departments of agricultural and resource economics that deal with the economics of agriculture, fisheries, and forests. However, new dimensions in environmental and ecological economics have been developing rapidly, focusing on questions about the value of whole ecosystems, about the optimal design of nature reserves, and about how to manage public goods. Broadly understood, environmental public goods include the air we breathe and the water we drink, the fish we catch and the lakes and oceans that sustain them, as well as the antibiotics that have contributed so much to the advancement of medical care.
Ecology views biological systems as wholes, not as independent parts, while seeking to elucidate how the wholes emerge from and affect the parts. Increasingly, such a holistic perspective, rechristened at places like the Santa Fe Institute as "the theory of complex adaptive systems," has informed understanding and improved management of economic and financial systems, social systems, complex materials, and even physiology and medicine. Essentially, that means little more than taking an ecological approach to such systems.
Task 5
Give the Russian equivalents to the following.
steep in historical traditions, crucial parts, respond to the environmental challenges,
management of natural resources, be outside the discipline of ecology, describe the dynamics of interacting species, influence the development of ecology, bring ecology and economics together, view biological systems as wholes, optimal design of nature reserves, broadly understood, unify science and the social sciences
Task 6
Match up the words with a close meaning.
A B
1. evolution
2. save
3. contemporary
4.rigorous
5.apply
6.decision
7.occur
8.expand
9.sustain
10. capture a) make use of, put into practice
b) happen
c)grow, increase
d) development, evolvement, growth, progress
e) keep up, maintain, preserve, support
f) conclusion, determination, resolution
g) keep, conserve
h)synchronous
i) synchronous
Task 7
Match up the words with the opposite meaning.
A B
argue
synergy
crucial
practitioner
integration
essential
advancement
marvel
rapidly
contribution
amateur
minor, secondary, trivial
regression, worsening, decline
agree, keep silent
normality, expectation
slowly, leisurely
decrease, loss, subtraction
inessential, insignificant, minor, optional
disunion, division, divorce, separation
discord, divorce, separation
Task 8
Match the following words with their definitions.
interaction
influential
vegetation
fluctuations
sophisticated
interconnectedness
emerge
holistic
heterodox
virtually having or showing a lot of experience and knowledge about the world and about culture, art, literature, etc.
to rise or appear from a hidden or unknown place or condition : to come out into view
relating to or concerned with complete systems rather than with individual parts
not agreeing with established beliefs or standards
plants in general : plants that cover a particular area
mutual or reciprocal action or influence
very nearly
to change level, strength, or value frequently
mutually joined or related; having internal connections between the parts or elements
having the power to cause changes
Task 9
Use suffixes to form different parts of speech.
tial; -ical; -tific; -al; -less; -able; -tion-ment; -ness
argue; aware; influence; geology; science; policy; nature; depart; help; contribute; understand; expand; describe; computation.
Task 10
Match a line in A with a line in B
A B
contemporary works
to spring from
interacting of species
application of methods
to deal with
to blur the distinctions
process in nature
применение методовиметь дело сразмывать различия
современные работы
природные процессы
взаимодействие видов
брать начало
Task 11
The table below contains words that have been chopped in half. Find the pieces that fit together and write them down.
dis cli vationsculture
rigor is canichis
eco agrimate logistvolbio menteriesfish logy tationralnatuhetero land sciephysiovegedox popuenviron ousciplinetory
lationobsersystem enceTask 12
Guess the words.
i a c o n e r o n s v t __________________
r y e s n g __________________
a u e n t r __________________
b u l tt s i s a a y n ii __________________
a c o l u s f t u i t n __________________
n c d a a e e t v n m __________________
Task 13
Write out 7-8 words or word combinations to characterize the discipline «Ecology
Task 14
Agree or disagree with the following statements.
Charles Darwin contributed a lot to ecology.
Ecology is of great help in political decisions about nature.
Ecology is connected only with botany.
Ecological economics is not a new discipline.
Mathematical methods help understand the dynamics of natural systems
Task 15
Answer the following questions.
Why is the discipline of ecology dynamic?
What is the contribution of Charles Darwin to ecology?
What scientists contributed to the development of ecology?
Why is synergy among the disciplines important?
Why is ecology important for politics and economics?
How does/did mathematics/biology influence ecology?
What is evolution and who launched this field?
What does “preserve the earth mean”?
Why does ecology view biological systems as wholes but not as independent parts?
What do you do to help our planet?
Task 16
Tell the story of the picture. These words will help you:
once; spend; day-off; in the open; go to the river; have a rest; dog; some food; bag; under the tree; began playing with…; throw; stick; teach; bring back; smile; soon; feel hungry; have a snack; eat; sandwiches; bread and butter; boiled eggs; fish; meat; drink; coffee; after the meal; throw; bones; empty tins; dog; run into…; return with…; be angry and upset; selfish; make … dirty; teach … a lesson

Task 17
Make a list of things that are thrown away and how we could make us of them.
Item How we could make use of them
……. …….
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READING B
Task 18
Read the text, try to catch its essentials and be ready to do the tasks.
Disappearing Honeybee
“If the bee disappeared off the surface of the globe,
then man would only have four years
of life left.” - Albert Einstein
"The only reason for being a bee
that I know of is to make honey....
And the only reason for making
honey is so as I can eat it." - Winnie the Pooh ***************** “The bee is more honored than other animals,
not because she labors,
but because she labors for others”
Saint John Chrysostom
(archbishop of Constantinople, 347-407)
Do you run away when you hear a bee buzzing? Many people do. A bee sting hurts and some people are allergic to bee venom. However, did you know that bees are very important to humans? Honeybees do more than just make honey. They fly around and pollinate flowers, plants, and trees. Our fruits, nuts, and vegetables rely on these pollinators. The honeybee pollinates One third of America’s food supply.
Have you seen or heard a honeybee lately? Bees are mysteriously disappearing in many parts of the world. Most people do not know about this problem. It is called Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD). Some North American beekeepers lost 80% of their hives from 2006-2008. Bees in Italy and Australia are disappearing too.
The disappearance of the honeybee is a serious problem. Can you imagine never eating another blueberry? What about almonds and cherries? Without honeybees, food prices will skyrocket. The poorest people always suffer the worst when there is a lack of food.
This problem affects other foods besides fresh produce. Imagine losing your favorite ice cream! Haagen Daaz is a famous ice cream company. Many of their flavors rely on the hard working honeybee. In 2008, Haagen Daaz began raising money for CCD. They also funded a garden at the University of California called The Haven. This garden helps raise awareness about the disappearing honeybee and teaches visitors how to plant for pollinators.
Donating money to research is the most important thing humans can do to save the honeybees. Scientists need money to investigate the causes of Colony Collapse Disorder. Some scientists blame CCD on climate change. Others think pesticides are killing the bees. Commercial bee migration may also cause CCD. Beekeepers transport their hives from place to place in order to pollinate plants year round.
Not everyone has money to donate regularly. There are other ways to help the honeybee. Spread the word by telling your friends and family about the problem.
Task 19
Match the following words with their definitions.
allergic
disappearing
rely on
skyrocket
pollinate
disorder
transport
spread the word
lack
collapse
hive
climatic change
investigate
mysteriously
donate
a problem or disease that a certain group faces
tell other people something
not enough of something
no longer able to be found or be seen
the transfer of the male parts of the flower to the female parts of the flower; ensures plant reproduction
the falling apart of something
depend on; need
the body's reaction against certain foods or substances that it thinks are poisonous
give money or resources to a group or person in need
move from place to place
go up very high in a short amount of time
in a way that is not easily understood
the gradual (slow) increase of temperature on earth
study; research; try to find the truth
the place where honeybees live
Task 20
Reading Comprehension Quiz.According to the text, the disappearance of honeybees is called ______.
Humans rely on honeybees to ______.
According to the article, which famous company is very worried about CCD? ______
What is the most important thing people can do to help honeybees? ______.
Moving honeybees from place to place is called ______.
Task 21
Fill in the gaps.
When something collapses it _______.
The place where honeybees live is called ______.
Another word for “rely on” is ______.
We need bees to ______ the plants that we eat.
There is ______ of honeybees in North America.
Task 22
Complete each sentence with the most suitable ending.
The disappearance of the honeybee is
Some people are allergic to
Every insect is
Bee migration may cause
Beekeepers transport their hives from place to place to pollinate plants
threatened by global warming
CCD
a serious problem
bee venom
Task 24
Recognize facts and opinions in the text.
Task 25
Find the most important sentence in each paragraph and present your summary of the text.
Task 26
Answer the questions.
1. Why is the honeybee so important to humans?
2. Do you think humans can survive without honeybees?
3. Do you think scientists will invent mechanical pollinators that work as hard as honeybees?
4. Which companies need to worry about CCD the most?
5. Scientists fear that the disappearing honeybee will have a "ripple effect". What does this mean?
Task 27
Read the text, try to catch its essentials and be ready to do the tasks.

Polar Bear Makes the List
Majestic creature of the far north,
the polar bear is the world's largest terrestrial carnivore. Its Latin name, Ursusmaritimus, means 'sea bear', an apt name for this amazing species which spends much of its life in, around, or on the water
- predominantly on the sea ice.
In spring 2008, the polar bear was placed on the endangered species list. According to the Endangered Species Act, an endangered species is an animal that is likely to face extinction in its natural habitat. Polar bears have been categorized as a "threatened" species. The ESA defines a threatened species as one that is likely to become "endangered" in the foreseeable future.
The polar bear is the first animal that has been classified as endangered due primarily to global warming. Carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases that become trapped in the atmosphere cause global warming. Heating homes, driving cars, and burning garbage all require fossil fuels that lead to global warming.
The polar bear's habitat is more vulnerable to global warming than many other species. Polar bears live mainly on the sea ice in the Arctic. This is where they hunt for fish and build up fat reserves. When the ice melts, many polar bears move to land and live off their stored fat. In the Arctic, global warming is causing the ice to melt slightly earlier and form slightly later. This results in a shorter feeding season for the polar bear. Some risk their lives to find ice. If they have to swim too far they will drown from exhaustion and hunger. The World Wildlife Fund estimates that 25% of the Arctic sea ice has disappeared in the past 30 years.
It is not only the polar bear that is at risk in the Arctic. Every species of plant, animal, and insect there is threatened by global warming. Nevertheless, environmentalist groups such as the World Wildlife Fund often study large carnivores in order to assess the health of an ecosystem. The Arctic food chain relies on the polar bear. In addition, donations are more commonly offered for the protection of large animals such as bears or elephants. People in general are less interested in conservation efforts that protect small wildlife, such as plants or insects. However, by using donor money to protect the habitat of the larger animals (ex. reforestation programs), entire ecosystems can be protected.
It is important that animals such as the polar bear make it onto the endangered species list. Once they are on the list, there are laws that protect these animals from being hunted for food or sport. Agencies also receive money and tools to protect the habitat and recover the species. The goal of removing the animal from the list is often achievable. Since the Endangered Species Act was introduced in the US in 1973, many species have been taken off the list due to increased populations. In fact, it is rare for a species to go extinct after they make the list. Sadly, many species do go extinct while waiting for consideration.
Task 28
Match the following words with their definitions.
ecosystem 
extinction
habitat
reforestation
wildlife
risk
conservationeffort 
vulnerable
environmentalistrecover
food chain
global warming
endangeredspeciesanimals or plants that are likely to go extinct
a group of organisms that feed off each other
the gradual increase in temperature on earth
to help a certain species repopulate an area
likely to face injury or danger
the loss of a species in this world
a person who cares about the natural world and makes an effort to protect it or raise awareness for its needs
plants and animals living in a natural environment
the area where a species naturally lives, eats, and reproduces
the planting and growth of new trees
the ongoing relationship between living things and their environment
plants and animals living in a natural environment
measures to protect and restore the natural world
Task 29
Fill in the gaps.
The place where a species lives and reproduces is its ______.
When a species is no longer found on earth it is said to be _____.
Reforestation in an area where a threatened species lives is an example of a ______.
The gradual warming of the earth is called ______.
Once a species is placed on an endangered list, a group will attempt to ______ the population.
Task 30
Agree or disagree with the following statements.
Polar bears cannot to swim long distances without eating.
Can you understand what the environmentalist was saying about global warming?
A rare insect got on the endangered species list last year, and the conservationists could to recover it within six months.
We must to do our part to help preserve the Arctic habitat.
We must not forget about the other animals and plants in the Arctic food chain.
Task 31
Recognize facts and opinions in the text.
Task 32
Find the most important sentence in each paragraph and present the summary of the text.
Task 33
Complete each sentence with the most suitable ending.
Polar bears are
Polar bears may drown
Donations are made for protection
To remove the animal from the list is
Scientists study large carnivores of large animals
to assess the health of an ecosystem.
“threatened” species
often achievable
from exhaustion
Task 34
Answer the following questions.
1. Why do you think the Canadian Arctic is called the Land of the Midnight Sun? What do you think it would be like to live there?
2. The Governor of Alaska is unhappy with the decision to place the polar bear on the endangered species list. What could this decision mean for development in Alaska?
3. A rough estimate suggests that there are approximately 20,000 polar bears in the world. Why do you think it is so difficult to know how many bears live in the Arctic? What challenges would face a census team?
4. Scientists say there are twice as many polar bears living in the Arctic as there were in the 1960's. This is because polar bears used to be severely over hunted. Some politicians site this data as a reason for not placing polar bears on the endangered species list. How do you feel about their argument?
5. If there are 25,000 polar bears now, how do you think the population will change by the year 2050? What factors did you consider in making your estimation?
Task 35
Render the text into English.
Что изучает экология?
Что изучает экология? Экология - это особый раздел общей биологии. Она изучает взаимодействие живых организмов, их приспособление к жизни друг с другом. Также в экологии изучается характер связи и зависимости живых существ от условий их существования.
Известно, что в ходе эволюции самые приспособленные виды выживают с помощью того, что умеют адаптировать себя к условиям окружающей среды. Этот закон выживания касается абсолютно всех живых организмов без исключения. Теорию естественного отбора создал и разработал Чарльз Дарвин. 
Виды науки экологии
Экология охватывает большой круг вопросов. Прежде всего, изучению подвергаются факторы среды и комплексы этих факторов. Дается ответ на вопрос о том, каким образом какие-то элементы среды могут влиять на жизнь вида и к каким приемам адаптации они приводят. В качестве основных факторов выделяют такие, как физико-химический (температура, свет, влажность, осадки, ветер, почва и т. д.), биотический фактор (влияние организмов и видов друг на друга), антропогенный (влияние человеческой деятельности на жизнь природы). Второй блок науки экологии занимается изучением популяций растений и животных. Популяции определяют как некую группировку особей одного вида, которые живут на одной территории и используют ее ресурсы. Также особи обладают одним органическим строением и биологическими свойствами.
И третий раздел экологии называют биоценология. Этот раздел занимает очень важное место в экологии. Он занимается изучением целых растительных и животных сообществ. Эти большие образования состоят из популяций разных видов.
Жизнь и внешний облик любого животного определяют условия пребывания, в которых животное оказывается. Все разнообразие форм жизни на Земле сформировалось благодаря разным местам обитания. Скажем, крот не нуждается в хорошем зрении, так как он живет под землей. Ему, скорее, лучше подойдут хорошие обонятельные способности. А вот обитателям неба, например, орлам, просто необходим острый глаз, способный видеть жертву с расстояния в несколько километров. Таким образом, в небе нужны крылья, ну а под землей - гладкая шерсть, которая может легко скользить в почве. Вот что изучает экология.
Деятельность экологов
Ну а чем занимаются сами ученые-экологи? Основная площадка их деятельности - это сама природа. Экологи выбираются в экспедиции, где исследуют все интересующие их факторы. Они изучают жизнь растений и животных в различных условиях, плотность и характер заселения видами разных территорий, пытаются выделить закономерности влияния факторов среды на животных и растения, проводят количественные расчеты, детально изучают популяции и большие сообщества. Несомненно, им есть чем заняться. Обычно экспедиции могут достигать нескольких месяцев по времени проведения. Но зачастую, и этого очень мало, чтобы успеть изучить все, что нужно.
Техническое оснащение экологов поразит фантазию даже самых ярых поклонников шпионских и детективных фильмов. На их вооружении находятся самолеты, вертолеты, автомобили повышенной проходимости, различные высокоточные приборы замера синтеза растений, термометры, действующие на расстоянии, эхолокаторы, радиотрекеры, приборы ночного видения и многое-многое другое. Вот что изучает экология.
Наука экология занимает важнейшее место в системе всех естественно научных направлений знания. Данные, которые получены экологами, могут использоваться в целях повышения качества жизни нашей планеты в целом. Таким образом, экология позволяет понять нашу планету, законы ее природы и роль влияния человека на Землю. Насколько мы портим или, наоборот, улучшаем жизнь нашей родной планеты? Вот на какой вопрос может ответить экология.
Task 36
Topics for final discussion.1. Environmental disasters are not all natural. What fabricated environmental disasters can you name? Choose one and discuss it causes and its effect on the environment. What can and should be done to prevent it happening?
2.Which kind of pollution do you feel most strongly about? Why?
3.What happens when we remove forests?
4.Comment on the following:” Progress without responsibility”.
5.Comment on the following: «Today every invention is received with a cry of triumph which soon turns into a cry of fear”. (Berthold Brecht)
6.Recycling as an important community service
Unit 3. EDUCATION
Lead-in:
The roots of education are bitter, but the fruit is sweet.
Aristotle
Education is not preparation for life; education is life itself.
John Dewey
Education is highly important in today society. Education is a formal process of learning in which some people consciously teach while others adopt the social role of learner. Education plays a major role in everyone life and without education a person will not get far in life. Education prepares a person to adapt to new skills and value that will be very essential in today society. Having an education is very essential and everyone should take advantage of his or her education. Education will help a person be prepared for the “real world”. Education allows people to have lots of skill and knowledge and it is always good to learn new things each day because the skill you learn in school you use outside of school. Having a preschool education and having a high school diploma is good, because it can help a person be successful especially if a person goes beyond high school. Having a college degree is more beneficial in today society, because it is good to have a high school diploma so you can go to college, but more jobs nowadays prefer a person to have some type of certification or at least an associate’s degree.


Pronunciation:
Task 1
Practice the reading of the following words and translate them into Russian.
assimilation [ əˌsɪm ɪˈleɪʃən ]
governance [ ˈɡʌvənənts ]
remuneration [ rɪˌmjuːnərˈeɪʃən ]
aspiration [ ˌæspɪˈreɪʃən ]
expectations [ ˌekspekˈteɪən ]
amass [ əˈmæs ]
competitive [ kəmˈpetətɪv ]
intricate [ ˈɪntrɪkət ]
collateral [ kəˈlætərəlyield [ jiːld ]
diversify [ daɪˈvɜːsɪfaɪ ]
idle [ ˈaɪdl̩ ]
Task 2
Make sure you can read these international words correctly and translate them into Russian.
technical, discipline, collection, ambition, institution, focus, motivate, memorize, college, professional, natural, intelligence, instincts, alternative, process, student, status quo, idea, system, emotional, type, certification.
Task 3
Verb
Noun
educate ---
instruct ---
--- employment
develop ---
--- improvement
support ---
--- significance
differ ---
Give the missing forms for the words from the text that are in the table below.
Noun Adjective
success ---
value ---
--- proud
--- able
--- financial
reason ---
ability ---
violence ---



Pre-reading:
Task 4
Before reading the text, answer the following questions.
What is education?
What do you think about the necessity of education?
Can education really remove the darkness of ignorance?
How does education promote understanding among people?
How can education contribute towards a change for the better?
Reading A
Task 5
Read the text, try to catch its essentials and be ready to do the tasks.
Education and Society
The only person who is educated is the one
who has learned how to learn and change.
Carl Rogers
Importance of Education in Society
Education, if looked at beyond its conventional boundaries, forms the very essence of all our actions. What we do is what we know and have learned, either through instructions or through observation and assimilation. When we are not making an effort to learn, our mind is always processing new information or trying to analyze the similarities as well as the tiny nuances within the context, which makes the topic stand out or seem different. If that is the case then the mind definitely holds the potential to learn more, however, it is us who stop ourselves from expanding the horizons of our knowledge with self-doubt or other social, emotional, or economic constraints.
While most feel that education is a necessity, they tend to use it as a tool for reaching a specific target or personal mark, after which there is no further need to seek greater education. Nonetheless, the importance of education in society is indispensable and cohering, which is why society and knowledge cannot be ever separated into two distinct entities. Let us find out more about the role of education in society and how it affects our lives.
Education is Self-EmprovementReceiving a good education helps empower you, thus making you strong enough to look after yourself in any given situation. It keeps you aware of your given surrounding as well as the rules and regulations of the society you are living in. It is only through knowledge that you can be able to question authority for its negligence or discrepancies. It is only then that you can avail your rights as a citizen and seek improvement in the structural functioning of governance and economy. It is only when a citizen is aware about the policies of its government can he be able to support or protest the change. As a whole, people can bring about development only when they know where improvement is necessary for the greater good of humanity. Education helps you understand yourself better; it helps you realize your potential and qualities as a human being. It helps you to tap into latent talent, so that you may be able to sharpen your skills.
Financial Stability and Dignity of Life
Another importance of education is that it helps you gain sufficient academic qualification so that you are able to get suitable employment at a later stage. A decent employment would be combined with hard-earned remuneration or salary through which you can look after your personal expenses. While you earn for yourself, you gradually begin to realize the true worth of money and how hard it is to earn it. You realize the significance of saving for a rainy day and for unforeseeable contingencies. You feel empowered because there is a new sense of worth that develops within you, and you feel the need to be independent and free from any further financial support. You take pride in the fact that you are earning for yourself, and are not obligated to anyone.
Growth in Personal Aspiration
There also comes a phase when the amount you are earning presently will seem inadequate because your aspirations and expectations from yourself would have grown considerably. After this, you will want to change jobs so as to have a higher profile. However, here is when you need to be prepared. A promotion of this figure can occur in two given situations, which are, that either you have the necessary higher academic qualification or a college degree which allows you a safe passage, or that you have amassed enough practical experience which allows you to be a suitable candidate for the employment you seek.
On the Job Efficiency
This is why college education is very important after high school and must not be taken for granted. When faced with the option of choosing between a highly qualified candidate and a not so educated candidate, the employers will most probably go in for the qualified person. The reason being that, a qualified candidate will not require much investment of the employer's time and money. The organization need not teach him or her the tricks of the trade, or the various ways of functioning and performing the tasks of the workplace. On the contrary, a novice / amateur applicant would need to be taught everything from scratch, which many employer's are usually not willing to do. The same applies for people who seek higher education and get advanced diplomas while working. These people are continuously improving their profile and their knowledge base so as to go higher up on the competitive ladder.
Helps Plan Ahead
Those who have amassed enough education, steer the path of development and progress for their country. It is these individuals who go ahead and become teachers, scientists, inventors, welfare activists, soldiers, and politicians who work together to form the very backbone of the society. Without this pool of intellect, the economic and social framework would crumple and fall, paving its way for anarchy, degradation, and violence. While this intricate balance of growth is maintained, there will be a continuous rise in progress in all quarters of life, whether that be personal growth, or development of the nation as an entity. This progress has a very important role to play for the coming generations, which will reap the benefits of our hard work, as they develop it further. At the same time, the negative impact of our actions shall have its collateral damage on the coming generation as well. Which is why we must be exceptionally prudent about the decisions we make and the actions we take in the present.Job Seeker vs. Job Provider
There will come a time, when you will no longer feel the need to be working as someone's mere employee. You would want to take charge and control over your own life and income. This is when you will decide to become a self-employed individual, who would like to watch his / her own ideas take realistic form. You would prefer being the one offering job opportunities to others and aid in providing income to them. At this stage of entrepreneurship, you may use your own expertise as well as that of other trained and skilled associates. As a team, you will find your business or venture expanding and yielding good results. You may even gain the confidence and insight, which will help you diversify and spread your expertise into other business arenas, which were previously unknown to you, or you were unsure about. This ability comes with experience and knowledge amassed over the years.
Education and studying regularly, gives people of all age groups something substantial and challenging to do. It helps them think and use their idle hours, doing something productive and worthwhile. Education need not be purely academic and may include reading for leisure or as a passion for literature, philosophy, art, politics, economics, or even scientific research. There is no limit, to all that you can teach yourself, only if you take the interest to learn and grow as an individual.
Task 6
Give the Russian equivalents to the following:
visionary ambitions, to research information, classroom environment, the opening paragraph, natural skills, a lifetime experience, knowledge-processing skills, to reinforce the status quo, adult life, behavior-control drugs, to land a job, in the long haul, above-average wage, customized education, prefer, citizen, personal, financial.
Task 7
Match up the words with a close meaning.
A B
strongavail
improvement
stability
qualification
decent
begin (v)
save(v)
further
passion steadiness; stableness
start
experience
capable, powerful
advance, progress
to preserve; rescue
far
affection
profit; success; benefit
appropriate
Task 8
Match up the words with the opposite meaning.
A B
use
reason
insight
ability
prudent
support (v)
offer (v)
empower(v)
significance
understand challenge, contradict, deny
careless, stupid, unwise
refuse, disapprove, reject
disadvantage, harm
meaninglessness, unimportance
disapprove, ignore
refuse
stupidity
weakness, incapability
mistake, ignorance
Task 9
Match the following words with their definitions.
amass
option
unforeseeable
violence
amateur
prudent
contingency
venture
employee
collateral incapable of being anticipated
a person who pursues an activity in their spare time for pleasure
a possible event or occurrence or result
a worker who is hired to perform a job
to collect into a mass or heap; to accumulate
a commercial undertaking that risks a loss but promises a profit
the right of choice or election; an alternative
characterized by great caution and wariness
an act of aggression (as one against a person who resists
descended from a common ancestor but through different lines
Task 10
Use suffixes and prefixes to form different parts of speech.
- cial; -ful; -ment; ;-ency ;-al; -sion; -able; dis - ; -ation; - ance; -ity; in-; -tioncollect; inform; motivate; perform; evaluate; measure; accept; nature; person; comfort; appear; efficient; educate; employ; success; benefit; empower; able; associate; expect; dependent; distinct; develop; necessary.
Task 11
The table below contains words that have been chopped in half. Find the pieces that fit together and write them down.
oolta motiledge
creaill demicsys
legeinforcol room
sttem cation teeduschtivityskonaryteach leardicticlass vationlent mationknow ningeraca
Task 12
Guess the words.
ncehrldi __________________________
icnqouaaiiflt ___________________________
etadandic ___________________________
cifienecyif __________________________
rpdivoro ____________________________
uternev ____________________________
iligyedn ____________________________
Task 13
Which preposition goes with the following verbs and word combinations?
Choose the right one: of--- after--- about--- for—on
1) to take advantage ----
2) type --- certification
3) to look --- yourself
4) to keep aware --- something
5) to be aware ---the policies
6) to earn --- yourself
7) true worth --- money
8) to take proud --- the fact
9) – the contrary
10) to be prudent ---
Task 14
Match an adjective (A) and a noun (B).
A B
financial
practical
rainy
new
negative
economic
decent
personal
qualified
pre-school aspiration
education
candidate
constraints
support
day
impact
decent
employment
skills
experience
Task 15
Make a list of words connected with education.
Task 16
Is education important in all spheres of life?
How does education effect our financial stability?
Why do people need to save for a rainy day?
Why is a qualified candidate preferable for any employer?
How does education help plan ahead?
A self-employed individual should / should not be educated. Agree or disagree.
An educated person is never bored. Yes. No.
What does “an idle mind is the devil’s workshop” mean?
What does education give you as a citizen?
Does education have any limits and restrictions?
Task 17
Tell the story of the pictures.

The Architect Made
Houses.
The Writer Made
Poetry.
The Scientist Made
Discoveries
The Teacher Made Them ALL.
.


READING B

Task 18
Read the text, try to catch its essentials and be ready to do the tasks.
The only person who is educated is the one
who has learned how to learn and change.
Carl Rogers
What is Education?
What is education? Is it knowledge in basic skills, academics, technical disciplines, citizenship…or is it something else? Our formal education system says only the academic basics are important, emphasizing the collection of knowledge without understanding its value. What about the processing of knowledge—using inspiration, visionary ambitions, creativity, risk, motivation and the ability to bounce back from failure? These skills are associated with understanding the value of knowledge, but many education institutions do not consider these skills. There is a huge, disconnected gap, which is a problem for high school students in particular.
Thomas Edison and many other super achievers never finished school. They succeeded because they knew how to research information for a selected project and process that knowledge. The classroom environment does not work that way. It focuses on the collection of knowledge with no clear purpose other than high grades. If pleasing the teacher does not motivate, then there is nothing to process, outside of memorizing answers for a test. The typical student is academically challenged while being starved for motivation. Lack of motivation is lack of knowledge-processing skills. The typical college graduate will emerge with a professional skill that can provide for life’s basic needs, but that is all.
What is education? All the elements in the opening paragraph relate to education, and all should be considered. This would be ideal, but “all” is not possible where performance must be measured. Only what can be measured will be selected, and the measuring tool is the written test. Anyone who does not have the ability to put clear thoughts on paper is labeled a failure. Natural skills, including knowledge processing, do not count. What is exercised grows stronger, and what is ignored stays dormant. The classroom exercises the collection of academics, leaving all other natural skills in the closet.
Tests do not measure intelligence or ability; they do not measure how the mind processes information, how motivating experiences develop persistence, or how the mind sorts out instincts, opinions, evaluations, possibilities and alternatives. Knowledge by itself has no value; it is like a dictionary filled with words. Words alone have no value; they are given meaning by the process of stringing them together. Teaching to the test does not inspire or motivate anyone. Memorizing does not inspire a love of learning; in fact, it does just the opposite. Education’s goal should be to develop a love of learning that stays with students throughout their lives. Education should be a lifetime experience, not limited to youth.
All young children have a natural talent for creatively processing information. It is during the teen years that natural creative processing is replaced with the status quo: memorizing knowledge, without regard to how to process it. In the classroom, memorizing is what counts. Standardized testing reinforces the status quo. It kills creative processing ability. Status quo attitudes will follow children into adult life, where they will have to ask their children for help. Today, the educational system has a new tool on the market: behavior-control drugs. Any student who refuses to accept the status quo is labeled a troublemaker and will be drugged. The glassy-eyed student will then behave in the classroom, and school officials will receive high performance ratings. The student may get passing grades and land a job with a comfortable wage, but that will be the extent of it. His teenage dreams and great ambitions will be gone.
The typical employer wants employees with dictionary knowledge, not visionaries. Businesses want employees who follow orders, are willing to do repetitive tasks, are happy with a limited role, and accept the status quo. Repetitive tasks means efficiency, which is where profits are made. In addition, accepting the status quo prevents the exposure of blunders by leaders. Too many blunders and profits disappear. In a status-quo environment, visionaries become bored quickly and soon receive the “troublemaker” label when they offer alternatives or expose blunders. This sometimes leads to dismissal, even though their ideas can increase efficiency and create new sources of profits for the company. In the long haul, visionaries are the ones who make above-average wages, no matter their formal education level. However, with behavior-controlling drugs, the education system now has the tools to eliminate this type of person.
E-learning is becoming an education model that the present system cannot compete with. It focuses on what motivates, rather than what the system thinks is good for students. It is also sidestepping politicians, textbook industries, testing companies and unions. These forces are now fighting back, trying to maintain a system that is in their own interest, instead of the students’. At this time, they are focusing on standardized testing, which seems to be a final effort to maintain the status quo.
What can be considered a quality education? A quality education is custom designed, addressing the unique abilities of each student, and provides a positive emotional experience. Customized education evaluates natural talent and how a student learns.
Task 19
What is the meaning of the underlined words? Translate the following sentences.
These skills are associated with understanding the value of knowledge, but many education institutions do not consider these skills.
It is during the teen years that natural creative processing is replaced with the status quo: memorizing knowledge, without regard to how to process it.
The student may get passing grades and land a job with a comfortable wage, but that will be the extent of it.
Education should be a lifetime experience, not limited to youth.
Lack of motivation is lack of knowledge-processing skills.
His teenage dreams and great ambitions will be gone.
Task 20
Answer the following questions.
Why is creativity important in/for education?
What does classroom environment focus on?
What does lack of information lead to?
Tests measure intelligence. Yes. No.
What is “knowledge’? Give your definition.
Why is education a lifetime experience?
Is it possible to memorize knowledge?
Employers do not want visionaries. Yes. No.
Is E-learning progressing nowadays? Yes. No.
Do all people value education?
Task 21
Recognize facts and opinions in the text.
Task 22
Write out the words you find most important for understanding the text and write a brief summary of the text.
Task 23
Render the text into English.
Знания – залог будущего успеха
Образование — это результат обучения.
Образованный человек — человек, который овладел определенным объемом систематизированных знаний и, кроме того, привык логически, выделяя причины и следствия, мыслить.
Главный критерий образованности — системность знаний и системность мышления, проявляющиеся в том, что человек способен самостоятельно восстанавливать недостающие звенья в системе знаний с помощью логических рассуждений.
В зависимости от объема полученных знаний и достигнутого уровня самостоятельности мышления различают начальное, среднее и высшее образование. По характеру и направленности образование подразделяется на общее, профессиональное и политехническое.
Общее образование дает знание основ наук о природе, обществе, человеке, формирует диалектико-материалистическое мировоззрение, развивает познавательные способности. Общее образование дает понимание основных закономерностей развития в окружающем человека мире, необходимые каждому человеку учебные и трудовые умения, разнообразные практические навыки.
Политехническое образование знакомит с основными принципами современного производства, вырабатывает навыки обращения с простейшими орудиями труда, которые применяются в быту и повседневной жизни.
Посредством образования происходит трансляция культуры от одного поколения другому.
С одной стороны, на образование оказывают влияние экономическая и политическая сферы общественной жизни, а также социокультурная среда — национальные, региональные, религиозные традиции (поэтому модели и формы образования значительно отличаются друг от друга: можно говорить о русской, американской, французской системах образования).
С другой стороны, образование — относительно самостоятельная подсистема социальной жизни, которая может оказывать влияние на все сферы жизни общества. Так, модернизация образования в стране позволяет в дальнейшем повысить качество трудовых ресурсов и, следовательно, способствовать развитию экономики. Гражданское образование способствует демократизации политической сферы общества, юридическое — укреплению правовой культуры. В целом качественное образование формирует гармоничную личность как в общекультурном плане, так и в профессиональном.
Образование имеет большое значение не только для общества, но и для индивида.
Система образования включает:
дошкольные образовательные учреждения;
общеобразовательные учреждения;
образовательные учреждения высшего профессионального образования (высшее учебное заведение);
образовательные учреждения среднего специального образования (среднее специальное учебное заведение);
негосударственные образовательные учреждения;
дополнительное образование.
По формам обучения выделяются очная, заочная, экстернат, по индивидуальному плану, дистанционная формы.
Содержание образования — это конкретный объем знаний, умений и навыков по той или иной учебной дисциплине, который отбирается из соответствующих областей знаний на основе имеющихся дидактических принципов.
Отобранная информация передается обучающимся при помощи определенных средств обучения, источников информации (слово обучающего, учебное пособие, наглядные и технические средства).
Task 24
Topics for final discussion.
There is a difference between intelligence and education.
Comment on the following: “An investment in knowledge pays the best interest”. (Benjamin Franklin)
What are the most criticized features of education today?
Difference between grading systems in Russia and other countries.
Combining job and study.
The value of University degree.
The ways of self-education.
Task 25
Project work
Organize your knowledge on the topic and present a report using the following diagram.

Write about education system in your country. Use the questions as a guide.
236029514605When do they start secondary school?
00When do they start secondary school?
34417088265At what age do children start primary school?
00At what age do children start primary school?
428244088900What are the most important school exams?
00What are the most important school exams?

50165012065DO MOST PEOPLE GET A JOB WHEN THEY LEAVE SCHOOL OR DO THEY GO TO UNIVERSITY OR COLLEGE?
00DO MOST PEOPLE GET A JOB WHEN THEY LEAVE SCHOOL OR DO THEY GO TO UNIVERSITY OR COLLEGE?

473646510160How long does it take to get a university degree?
00How long does it take to get a university degree?

Unit 4. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Lead-in:
Science is important to most people living in the modern world for a number of reasons. In particular, science is important for world peace and understanding, for understanding technology, and for understanding the world. Science is important for world peace in many ways. On the one hand, scientists have helped to develop many of the modern tools of war. On the other hand, they have also helped to keep the peace through research, which has improved life for people. Scientists have helped us understand the problem of supplying the world with enough energy: using energy of the sun and of the atom. Scientists have also analyzed the world's resources. Scientists study the Universe and its possibilities for the benefit of people. Scientists are also important for everyone who is affected by modern technology. Many of the things that make our lives easier and better are results of advances in technology. In some cases, such as technology of producing salt from ocean water, technology may be essential for our lives on Earth. Scientists are learning to predict earthquakes, to study many other natural events such as storms. Scientists are also studying various aspects of human biology and the origin and development of the human race. The study of the natural world may help improve life for many people all over the world. Basic knowledge of science is essential for everyone. It helps people to find their way in the changing world.
The science of today is the technology of tomorrow.
Edward Teller
Science is organized knowledge.
Wisdom is organized life.
Immanuel Kant (1724 - 1804)
Pre-reading:
Task 1
Practice the reading of the following words.
Technology, beneficial, deterioration, society, philosophy, characterize, eventually, scientific, phenomenon, spiritual, politicians, issue, machinery, technique, biodiversity, experience, competitive, consequence, mature.
Task 2
Make sure you can read these international words correctly and translate them into Russian.
Global, destruction, civilization, activity, commerce, agriculture, regularity, observation, natural, practical, realize, mastering, mystical, public, limitation, transportation, accumulation, degradation, superconductivity, detailed, restructure.
Task 3
Give the nouns and of the following words and translate them.
Advance, beneficial, describe, define, suggest, distinct, weak, evident, assume, verifiable, believe, separate, mystical, immortal, convert, different, gradually, improve, probably, quicken, link, intensify, measure, treat, deep, clean, know, capable, wealthy, warm, depend, improve, complex, maintain, efficient.
Task 4
Before reading the text, answer the following questions.
1. What is science and technology?
2. How does science influence everyday life? Give examples.
3. Can science explain all secrets of nature?
4. How Has Technology Affected Your Life?
5. Does living in a technologically advanced society have a positive or negative effect on humanity?
6. Has technology made the world smaller or bigger?
7. What will technology do to the way we live in twenty-five years?
Task 5
Read the text and be ready to do the exercises.
Text A
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
The world of the 21st century has become so interconnected that the phrase "the global village" has become acceptable as a term to describe modern society. Today information technology links people and places from all civilizations, and national economies have become increasingly interconnected.
Whether it is commerce or media, manufacturing or agriculture, the advancing globalization of human activity would be unthinkable without the development of science and technology. Their contributions have not always been beneficial; indeed, many would argue that science is to be blamed for the deterioration of the global environment that we are witnessing today. However, is it science that, through its applications, leads to global warming, the ozone hole, weapons of mass destruction and widespread poverty? Or do these developments occur through actions of those who control science and use its findings for their own aims?
The most basic definition of science is "systematic knowledge of nature through repeatable observation and experimentation." Its aim is the discovery of the laws that govern natural phenomena. Regularity suggests that nature is not all chaos but follows rules. Defined in the way science has been a human activity well before the development of the first civilizations. The oldest civilizations are believed to have emerged some time before 6200 BC.
Such early evidence of scientific activity does of course not mean that the ancient society employed scientists. The term "scientist" as a description of a profession was first used in the 19th century. In early societies scientific study was undertaken by priests and monks, and scientific knowledge was taught in temples and monasteries. As civilizations developed, the link between science and religion weakened and science became the domain of philosophy. A clear distinction between science and religion did not develop until well into the 18th century. Religion, like science, attempts to establish a system of knowledge about nature. All religions are based on the belief that gods act in an orderly fashion and make sure that nature follows rules. The human mind is opposed to chaos; it can only make sense of an ordered world and finds order to meet its needs, even where order may not exist. While science is a system of knowledge based on repeatable observation and experiment, religion is a system of knowledge based on unverifiable belief. Early societies had only limited means of experimentation, and their endeavor to discover the laws of nature had to rely on a range of unverifiable assumptions. As human knowledge progressed, the need for unverifiable assumptions decreased progressively, and eventually science and religion separated.
People in early human societies had to spend much of their time procuring food and shelter and could not afford to put much effort into non-essential activities. If science was practiced in the earliest societies, it must have been for a purpose; in other words, science was undertaken for practical applications. Sometimes the practical applications resulted in new technological developments.
The word technology has changed its meaning several times since it came into use in Europe during the 17th century. In the most general terms, it can be defined as the application of knowledge about nature to practical aims of human endeavor. If this definition is accepted it follows that technological development occurred at least as early as first scientific study. Stone-age humans realized that flint stone produces better cutting tools than sandstone. They made that discovery and used their new knowledge well before someone found the scientific explanation for the phenomenon.
Long periods of human history were characterized by the mastering of technologies such as the smelting of copper, bronze or iron, without much knowledge of the underlying scientific principles. In some societies, this lack of scientific understanding gave technology mystical qualities and lead to misguided activities such as medieval European alchemy (unscientific attempts to convert lead or other low value metals into silver or gold) or the quest for immortality through chemical concoctions in ancient China.
Today the situation is very different. Most new technology is the result of scientific research that preceded it. It is also generally accepted that today science and technology are closely linked and that science provides the theoretical underpinning for its technological applications. The symbol of this symbiosis is probably Thomas Alva Edison, the first engineer to establish a factory for inventions just before the 20th century.
In this context technology and science have to be seen as closely related, since both require systematic thinking and experimentation. They began as parallel developments, initially more or less independent of each other, but grew closer as the centuries progressed, and became eventually inseparable. Science is a foundation that is closely linked to people’s lives, relations, views, and behaviors. While growing, the tree of new science has challenged the earth and water and the spiritual and mental atmosphere of the Renaissance. It has gradually gained its place as the coordinator of conditions and the stabilizer of life order.
Science is said to have a method. Can any individual at any place reach the expected result of his/her research provided that he or she uses the right method? The conditions under which science is created and its benefits and dangers are the questions that philosophers, scientists, and politicians should address. This statement is true to some extent.
Scientific knowledge can improve the quality of life at many different levels - from the routine workings of our everyday lives to global issues. Science informs public policy and personal decisions on energy conservation, agriculture, health, transportation, communication, defense, economics, leisure, and exploration. It's almost impossible to overstate how many aspects of modern life are impacted by scientific knowledge.

Task 6
Find the following word combinations in the text and give their Russian equivalents.
Become increasingly interconnected; whether it is commerce or media; science is to be blamed for the deterioration of the global environment; the oldest civilizations are believed to have emerged some time before 6200 BC; the endeavor to discover the laws of nature had to rely on a range of unverifiable assumptions; to spend much of their time procuring food and shelter; lead to misguided activities; science provides the theoretical underpinning for its technological application; the tree of new science has challenged the earth and water and the spiritual and mental atmosphere of the Renaissance; it's almost impossible to overstate how many aspects of modern life are impacted by scientific knowledge.
Task 7
Match up the words with a close meaning.
transform
develop
influence
define
achieve
research
invent
suggest
connect
provide attain
convert
supply
impact
evolve
design
investigate
relate
determine
propose improve
advance
result in
result from
involve
expand
associate
attempt
destroy
benefit extend
have a result
be a reason
link
enhance
progress
destruct
gain
include
try
Task 8
Match up the words with the opposite meaning.
eventually
gain
undertake
durable
lack
create
ancient
underpin
require
rapid temporary
destroy
not want
modern
deny, refuse
never
demolish
slow
failure, waste
abundance
Task 9
Match the following words with their definitions.
acceptable
unthinkable
blame
deterioration
widespread
ancient
establish
rule
chaos
exist
a gradual decline, as in quality, serviceability, or vigor.
very old; old-fashioned or antique
a principle or regulation governing conduct, action, procedure, arrangement
to hold responsible; find fault with; censure
to have actual being; be
pleasing to the receiver; satisfactory; agreeable; welcome
occurring in many places or among many persons or individuals
a state of utter confusion or disorder; a total lack of organization or order
inconceivable; unimaginable:
to found, institute, build
Task 10
The table below contains words that have been chopped in half. Find pieces that fit together and write them down.
so 8.ven 15.ri 22.ms
info 9. stu16. ti23. non
phe10. philp17. nology24. dyli 11. expe18. me 25. menttech 12. cence19. ciety26. on
in 13.ai 20. no 27. tionsci14.rma 21. sophy28. feTask 11
Guess the words.
o i n t n f i s e _________________
t i r h o y s _________________
u i i n t t o s a _________________
h m e a s e t p r o _________________
h n e n o m p e o n _________________
i i s f e t i c n c _________________
Task 12
Which preposition goes with the following words? Choose the right one.
230712116529300179028715734100development a) science
definition of b) nature
domain c) the laws
knowledge d) civilizations
make sense on e) philosophy
discovery f) something
means between g) experimentations
application h) knowledge
link i) science and religion
oppose to j) chaos
rely k) assumptions
Task 13
Match an adjective and a noun.
repeatable
technological
unverifiable
human
the earliest
systematic
industrial
scientific
spiritual
optical societies
atmosphere
performance
fibers
principles
mind
observation
assumption
application
knowledge
Task 14
Make a list of words connected with science and technology.
Task 15
Answer the following questions.
How does information technology connect people and places?
What is the most basic definition of science?
What is the aim of science?
What does the term scientist mean?
Is science connected with religion?
What is the difference between science and religion?
What can you tell about science in early human societies?
What does the word technology mean?
What is the connection between science and technology?
What is scientific knowledge?
Task 16
Tell the story of the picture.
(1) (2)

(3)


Task 17
Read the text, try to catch its essentials and be ready to do the tasks.
The important thing
in science is not so much to obtain new facts
as to discover new ways of thinking about them.
Sir William Bragg (1862 - 1942)
Computers make it easier
to do a lot of things, but most of the things
they make it easier
to do don't need to be done. - Andy Rooney
TEXT B
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN MODERN SOCIETY
About 200 years ago the pace of technological change in western society began to quicken. Wind, water, and animal power, with their limitations of place and capacity, were supplemented and then replaced by the steam engine, which went on to power the factories of the industrial revolution. The railroad made it possible to move things and people quickly over great distances. The telegraph and, later, the telephone carried communications across the countryside. Electric lighting supplanted the dim glow of candles, kerosene, and gas lights.
By the beginning of the twentieth century, the notion of progress was closely linked with technological development, and that linkage intensified in the following decades. The automobile and the airplane changed not only travel but the nature of our cities and towns. Radio and then television brought more of the outside world into everyone’s homes. Knowledge about the causes of diseases brought new treatments and preventive measures. Computers appeared, and soon the transistor made them smaller, more powerful, more accessible, and cheaper.
Today, the system by which research and development leads to new products is fundamentally different from what it was in the nineteenth century. Organized research and development, which are increasingly international in character, have greatly increased the production of new knowledge. Deeper understanding of living organisms is leading toward cures of diseases once thought Конец формы untreatable. Basic insights in materials science enable the development of structures that are lighter, stronger, and more durable than anything available before. The computer and novel modes of communication, such as optical fibers, bring new, interactive modes of work and more capable machinery. These new devices and new ways of working, in turn, speed the growth and dissemination of new knowledge.
The accumulation of scientific knowledge and new technologies has transformed human life. Technologies have helped provide many people with standards of warmth, cleanliness, nutrition, medical care, transportation, and entertainment far beyond those of even the wealthy two centuries ago.  They have also presented us with difficult questions about how to use science and technology most effectively to meet human needs. The computer and novel modes of communication, such as optical fibers, bring new, interactive modes of work and more capable machinery. These new devices and new ways of working, in turn, speed the growth and dissemination of new knowledge.
The rapid rate of material progress can continue, but it is not inevitable. The extent to which the products of science and technology are useful depends on the needs of society. Each of the four areas - industrial performance, health care, national security, and environmental protection - uses these products in different ways. Progress is more likely if we understand these differences. Only then, we can effectively translate scientific and technical understanding into the techniques, tools, and insights that improve the quality of our lives.
Industries differ in the manner and extent to which they use the results of research. Some, such as the semiconductor industry, the biotechnology industry, and parts of the chemical industry, were created and shaped almost entirely by ideas that grew out of science. Semiconductors were in this stage right after the invention of the transistor; more recently, biotechnology went through Конец формы
this stage after the development of recombinant DNA techniques. High-temperature superconductivity is a scientific discovery that shows promise of leading to new industries and is in this stage today.
As science-based industries continue to develop, they remain closely dependent on continuous inputs of new science, often produced by university researchers. These industries depend as well on the technological development of these ideas in order to grow and to widen their range of products. At an early stage, these industries tend to be small, to move at a fast technical and competitive pace, and to have enormous potential. Biotechnology is now in this stage.
In a more mature stage, a science-based industry may still be growing quickly, but it depends on the progress of academic scientists. The semiconductor industry, for example, moves at a fast technical pace and requires increasingly detailed knowledge of its materials and, as the individual transistors buried in its chips become ever smaller, even of new quantum phenomena. However, its scientific needs are met almost entirely by the work of semiconductor scientists and engineers working in the plants and laboratories of the semiconductor companies. Indeed, industry scientists are often the only ones with the detailed knowledge needed to make incremental improvements in the technologies.
Another example of an industry at a mature stage is the aircraft industry, where thousands of scientists and engineers are required to deal with the enormous complexities of new plane design. Investments in manufacturing tools and plants are often measured in hundreds of millions of dollars. Only major companies can act on this scale, and only they have the technological knowledge and experience needed to design these complex products.
The most mature industries - for example, the automobile or construction industries - move at a slower technological pace and require fewer inputs from current science, whether generated by their own laboratories or by university research. Many of these were not based on science even at their birth. They do, however, require the highest levels of technological and production know-how.
Environmental degradation continues to accompany many aspects of economic growth. Emissions and effluents of contaminated materials continue, waste disposal plagues urban areas, forests continue to be devastated, and biodiversity losses are growing. At the same time, science and technology have exposed new issues of great complexity and uncertain consequences, such as global warming, acid precipitation, the destruction of the stratospheric ozone layer, and the contamination of water supplies.
By the middle of the twenty-first century, the human population is projected to double to around 11 billion people, and, to meet their basic needs, the global economy will need to be several times larger than it is now. Many industrial and agricultural practices and products used today in energy and food production, transportation, and manufacturing will need to be restructured to prevent pollution if sustainable economic growth is to be achieved. In some situations, existing technologies can be made cleaner and more efficient; in others, entirely new technologies, including energy technologies, will be needed.
Almost all fields of science and technology can contribute to the reduction of environmental degradation. Biotechnology, materials science and engineering, and information technologies can enable the efficient use of raw materials and prevent pollution at the source. Reducing and preventing pollution is an important goal of the new field of industrial ecology, which, by examining industrial processes, strives to maintain sustainable technological growth.
Task 18
What is the meaning of the underlined words? Translate the following sentences.
By the beginning of the twentieth century, the notion of progress was closely linked with technological development, and that linkage intensified in the following decades.
Knowledge about the causes of diseases brought new treatments and preventive measures.
Organized research and development, which are increasingly international in character, have greatly increased the production of new knowledge.
Deeper understanding of living organisms is leading toward cures of diseases once thought untreatable.
Progress is more likely if we understand these differences.
As science-based industries continue to develop, they remain closely dependent on continuous inputs of new science, often produced by university researchers.
Task 19
Answer the following questions.
When did the pace of technological change start?
How can you characterize the beginning of the 20th century?
What is/are the difference/s in science of the 19th and 20th centuries?
How did science change human life?
Progress has its beginning and its end. Yes/No.
How do industries develop?
How did new technologies change our life?
Scientific research are becoming more and more international. Is it positive or negative?
What will happen if progress stops one day?
The human population is projected to double. What will happen to science and technology?
Task 20
Recognize facts and opinions in the text.
Task 21
Write a brief summary of the text.
Task 22
Render the text into English.
Технологии в нашей жизни
В настоящее время люди с трудом представляют свою жизнь без современных технологий. Почти невозможно выйти из дома, например, без мобильного телефона или MP3-плеера. Эти устройства стали важной частью нашей жизни. Кроме того, почти каждый день изобретаются новые технологии или совершенствуется уже существующие. Чтобы идти в ногу со временем, люди покупают новинки. Вскоре наши дома и рабочие места будет выглядеть как магазины электроники. Технологии окружают нас повсюду. Прежде всего, они нужны для работы. Все современные офисы оснащены компьютерами, сканерами, принтерами и другими полезными машинами. Одним из самых важных устройств сегодня является Wi-Fi модем, поскольку он обеспечивает Интернет. Во-вторых, технологии окружают нас дома, в автомобилях и повсеместно. Это включает в себя телевизоры, радиоприемники, холодильники, пылесосы, стиральные машины, CD-плееры, электронные книги, фотоаппараты и т.д. Пожалуй, самая важная вещь в техническом прогрессе – это то, что он позволяет нам делать многие вещи, которые были бы невозможны без него. Например, мы можем общаться с друзьями из других стран с помощью компьютеров. Мы даже можем видеть их и общаться в реальном времени. Есть люди, которые выступают против новых технологий. Технический прогресс сделал нашу жизнь более интересной и яркой. Благодаря компьютерам и Интернету появилось много дополнительных образовательных ресурсов. Такая электроника, как пылесос, стиральная машина, микроволновая печь, посудомоечная машина, блендер и некоторые другие предметы, облегчили нам жизнь. Новые технологии ведут нас к лучшему. Технологический прогресс продолжается, и он движется довольно быстро. Скоро мы будем жить в «умных» домах с роботами, которые будут делать все вместо нас.
Task 23
Topics for final discussion.Ancient technology
Are we addicted to technology?
Life without Wi-Fi.
A world without technology.
Parents and Technology.
Women in science.
Task 26
Organize your knowledge on the topic and present a report using the following diagram.


Unit 5. Academic and professional events
International scientific conferences
Lead-in:
Task 1. Work in groups and discuss the questions. Then briefly tell the class what you have learned.
1.How often do you take part in international conferences?
2. Have you ever given a presentation at one? If yes, in which language did you present?
3.Where do you usually get information about conferences?
4.When you read a conference announcement, what information do you look for first?
Task 2. Skim the text and answer the questions.
1.What is its purpose?
2.What information can you get from it?
3.Can you work out the general meaning based only on the content words?
Host: Queen's University, International ASET Inc.
Organizers: International ASET Inc.
Deadline for abstracts: 15 March 2018
ICEPR is a series of international conferences held yearly. These conferences focus on all aspects of Environmental Science, Engineering, and Technology. After successfully holding the first ICEPR in Ottawa (Canada), International ASET Inc. will be hosting the next conference in Montreal. The aim of ICEPR '18 is to bring together the Canadian and international communities working in the field of environmental sciences, engineering and technology, and to foster an environment conducive to recent advances in this field. This conference will also provide an excellent opportunity to develop new collaborations and gather world experts on the different topics including pollution detection, environmental remediation and pollution prevention. Through the second conference, a great opportunity to share knowledge and expertise will be created, taking advantage of the synergy of the first conference. The ICEPR 18 program will include invited keynote talks, oral presentation sessions, and poster sessions. Email: icepr2018@icepr489.com
Task 3. Find the following words in the conference announcements. What parts of speech (nouns or verbs) are they in the texts?
advance share shape focus host study trust aim highlight research
Task 4. Complete the sentences with words from task 3. First, decide which part of speech it should be. In one sentence more than one answer is possible.
Oxford University's Centre for Drug Prevention Studies is to ____a conference
on 20 April, aimed at assessing new rehabilitation methods.
Professor Samuelsson's talk has to be the ____of this year's forum.
The ______ of cross-cultural differences in the development of research methods,
nomenclature and research organization between different national and geographical traditions is our first objective.
4.Other factors, like the institutional need to______knowledge, to publish, to engage in research, and to generate performance indicators, would remain challenges for modern academia.
5. The ____of this sign proves its hieroglyphic origin.
6. Schools must get regular feedback from the communities they _____to serve.
Task 5. Match the words (1-7) with the correct definition of the word as it is used in the announcements.
1. session
a) a formal meeting or series of meetings of an organization such as a parliament or a law court
b) a period of time or meeting arranged for a particular activity
2. key
a) a piece of metal that is used for opening or closing a lock, starting a car engine, etc.
b) any of the set of controls that you press with your fingers on a computer or
musical instrument to produce letters, numbers or musical notes (noun)
с) very important and having a lot of influence on other people or things (adj.)
3. to hold
a) to take and keep something in your hand or arms
b) to believe an idea or opinion
с) to make something, especially a meeting or an election, happen
d) to have something, especially a position or money, or to control something
4. culture
a) ways of working that are typical of an organization
b) the ways of life, customs and beliefs of a group of people
с) activities involving music and the arts
d) the act of growing crops
5. forum
a) a situation or meeting in which people can talk about a problem or matter
especially of public interest
b) a place on the internet where people can leave messages or discuss particular subjects with other people
6. to advance
a) to go or move something forward
b) to pay someone some money before the regular time
с) to develop or improve something
7. particular
a) special, great
b) specific, this and no other
с) demanding that close attention should be given to every detail
Task 6. Look at these expressions with the word paper. Which ones have the same meaning of paper in the conference announcements?
1. to paper walls5 a foreign policy paper
2. a paper on nanotechnology6 paper money
3. to recycle paper7 to submit a paper
4. a paper outline8 a paper document
Task 7. Make sure you understand the meaning of these words and phrases from a call for papers.
to provide a platform interdisciplinary
to submit papers welcome contributions
areas of research take place
registration fee abstractsto announce
Task 8. Work in pairs. Where do you think the words and phrases in task 7 will appear in a call for papers?
a) near the beginning
b) in the main part
с) near the end
Task 9. Complete the text below with words and phrases from task 7. How many of your predictions were correct?
For International Young Scholars Symposium
Discourse, ideology and Society (DIS)
Organised by the Discourse and Culture Academic Society (DISCAS)
Paris, France, 18-20 October 2018
Call for papers deadline: 10 August 2018
First Circular - Call for Papers
We would like 1____that the first international young scholars symposium on Discourse, Ideology and Society will 2_______in France, on 18-20 October 2018. Our goal is 3____where young researchers can share their expertise, interests and passion for discourse and its multiple social, political, and cultural contexts.
This 4______conference intends to explore the notion of discourse as socially constituted, historically shaped and ideologically conditioned, and to promote multidisciplinarity and integration across various fields of discourse and representation-related research. Bridging the gap between qualitative and quantitative approaches, we want to look for new solutions and tools that will allow us to cope with methodological challenges and will make it possible to address the discourse-society dialectics in a novel and comprehensive way.
We 5_______from all of the following areas: linguistics, sociology, political studies, psychology, journalism and media studies, advertising, culture studies and businesscommunication. The contributions of BA, MA and PhD students and young researchers are particularly encouraged. Possible 6____________include, but are by no means limited to, the following:
perspectives on discourse and communication
qualitative and quantitative methodologies in discourse studies
political discourse and communication
stereotypes and discrimination in discourse
discourse, ideology and conflict
persuasion, manipulation and propaganda
business and corporate communication
advertising discourse
visual communication
Confirmed keynote speakers
Professor Jean Paul Jolly
Dr Martine Abdallah-PretceilleProfessor Jason Gardener
Abstract submission
Papers will be allocated 20 minutes plus 10 minutes for questions. The language of the conference is English.7_____of no more than 350 words (excluding references) should be sent by email as a Word attachment to conference@FIYSS.pl by 10 August 2018. Please include your name, affiliation, email address and paper title in the body of the email. Notification of acceptance decisions will be communicated via email by 10 September 2018.
Proceedings
Presenters will be invited 8_______based on the general theme for publication in a post-conference volume. A selection of papers will also be published in Papers in Pragmatics in printed and electronic formats.
Registration
The 9_______covers a set of conference materials, coffee breaks with refreshments and access to internet facilities. The regular fee is €80. Participants from France, East European countries and other developing states (please contact the organisers to check if you qualify) will be offered a reduced fee of €50 (conference fee). Fees should be transferred by 30 September 2018 to this bank account.
Unit 6. TYPES OF ACADEMIC AND PROFESSIONAL EVENTS
Lead-in:
Task 1. Look at the list of academic and professional events. Which of them take place online and which involve face-to-face interaction?
an e-conference, a video conference, a round table, a webinar, a forum, a summer school (university) .
Task 2. Look quickly through Texts A-D. Complete them with the types of professional events below. There is one event you do not need.
a summer school, a webinar, a round table, an e-conference, a forum
A
ICNC's Academic1_____are a series of online talks and visual presentations on critical ideas, cases, and questions related to civil resistance and nonviolent movements. They are intended for general learners, students, and interested professionals.
These hour-long 2_____are offered bi-weekly, typically on Thursdays from 12-1 p.m. EST. Scholars deliver 30-40 minute presentations, which are followed by a 20-30 minutequestion-and-answer session. Preliminary readings may also be recommended prior to the presentation and will be sent in advance to those who register for the 3_____.
B
Date: 29-31 March 2018
Venue: Hotel Intourist, Moscow
The 4______ will feature plenary talks and discussions, practical workshops, discussion groups, open space, online coverage and much more. If you are interested in speaking at the 5 ____ please complete the speaker proposal form and return it to ellsp22@ristuu.ru by 11 March. If you would like to participate as a delegate, please complete the online registration form by 25 March. The participation in the 6_____is free for all registered delegates. This includes access to all sessions, welcome pack, coffee breaks and lunches. Certificates of attendance will be provided at the end of the 7_____. International delegates will need to arrange their own visas, accommodation and transport. We will be happy to provide confirmation of attendance and advice on visa and accommodation.
C
The 8_____will take place between 27 June and 1 July, 2019 in Berlin, Germany. 9____participants are expected to have at least started their graduate studies and have basic training in one of the related disciplines: either the psychological sciences / neuroscience, or in mathematics / computer science, broadly defined. The course will also be appropriate for post-docs and junior faculty. Working knowledge of general issues in the areas of perception, memory, linear algebra, and neural networks will be useful. Undergraduates without a university degree will not be considered. The language of the 10____is English; thus all applicants have to demonstrate a strong command of spoken and written English to be able to participate actively in discussions at seminars and workshops. (In some instances, short-listed applicants may be contacted for a telephone interview.)
D
Registrations are welcome from PhD students studying any aspect of substance use or misuse (or closely related topic) in any country. Participation in the 11_____is free. The 12_____will run from 23 April to 27 April 2019 and will be accessible 24 hours a day. The key aims are for PhD students to learn about each other's work and to build new networks. PhD student contributions can take the form of slide show presentations, podcasts, Word documents, audio or visual recordings (maximum file size = 10 Mb, although links can be provided to larger files hosted elsewhere, such as YouTube videos). Feel free to contribute any material relating to your research that is likely to interest others. Video and instant-chat facilities are also available. The 13_____materials will be accessible to anyone who chooses to log on to the 14_____.
Task 3. Answer these questions about the events.
Which event(s):
do (es) not involve travel expenses?
are the longest (five days)?
is/are a series of sessions?
may require participants to be equipped with a headset?
is/are face-to-face?
allow(s) you to participate at any time both during the day and at night?
offer(s) a variety of forms of participation?
can be viewed without registration as a participant?
Look at Texts A-C below. What type of conference session do they describe?
A
The traditional format for an input session. In this type of session, members would expect the speaker/s to spend most of the time addressing them with short periods for questions or short, focused tasks. This would normally be accompanied by a slide show presentation and a summarising handout. Members would expect to leave the session having benefited primarily from the speaker's knowledge and expertise in a specified area.
B
These sessions can take multiple formats. One approach is to create a small group space for those interested in the same issue. This approach involves sitting in a more circular arrangement to enable greater conversation between session participants. This can aid interaction and dialogue, especially across a range of contributors. This format is designed to enable people to participate in conversation and to hear more clearly what others are saying by being able to see people's faces. This type of session works best if a clear topic is agreed upon in advance, even if it is a broad theme.C
At a designated time slot, presenters will be asked to stand next to their visuals and explain the content and answer questions for interested delegates. All presentations will take place at the same time and place, making for a busy and interactive area of the conference venue, which is ideal for generating discussion. Please note that your materials must be informative and must not include advertising. Presentations generally last for 45 minutes; all the materials will be on display throughout the conference and available for viewing during breaks.
Task 5. Choose the best answer to finish each statement.
1. It is inappropriate to include in a poster
a) research findings and major references.
b) any information aimed at making profit.
с) the presenters affiliations.
2. In a paper presentation or talk, most of the speaking is done by
a) one or two carefully selected participants.
b) most of the participants in a heated discussion.
с) a chosen board of experts in the field.
3A session that involves a number of conference participants in the discussion of a topic of fairly general interest is called
a) a talk.
b) a poster session
с a round table.
4. Of all the three types of session, a poster presentation is
a) the most typical of academic conferences.
b) the richest in visuals.
С) the one that needs most moderation by the chair.
5. The most valuable knowledge in a paper presentation or talk comes from
a )handouts and visual aids.
b) a lengthy opinion exchange.
С) the speaker's experience.
Task 6. Look at Texts A-C and find adjectives, which are similar in meaning to the following. Which nouns do they describe?
1. carrying the main points = informative (materials)
2. general, without detail
3. fixed, arranged
4. concrete, defined
5. customary, usual
6. having a narrow, specific purpose
7. crowded, with a lot of people
Task 7. Think of a professional event you have attended recently. Describe it to a partner or the class using suitable expressions from the previous task.
Task 8. Complete the sentences with prepositions.
1. It is important to point out that now we can make use ___text books that were not available before.
2. The author concludes that there is continual demand from the global community____
Internet-based instruction.3. Experts ____the field of economics seem to have found a satisfactory solutionthe difficulties internet start-ups face.
4. Chapter 1 introduces the topic and briefly discusses the need _____continued research in the area of classroom interaction.
5. One of the things that students can learn ______ group work is how to interact with those who have different backgrounds and experiences.
Task 9. Match functions 1-5 with Texts A-E. (You can match a text with more than onefunction.) Then explain what helped you to identify the function of the texts.
1. informing 4 .giving instructions
2. inviting 5. warning3. requesting 6.information
A
It is important that students are respectful towards lecturers and fellow classmates, and that their behaviours do not interfere with class activities. Therefore, students are expected to adhere to the following rules when attending Marketing classes.
Plan to arrive on time and stay for the entire class period because random arrivals and exits are disrespectful and distracting.
All mobile phones and other electronic devices must be turned off (or set to vibrate) and hidden from view during class time.
Laptops are allowed for note taking only (other activities such as checking emails or browsing the internet are prohibited).
Food and beverages are NOT permitted in classrooms. Food can be consumed in designated areas only.
B
Dear Sir/Madam,
I am very interested in entering Pomona College and would appreciate you sending me the following information:
Course Catalog
Scholarship Information
Financial Aid Application
Residency Information, On-Campus and Off-Campus
Briefly, my academic career has been focused on Natural Sciences and I have consistently maintained a GPA* of 3.5. I have also successfully balanced my academic interests with athletics and work in volunteer organisations.
I look forward to hearing from you.
Faithfully,
Sam Smith
C
The Higher Education Achievement Report (HEAR) is an electronic document issued by higher education institutions to students on graduation. It provides a detailed record of a student's academic and extra-curricular achievements to supplement the traditional degree classification. The document contains information:
1.identifying the holder of the qualification;
2.identifying the qualification;
3.on the level of qualification;
4.on the contents and results gained;
5.on the function of the qualification.
D
You are strongly recommended not to bring bags with you to examinations. If you do, you will not be permitted to bring them into the exam room. Also you must not leave bags outside exam rooms where they may cause any kind of obstruction.
There is some limited and mostly unsecured space in the vicinity of exam rooms where if you have to you may leave bags, AT YOUR OWN RISK.
E
On both Open Days, our department sessions will take place at 10 a.m., 12.30 p.m. and 3 p.m. Each session will last around 90 minutes and you can book up to three sessions per day. You must book in advance to secure your place. Our booking system is now open. We already have some sessions full! Don't miss out on your chance to attend one of our departmental talks. Book your place today. If you would like to be added to a waiting list for a fully booked session please contact us at... .Unit 7. SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
Lead-in:
Task 1. Work in pairs and answer the questions.
1. Does your chair, department or faculty have a website focusing on the academic work done by its members? If yes, what does it contain?
2. Have you visited such websites of other universities? If yes, why?Task 2. Read the text below and say what its function is in a university prospectus.
Michigan University is one of the leading research universities, renowned for its teaching, research achievements, and social and economic contributions. It has 14 discipline-specific faculties as well as 4 research institutes, with over 800 faculty members working for 25 academic departments. The University has been host to some of the world's most distinguished scientists, including recipients of the Nobel Prize for Economics. The researchers who supervise and mentor our graduate students are among the world finest and work at the forefront of international scholarship.
At Michigan, we have identified a core group of research themes that cut across departmental and faculty boundaries. Recognizing the multidisciplinary approach to scientific advancement, Michigan has created four institutes where faculty members, visiting scholars, post-doctoral fellows, graduate and undergraduate students collaborate in exploring four research areas: Life Sciences, Engineering and Applied Sciences, Arts and Humanities, and Social Sciences. This structure allows the examination of emerging trends, and enables the University to respond rapidly to the world's evolving scientific landscape.
Task 3. What information would you expect to find in a text about the research institutes mentioned above?
Task 4. Look through the text Research Areas quickly. Were your predictions correct?
Task 5. Match these topics to the sections in the prospectus.
a) research projects aimed at environmental issues
b) a search for ways to improve the life of specific groups of people
с) development of instruments for research
d) a combination of traditional and modern research methodology
e) a list of various academic fields
f) the connection between research and policy-making
Task 6. Match the words (1-8) with the meaning the word has in the prospectus.
1. toinform
a) to tell someone about particular facts
b) to influence someone's attitude or opinion
2. condition
a) the physical situation that someone or something is in and affected by
b) an arrangement that must exist before something else can happen
с) the particular state that something or someone is in
3. scholarship
a) an amount of money given by a school, college, university or other organization to pay for the studies of a person
b) serious, detailed study
4. focus
a) to try to look directly at an object so that you can see it more clearly
b) to move a device on the lens of a camera or microscope so that you can see a clear picture
c )the main or central point of something, especially of attention or interest
5. discipline
a) training which produces obedience ( willingness to obey) or self-control
b) ability to control yourself or other people
c) a particular area of study, especially a subject studied at a university to
d) teach someone to behave in a controlled way
Unit 8. INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION PROGRAMS
Lead-in:
Task 1. Work in pairs and answer the questions below.
1. Have you ever worked on an international project? (When? Who with? What was the project?)
2. What other forms of international academic cooperation do you know?
Task 2. Read Text A about a European program of international cooperation. Divide it into four paragraphs. Say what helped you do it.
A
The Tempus program, which is the longest-standing EU program in the educational sector and which has a strong focus on cooperation between higher education institutions, has entered a new phase running from 2007 to 2013. Since its inception in 1990, university cooperation under the Tempus program has contributed successfully to institution building in higher education in the Partner Countries and to sustainable university partnerships, as well as to enhancing mutual understanding between the academic worlds of the European Union and the Partner Countries. Particularly in the Partner Countries, higher education institutions are currently facing major challenges linked to dramatic demographic changes (number of people potentially having access to higher education, age structure, migration flows), increasing global competition, leading to a considerable shift in the distribution of the economic power at world level, changes in science and technology but notably the growing importance of organizational and societal innovation rather than purely technological innovation and, last but not least, challenges of societies in transition (social cohesion, human rights, etc.). Higher education institutions are therefore key players in the successful transition to a knowledge-based economy and society and they provide the training for a new generation of leaders. They are the pools of expertise and centers for the development of human resources. Higher education institutions are also important factors in growth and competitiveness, and play a crucial role in the reform agenda of both EU Member States and the Tempus Partner Countries. The overall aim of Tempus is to contribute to the creation of an area of cooperation in the field of higher education between the European Union and the Tempus Partner Countries. The specific objectives of Tempus are as follows: to promote the reform and modernization of higher education in the Partner Countries; to enhance the quality and relevance of higher education to the world of work and society in the Partner Countries; to increase the capacity of higher education institutions in the Partner Countries and the EU, in particular their capacity to cooperate internationally and to continually modernize; to assist them in opening up to the world of work and the society at large; to foster the reciprocal development of human resources; and to enhance mutual understanding between the peoples and cultures of the EU and the Partner Countries.
Task 3. In Text A find:
1. all the instances where information is presented in a slightly biased way
2. sentences where numbering or bullet points could be used to make the text read more clearly
3. a description of the core mission of HE institutions
Task 4. Search Text A for different ways of emphasizing or adding to a point. Write the words or phrases down.
Task 5. Fill the gaps in the following sentences with the words you found in task.
1. In a number of European states, however, ______England and Holland, the freedom with which researchers could defend the Copernican system stands in surprising contrast with the criticism faced by Galileo.
2. According to the research, the setting up of a stock exchange was indispensable for enhancing the flow of capital and for the creation of a market in securities, ______for protecting the interests of venture capitalists.
3. The applications referred to in Section A are_____: a) an application for the renewal of a license; b) an application for a new license; c) an application for a permanent transfer of a license.
4. The course offers comprehensive training in communication theory,_____in the academic context.
Task 6. Read Text В quickly and say: a) what it focuses on; b) what features of the text help you answer.
В
The 'People' Specific Program acknowledges that one of the main competitive edges in science and technology is the quantity and quality of its human resources. To support the further development and consolidation of the European Research Area, this Specific Program's overall strategic objective is to make Europe more attractive for the best researchers.
The Specific Program aims to strengthen, quantitatively and qualitatively, the human potential in research and technology in Europe, by stimulating people to enter into the profession of researcher, encouraging European researchers to stay in Europe, and attracting to Europe researchers from the entire world, making Europe more attractive to the best researchers. Building on the experiences with the 'Marie Curie' actions under previous Framework Programs, this will be done by putting into place a coherent set of' Marie Curie' actions, particularly taking into account the European added value in terms of their structuring effect on the European Research Area. These actions address researchers at all stages of their careers, in the public and private sectors, from initial research training, specifically intended for young people, to lifelong learning and career development. Efforts will also be made to increase participation by women researchers, by encouraging equal opportunities in all 'Marie Curie Actions', by designing the actions to ensure that researchers can achieve an appropriate work/life balance and by facilitating resuming a research career after a break.
Task 7. Read Texts A and В again and complete the table below
Information Text A Text B
Background of the programmeTerritory ParticipantsGeneral aimCauses of existing problemsTask 8. Read the second sentence in Text B. How do the two parts of the sentence relate to each other?
a) cause and effect
b) repeating the same idea
с) the end and means to the end
d) topic and illustration
Task 9. Read Text В again.
1. Identify two sentences, which express an aim.
2. In each sentence, identify the three means of achieving the aim.
3. What language structures are used to perform the functions?
Task 10.Read the end of Text В and say, what the phrases a) an appropriate work/life balance and b) resuming a career after a break imply in this context.
Task 11.On the internet, find information about an international project/initiative/program that you might be interested in. Make notes about it in the form of a table. Report to the group.Task 11. Think of a presentation you have given recently. Complete the questionnaire below. Write yes or no next to each question.
Did you
prepare thoroughly: check the meaning and pronunciation of new words, create slides, rehearse the speech, etc.?
start the talk in an interesting way to get the attention of the audience?
speak from notes rather than read a whole text?
give an overview of your talk at the beginning?
use phrases to help the audience follow your ideas?
provide examples to illustrate complex and/or original ideas?
provide visual support?
invite the audience to ask questions?
emphasize the main points by slowing down and leaving pauses?
make eye contact with your audience?
avoid repetitive use of '”pet” words or phrases (e.g. so, well, OK, like)?
use effective gestures?
Task 12. How many positive answers do you have? What would you like to improve?
PROPOSAL FOR PARTNERSHIP
Task 1. Work in pairs and discuss these questions.
What partnerships does your department/university have?
What is the purpose of a partnership proposal?
Structuring a proposal for partnership
Task 2. In Column 1 in the table, write the numbers to show the order in which you would write these elements in a proposal.
1 2
a) Describing what your institution is working on. b) Speaking about attachments and contacts. c) Stating the purpose of your letter. d) Writing about the partnerships you already have. e) Explaining why the partner may be interested in establishing a partnership with you. Task 3. Read the proposal for partnership below. What is being proposed? Who do they want to establish a partnership with and why?
Dear Mr Sanchez,
I am writing in hope of establishing a partnership with your institution. I am Alain Lechevre, the executive manager of Lechevre Education. We provide educational programs in a wide range of subject areas. According to a survey conducted in your region, four colleges have shown interest in developing the research skills of their learners. As we share the same interests, we are honored to suggest collaborating in our Developing Research Skills program.
The program is student-friendly and interactive, and students greatly benefit from participating in the project. In addition, we view teaching and research as being not in opposition, but rather as linked with each other.
In the program, our trainers help students to collect and record information in an organized and professional way, to use data-collection and analysis software competently, to produce well constructed, clear presentations and to use audiovisual aids where appropriate. Furthermore, students are motivated to communicate knowledgeably about their research area and discuss concepts in a scholarly way.
I would like to provide you with a brief outline of the partnerships we have already established. We have already collaborated with twenty colleges in the last five years and the results have been very encouraging and fruitful. I am enclosing their feedback. In addition, I attach a student's analysis of pre-training and post-training development. This will help you to understand our style of work and see our excellent results.
It would be a pleasure to become associated with an educational institution like yours. You can contact me by phone or by email, should you have any queries about this proposal.
I look forward to hearing from you.
Yours sincerely, Alain LechevreTask 4. Write a proposal for partnership on behalf of your institution or department.
Task 5. Check your work using the questions below.
Have you explained the purpose of your letter?
Have you described your institution/department?
Have you outlined the benefits of potential partnership?
Have you provided information for further contacts?
Have you thanked your potential partner?
Is the letter written in a formal style?
Unit 9. PREPARATION OF A PRESENTATION
Lead-in:
When we give a presentation, we speak to the audience. The presenter should make the information interesting and useful for them.
Task 1. Work in groups. Think of conferences where you were sitting in the audience. Say what you do not like about some presenters' behavior.
What I really hate is when a presenter just reads what is on the slides.
Task 2. What should a presenter know about the audience in order to meet their expectations? Make a list and compare it with other people in the group.
The presenter should know what the audience knows.
Presentation criteria
Task 3.Work in groups. Make a list of criteria for evaluating a presentation. Take into account the ideas you discussed in this lesson. Present your criteria to the group.
Task 4. Match the words (1-9) with the definitions (a-h).
1.presentation goal
2. lecture3. briefing4. demonstration5. seminar6. workshop7. press conference
8. conference presentation
9. commercial presentation
a) formal talk on a serious subject given to a group of people, especially students
b) an occasion when a teacher or expert and a group of people meet to study and discuss something
с) a meeting of people to discuss and/or perform practical work in a subject or activity
d) a talk describing a product that can be bought e a talk to people of the same field, usually about your research
f) the act of showing someone how to do something, or how something works
g) a meeting where information is given to someone just before they do something
h) a meeting at which a person or organization makes a public statement and reporters can ask questions
Task 4. Put the stages of a presentation (a-1) in a logical order. Different answers are possible.
a) present the main body of the talk
b) handle questions
с) signal the beginning of the talk presentation objectives
d) greet the audience
e) summarize the main points
f) introduce yourself
g) have a strong ending
h) introduce the presentation topic and
i) outline the structure
j) thank the audience
к) thank the organizers
1) say when you would like to take questions
Task 6. Look at the phrases below. Do they introduce a topic (T); introduce the plan of your presentation (P), set goals (G), or deal with questions (Q)?
What I would like to do is to discuss...
If you have any questions, please feel free to interrupt.
The aim of my presentation is...
I'm going to deal with three aspects of the subject.... first...
What I intend to do is to explain ...
My topic today is ...
Today, I am going to talk about...
I have divided my presentation into three sections.
I will be happy to answer questions at the end.
Task 7. You are going to give a short talk to the group about an event in your field. Your goal is to inform your colleagues about the coming event and encourage them to take part in it. Do the tasks below.
Task 8. Search online for an online course/webinar in your field of study.
Task 9. Choose an event that you would like to participate in. Make notes, using the questions below to help you.
a) What is the topic?
b) When is the course/webinar?
c) Who is giving the course/webinar?
d) What should you do to take part in it?
e) Why should people in your field take this course or join this webinar?
Task 10. Use your notes to plan a three-minute briefing in English. Use the necessary phrases to explain the goal of your talk and when you would like to take questions.

How should you make presentations?
Answer the following questions:
Write three reasons why presentations are important in your job, your area of business or your studies.
Write three things you like about presenting.
Write three reasons why presenting in English is problematic for you. Write five targets for yourself in presenting in English.
Task 1
Match these less formal phrases with the more formal phrases in the table.
What I want to do today is … I know are all very busy...
OK, shall we get started? As you know, I am …
It is good to see you all here. Hi, everyone.
Today I am going to talk about...In my talk, I will tell you
More formal Less formal
Good afternoon, ladies and gentlemen. 1
Today I would like to... 2
Let me just start by introducing myself. My name is... 3
It’s a pleasure to welcome you today. 4
In my presentation I would like to report on ... 5
The topic of today’s presentation is... 6
I suggest that we begin now. 7
I am aware that you all have very tight schedules...
8

Task 2
Now practice the opening of a presentation. Use phrases from the box and follow the WISE flowchart.
2264410180975Introduce yourself
00Introduce yourself
left184150Welcome audience
00Welcome audience

right17145Say what the topic is
00Say what the topic is


center9525Explain why the audience will be interested
00Explain why the audience will be interested

OPENING A PRESENTATION
Welcoming the audience
Good morning/afternoon, ladies and gentlemen.
Hello/Hi, everyone.First, let me thank you all for coming here today.
I am happy/delighted that so many of you could make it today.
Introducing yourself
Let me introduce myself. I am Dave Elwood from ... For those of you who do not know me, my name’s... As you probably know. I am the new HR manager. I am head of logistics here at Air Spares.
I am here in my function as the Head of Controlling.
Saying what your topic is
As you can see on the screen, our topic today is...
Today’s topic is...
What I’d like to present to you today is ...The subject of my presentation is ...Explaining why your topic is relevant for your audience
My talk is particularly relevant to those of you/us who...
Today’s topic is of particular interest to those of you/us who...
Му/The topic is very important for you because... By the end of this talk you will be familiar with...
Remember to use words like we, us, and our to highlight common interest.
Structuring a presentation (1)
Most formal - and many informal - presentations have three main parts and follow this simple formula:
Tell the audience what you are going to say! = Introduction
Say it! = Main part
Tell them what you said! =Conclusion
Task 3
Complete sentences 1-8 with the correct form of the verb and a sentence ending from below.you on the proposed training project
you up to date on SEKO’s investment plans
you how the database works
you an overview of our present market position
at business opportunities in Asia
on our financial targets for the division
by telling you about what lane’s group is working on
about EU tax reform
1. give Today I’d like to give you an overview of our present market position.
2. show I’ll be showing________________________________________
3. talk During the next two hours we’ll be_________________________
4. bring I’d like to_____________________________________________
5.report This afternoon I’m going to_______________________________
6. update Today I’d like to________________________________________
7. look This morning we’ll be___________________________________
8. begin Today I’ll_____________________________________________
Task 4
Put the words in the right order to make sentences.
1. shall OK get we started
2. my today subject presentation of satisfaction is the customer
3. will presentation thirty my about take minutes
4. issues on three focus I’ll
5. by looking of status will the current project we the start at
6. that did know popular China car is this very in you
Task 5
Do this quiz about body language. Sometimes more than one answer is possible.
Discuss your answers with a partner.
How much do you think personality and culture influence your body language during a presentation?
How should you stand?
a) Arms crossed on chest
b) Straight but relaxed
c) Knees unlocked.
2. What should you do with your hands?
a) Put hands on hips
b) Put one hand in a pocket
c) Keep hands by your side.
3. How can you emphasize something?
a) Point finger at the audience.
b) Move or lean forward to show that something is important.
c) Use a pointer to draw attention to important facts.
4. What should you do when you feel nervous?
a) Hold a pen or cards in your hands
b) Walk back and forth
c) Look at the flip chart or screen (not at the audience
6. How fast should you speak?
a) About 20% more slowly than normal
b) Just as fast as in a normal conversation
c) Faster than in a normal conversation.
7. How should you express enthusiasm?
a) By raising voice level
b) By waving arms
c) By making hand or arm gestures for important points.
Task 6
Make ‘signpost’ sentences using elements from each column.
1 Before I move on to my next point, come back to next question
2 This brings the issue point, which is price.
3 This leads let me go this question later.
4 Let’s now turn to we were discussing our new sales strategies.
5 As 1 mentioned to the next a brief overview of our activities.
6 I’d like to before, I’d like to give you earlier.
7 Let’s go back to what us directly to my through the main issues once more.
8 As 1 said earlier,
I’ll be focusing on of customer service.

Task 7
Complete the sentences with words from the box.
back • covered • discussing • inform • leads • main points • sum up • wanted
1.Let me now summarize the __________________.
2.We will be__________________ our sales targets today.
3. In my talk I will ________________ you about new marketing techniques.
4.Before I move on, let me just____________ what I have said so far.
5.I think we have_______________ everything for today.
6.OK, that is all I _________________to say about time management.
7.This_________________________ directly to my second point.
8.Let’s go_______________________ to what I said at the beginning of my presentation.
Task 8
Choose the correct verb to fit the sentence.
1.How are we going to solve/deal/tackle with delivery problems?
2.I do not think we can cope/tackle/take core with fewer people.
3.We think it is important to identify/deal/cope the problems now.
4.Who will take care/deal/tackle of our business clients?
5.We have been trying to cope/solve/take care the software problem.
6.Before we go on. Let us identify/clarify/solve this question.
Task 9
Complete the sentences with the words from the box.
according to • apart from • concerns • moreover • regarding • with regard
1. I will give you an overview of some figures____________to car exports.
2. __________, I would like to tell you something about the new software.
3. Let’s now turn to the next question which _______________customer service.
4. ______________ a few spelling mistakes, the new brochure is very good.
5.Let me give you some details _______________our Chinese factory.
6. ________________the handbook, the scanner is user-friendly.
Task 10
Match the two parts to make sentences used to refer to media.
1.On the next page
2.My next slide shows
3.As you can see
4.Let me just show you some
5.To illustrate this
6.Lets now have a closer look
7.Here we can see how many
8. I have a slide
from this picture, the design is absolutely new.
customers have complained about the service.
how much the market has changed.
I’ll show you our latest poster.
at the figures on the next page.
which shows the market development in 2005.
interesting details.
you will see a photo of the new XTK model.
Task 11
Match the two parts to make sentences.
1. What I would like to do a)important advertising is for us.
2. I would like to highlight the b) for our success?
3. So what are the reasons c)this model is selling quite well in the US.
4. I would like to point out how d)turnover last year was excellent.
5. It is interesting to note that e)is discuss the latest sales figures.
6. 1 should repeat that our f)is the quality of these programs.
7. What we cannot do is g) main problem areas.
8. So, just how good h) increase our budget.
Task 12
Complete this excerpt from a presentation with words from the box.
let’s talk about • draw your attention • have a look • it’s quite remarkable • on the other hand • the figures also show that • you’ll see • can we explain
I would now like to __1__to the regions where poverty has been reduced. If you look at the bar chart on the left, ___2____ that the proportion of global population living on less than $1 a day has dropped.___3____ in South Asia the proportion of extremely poor people has been reduced from 41 to 31%.___4___how much progress has been made by China.___5___, poverty has increased in many parts of Africa, Latin America, and Eastern Europe. How ___6___this uneven development? To answer this question, we will ___7___ at the latest study from the World Bank. First, ___8___he figures that indicate global progress.
Task 13
Put the words in the right order to make sentences with expressions from this unit.
1.at closer table let’s look this a have
2.graph you next see quarter first figures can on sales for the the3.almost European sell 30% countries we products other to of our
4.attention draw your facts like I’d to to following the
5.surprisingly able we good despite were achieve to software results problems
6.stress change is important I’d how to like this
Task 14
It is your turn now. Prepare bullet charts based on your own data (or take any information)
Find an effective headline for each bullet chart and present them to a partner.
CHECKLIST FOR VISUALS
1. Prepare each visual carefully and separately.
2. Check whether the visual really shows what you are saying.
3. Make sure your audience can read the visual (font size and colours).
4. Find effective headlines.
5. Keep design and content simple.
6. Use bullet charts for text.
7. Reduce text to a minimum.
8 Always prepare audience for visuals.
9 Present information clearly and logically.10. Remember the rule of six.
Task 15
What is important when presenting visuals? Which opinion(s) do you agree with?

Karen Hamilton, Marketing Manager
I think to be effective a good visual must focus on only a few points.
It is important not to have too much information on one slide or transparency. Slide overload is bad because people will then spend time reading the slide rather than listening to the presenter. I normally use bullet points to structure information -1 never write complete sentences. Headlines are important too.

Keith Sallis, Real Estate Manager
In my opinion, the presenter is the focus of the presentation - not the visuals. The key purpose for using a visual aid is to help the audience understand the topic better. So the visuals should only be used to support the presenter’s message. A process-flowchart slide, for example, helps people understand visually what you are describing verbally. If a visual distracts the audience's attention from what you’re saying, it’s useless.

Susan Liu. Export Manager
Above all. a slide or an overhead must be readable. If the audience can’t read the slide, they will soon give up. That’s why font size is very important. It should be as large as possible. I’d say at least 24. And sometimes it’s also a good idea to use different colours to highlight some points. Using many different colours can be confusing though
(4)
Barbara tames. Market Researcher
What you say and what you show should always go together 100%. So when you’re not talking about the slide, it shouldn’t be visible. I always switch off the display when I’m talking about something that has nothing to do with the slide. If people are busy looking at the slide, they aren't listening to what you’re saying. It’s better to use the В-key to return to a black screen or replace the slide with some form of ‘wallpaper’ such as a company logo.
(5)
Javier Sanchez, Financial Analyst
For me it’s very important that the presenter speaks to the audience and doesn’t read to them! The speaker must make eye- contact and not watch the monitor or screen while he or she is talking. I think it’s extremely boring when someone just reads slides word for word as if it were an essay or something.
(6)
Tony Benetti, Media Consultant
It’s called ’Death by PowerPoint’ when people use so many sound effects and animations that the audience's attention is completely taken away from the delivery of the message. I think PowerPoint is a fantastic tool, but just because it has so many effects, you don’t have to use them all. Overuse is overkill here.
What kinds of tools and visuals do you normally use in your presentations? What tips can you think of for using visuals effectively?
Task 16
What are these visuals called in English? Match the numbers to the descriptions.
bar chart table
technical drawing
flow chart map
(line) graph
pie chart
organizational chart/organogram
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Which of these visuals would you use to describe:a) your company’s market share?
b) the steps to be followed from order placement to delivery of a product?
c) your company’s new organizational structure?
Task 17
Which box is :
295148019685000in the center?
in the bottom left-hand corner?
across the top?
down the left side of the slide?
on the left?
in the upper right-hand corner?
across the bottom?
on the right?
Task 18
Match the two parts to make sentences used to talk about visuals.
1.Let's now have a look
2.The black line gives us
3.Each line on the graph indicates
4.In the upper right-hand corner
5.The graph on the following slide
6.Now I'd like you to take
7.The names of the new models are listed
8.You can see the test results in the
9.This aspect of the problem is illustrated in
10. I'd Ike to draw your
shows our revenues sinces 2004.
the next pie chart.
at how the new division will be structured
attention to the figures in the left-hand column,
you can see the specifications for the TP model
the sales figures for the VW Fox.
table on the right
a look at the next slide
the production output of a different product
across the top.
Task 19
A head of department from a private medical insurance company is telling colleagues from the Italian parent company about last year’s health spending. Look at how he describes this pie chart and complete the gaps with words from the box.
account • amount • attention • divided • see • shown • surprised • total
This pie chart shows our total health spending for the last year and how it is ___1___ among the various health sector areas. Let us begin with the biggest area, which is___2___ in green. We can ___3___ that 31% of our total health spending
went into hospital care last year. The second biggest area with a ___4___of 23% is
‘other spending’ - that’s the red segment here. It includes dental services and home health care. I think you will be ___5___ to see that nearly the same ___6___ - that is 22% - was spent on doctors and clinical services. This was mainly because of the increase in medical technology costs. I would now like to draw your___7___ to the prescription drugs which___8___ for 10% of our total costs.
Task 20
These verbs are used to describe movement or trends. Put them in the correct category: upward, downward or other form of movement.
climb • decline • decrease • double • drop • expand • fall • fluctuate • go down • go up • grow • hit a low • increase • pick up • plunge • reach a high • recover • remain stable • rise • stabilize • stay the same
Downward
Upward Other
Task 21
Sometimes it is necessary to interpret the visual, for example by explaining the reason behind a fact (the cause) or its consequence (the effect). Use words from each column to make sentences.
1 There are several
2 We chose this method
3 The
4 Our new policy
5 The slump was
6 Downsizing
7 We increased our prices
8 Our output has doubled caused
has led
resulted
reasons
thanks to
and
because
result
for the decrease in productivity.
a new overtime policy.
by the collapse of one of our partner firms.
of this move was a drastic increase in our costs.
to a significant rise in sales.
in a drastic fall in staff numbers.
our sales went up!
we needed reliable figures.
Task 22
Complete the presentation extract with the correct prepositions from the box.
around • at • between • by • from • in • of • to • until
“The graph shows our online sales figures for the EU market ___1___2006. In the first quarter, online sales averaged ___2___50,000 and 52,000 euros. In April, sales increased ___3___61,0euros and remained steady ___4___the end of the second quarter. In the third quarter we notice a sharp rise ___5___ 61,000 to 87,000 euros, an increase ___6___almost 50 per cent. In October and November, sales fluctuated ___7___the 85,000 euro mark. This was followed by a slight decline in December, with online sales falling ___8___ 10 per cent, reaching 73,000 euros ___9___the end of the year. “
Task 23
Put the words in the right order to make sentences with expressions from this unit.
1.chart percentage our of pie share the the market shows
2. travel 2006 according costs since risen the have sharply to study
3. rates 0.5% beginning year the the interest were of raised by at
4june rise in dramatic 15% in was there costs transport a of
5low December our in hit a productivity
6.decline by poor situation the economic the was caused
Task 24
It is your turn now. Either describe one of the graphs in this unit or describe a graph or chart of your own. Try to use words and phrases from this unit to present the visual.
CHECKLIST FOR USING VISUALS (GRAPHS & CHARTS)
Make your visual as clear and easy to understand as possible.
2. Start by telling your audience what the graph/chart illustrates.
3. Highlight the key points.
4. Say why these points are important (and explain the cause or effect).
5. Use different verbs to express movement/development.
6. Use the same key words and phrases you used on your bullet charts.
Task 25
Look at these final statements from different conclusions. Which ones do you find most effective? Work with a partner to rank them (1 = most effective, 8 = least effective).
a) Thank you very much for your attention.
b) In conclusion, I would like to highlight our company’s highly innovative products.
c) So, to put it in the words of the famous H. Gordon Selfridge, ‘The customer is always right.’
d)Well, I don’t know whether this was helpful but I’d like to leave it here.
e) We have all the facts. Let’s get to work now!
f) The one last thing I’d like to say is: it’s your choice.
g) So. that’s all I have to say. I hope you haven’t all fallen asleep!
h) To conclude, I want to come back to that story I told you at the start of my presentation and say one word: apple pie!
What do the presenters try to achieve with the different endings?
Task 26
Unscramble the sentences to make typical sentences from a conclusion.
1.Well, /the end of/today/brings me/to/my talk/that
2.Before l/key issues/go over/the/stop./let me/again
3.As a/means/let me say/for us/what this/final point,
4.Finally, /like to/issue/highlight/I would /one/key
5.To sum/looked at/product range/up then, /the new/first/we
6.That/logistics/just about/to say/about/l wanted/everything/covers
Task 27
Complete the sentences with words from the box.
come back • figures we have • final point • briefly summarize • my opinion • now approaching • suggest that • to highlight
If I may______________ the pros and cons.
Based on the ______________, it is clear that we must act quickly.
3. Well, I am _________________ the end of my talk.
4. OK, I would now like _________________ the key figures.
5. Let me make one _____________________.
6. In ________________we need a new sales strategy.
7. Let me ___________________ to the key issue.
8. I __________________ we work together with our French partners.
Task 28
Match the two parts to make final statements from conclusions.
To put it in the words of Albert Einstein,
1 would like to finish my talk
Let me go back to
So, now it’s
Remember that story 1 told y
As the famous basketball coach Pat Rileysaid:
OK, and now let’s a) look for your choices, pick the best one, then go with it.
b) with an important question.
c) about the new branch in Tokyo?
d) get down to work!
e) what I said at the start of this talk.
f) the important thing is not to stop questioning.’
g) up to you.
Task 29
Complete the sentences with prepositions from the box.
about • by • for • in • on • out • through • to
1.Based____ what we know, we can optimize our procedures.
2.____my opinion, we should go ahead with the project.
3.OK, this brings me ____the end of my talk.
4.What does this mean ____our business?
5.Let me just go ____the key issues again.
6.We found ____that our sales force needs more support.
7.Well, that is all I wanted to say ____strategic planning.
8.We saw that the delays were caused ____technical problems
Task 30
On his website, the American presentations guru Charlie F. Elroy, talks about his strategies for good conclusions.
Make a good last impression!
Do not forget that last impressions are just as important as first impressions.
I personally think the end of your talk is even more important than the beginning because people tend to remember most the last thing that they are told.
Make them listen!
When you move from the main part to the conclusion, use a sentence that signals to the audience that now they really have to sit up and listen!
Make a lasting impression!
Your conclusion is the place to make sure that you have planted the key ideas of your talk in your listeners’ minds. Do not miss this opportunity!
Here are some of my strategies for effective conclusions:
1. Summarize the main points
This the most widely used method but borrrrrring!!!!!! However, sometimes you will find it is the best strategy. Just sum up the main points you have covered in the middle section.
2.Quote a famous person
Quote something from a famous person that fits the content of your talk and use it as a final statement. You can find many quotations on the Internet. If you cannot find one, make it up. As long as it fits, no one will ever know.
3.Ask a provocative question or make a surprising statement
Ask a question which surprises, shocks or provokes your audience - anything to make them think and to make a lasting impression. Or you can just say something unusual, unexpected, or even shocking to help support your key points.
4.Use the ‘sandwich’ technique
Think of your presentation as a sandwich with two slices of bread (introduction + conclusion) and the cheese in the middle (main part). The ‘sandwich’ strategy means that you have a connection between the beginning and the end of your talk. If, for example, you start telling a joke or (funny) story in the introduction, stop at an exciting moment and move on to the main part. Then finish the story/joke in the conclusion.
5.Thank the audience
Fugeddabowdit!* Forget standard phrases such as 'Thank you very much for your attention’ or ‘Thank you for listening’. After a good presentation, it is the audience who should be thanking you!
* = Forget about it.

OVER TO YOU
Which tips do you think are the most useful? Which are not useful at all? Why do you think that?
Can you think of any other strategies for making good conclusions?
How might cultural differences between you and the audience affect the way you end a presentation? Do you remember a conclusion you found particularly effective? What did the presenter do?
Task 31
Work with a partner. Ask each other the questions below and make a note of the answers. Then tell the class what you found out.
1.Do you prefer questions during or after the presentation? Why?
2.How do you feel about the question period at the end of a presentation?
3.How do you prepare for the question period?
4.How do you deal with questions you do not want to answer?
5.What do you do if you cannot answer the question?
6.How do you deal with dominant participants?
7. Do you remember a presentation in which questions were handled well/badly? What do you think went right/wrong?
Task 32
Match the two parts to make sentences.
Good point, but I’d prefer
Perhaps we could
Could you repeat
I’m afraid that’s
I’m sure Ms Major
Sorry, 1 don’t
I’m afraid 1 don’t know that
I’m afraid I’m not
Does that a) your question please?
b) deal with this at some other time.
c) off the top of my head.
d) not to discuss that today.
e) answer your question?
f) not my field.
g) could answer that question for you.
h) in a position to comment on that.
i) quite understand your question
Now decide which of the sentences above you can use to:
a) ask for clarification:
b) make it clear you don’t want to answer the question:
c) admit you don’t know the answer:
Task 33
Complete the dialogue with phrases from the box.
Could you give us • Does that mean • Are there any questions •
Go ahead • Excuse me • No, no, not at all • I suggest you speak to • I’d be interested • Would you mind • May I ask
Presenter ___1___?Susanne Yes. I have a question. ___2___2 some background information on Track Ltd.?Presenter Certainly. They are one of the leading manufacturers of outdoor equipment in the UK with more than 35 factories worldwide.
Tim ___3___ telling us why you have chosen them as partners?Presenter ___4___. The answer is quite simple. We were very
impressed with the quality of their products and their prices are very attractive.
Annette ___5___ a question?Presenter Yes, of course.
Annette ___7___to know what their terms of payment are.Presenter I am afraid I cannot answer that question.___8___ Sylvia Baker -
she would be the right person to ask.
Alex ___9___. You mentioned a London office.___10___ we do business through them?
Presenter That is right. We need to discuss the details though.
Task 34
Read and be ready to do the following task.
There are different ways of asking questions in English. If you want to be more polite (and less aggressive), it is better to use less direct questions.
Direct questions.
When do you plan to move to Geneva?
What is the project status?
Less direct questions.Could you tell me when you plan to move to Geneva?
Do you mind if I ask what the project status is?
Note that in polite questions it is often necessary to change the word order or add words like if or whether.
What is the current project status? -» Can you tell me what the current project status is?
Is that the final decision? -» Could you tell me whether/if that’s the final decision? Task 35
Look at the questions and use the words given to make them more polite.
What you think
1. Are there any other options?
2. What would that mean for us?
3.How do we compare with other firms?
4. A Will we cooperate with our branches in the UK?
5. How did she arrive at these results?
6.Are there any figures to back У this up?
What you ask
1.May 1 ask if there are any other options?
2.Do you mind telling me what that would mean for us?
3.May 1 ask ______________________?
4Can you tell me _________________________?
5.Would you mind telling me ____________________?
6.Could you tell me __________________________?
Now match the questions from above to the answers.
a) Of course. Basically we have two alternatives....
b) Yes, we will. I’ve already contacted the London office.
d)Yes. As I said earlier. I’ll be passing out handouts with the latest data.
e) Very well. At the moment we are market leader.
f) Not at all. They are based on the latest study.
Unit 10. ACADEMIC WRITING
SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS
Lead-in:
Task 1. Work in pairs and answer the questions.
1. How do you usually search for publications you need to read?
2. What types of published materials do you find most helpful in your teaching or research?
Task 2. Are you familiar with these international magazines and journals? What is their target readership?
Scientific American Cosmopolitan
The Economist Journal of Conflict Resolution
Teaching Sociology Business & Management Review
Task 3. The texts below are all intended for different categories of reader. Read them quickly and identify their target readership. What helps you to decide?
A
The Oxford Review of Education is a well established journal with an extensive international readership. It is committed to deploying the resources of a wide range of academic disciplines in the service of educational scholarship, and the editors welcome articles reporting significant new research as well as contributions of a more analytic or reflective nature. The membership of the editorial board reflects these emphases, which have remained characteristic of the Review since its foundation. The Review seeks to preserve the highest standards of professional scholarship in education, while also seeking to publish articles which will be of interest and utility to a wider public, including policy makers. Papers submitted to the Oxford Review of Education are read by two referees whose comments guide the Editors towards their final decision. The editorial board meets twice a year and takes responsibility for the general development of the Journal.
Peer Review Policy
All research articles in this journal have undergone rigorous peer review, based on initial editor screening and from at least two anonymous referees.
B
Effect of low light and high noise on behavioural activity, physiological indicators of stress and production in laying hens
O’Connor EA, Parker MO, Davey EL, Crist H, Owen RC, Szladovits B, Demmers TC, Wathes CM, Abeyesinghe SM.
Abstract
1. Commercial laying hens are commonly housed in noisy and dim environments, yet relatively little is known about whether these conditions, particularly in combination, have any effect on welfare or egg production.
2.The study was designed to investigate whether chronic exposure to continuous noise (60dB(A) vs. 80dB(A)) and/or light intensity (l 50lux vs. 5 lux) during the critical period of coming into lay (16-24 weeks of age) influenced behaviour, physiological stress (heterophil to lymphocyte ratio) and production (number and weight of eggs laid) in laying hens.
3.Hens in the low light pens were less active and preened and dust-bathed more than those housed in 1 50lux; hens in the high noise pens rested more frequently than those in quieter pens.
4. There was no evidence that chronic exposure to low light or high noise caused appreciable physiological stress but egg production was affected by these conditions. Hens kept in pens with low light or high noise laid fewer eggs per day than those kept in high light or low noise pens.
5. These results show that low light intensity and continual high background noise have a detrimental effect on egg production in the early laying phase, as well as influencing the time allocated to different behaviours. However, there was no strong evidence for a physiological stress response to either of these conditions or their combination.
C
The Editor who has approached you may not know your work intimately, and may only be aware of your work in a broader context. Only accept an invitation if the article is within your area of expertise.
Depending upon the journal, you will be asked to evaluate the article on a number of criteria. Some journals provide detailed guidance others do not, but normally you would be expected to evaluate the article according to the following: originality, structure, previous research, ethical issues.
Originality
Is the article sufficiently novel and interesting to warrant publication? Does it add to the canon of knowledge? Does the article adhere to the journal's standards? Is the research question an important one? In order to determine its originality and appropriateness for the journal, it might be helpful to think of the research in terms of what percentile it is in. Is it in the top 25% of papers in this field? You might wish to do a quick literature search using tools such as Scopus to see if there are any reviews of the area.
Task 4. Which abstract has all these elements?
a) Findings
b) Reason for writing
c) Conclusions
d) Methodology ( Process)
e) Problem
Task 5. Read stages a-g of research report preparation suggested by the Adelaide Writing Centre. Put them in order. Then compare your ideas in pairs.
a) Draft the supplementary material. e) Draft the body of your report.
b) Analyze the task. f) Develop a rough plan.
c) Do the research. g) Draft the preliminary material.
d) Improve your report.
Task 6. Match sections a-l with the information below they should include.
a)all the references used in your report or referred to for background information
b)any additional material which will add to your report
с) concise heading indicating what the report is about
d)concise summary of main findings
e)list of major sections and headings with page numbers
f)other relevant research in this area
g)relevance of your results, how it fits with other research in the area
h)summary of results/findings
i)what needs to be done as a result of your findings
j)what you did and how you did it
к) what you found
1)why and what you researched
Task 7. Read the summary of the following research report
Executive summary (summary or abstract)
The aim of this report was to investigate UniLab staff attitudes to personal mobile phone use in staff and team meetings. A staff survey on attitudes towards the use of mobile phones in the staff / team meetings was conducted. The results indicate that the majority of staff find mobile phone use a major issue in staff meetings. The report concludes that personal mobile phones are disruptive and should be turned off in meetings. It is recommended that UniLab develops a company policy banning the use of mobile phones except in exceptional circumstances.
Task 8. Read the whole report. Which of the sections mentioned in task 7 are missing or are in a different order?
Introduction
There has been a massive increase in the use of personal mobile phones over the past five years and there is every indication that this will continue. According to Black (2006), by 2010, almost 100% of working people in Australia will carry personal mobile phones. Black describes this phenomenon as 'serious in the extreme, potentially undermining the foundations of communication in our society' (2006). Currently at UniLab, 89% of staff have personal mobile phones.
Recently, a number of staff have complained about the use of personal mobile phones in meetings and asked what the official company policy is. At present there is no official company policy regarding phone use. This report examines the issue of mobile phone usage in staff meetings and small team meetings. It does not seek to examine the use of mobile phones in the workplace at other times, although some concerns were raised.
For the purposes of this report a personal mobile phone is a personally funded phone for private calls as opposed to an employer funded phone that directly relates to carrying out a particular job.
Methods
This research was conducted by questionnaire and investigated UniLab staff members' attitudes to the use of mobile phones in staff/team meetings. A total of 412 questionnaires were distributed with employees' fortnightly pay slips (see Appendix 1). The questionnaire used Likert scales to assess social attitudes (Smith 2006) to mobile phone usage and provided open-ended responses for additional comments. Survey collection boxes were located in every branch for a four week period. No personal information was collected; the survey was voluntary and anonymous.
Results
There was an 85% response rate to the questionnaire. A breakdown of the responses is listed below in Table 1. It can be clearly seen from the results that mobile phones are considered to be disruptive and should be turned off in meetings.
Table 1.Personal mobile phone in staff and team meetings is… Strongly agree (%) Agree (%) Disagree (%) Strongly disagree (%)
not a problem 5 7 65 23
an issue 40 45 10 5
disruptive 80 10 7 3
phones should be permissible 6 16 56 22
phones should be turned off 85 10 3 2
allowed in some circumstances 10 52 24 14
The survey also allowed participants to identify any circumstances where mobile phones should be allowed in meetings and also assessed staff attitudes towards receiving personal phone calls in staff meetings in open-ended questions. These results showed that staff thought that in some circumstances (e.g. medical or emergencies), receiving personal phone calls was acceptable, but generally receiving personal phone calls was not necessary.
Discussion/Interpretation of results
It can be seen from the results in Table 1 that personal mobile phone use is considered to a problem. However, it was acknowledged that in some situations it should be permissible: 80% of recipients considered mobile phones to be highly disruptive and there was strong support for phones being turned off in meetings (85%). Only 12% thought that mobile phone usage in staff and team meetings was not a problem, whereas 85% felt it was an issue. The results are consistent throughout the survey. Many of the respondents (62%) felt that in exceptional circumstances mobile phones should be allowed (e.g. medical) but there should be protocols regarding this.
These findings are consistent with other studies. According to Smith (2009), many companies have identified mobile phones as disruptive and have banned the use of mobile phones in meetings. Havir (2008) claims that 29% of staff-meeting time is wasted through unnecessary mobile phone interruptions. This affects time management, productivity and team focus.
Conclusion
The use of mobile phones in staff meetings is clearly disruptive and they should be switched off. Most staff felt it is not necessary to receive personal phone calls in staff meetings except under certain circumstances, but permission should first be sought from the team leader, manager or chair.
Recommendations
It is recommended that UniLab develops an official policy regarding the use of mobile phones in staff meetings. The policy should recommend:
•mobile phones are banned in staff meetings
•mobiles phone may be used in exceptional circumstances but only with the permission of the
appropriate manager or chair
Finally, the policy needs to apply to all staff in the company.
Task 9. Read the report again and decide if the following statements are true or false. Correct the false ones.
1. The goal of this report was to study company staff attitudes to personal mobile phone use in meetings.
2. It is recommended that the company develops a policy completely banning the use of mobile phones.
3. There was an immense increase in the use of mobile phones seven years ago.
4. This research was conducted using a questionnaire.
5. Personal information of respondents was collected to make the survey more reliable.
6. Only 6% of respondents strongly agree that mobile phones should be allowed in meetings.
Task 10.Read conclusions A-C to different research reports. Fill in the gaps with the words below.
Alternative analysis hypothesis opportunities problem programs similar standards
A
The stomach contents of the red eft, red-backed salamander, and dusky salamander living in the same area were identified. An 1____of the food eaten shows that the feeding habits of the red eft and the red-backed salamander were different. These two salamanders showed 'niche segregation'. These two salamanders ate 2_____food when living in different areas but fed on different food when the two species lived in the same area. Our 3____was valid.B
The 4_____of teen gang violence can be eliminated. It will, however, take time, money, and a combined effort on the part of many people. Organized, free, after-school programssuch as: sports teams and games; art, music, and drama activities; internships in local areabusinesses and professional organizations; and interesting volunteer activities in the communitywould help engage teens in worthwhile pursuits outside of school hours. More job 5___for teens, especially those funded by state and local programs, would offer income for teens as well as productive work for the community. Outreach to families through schools, community organizations, and places of worship would help promote inter-generational activities that could improve family closeness, helping teens to work on their problems at the family level, instead of taking them to the streets. If these 6 ___ can be implemented, we will surely see a decrease in teen gang activity and safer streets and neighborhoods for us all.
C
Two 7_____designs for an emission-free fuel cell powered car have been presented: Car A, a luxury sedan which runs on hydrogen, and Car B, a medium-sized family hatch which uses hydrogen and oxygen. Each car features recyclable materials and conforms to Australian design 8____in terms of performance and safety features. However, Car В is recommended as it was found to be more economical in terms of both manufacturing and running costs.
Task 11. Work in pairs. Read conclusions A-C again and answer the questions.
1. What fields of research do these reports refer to?
2. Think of titles for these reports.
Unit 11. ACADEMIC CORRESPONDENCE
Lead-in:
Task 1. Work in pairs and discuss these questions.
What rules of etiquette do you know?
Why is it important to follow these rules?
What is email etiquette, in your opinion?
Task 2. Complete the following formal email etiquette rules. Use the words in the list. You can use some verbs more than once. Add do not where necessary.
write attach address be start answer give
1._____the receiver by name or title.2._____a meaningful topic in the subject line.3.____in capitals.4.____your email with a greeting.5.____understandable names to attachments.
6.____clear, short paragraphs.
7.____friendly and cordial, but____familiar.8.____files which are too large.9._____within a reasonable time.Task 3.Which rules are relevant to your professional life? What rules can you add from your own experience?
Formal style
Task 4. Work in pairs. Mark expressions a-1 with ‘’T’’ if they are part of an informal letter to a friend and ‘’F’’ if they are from a formal academic letter.
a) By the way, are you going to the Statistics Conference, too? If so, I will take the opportunity to bring you the book you asked for in your previous letter. It is magnificent._____
b) My name is Professor Copeland, and I am writing to you in order to request information on the Statistics Conference to be held at your University in November 2018._____
с) Yours faithfully,
Rebecca Copeland_____
d) Dear Jane,_____
e) Firstly, could you provide details of the accommodation options? Secondly, I would begrateful if you could provide information on the plenary speakers._____
f) I wonder if you could share the worksheets you designed for teaching Probability, too.
It would be wonderful to use them as well. ______
g) Finally, could you please clarify the deadline for registration? _____
h) Hope to hear from you soon._____
i) Thank you for in advance for your help with this. I look forward to receiving your reply._____
j) Best wishes,
Rebecca_____
k) Hi, there. I hope you are well, and your kids, too. Thanks very much for the teaching materials you sent. I used them with my students and they thought they were great.____
1) Dear Sir or Madam _____
Task 5. Put the expressions in order to make two letters. What language features helped you complete the task?
Task 6. Tick the features of a formal, academic letter.
1. Colloquial expressions, that is expressions used in speaking, are numerous (What's up? Cheers!).
2. Full words, not contractions, are used (will not instead of won't).
3. Words and phrases that connect sentences meaningfully are used._____
4. The sentences are rather complex._____
5. Shortened versions of words are used (u instead of you, r instead of are).
6. Emotional words like great, superb, etc. are used._____
Organizing an email / a letter
Task 7. Put these elements of an email in order.
a) Give relevant information on the subject (What do you want to say?)
b) State the aim (Why are you writing?)
с) Describe the action you expect from the addressee (What do you want the addressee t do?)
d) Close your email/letter politely.
e) Open your email/letter with greetings.
Task 8. Match the expressions 1-8 with their functions a-c.
a) starting an email/letter
b) acknowledging receipt of something
с) inviting a response
1). I refer to your letter dated ...2).We appreciate your interest in...
3). If you have any further questions, do not hesitate to contact us.
4).Thank you very much for sending the information about...
5). I am writing on behalf of the university to invite you...
6). We look forward to hearing from you soon.
7). I am writing to apply for...
8).Thank you for your letter of...
Task 9. Put the words below in order to make sentences.
reply / are / to / your / looking / we / forward
our / interest / we / your / appreciate / in / project
conference /1 / on / writing / am / of / the / the / invite / university / behalf / to / you / to
will / early / appreciated / your / confirmation / be
contact / do / hesitate / to / us / not
Writing a formal email
Task 10. You have come across an advertisement about a grant for attending a workshop for researchers. Write a short, formal email to the organising committee (100-120 words). Describe your achievements and ask if you fit the criteria to be selected.
Subject Opening Stating the aim I am writing to you
Giving information Describing the actions you expect I would be grateful if you could
Closing Signature A REFERENCE LETTER
Task 1. Find someone who matches each description below. Report your findings to the class.
a) knows what a reference is
b) has written a reference letter
с) has asked their colleagues to write a reference letter for them
Organizing a reference letter
In column 1 in the table, tick the features a good reference letter should have.
1 2
1. Explanation of how long the referee has known the applicant 2. List of the personal qualities relevant to the specialism 3. Reference to the applicants qualifications, experience, and professional skills The applicant's weaknesses The applicant's religion, nationality, age, disability and gendThe referee's contact information Task 2. Read the letter of reference. In Column tick the features the letter has.
a) Dear Sir/Madam,
b) I am Robert Leeds, Professor at Darwin College, University of Nombridge. I am writing in support of Ms Hardworking's application for the MSc in Applied Ecology and Conservation at the University of South Anglia.
I have known this applicant for nearly 15 years, mostly through our shared work on an international ecological project in India.
с) Ms Hardworking is a leading professional in India, highly respected for her participation in biodiversity conservation projects. As well as this, she is known as an innovative thinker in the field. She is intelligent, well read and articulate, and has the maturity, self-discipline and independence to be able to cope with study at postgraduate level. It is typical of her positive attitude and the priority she gives to her professional development that she has chosen to apply for this program in the middle of a very successful career.
d) Moreover, her command of English is native-speaker standard. She has been used to functioning in English since childhood, throughout her education and now in most aspects of her professional life.
e) I am pleased to have this opportunity of recommending Ms Hardworking to you as
a postgraduate student. She will be an asset to the MSc programme,
f) If you have any further questions, feel free to contact me.
Yours faithfully,
Robert LeedcProfessor Robert Leeds
Task 3. Match elements of a reference letter 1-6 with its parts a-f.
1. describing the applicant 4. giving more information on the applicant
2. conclusion 5. opening3. summary of what has been written 6. describing the referees position
Task 4. Look through the letter of reference again. How do you know it is a positive letter? Find expressions that are used to do the following:
1. describe the professional skills of the applicant
2. describe the applicants personal qualities and character
3. recommend the applicant to someone else
Task 5. Match positive adjectives 1-4 (with examples) to definitions a-d.
1. mature (This position would suit a mature specialist with strong computer skills.)
2. observant (An observant student noticed the mistake.)
3. efficient (She is very efficient: she does everything quickly and well.)
4. reliable (You can trust her to take on the most difficult task: she is a reliable person.)
a) able to be trusted or believed
b) good or quick at noticing things
с) not wasting time or energy
d) completely grown or developed
Task 6. In the box below you will find more positive words to describe a person. Try to guess their meaning.
Describing personal qualities
self-confident competitive flexible creative diplomatic able to show empathy imaginative knowledgeable energetic willing to accept responsibilityTask 7. Use adjectives to complete these sentences.
1. Julia is quite______ because she feels sure about herself and her abilities.
2. Marek is known as a very______ person because he is good at thinking of new ideas and making new and unusual things.
3. Olga clearly has a desire to become the best and the most successful member of staff, which is quite typical for her_____ personality.
4. Herbert has shown the ability to be _____and work in different ways, at different times or in different places when it is necessary, to suit new conditions or situations.
Writing a reference letter
Task 8. Imagine one of your students/colleagues asked you to provide a reference for him/ her. Think about their main characteristics. Write a reference letter.
Task 9.Work in pairs. Take turns to read each other's letters of reference. Check if all the necessary elements are included.
WRITING A SUMMARY
Task 1. Work in pairs and discuss the questions.
1. Have you ever written a summary?
2. Why do we write them?
3. How long should a summary be?
Organizing a summary
Task 2. In column tick the features you think a summary should have.
1 2
1. The author's name and the title of the article 2. Graphs and tables 3. Detailed explanations 4. The author's main idea 5. Details to support the idea 6. Your own views on the problem 7. As much of the original text as possible 8. Quotations 9. Formal expressions, linking words Task 3. Read the example summary below and say what kind of misunderstanding takes place in a college classroom.
In his article ' Allusions in the Classroom,' Jaime O'Neill emphasizes the existing misunderstanding between students and teachers in a college classroom. He claims that teachers assume their students have basic knowledge they do not really possess. Moreover, students do not ask questions because they do not want to show their ignorance. O'Neill supports his conclusions by the results of the general knowledge test he administered to his students, which they answered more incorrectly than correctly. The author adds that, according to recent polls, a large portion of adults in the US are ignorant about the history of the country and the planet they live on. Finally, O'Neill expresses his opinion that instructors should be responsible for giving general information to their students.
Task 4. In expressions a-h underline the reporting verbs. Circle the words and phrases that show the order of events.
a) At the beginning of the article the author points out/emphasises...
b) Next / Further on, the following problems/issues are raised...
с) In addition, the reader is informed about...
d) Then, the following points are examined/studied: ….
e) The author suggests/assumes/claims that...
f) Summing up the author's thoughts...
g) Finally, the author concludes/assumes that...
h) The research the author conducted demonstrated that...
SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL
Situations for discussion
Situation 1 .You are a guest at a party at the Consulate/Embassy. Greet the person (Learner B) standing next to you and introduce yourself.
Situation 2. You are sitting in a hotel lobby waiting for a tour bus. A stranger (Learner B) sits down next to you. Не/She seems to be waiting for the same bus. Не/She starts the conversation by greeting you. Respond to his/her greeting and then introduce yourself.
Situation 3. You have to go down to the welcome dinner organized by the international conference committee. The lift has just stopped on your floor. You walk into the lift and see a stranger (Learner B). Greet him/her, respond to his/her greeting and then introduce yourself.
Situation 4. You have come to a conference and met your old friend at the reception desk. You have not seen each other for two years. Greet him/her and ask about his/her family.
Situation 5. You are a professor from a British university. You have just arrived. Your Italian colleague is meeting you at the airport.
Situation 6. You watched the film your friend had recommended. You liked it very much. Give your reasons.
Situation 7. You have just returned from an international conference in Thailand, which was a great success. You presented your paper there.
Situation 8. You are a Russian university teacher. You are hosting a foreign guest. You organized an excursion to a Russian monastery for him/her. You want to know if he/she liked the excursion.
Situation 9. You recommended a new mobile application to a tablet/smartphone/iPad to your friend. You want to know if he/she liked the application.
Situation 10. Invite a visiting professor from Germany out for a coffee after the lecture.
Situation 11. You are an American lecturer visiting a foreign university. Your colleague invites you to a jazz club at the weekend. Thank him/her for the invitation and accept it.
Situation 12. You are at an international conference in Barcelona. The hotel has very good sports facilities. Invite one of the participants from Leeds University to play tennis Situation 4 You are the head of a group of Indian businesspersons visiting a foreign university. Your host invites your group out for a meal tonight. Thank him/her for the invitation and accept it.
Situation 13. You and your friend are from Italy. Learner В is your friend and he/she invites you to his/her country house for the weekend. Thank him/her for the invitation but decline it. Give your reasons.
Situation 14. You are British. Your foreign colleague invites you and your husband/wife to a performance at the local opera house tomorrow evening. Thank him/her for the invitation and accept it.
Situation 15. You want to show your friend from Vietnam round your city. Invite him/her to a walking tour.
Situation 16. You are in your Estonian colleagues country house. Pay compliments to him/ her on his/her house and especially the garden full of flowers.
Situation 17. You are attending an international conference in the University of Economics in Prague. You like the way the conference is organised. Compliment your Czech colleague and thank the organisers.
Situation 18. You have just got your PhD degree. Your friend congratulates you on your achievements. Respond to his/her compliments
Situation 19. You are showing your university facilities to a professor from Denmark. He/ She is impressed by a new well-equipped computer centre and a new library. Respond to his/her compliments.
Situation 20. You like the design of the smartphone your friend has just bought. Pay compliments and ask about its options (features and functionality).
Situation 21. Your son/daughter has just entered Cambridge University. You are very proud of him/her and want to share this news with your friend.
Situation 22. You liked your colleague's presentation. Comment on his/her interesting findings and ask about the prospect of further research.
Situation 23. Your friend is inviting you to go out for a coffee. You can't accept his/her invitation as you are meeting your wife/husband this evening.
Situation 24. The conference organiser reminds you about tonight's dinner for the conference participants. Thank him/her for the invitation and apologise for not coming. You have a train to catch.
Situation 25. You are on the phone to your colleague. You want to discuss the details of your joint presentation. Не/She can't talk right now as he/she has an appointment with a doctor. Agree on a time when you can discuss the presentation.
Situation 26. You are having a party for international guests at your house. During the party, one of your guests has to leave. Say goodbye and wish him/her a safe trip back home.
Situation 27.You are having lunch with your foreign colleague. Не/She has to leave as he/ she has a class. Agree to go out together in the evening.
EVERYTHING YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT YOUR
DIPLOMA AND PRESENTATION
«дипломная работа» is difficult to translate into English. Dissertation could sometimes be used as a translation of дипломная работа, bearing in mind that it exists only in some English institutions. In AmE, however, dissertation is a work submitted for a higher degree (BrE thesis). This fact, and the possible confusion with the Russian диссертация make dissertation a far from ideal translation of дипломная работа. The only other solution seems to be some descriptive expression with graduation (graduation essay/paper/dissertation
diploma, patent, graduate degree
- diploma [dɪˈploʊmə] — диплом, свидетельство, официальный документ
диплом учителя — teacher's diploma
выдавать диплом — to award / confer / present a diploma
диплом педагога — diploma in education
диплом архитектора — diploma in architecture
диплом об окончании колледжа — college diploma
- patent [ˈpætənt] — патент, изобретение, диплом, жалованная грамота, исключительное право
- graduate degree — диплом, ученая степень
диплом — academic credential
диплом врача — doctor's qualification
медицинский диплом — a medical qualification
диплом преподавателя — teaching qualification
учитель, имеющий диплом — certificated teacher
получить диплом без отличия — to go out in the Poll
получать диплом преподавателя — to qualify as a teacher
выдать (кому-л.) диплом учителя — to certify a teacher
в прошлом году он получил диплом врача — he qualified in medicine as a doctor last year
диплом выпускника гуманитарного училища — associable in artsРодственные слова, либо редко употребляемые в данном значении
- award [əˈwɔːr|] — премия, решение, присуждение, стипендия, присужденная награда
- prize [ˈpraɪz]  — премия, приз, рычаг, выигрыш, награда, трофей, находка, желанная добыча - research [riˈsɝːtʃ|] — исследование, научное исследование, изучение, исследовательская работа
- thesis [ˈθiːsɪs] — диссертация, тезис, положение, безударный слог стопы
- degree [dɪˈɡriː]— степень, градус, уровень, ступень, качество, ученая степень, звание, корочки; диплом — certificate of degree
диплом с отличием — first class degree
получить диплом учителя — to get one's degree of a teacher
- certificate [sərˈtɪfɪkət]  — сертификат, свидетельство, удостоверение, аттестат, акт, паспорт
диплом об образовании — education certificateдиплом специалиста по управленческому счету — certificate in management accountingсертификат программиста; диплом программиста — certificate in computer programmingдиплом десятника по газу; удостоверение взрывника — fireman's certificateдиплом о присуждении ученой степени доктора наук; диплом кандидата наук — doctoral certificate- graduate [ˈɡrædʒəwət]  — выпускник, аспирант, окончивший учебное заведение
Presentation of a diploma (graduation speech)
Ladies and Gentlemen,
We would like to welcome you all here today for our (name of event) and wish to thank you all for your support. This is a traditional day for us here at (name of university etc.), we have been proud to hold this diploma presentation ceremony since (1935).
We have (5) different categories to present today that are: (list the names of the different categories). I am honored to be able to present this diploma today to you all.
Защита дипломного проекта на английском языке
 в неязыковом вузе
  
  I.V. Volodina, a student, MSIU,                  И.В. Володина, студентка,
  MSPU                                                          МГИУ, МГПУ
  Scientific speciality: 13.00.08 – Theory
  and  methods of vocational education
 
Аннотация                                                     Annotation
 
В статье рассматривается защита             The article examines the
дипломной работы на английском           defense of a degree
        языке  как разновидность                           work as a diversity of
научной презентации.                                 scientific presentation.
 
Ключевые  слова:                                       Key words
теоретические аспекты,                             theoretical aspects,           
характеристика и анализ                           characteristic and analysis
        объекта,                                                       of  object,
совершенствование объекта,                     improvement of object,
         научная новизна                                        scientific novelty
 
В российском вузовском  образовании  курс обучения английскому языку состоит из общего курса (General English)  и  курса языка специальности  (English for Special Purposes).
Защита дипломного проекта – это научная презентация о проведенном студентом исследовании и предложенных им мероприятиях по совершенствованию объекта исследования. Многие авторы выделяют две основные цели презентации –  информационную и убеждающую. Наибольшие затруднения студенты испытывают при осуществлении замысла убедить комиссию в достоверности теоретических и практических выводов проведенного исследования. Как правило, дипломная работа имеет структуру:
– введение;
– исследование  теоретических аспектов проблемы;
– характеристика и анализ объекта исследования
– предлагаемые мероприятия по совершенствованию объекта исследования;
–  заключение.
     Структура презентации представляется раздаточным  материалом и слайдами, как правило,  выполняемые  в Power Point.
Содержание слайдов должно отвечать  следующим  правилам:
 
1.Титульный слайд  должен содержать  название дипломной работы.
2. Слайд должен содержать актуальность темы, цель дипломной работы, задачи дипломной  работы.
3. Cлайд должен содержать  описание  методики исследования.
4.На слайде результатов помещаются графики, изображающие количественные результаты проведенного исследования. Информация, представленная  на слайдах в таблицах, очень плохо  воспринимается.
Cтудент должен объяснить какие взаимосвязи на нем отображены,          что означает каждая линия графика или часть диаграммы и сформулировать   выявленную закономерность. Закончить  эту часть презентации следует кратким суммированием основных результатов исследования.  
  5. Слайд должен  содержать мероприятия,  предлагаемые для совершенствования объекта  исследования, необходимо отметить новизну предлагаемых  мероприятий, их значимость для предприятия и для отрасли.     
   6. Слайд должен содержать состояние объекта исследования после внедрения мероприятий, перспективы дальнейших исследований.    
   7. Слайд благодарностей:  студент благодарит всех лиц, которые содействовали ему  в написании дипломной  работы.
Для формирования навыков эффективного научного общения  (навыков связанных с обменом профессиональной информацией) особое внимание уделяется вариативности языковых способов  выражения мысли.
 
Рекомендации для  составления  выступления на защите дипломного проекта:
 Сообщение о теме работы
 
    1.   Сообщая о теме,  следует пользоваться в первую очередь формами настоящего времени  Present Indefinite или в тех случаях, когда необходимо подчеркнуть законченный характер действия,  – Present Perfect со сказуемым в страдательном залоге. Past Indefinite используется при описании проделанной работы (эксперимента, исследования, вычисления), если работа послужила основой для тех или иных заключений. 
1. Изучается новый метод обучения.         The  new teaching method
                                                                       is studied.
2. Исследовались(исследованы,                  The principles of pedagogical           
были  исследованы) принципы                    techniques  were studied.
педагогических технологий.
 
2.     При сообщении о предмете исследования вам понадобится целый ряд глаголов.
       Глаголы с общим значением исследования: изучать , исследовать, рассматривать,              
     анализировать – study, investigate, examine, analyze, consider.
     Study  означает «изучать, исследовать».
     Investigate   помимо    значения  «изучать,  исследовать» означает  «рассматривать,  внимательно осматривать,    проверять».
     Analyze  - исследовать, изучать (включая момент анализа).
     Consider – изучать, рассматривать ( принимая во внимание параметры).
 
          Примеры:
    
1. Изучается новая проблема A new problem is studied.
2. Были исследованы  причины плохой успеваемости студентов. The causes of  students’ poor results have been investigated.
 
Глаголы с общим значением описания: описывать, обсуждать, излагать, рассматривать – describe, discuss, outline, consider.
Describe – описывать , давать описание.
Discuss – обсуждать, описывать (иногда с элементом полемики), излагать.
Outline – кратко описывать, описывать (в общих чертах), очерчивать.
Consider – рассматривать , обсуждать ( принимая во внимание разные параметры).
 
1.Новый метод обучения студентов описывается в статье. A new method of teaching students is described in the article.
2. Болонский процесс широко обсуждается сейчас. The Bologna Process is widely discussed nowadays.
 
Способы и методы
 
Возможно будут полезны существительные, обозначающие:
1) метод, способ проведения исследования;
2)  прибор, средства
 
Слова со значением «метод, способ, методика, прием, подход, процедура, операция» - method, technique, procedure, approach, way -  не имеют однозначных соответствий в русском и английском языках. Например, слово «метод» можно передать словами  method, technique, procedure, approach.
– method означает «метод, способ»;
– technique – метод, способ, методика, техника (проведения опыта);
– techniques – методики;
– procedure – метод, прием, процедура, операция (не в медицинском смысле этого слова);
– approach (to) – метод, подход (к решению), рассмотрение (с определенной точки зрения).
Цель и назначение
 
1. Для обозначения цели, назначения исследования можно употребить следующие существительные: the aim, the object, the purpose, the task, the goal – цель, назначение задача. (Существительные aim, object, purpose, task употребляются  с определенным артиклем, имеющим конкретизирующее значение, поскольку говорится не о целях вообще, а цели (назначении) данной работы, опыта и пр.2.  Прилагательные main, chief, primary, principal – главный, основной – могут определять существительные со значением «цель, назначение» (purpose, aim, etc.)
3. Если необходимо сообщить о цели своей работы, можно использовать конструкцию, состоящую из существительного purpose, aim, object, task с последующим глаголом to be + Infinitive.
Пример
 
 
The aim (object, purpose, and task) of the study is to determine… Цель (задача) работы состоит (заключается) в определении (в том, чтобы определить)…Цель (задача) работы – определение (определить)…
Целью работы является определение…
Работа проведена для (с целью) определения …
  
Область применения
 
1.Для сообщения о применении предмета  исследования  могут быть употреблены следующие существительные, глаголы и сочетания глаголов с существительными:
– application – применение;
– use, employ, apply (to), utilize – применять, использовать;
– to be used (employed, applied (to), utilized), find use, find (have) application, be applicable – использоваться, применяться, находить, получать применение.
 
1.Этот метод применим к обучению в системе дистанционного образования. The approach is applicable to teaching in the system of Distance Education.
 
     Основные признаки и характеристика предмета исследования
 
1.  Если нужно рассказать об основных характеристиках изучаемого предмета, процесса, явления, вещества, способа, теории, прибора и т.п., можно использовать следующие существительные и сочетания:
  – feature – черта;
  – characteristics – характерная черта;
  – peculiarity – особенность;
 
1.Особенностью этого метода обучения является его высокая эффективность. The peculiarity of the teaching approach is its high effectiveness.
Если нужно сообщить о том, что можно сделать (получить и пр.) при помощи метода, то можно использовать глаголы, передающие понятия возможности, способности, а именно: can, be capable of, allow, permit, enable, make it possible.
 
Этот метод преподавания позволяет нам сравнить результаты. This approach of teaching allows us to compare results.
 
Оценка
 
1. При оценке работы, метода могут понадобиться существительные:
– advantage, merit – достоинство, преимущество;
– limitation, disadvantage, drawback – недостаток, недочет, ограничение.
 
Этот метод обучения имеет ряд преимуществ. This approach of teaching  has (presents, offers) several advantages over former ones.
 
Результаты исследования 
Сообщение о результатах работы
 
1.  Для сообщения о результатах своей работы могут понадобится следующие существительные:
– result (on, of) – результат;
– findings (on) – данные (о, по, относительно), результатах.
– data (on, concerning, as to) – данные, сведения (об, относительно, что касается) (употребляется во мн.ч.);
– fact (of, concerning, that ) – факт;
– evidence – данные, доказательства, свидетельства.
2.  Следующие глаголы вы можете употреблять с существительными result,
   findings, data, evidence, fact:
– obtain – получать;
– give, present, provide – давать, представлять;
– report – сообщать;
  
Исходные моменты
 
Сообщая о результатах работы, приходится говорить на основании каких данных, явлений, теорий и пр. проведены исследования и т.д. или сделаны выводы, заключения. Могут быть полезны следующие слова и сочетания слов:
– base on (upon) – основывать на;
– from, on the basis of, according to, in terms of – исходя из, если исходить из, по, на основе, на основании, с учетом, учитывая, согласно.
 
Данные интерпретируются на основе (исходя из, с учетом, согласно, в терминах) новой модели. The data are interpreted on the basis of (from, according to, in terms of) a new model.

При интерпретации данных могут употребляться следующие глаголы:
– explain, account for – объяснять ;
– give, provide, offer (an, the) explanation, (an, the) interpretation – давать объяснение;
 –suggest, make a suggestion – предлагать
 
Дается объяснение метода обучения маленьких детей. Explanation for the approach of teaching young children is offered.
 
 
Связь, зависимость, влияние
Если результатом работы является установление взаимосвязи между явлениями, событиями, процессами и пр., могут быть использованы следующие существительные и глаголы:
– relation of, relation between – связь между;
– establish relation – устанавливать.
    
Была установлена связь между этими методами преподавания. A relation between these teaching approaches has been established.
 Выводы. Заключения
 
1.Заключительные предложения дипломов часто вводятся следующими словами и сочетаниями слов:
– conclude – приходить к заключению (к выводу);
– make, draw, reach a conclusion, come to a conclusion that – делать
 
В результате делается общий вывод относительно новых методов обучения. As a result a general conclusion is made concerning (as to) the  new teaching approaches.

Таким образом, защита диплома на иностранном языке (английском), формирует у студентов неязыковых вузов готовность к профессиональному и научному общению.
ПЕРЕВОД УЧЕНОЙ СТЕПЕНИ КАНДИДАТА НАУК НА АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
Существуют определенные разногласия по поводу перевода степени "кандидат наук" на английский язык. Основная причина споров - отсутствие точного аналога в англоговорящих странах: кто-то приравнивает эту степень к степени магистра (Master), кто-то - доктора (PhD).
Министерство образования РФ предлагает следующий порядок соответствия российских ученых степеней зарубежным аналогам:
Doctoral Degrees
In countries with a two-tier system of doctoral degrees, the degree of Kandidat Nauk should be considered for recognition at the level of the first doctoral degree.
In countries with only one doctoral degree, the degree of Kandidat Nauk should be considered for recognition as equivalent to this degree.
In countries with a two-tier system of doctoral degrees, the degree of Doktor Nauk should be considered for recognition at the level of the second doctoral degree.
In countries in which only one doctoral degree exists, the degree of Doktor Nauk should be considered for recognition at the level of this degree. (en.russia.edu.ru)
Верными представляются нижеследующий (не всегда благозвучный) перевод и мнение о том, что при переводе официальных документов в задачу переводчика не входит выявление соответствий научных степеней, а в менее официальных случаях, например, на визитках, можно указать PhD или другой зарубежный эквивалент, понятный носителю языка.
В зависимости от специальности, по которой происходит защита кандидатской диссертации, соискателю присуждается одна из следующих учёных степеней:
Кандидат наук Candidate of Sciences
Доктор наукDoctor of Sciences
Кандидат архитектуры (к. арх.)Candidate of Architecture
Кандидат биологических наук (к. б. н.)Candidate of Biological Sciences
Кандидат географических наук (к. г. н.)Candidate of Geographic Sciences
Кандидат искусствоведения (к. иск.)Candidate of Art Criticism
Кандидат исторических наук (к. и. н.)Candidate of Historical Sciences
Кандидат культурологииCandidate of CulturologyКандидат медицинских наук (к. м. н.)Candidate of Medical Sciences
Кандидат педагогических наук (к. п. н.)Candidate of Pedagogic Sciences
Кандидат политических наук (к. пол. н.)Candidate of Political Sciences
Кандидат психологических наук (к. псх. н.)Candidate of Psychological Sciences
Кандидат социологических наук (к. соц. н.)Candidate of Sociological Sciences
Кандидат технических наук (к. т. н.)Candidate of Engineering Sciences
Кандидат физико-математических наук (к. ф.-м. н.)Candidate of Physico-Mathematical Sciences
Кандидат филологических наук (к. фил. н.)Candidate of Philological Sciences
Кандидат философских наук (к. филос. н.)Candidate of Philosophical Sciences
Кандидат химических наук (к. х. н.)Candidate of Chemical Sciences
Кандидат экономических наук (к. э. н.)Candidate of Economic Sciences
Кандидат юридических наук (к. ю. н.)Candidate of Juridical Sciences
При переводе степени доктора наук заменяем слово Candidate на слово Doctor.
Должности и звания работников вузов по-английски
профессорско-преподавательский составfaculty / professional and teaching staff / teaching staff
аспирантPostgraduate
аспирант кафедрыPostgraduate at the Department of
декан Dean
директорDirector
докторантDoctoral Candidate
доцент (должность)Associate Professor
доцент кафедры (конкретной)Associate Professor at the Department of
доцент (звание)Docent
зав. кафедрой (должность)Head of Department (BrE) / Department Chair (AmE)
зав. кафедрой (конкретной)Head of the Department of / Chair of the Department of /
зав. отделением (конкретного)Head of the Division of / Department Head / Department Chair /
кафедра
Department / Sub-Department Слово "chair", часто используемое в российских переводах в значение "кафедра", такого значения не имеет, а означает руководящую ("заведующий") или профессорскую должность в университете.
CHAIR - the position or job of being a professor in a university - He held the Chair of Botany at Cambridge for 30 years" - Что можно перевести: "Он 30 лет был главным специалистом по ботанике в Кембридже").
"chair" - это титул, звание ("title"): "University Research Chairs: The University of Waterloo owes much of its reputation and stature to the quality of its professors and their scholarly accomplishments.."
Обязанности "Department Chair" (зав. кафедрой) описаны на сайте Висконсинского университета:"Department Chair Role and Responsibilities: The chair is responsible for facilitating the operation of a department, the fundamental academic unit within the university. Description of the chair's roles and responsibilities must be understood in the overall context of responsibility and accountability. ... The chair facilitates the management of the department. To carry out this responsibility, the chair oversees, directly or indirectly, the daily progress toward achieving teaching, research, and service goals as set out in the department's plan. With the Chair's leadership and facilitation, faculty members provide students the educational opportunity necessary to be prepared for meaningful personal and professional lives. To this end, the chair plays an important role in providing the dean/provost, through the budget and planning process, with class schedules, program plans and estimates of resources needed to carry out department functions."
Таким образом, все приведенные примеры доказывают, что "chair" в контексте высшего образование относится к должности или званию человека и не может переводиться на русский язык как "кафедра" (department).
младший научный сотрудник --- Research Assistantнаучно-образовательный центр (НОЦ) --- Research and Education Centerнаучный сотрудник--- Research Officer
отдел госбюджетных фундаментальных и поисковых исследований ---Department of State Budget Fundamental and Exploratory Research
отдел --- Department
отделение--- Division / Department
преподаватель кафедры --- Lecturer at the Department of …
профессор (звание) ---Full Professor
профессор кафедры (конкретной) ---Professor at the Department of
регионоведение ---Area Studies
научно-публицистический журнал --- the Scientific and Socio-Political Journal
соискатель кафедры ---Applicant at the Department of
старший научный сотрудник --- Senior Research Officerстарший преподаватель --- Senior Lecturerфакультет --- FacultyНекоторые слова и фразы для перевода аннотации научной статьи на английский язык
вопросы, проблемы (чего-либо) ---issues (of)
научная статья ---paperмежнациональный конфликт--- ethnic conflictна примере--- case study of
НИОКР (научно-исследовательская и опытно-конструкторская работа) --- research and development, R&D
С. (страница) ---P. (page) (англ.)
См. (смотри) --- Seeтам же --- Ibid. (ibidem) (лат.)
точки зрения --- perspectivesперспективы --- prospectsПРЕЗЕНТАЦИЯ НА АНГЛИЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ
Обычная презентация имеет следующую структуру:
Начало (starting).
Главная часть (introduction and focusing attention).
первое (firstly);
второе (secondly);
третье (thirdly);
...
наконец (lastly)
Заключение (conclusion).
Ответы на вопросы (answering questions).
СТАНДАРТНЫЕ ФРАЗЫ
Начало презентации
Good morning / afternoon / evening ladies and gentlemen Доброе утро / день / вечер дамы и господа
My name is… I am … Меня зовут … Я являюсь …
Today I would like to talk with you about … Сегодня я хотел бы поговорить с вами о…
My aim for today’s presentation is to give you information about … Цель моей сегодняшней презентации – проинформировать вас о…
I have been asked to comment on what I think of the way … Меня попросили сказать / прокомментировать, что я думаю о способе …
Please feel free to interrupt me if there are any questions. Пожалуйста, не стесняйтесь прерывать меня, если возникнут любые вопросы.
If you have any questions, please feel free to ask me at the end of the presentation. Если у вас есть какие-либо вопросы, пожалуйста, задайте их по окончании презентации.
Сообщение о плане презентации
At the outset … Вначале …
First of all, … / Above all, … Прежде всего …
First I would like to talk about … Сначала я хотел бы сказать о …
I’d like to start by saying … Я бы хотел начать с …
Before discussing … Перед тем как обсуждать …
Describing this process, it is necessary to start with … Описывая этот процесс, необходимо начать с …
Firstly, we must become accustomed to the terminology, which uses … Сначала мы должны ознакомиться с терминологией, которую использует …
I’d like to come to the right point … Я бы хотел сразу приступить к делу …
I am going to divide my review / report / article into 3 areas / parts … Я собираюсь разделить свой обзор / доклад / статью на 3 части …
I will begin with a definition of …, then go on to a brief review … Я начну с определения …, затем перейду к краткому обзору …
Let us start by mentioning a few facts … Давайте начнем с упоминания некоторых фактов …
Then I would like to take a look at… Затем я хотел бы взглянуть на …
Following that we should talk about … Вслед за этим мы должны поговорить о …
Lastly we are going to discuss … В заключение мы обсудим …
I would like to talk to you today about _____ for ___ minutes. Сегодня я хотел бы поговорить с вами о _____ в течение _____ минут.
We should be finished here today by ____ o’clock. Мы должны закончить сегодня к ___ часам.
Управление презентацией
Now we will look at … Сейчас мы посмотрим на …
I’d like now to discuss… Я бы хотел обсудить сейчас …
Before moving to the next point I need to … Прежде чем перейти к следующему вопросу, мне необходимо …
Let’s now talk about… Давайте сейчас поговорим о …
Let’s now turn to… Давайте перейдем сейчас к …
Let’s move on to… Давайте перейдем к …
That will bring us to our next point … Это приведет нас к нашему следующему пункту …
Moving on to our next point … Переходим к нашему следующему пункту …
Let us now turn to …, namely to … Теперь перейдем к …, а именно к …
We come now to the description of … Теперь мы подошли к описанию …
Let’s switch to another topic … Перейдем на другую тему …
Let us now proceed to consider how … Давайте перейдем к рассмотрению того, как …
Firstly … Во-первых …
Secondly … Во-вторых …
Thirdly … В-третьих …
I’d like to describe in detail … Я бы хотел подробно описать …
Let’s face the fact … Давайте обратимся к факту …
Consider another situation. Рассмотрим другую ситуацию …
Let’s go back a bit to … Давайте немного вернемся к …
It will take up too much time / space … Это займет слишком много времени / места …
This point will be discussed later / after … Этот вопрос будет обсуждаться позднее / после …
Lastly … Наконец / в заключение …
Eventually we must confess … В конечном итоге, мы должны признаться …
Now we come to the final phase of … Теперь перейдем к заключительному этапу …
One more question remains to discuss … Остается еще один вопрос для обсуждения …
And the last point, … И последний вопрос / замечание, …
A final remark. Последнее замечание.
Подведение итогов
I would just like to sum up the main points again … Я бы еще раз хотел подвести итоги основных пунктов …
If I could just summarize our main points before your questions. So, in conclusion … Я хочу только подвести итоги наших главных пунктов перед тем, как вы начнете задавать вопросы. Итак, в заключение …
Finally let me just sum up today’s main topics … В заключение, позвольте мне подвести итоги сегодняшних основных тем …
Concluding what has been said above, I want to stress that … Подводя итог тому, что было сказано выше, я хочу подчеркнуть, что …
I will sum up what has been said … Я подытожу все сказанное …
To conclude this work … В завершение этой работы …
To summarize, the approach to … described here is … Резюмируем: подход к …, описанный здесь, состоит в …
We arrived at the conclusion that … Мы пришли к заключению, что …
We shouldn’t rush to a conclusion … Мы не должны делать поспешный вывод …
We find the following points significant … Мы находим важными следующие моменты …
We can draw just one conclusion since … Мы можем сделать лишь один вывод, поскольку …
As a summary I would like to say that … В качестве обобщения, я бы хотел сказать, что …
Finally, the results are given in … И, наконец, результаты представлены в …
Уточнения
I’m sorry, could you expand on that a little? Простите, можно немножко поподробнее?
Could you clarify your question for me? Могли бы вы прояснить этот вопрос для меня?
I’m sorry I don’t think I’ve understood your question, could you rephrase it for me? Извините, по-моему, я не понял вашего вопроса. Могли бы вы изложить его иначе (перефразировать) для меня?
I think what you are asking is … Я думаю то, о чем вы спрашиваете, это …
If I’ve understood you correctly you are asking about … Если я правильно вас понял, вы спрашиваете о …
So you are asking about … Итак, вы спрашиваете о …
Разные полезные фразы
Thus … Таким образом …
Thus we see … Таким образом, мы видим …
In consequence … В результате …
In consequence of … Вследствие …
Turning now to possible variants … Переходя теперь к возможным вариантам …
We can further divide this category into two types … В дальнейшем мы можем разделить эту категорию на два типа …
>We can now go one step further … Теперь мы можем продвинуться на шаг вперед …
That is why we have repeatedly suggested that … Вот почему мы неоднократно предлагали …
However this conclusion may turn out to be hasty, if … Однако этот вывод может оказаться поспешным, если …
Maybe we could get definite results at an earlier date … Возможно, мы могли бы получить определенные результаты на более раннюю дату (раньше) …
No definite conclusions have so far been reached in these discussions … В ходе этих дискуссий так и не были сделаны какие-либо определенные выводы …
Results are encouraging for … Результаты обнадеживающие, поскольку …
Results from such research should provide … Результаты такого исследования должны обеспечить …
That yields no results … Это не дает никаких результатов …
The logical conclusion is that … Логическим заключением является то, что …
The result was astounding … Результат был ошеломляющим …
The results are not surprising … Результаты неудивительны …
Then eventually I came to the conclusion that … Затем, со временем, я пришел к выводу, о том что …
There are two important consequences of … Есть два важных следствия …
The first step is to develop … Первый шаг состоит в том, чтобы разработать …
The second phase of is that … Второй этап … в том, чтобы …
There are two main stages in thе procedure … В данной процедуре есть два главных этапа …
Although I think that … Хотя я полагаю, что …
I strongly believe that … Я решительно полагаю, что …
In order to understand … Для того чтобы понять …
It has to be said that … Необходимо сказать, что …
Many experts are coming to believe that only … Многие эксперты все больше приходят к убеждению, что только …
Some experts, however, think that … Некоторые эксперты, однако, думают, что …
Someone may say that … Кто-то может сказать, что …
Though we used to think … Хотя мы привыкли полагать …
It is generally considered that … Обычно полагают, что …
We should realize that … Мы должны осознавать, что …
Now we understand why it is so hard to … Теперь мы понимаем, почему так трудно …
Consider how it can be done … Рассмотрим, как это может быть сделано …
At first glance it would seem that … На первый взгляд могло бы показаться, что …
It can be viewed in a different light … Можно иначе смотреть на это …
It has been assumed that … Предполагалось, что …
Let us assume for a moment that … Предположим на минуту, что …
Suppose, for example, that … Предположим, например, что …
Though it might seem paradoxical, … Хотя это могло бы показаться парадоксальным …
You might know that … Вы, возможно, знаете, что …
But it can be claimed that … Но можно утверждать, что …
Let us not forget that … Давайте не будем забывать, что …
This simplified approach ignores the importance of … Этот упрощенный подход игнорирует важность …
Обозначение темы, цели, длительности презентации
The topic of my presentation is… Тема моей презентации …
The purpose of my talk is to illustrate… Цель моего доклада – обрисовать картину…
I’d like to give you an overview of… Я хотел(а) бы дать общее представление о…
My talk will be in three parts. Мой доклад состоит из трёх частей.
I will take some… minutes of your time. Я займу … минут вашего времени.
Начало доклада может звучать, например, так:
In my presentation, I would like to focus on the latest developments in online marketing. I will speak for about 20 minutes to leave time for questions and comments. Please, feel free to interrupt if you have any questions or want to make a comment.
Основная смысловая часть презентации
There are three things to consider… Мы рассмотрим три вопроса…
So, first/To begin with/Let’s start with… Итак, во-первых/Для начала/Начнем с…
That completes/concludes/covers the first part of my presentation… На этом заканчивается первая часть моей презентации..Let’s move on to the next part, which is… Перейдём к следующей части, которая…
Now I want to describe the development of the idea. Теперь я хочу рассказать о появлении этой идеи.
That brings me to…/So now we come to… Таким образом, переходим к…
 
Выводы, заключение и призыв к обсуждению
I’d like to finish with…- a summary of the main points.- some observations based on what I’ve said.- some conclusions. Я хотел бы закончить…- кратким изложением основных моментов.- некоторыми наблюдениями, вытекающими из сказанного.- некоторыми выводами.
I’d like to finish by emphasising the main point(s). В завершение мне бы хотелось подчеркнуть основные моменты.
Now I’d be very interested to hear your comments. Я с интересом выслушаю ваши замечания.
Now we have … minutes for questions and discussion. У нас есть … минут на вопросы и обсуждение.
Thank you for your attention! Благодарю вас за внимание!
 
Пример проведения презентации.
StartingFormal MeetingInformal MeetingGood morning/afternoon/evening ladies and gentlemen….. My name is … and I'm head of the marketing department. Our purpose this morning is to hear a presentation, and to discuss it with all of you. Okay everybody. Please take a seat. Let’s get started. If you have any questions, please feel free to ask me at the end of the presentation. We’ll hear a presentation and discuss it to see if there are any fresh ideas.
IntroductionFormal MeetingInformal MeetingAs you already know, today’s presentation is designed to present some important points of …This first slide shows our agenda for the day. All right, let me start by saying thanks to all of you for the interest in this presentation.I would like to talk to you today about …. for… minutes.
First, I will begin with an overview of …Then, Ms. Smooth will present the data that she gathered and her ideas for … She will be followed by Mr. Hanson, who will discuss adapting our product to meet market needs, and at last we'll make a conclusion with the main recommendations. First I would like to talk about….Then I would like you to take a look at…Following that we're going to talk about…Then I'm going to wrap things up with our team’s recommendations.Lastly we are going to discuss…
Since we have very limited time today, please hold your questions until the end of the presentation. Any questions so far? Please feel free to interrupt me at any time.
Conclusion
EnglishRussianLet's sum it up.Let's wrap it up.I would like to sum up the main points again…So, in conclusion…Finally let me just sum up today’s main topics… Давайте суммируем.Завершим.Еще раз хотел бы суммировать главное…Итак, в заключение…Наконец, подведем итог сегодняшним главным моментам…
Answering questions
EnglishRussianI think I answered your question earlier.I'm glad you asked that.Well, as I already said…That's a very good question (of you to ask).So you are asking about…If I’ve understood you correctly you are asking about… Я думаю, я ответил уже на Ваш вопрос ранее.Рад, что Вы спросили об этом.Итак, как я уже и говорил…Очень хороший вопрос (который Вы задали).Итак, Вы спрашиваете о …Если я правильно понял Вас, Вы спрашиваете о …
VOCABULARY
pie chart – круговая диаграмма,table – таблица,bar chart – гистограмма,line graph – линейная диаграмма,market share – сегмент рынка
Неплохо выучить (если не знали) или вспомнить (если знали и забыли) – некоторые полезные термины, которые помогут корректно донести до слушателя основную идею вашей презентации и доходчиво представить информацию в графиках, таблицах и т.д.:
represent – представлять, 
rise slowly – медленно подниматься, 
go up steadily – неуклонно подниматься, 
rise gradually – постепенно расти, 
rise sharply – резко взлететь, 
hold steadily – держаться на определенном уровне
descend – снижаться, 
fall/go down/drop – падать, 
fall slowly – медленно падать, 
fall steadily – неуклонно снижаться, 
drop sharply – резко упасть
justify – подтверждать, 
currently – в настоящее время, 
raise the price – поднять цену, 
compared to – по сравнению с, 
revenue – доход
rise by 5% – подняться на 5%, 
drop from … to… - цена упала с … до…, 
go to the level of 35% - выйти на уровень 35%

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