Class 1. Translation practise

Class 1. Different Principles of translation
Ex. 1: Compare English Text I with the Russian one, the way of the translation chosen is functional; it is one of the abridged methods of translation based on lexico-semantic, grammatical and stylistic transformations used in order to abridge or simplify the source text; omissions are also used. Use the same to translate Text II.
Text I. Marks & Spencer
Dear Sir: I have many items purchased at Marks & Spencer by my peripatetic businessman father, including some beautiful clothes and a fold-up umbrella. Ah, the umbrella! It has never broken, inverted, failed to open or been mislaid without being recognised as mine and returned to me. Having had it for about four years, I call that unusual life span a testimony to British ingenuity.
If Mrs. Thatcher ever decides to hand over the government to Marks & Spencer, I may emigrate and change my nationality. Or maybe we could import some M&S managers to run our government!
Barbara Pilvin, Philadelphia
Барбара Пилвин из Филадельфии в своем письме рассказывает о своем восхищении торговой фирмой Marks & Spencer, ссылаясь на пример купленного у них зонта, который вот уже много лет не ломается, не заворачивается при ветре, не заедает и не теряется, что свидетельствует, по ее мнению, о подлинно Британском качестве. Переходя на политические темы, Барбара уверяет, что M&S могли бы возглавить хоть британское, хоть американское правительство.
Text II
Dear Sir: Last summer, as we hosted a city child through the Fresh Air Fund, a garter snake appeared in our woodpile. Geraldo had never seen a snake. Fascinated, he stood just a foot or so away, watching the snake as it wanned in the sunlight. There aren't any snakes in the urban South Bronx. Gerry murmured that he'd like to catch this snake and put it in a bottle to keep. I replied that I'm opposed to caging wild animals. Gerry looked at me, bug-eyed and gasped, That's a wild animal?'
Rhu M. McBee Brewster, New York
Ex. 2: Translate the following text preserving the main message and deleting unimportant details (selective translation); adapting it for laymen.
In February 1987, the real thing happened. A star much larger and much hotter than our sun reached the end of its conventional life. In its core, hydrogen in quantities equal to about six times the mass of the sun had been converted to helium in hellish thermonuclear reactions. Helium in turn had fused into carbon and oxygen, which themselves fused into even heavier elements. Eventually the innermost section of the core, about half again as massive as the sun, was turned into almost pure iron. The star was running out of available reactions, and activity in the core slackened, Now the radiation pouring outward was no longer as strong as the gravitational force pulling inward; the star collapsed, falling inward on itself until it could give no more, and exploded, spewing radiation and most of its mass into space. For astronomers, the supernova (known as Supernova 1987A, or SN1987A for short) was -- and is -- the story of the century.
Ex. 3. The following advertisement can be transformed according to your understanding of the features of Russian commercials. Use functional way of translation.
In England, you took in six palaces, three museums, and one big clock. Or was it three palaces, five museums, and two big clocks? In France, you dashed through two museums, eight cathedrals, and three two-star restaurants. Or maybe it was two three-star restaurants, no museums, and half of the cathedrals were in Germany.
By the time you hit Holland, your head was spinning faster than the windmills. And Italy was a total blur of statues, canals, coliseums, and one suspiciously leaning tower.
Too bad you didn't lean on the Sony Handycam™ Video 8® camcorder. All your confusion would have been straightened out. Its lightweight portability makes it easy to use no matter how fast you're travelling. Autofocus keeps you perfectly clear about every country. And high fidelity sound realistically completes the picture. Add the convenient zoom lens. An exclusive digital supcrimposer. And a universal AC adapter. Now, you've got Europe and the rest of the world in your palm.
The Sony Handycam. It's everything you want to remember.
Ex. 4. Translate the following text by literal and communicative (the one that has the same impact on the addressee) ways. Compare the results and comment on the differences.
Спор о том, когда именно было написано "Слово", подогревался расхождением текста с исторической реальностью эпохи похода Игоря и характеристиками действующих лиц. Сглаживая противоречия, исследователи "Слова" отодвигали дату написания поэмы все дальше от 1185 года -- сначала в конец 12 века, потом в начало 13 и даже еще позднее. Противоречия сглаживались, но росло недоумение: почему, много времени спустя, возник интерес к неудачной вылазке третьестепенного князя? Теперь, когда с помощью Баяна удалось выяснить источники несоответствий, история возникновения знакомого нам текста "Слова о полку Игореве" представляется достаточно ясной. Оно рождалось как отзвук еще не затихших боев, в огне пожаров лета 1185 года, вероятнее всего в Переславле южном, на что указывают многие признаки обращения его автора к князьям. Кем был автор "Слова" -- боярином, князем, духовным феодалом? Но так ли это важно?! Он был первым, кто призвал к миру на Русской Земле, увидев пламя пожаров новой усобицы между князьями, и -- добился этого мира!
Ex. 5. Translate into Russian taking into consideration the national and cultural traditions of the target text recipients.
Devonshire Splits
1/2 oz. fresh yeast; 1 teaspoon caster sugar; 1/2 pint milk - warmed to blood heat; 1 Ib. strong white flour; 1 oz. caster sugar; 1 teaspoon salt; 2 oz. butter .
Mix together the yeast, the 1 teaspoon of sugar and the warm milk and leave in a warm place for 20-30 minutes until frothy. Rub the butter into the flour and stir in the 1 oz. of sugar and the salt. Add the yeast liquid to the flour and mix to a soft dough. Knead on a floured surface until smooth and elastic. Leave covered in a warm place for about 1 hour until doubled in size. Knock back, knead again and divide into 16 pieces. Mould into neat bun shapes and place on floured baking sheets. Leave once again in a warm place until well risen. Bake in a pre-heated oven at 425° F or Mark 7 for approximately 15 minutes until pale golden in colour. Cool on a wire rack. These sweet dough buns are often served with a traditional Clotted Cream tea. They are split and filled with the cream and home-made jam.
Class 2. Units of Translation and Text Segmentation
Ex. 1: Compare the source text with its translations; what does the translation of the words in italics depend on? Give your translation.
The part that got me was a lady sitting next to me that cried all through the goddam picture. The phonier it got, the more she cried. You'd have thought she did it because she was kind-hearted as hell, but I was sitting right next to her, and she wasn't. She had this little kid with her that was bored as hell and had to go to the bathroom, but she wouldn't take him. She kept telling him to sit still and behave himself. She was about as kind-hearted as a goddam wolf. You take somebody that cries their goddam eyes out over phoney stuff in the movies, and nine times out of ten they're mean bastards at heart. I'm not kidding.
Translation 1:
Но кого я никак не мог понять, так это даму, которая сидела рядом со мной и всю картину проплакала. И чем больше там было липы, тем горше она плакала. Можно было подумать, что она такая жалостливая, добрая, но я сидел с ней рядом и видел, какая она добрая. С ней был маленький сынишка, ему было скучно до одури, и он все скулил, что хочет в уборную, а она его не вела. Все время говорила - сиди смирно, веди себя прилично. Волчица и та, наверно, добрее. Вообще, если взять десять человек из тех, кто смотрит липовую картину и ревет в три ручья, так поручиться можно, что девять из них окажутся прожженными сволочами. Я вам серьезно говорю.
Translation 2:
Дамочка, которая сидела рядом со мной и лила слезы всю эту дерьмовую картину напролет, меня просто достала. Чем больше липы на экране, тем она горше рыдала. Уж такая добренькая, дальше некуда, но я-то сидел рядом, меня не проведешь. С ней был пацан, и он просто одурел от этой пошлятины и хотел в уборную, но куда там. Она только дергала его и щипала, чтобы он сидел смирно и вел себя прилично. Добрая, прямо как зверюга. Вообще из десяти человек, которые распускают сопли на какой-нибудь вшивой кинушке, девять наверняка просто подлые ублюдки. Честное слово.
Ex. 2: Compare the source text with its translation and explain why the same words are translated differently. Try to find out separate units of translation. What makes it necessary to use translator’s comments?
В одном хуторе увидел я русский христианский постоялый двор и, обрадовавшись ему, зашел туда переночевать. Здесь я увидел хозяина - старика, по-видимому, зажиточного, и услышал, что он одной со мной Орловской губернии. Как скоро вошел я в горницу, то первый вопрос его был: "Какой ты веры?" Я отвечал, что - православной, христианской.
"Какое у вас православие! - с усмешкой сказал он. - У вас православие-то только на языке, а в делах-то у вас басурманское поверье. Знаю, брат, вашу-то веру! Меня самого один ученый поп соблазнил было и ввел во искушение, и я пришел в вашу церковь, да, побывши полгода, опять возвратился в наше согласие. В вашу церковь соблазнительно прийти: службу Божию дьячки кое-как бормочут и все с пропусками и с беспонятицей; а певчие-то по селам не лучше, как в корчмах; а народ-то стоит, как попало - мужчины вместе с женщинами, во время службы разговаривают, вертятся по сторонам, оглядываются и ходят взад и вперед. Так что это за служба Божия? Это один только грех! А у нас-то как благочестиво служба-то: внятно, без пропуска, пение-то умилительно, да и народ стоит тихо... Именно, как придешь в нашу церковь, то чувствуешь, что на службу Божию пришел; а в вашу церковь пришедши, не образумишься, куда пришел: в храм или на базар!..."
Слушая это, я понял, что сей старик старообрядец, и сам в себе подумал, что нельзя обращать старообрядцев к истинной церкви до тех пор, покуда у нас не исправится церковное богослужение. Старообрядец ничего внутреннего не знает, он опирается на наружности, а у нас-то и небрегут о ней.
At one farm I noticed a Russian Christian inn and I was glad to see it. Here I saw the host, an old man with a well-to-do air and who, I learned, came from the same government that I did - the Orlovsky. Directly I went into the room, his first question was: 'What religion are you?' I replied that I was a Christian, and pravoslavny.
1 Pravoslavny, indeed,' said he with a laugh. 'You people are pravoslavny only in word -- in act you are heathen. I know all about your religion, brother. A learned priest once tempted me and I tried it. I joined your church and stayed in it for six months. After that
I came to the ways of our society. To join your Church is just a snare. The readers mumble the service all anyhow, with things missed out and things, you can't understand. And the sitting is no better than you hear in a pub. And the people stand all in a huddle, men and women all mixed up; they talk while the service is going on, turn round and stare about, walk to and fro. What sort of worship do you call that? It's just a sin! Now, with us how devout the service is; you can hear what's said, nothing is missed out, the singing is most moving and the people stand quietly, the men by themselves, the women by themselves. Really and truly, when you come into a church of ours, you feel you have come to the worship of God; but in one of yours you can't imagine what you've come to Church or to market!'
From all this I saw that the old man was a diehard raskolnik. I just thought to myself that it will be impossible to convert the Old Believers to the true Church until church services are put right among us. The raskolnik knows nothing of the inner life; he relies upon externals, and it is about them that we are careless.
Ex. З: Compare the source text with its translation. Comment on the way of translation of the italicized words. Give your translation.
"Юрайя Хип" становились совершенным организмом. Если тогдашний, затмевающий роскошью других "звезд", образ жизни хипов и накладывал отпечаток на их облик и поведение вне сцены, то музыка была как раз тем контрастом стилю жизни, который служил творческому развитию группы. "Юрайя Хип" стремились иметь образ. Сейчас же они сама индивидуальность," - писал журнал "Melody Maker" в 1973 году. - "Сейчас это нечто большее, чем просто образ, это - характер." Хип, несомненно, имели характер, но это была именно коллективная индивидуальность, даже большая, чем сумма их личностных особенностей.
В январе 1973 года, после гастрольной феерии предыдущего года, на концерте в Бирмингеме записывается зальный альбом "Uriah Heep Live"- двойной диск, запечатлевший живой характер группы и каждого ее участника. Именно в зале проверяется слаженность организма группы - инженеры здесь не помогут, тут-то и нужно чувствовать локоть партнера. Хипы в совершенстве владели искусством гигантских шоу, чувствуя малейшие нюансы в поведении друг друга на сцене во время многочасовых выступлений нескончаемых турне. Особенно тяжелая нагрузка ложилась на вокалиста - недаром спустя два года Байрон жаловался новому басисту Веттону, что за пять лет "беспрерывного орания на стадионах" его голосовые связки напрочь сели.
Uriah Heep were building the perfect beast. If their lifestyle at the time, surpassing the luxury of the other stars, had some effect on their characters offstage, their music made that necessary contrast with their lifestyle that contributed into their creative development. 'Uriah Heep used to have an image, now they have personality,' wrote Melody Maker in 1973. 'A new image has developed, but now it is more than an image, it is a character." And Heep undoubtedly had a character. But it was not just a collective personality, more even than the sum of individual personalities.
In January 1973, after the fairy-like tours of the past year, a live album URIAH HEEP LIVE was recorded at the concert in Birmingham. It was a double album and a living testimony to the band's character (and personality) at the time. It is at a concert that the real harmony of the group body reveals itself; no engineers can help you at the moment but the feeling of comradeship. Heep were perfect at gigantic shows, feeling the least nuances in the stage behaviour of each other, which could last for hours in the endless tours. Their vocalist was particularly overloaded; it was not without reason that, two years later, Byron complained to their new bassist Wetton that he had nearly lost his vocal cords for five years of 'continuous yelling on the arenas'.
Ex. 4: Compare the source text with its translation. Was the translator successful in attaining a satirical effect?
All the officer patients in the ward were forced to censor letters written by all the enlisted-men patients, who were kept in residence in wards of their own. It was a monotonous job, and Yossarian was disappointed to learn that the lives of enlisted men were only slightly more interesting than the lives of officers. After the first day he had no curiosity at all. To break the monotony he invented games. Death to all modifiers, he declared one day, and out of every letter that passed through his hands went every adverb and every adjective. The next day he made war on articles. Soon he was proscribing parts of salutations and signatures and leaving the text untouched.
When he had exhausted all possibilities in the letters, he began attacking the names and addresses on the envelopes, obliterating whole homes and streets, annihilating entire metropolises with careless flicks of his wrist as though he were God. Catch-22 required that each censored letter bear the censoring officer's name. Most letters he didn't read at all. On those he didn't read at all he wrote his own name. On those he did read he wrote, " Washington Irwing". When that grew monotonous he wrote, "Irwing Washington". Censoring the envelopes had serious repercussions and produced a ripple of anxiety on some ethereal military echelon that floated a C.I.D. man back into the ward posing as a patient.
Всех офицеров из палаты заставляли цензуровать письма рядовых, которые лечились в отведенных для нижних чинов палатах. Это было нудное занятие, и Йоссариан, читая письма, с разочарованием убедился, что жизнь нижних чинов ничуть не интереснее жизни офицеров. Уже на второй день он утратил всякий интерес к солдатским письмам, но, чтобы работа не казалась слишком скучной, он изобретал для себя всякие забавы. "Смерть определениям!" - объявил он однажды и начал вычеркивать из каждого письма, проходящего через его руки, все наречия и прилагательные. Назавтра Йоссариан объявил войну артиклям. Вскоре он начал сражаться с обращениями и подписями, а текст письма оставлял нетронутым. Когда фантазия Йоссариана истощилась и все возможности поиздеваться над письмами были исчерпаны, он начал атаковать фамилии и адреса на конвертах. Он отправлял в небытие дома и улицы и, словно Господь Бог, небрежным мановением руки стирал с лица земли целые столицы.
Инструкция требовала, чтобы на каждом проверенном письме значилась фамилия цензора. Большинство писем Йоссариан не читал вообще и спокойно подписывал их своей фамилией. А на тех, которые читал, выводил: "Вашингтон Ирвинг". Когда ему и это надоело, он стал подписываться: "Ирвинг Вашингтон".
Его цензорские шалости на конвертах привели к серьезным последствиям. Некие высокопоставленные военные обеспокоенно наморщили лбы и решили послать в госпиталь сотрудника контрразведки. Под видом больного он вскоре появился в палате Йоссариана.
Ex.5: Translate the text into Russian.
The Smithsonian Institution brings to life the nation's cultural, social, scientific, and artistic treasures and heritage. It is the largest complex of museums, art galleries, and research facilities in the world. Each year, more than 20 million visitors come to the Smithsonian's 14 museums and galleries -- from the National Air and Space Museum to the National Museum of Natural History -- and the National Zoological Park. Millions more share in the Smithsonian experience through travelling exhibitions, magazines, as members of the Smithsonian Associates, and by attendance at educational and performance programmes sponsored by the Institution, including the annual Festival of American Folklore. And while the visitors explore the galleries and exhibition halls, behind the scenes, curators, conservators, and researchers are busy caring for and learning from the national collections that the Smithsonian holds in trust for the American people.
Ex. 6: Translate the text into English.
Добровольцы в России
Бесплатно съездить в Россию иностранным студентам никто не предлагает, они довольствуются только добровольческими программами. Желающим посетить экзотическую страну приходится преодолевать немало препятствий. Например, стоимость российской визы во многих европейских странах доходит до 150 долларов, а получить ее -- дело очень долгое и хлопотное. Тем не менее только по линии Бритиш Рейл Интернешенел Эйджент в России этим летом побывали уже более двухсот добровольцев. Особой популярностью пользовалась программа реставрации Шереметьевского поместья под Йошкар-Олой. Успехом пользовалась также реставрация монастыря в Тихоновой пустыни и работа в лесничестве в Предуралье. Другие программы, привлекавшие к работе добровольцев-иностранцев, включали, например, помощь пациентам хосписа в Екатеринбурге, занятия с детьми из детского дома для детей с заболеваниями опорно-двигательного аппарата и многие другие.
Class 3. Transcription, Transliteration, Translation Loans
Ex. 1: Give the Russian for the following:.
A). Eugene Garside, Edward Westbury, Sophie Wilkins, Aubrey Herbert, Graham Hancock, Katharine Woolley, James Dylan, Giles G, Stephens, Marion Edmonds, William Cathcart, Howard Carter H. J. Plenderleith 78
B). Tutankhamen Chichen-Itza, Amenemhet Moctezuma, Pyramid of Cheops, Nebuchadnezzar, Chephren Quetzalcoatl, Mcnelaus, Rosetta Stone, Euripides, Queen Shub-ad, Eurymedon Xerxes, Corinth, Harun al-Rashid, Phidias Nazareth, Zeus
C). Vintage Books, Random House of Canada Limited, Dell Publishing Co., Inc. ,United States Environmental Protection Agency, Trace Analytical Laboratories, Inc., Eastman Kodak Company, Symantec Corporation, UNIX System Laboratories, Hitachi, Ltd., CompuServ, Inc. ,
D). The Grand Canyon, Wyoming , River Dart Kentucky , Devonshire New Jersey , North Carolina Rhode Island , British Columbia Cornwall , the Gulf of Mexico, Grey Wethers, Ocean-city, Grosvenor Square, Mount Rainier, Okehampton Castle
Ex. 2: Give the English for the following
Вологда, Саяны , Беловежская Пуща , Чудское озеро , Господин Великий Новгород , царь Алексей Михайлович Тишайший , ,Александро-Невская Лавра , Киевская Русь , Сергий Радонежский , Кижский Погост , Троицкий мост
Ex. 3: Translate into English.
Весной 1710 года Петр пожинал военные плоды Полтавской победы. Русские армии, не встречая сопротивления, прокатились по балтийским провинциям Швеции. В то время, как на юге 30-тысячная армия Шереметева осаждала Ригу, на северо-запад Петр послал генерал-адмирала Федора Апраксина, только что ставшего графом и тайным советником. Во главе 18-тысячного войска он должен был осадить Выборг - город на Карельском перешейке, в семидесяти пяти милях к северо-западу от Петербурга. В 1706 году русские войска безуспешно пытались захватить Выборг с суши, но теперь у них появились новые возможности - на радость Петру, вырос и окреп Балтийский флот. Ознакомившись с планом осады, Петр повелел Апраксину взять город во что бы то ни стало, а сам на небольшом суденышке вернулся в Петербург. 13 июня 1710 года Выборг с гарнизоном в 154 офицера и 3726 солдат сдался Апраксину, и к северу от Петербурга возникла стомильная защитная полоса.
Ex. 4: Translate into Russian.
Research Triangle Institute is a not-for-profit contract research corporation located on a 180-acre campus in North Carolina's Triangle Park. RTI is a free-standing corporate entity created in 1958 by joint action of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Duke University, and North Carolina State University. RTFs organization facilitates the formation of multidisciplinary teams to address complex research issues in many scientific, technical, and social subjects.
Ex. 5: Find in the text proper names to translate using transcription. Which of them need to be commented on? Translate the text into Russian.
The saga of the Northwest Indians probably began millennia ago when hunting families in search of food set out from Siberia, walked across a land bridge, the Bering Strait, to a new country that became known as Alaska. Later, many Indian tribes lived south of the Arctic Circle and divided into two distinct language groups: the Algonquians extended eastward to below Hudson Bay, and the Athapascans stayed in Northwest Canada. Gradually, some of each group moved southward. The Lewis and Clark explorers of 1803 to 1806 probably were the first white men to be seen by some descendants of those ancient Athapascan tribes. Mainly they lived on the north side of the Columbia River; on the south side of the river tribes of the Salishan language family located. Salishan Indians derived their name from the Salish, another name for the Flathead tribes of Montana. Among other tribes of this group are Chelan, Okanogan, Wasco, Kwakiutle, Aleut, etc.
Ex. 6: Translate the text into Russian using translation loans and transcription if possible, comment on your choice.
The word "potlatch" comes from the Chinook jargon and originally meant "to give". In its common use among the white people and the natives of the Northwest Coast it has taken on a very general meaning and applied it to any Indian festival at which there is feasting, or, in connection with which property is given away. Because of this loose and general meaning there necessarily exists a good deal of confusion as to what is meant by the term. From the Indian's viewpoint many different things are meant when he uses the Chinook word in speaking to white people, for it is the only word intelligible to them by means of which he can refer to a considerable number of ceremonies or festivals each having its own Indian name.
Ex. 7: Translate the text into Russian using translation loans and transcription if possible, comment on your choice.
After my April visit I was so impressed by the Great Pyramid that I spent several weeks researching its history. I discovered that it had been built around 2250 BC for Kufu (or Cheops), the second Pharaoh of the Fourth Dynasty, and that it was also the single largest edifice ever constructed by man. As I researched the subject further it became clear to me that the real purpose of the Great Pyramid was, in fact, a matter of considerable debate. On one side stood the most orthodox and prosaic scholars insisting that it was nothing more than a mausoleum. On the other side stood the pyramidologists -- an apocalyptic tribe who pretended to find all manner of prophecies and signs in virtually every dimension of the immense structure. I then learned that a team of Japanese engineers had recently tried to build a 35-feet high replica of the Great Pyramid limiting itself strictly to the techniques of the Fourth Dynasty (as proved by archeology), which construction turned out to be impossible under these limitations.
Ex.8: Translate the text into Russian using translation loans and transcription if possible, comment on your choice.
The word Zen is the Japanese form of the Chinese word Ch'an, which is the Chinese form of the Indian word Dhyana, meaning a particular kind of meditation. The Buddha, 2,500 years ago in India, taught the importance of this kind of meditation in achieving enlightenment. A thousand later, we are told, Bodhidhar-ma, and Indian missionary, took this message to China. There, followers of Lao Tzu assimilated it to their way of life, called Taoism. Their attitude of going along with the nature of things, the Tao, harmonized with the non- self-assertive, none raving acceptance of life ,as taught originally in India by the Buddha and then in China by Bodhidharma. This school of Buddhism was called Ch'an. The great arts of the Sung dynasty in China (960-1280) were created primarily by Ch'an-trained people.
When monks brought Ch 'an to Japan in the twelfth century, it developed even more rapidly and influenced the culture even more profoundly than it had in China. Called Zen by its converts, it shaped not only the religion of the people but also the orientation of the creative workers in sculpture, painting, architecture, landscape gardening, house furnishing, theatre - even bushido, the code of the warrior., and the arts of swordsmanship and archery.
Ex. 9: Find in the given text the terms for which both transcription and translation loans can be given in Russian. Translate the text using both, analyze the difference.
Fundamentally, we can understand the way in which language represents the world to us, in terms of two opposing positions. According to one view, human beings generally (whatever their culture or language) are endowed with a common stock of basic concepts -- "conceptual primes" as theу are sometimes known. Language, according to this view, is merely a vehicle for expressing the conceptual system which exists independently of it. And, because all the conceptual systems share a common basis, all languages turn out to be fundamentally similar. According to this position, thought determines language. We might characterize this view as the "universalist" position.
The alternative position maintains that thought is difficult to separate from language; each is woven inextricably into the other. Concepts can only take shape if and when we have words and structures in which to express them. Thinking depends crucially upon language. Because the vocabularies and structures of separate languages can vary so widely, it makes no sense to posit conceptual primes of a universal nature. Habitual users of one language will experience and understand the world in ways peculiar to that language and different from those of habitual users of another language. The latter viewpoint might be termed the "relativist" position.
Class 4.Grammatical Transformations
Ex.1.: Translate into Russian giving full or partially corresponding grammatical forms.
1. Не was in the hospital with the pain in his liver.
2. The men fell out for the parades early each Sunday afternoon and groped their way into ranks of twelve.
3. One day he felt that he could endure his loneliness no longer.
4. Soon it dawned upon him that they had recognized him.
5. There was no hope left.
6. Each time the fall of a city like Naples, Rome - or Florence seemed imminent, Major Coverely would pack his bag, commandeer an airplane and a pilot, and have himself flown away.
7. Williams reached out instinctively for balance and then launched himself forward in a prodigious dive.
8. He sank back into his chair and turned his head away.
9. There was no taxi in sight and he started to walk in the direction of the Park.
10. She was a hard, mercenary little thing.
Ex. 2: Translate into Russian giving full or partially corresponding grammatical forms
1. She wanted someone to console her, to assure her, to tell her that it was not worth troubling about.
2. Sitting up in her bed she rocked to and fro in agony, 'What shall I do? What shall I do?
3. The public are a lot of jackasses. If you yell and scream and throw yourself about you'll always get a lot of damned fools to shout themselves silly.
4. Those who are evil are masters of disguise; they are not apt to wittingly disclose their true colours.
5. I had begun to suspect the truth of this, but I hardly expected her to be so calmly aware of it.
6. He wished he had broad, muscular shoulders and biceps to enable him to step outside fearlessly and meet his persecutors with overbearing authority and self-confidence enough to make them all quail and slink away in repentance.
7. I'll be back here as soon as winter comes.
8. The policeman stepped forward impulsively to remonstrate.
9. All over the world, boys on every side of the bomb line were laying down their young lives for what they had been told was their country, and no one seemed to mind.
10. It was as easy as that.
11. Equally important were the workmen's compensation laws, which made employers legally responsible for injuries sustained by employees at work.
Ex. 3: Translate into English giving full or partially corresponding grammatical forms
1. Учителя требовали выплаты заработной платы, улучшения школьного оборудования и уменьшения обязательного числа учеников в классе.
2. ООН мало что сделала для предотвращения югославского конфликта.
3. Усилия реставраторов направлены прежде всего на сохранение свойств строительной древесины в древних бревенчатых постройках.
4. Ухудшение финансового положения страны непосредственно сказывается на снижении уровня жизни населения.
5. Все попытки восстановить в стране тоталитарный режим, тем более нечистоплотными методами, морально и социально обречены на провал.
6. Свободу нельзя получить в подарок: за нее нужно сражаться, ее нужно отстаивать, она требует силы и уверенности,
7. Сосредоточив в своих руках неограниченную власть, они без малейшего колебания разделались бы со свободой слова.
8. Дело художника - творить. Не тратить драгоценное время на сражения с бюрократами и командирами от искусства.
9. Он взялся за дело с воодушевлением и энергией, присущими ему во всем.
10. Русская литература, начиная с Пушкина, всегда обращала взоры к самому передовому и честному, что было в обществе.
11. Большинство дискуссий в русском изобразительном искусстве XIX века были связаны с общественной ролью художника.
Ex. 4: Translate into Russian so that not to destroy the stylistic function of the grammatical structures.
No country's history has been more closely bound to immigration than that of the United States. The Founding Fathers, especially Thomas Jefferson, were ambivalent over whether or not the United States ought to welcome arrivals from every comer of the globe. The author of America's Declaration of Independence wondered whether democracy could ever rest safely in the hands of men from countries that revered monarchs or replaced royalty with mob rule. However, few supported closing the gates to newcomers in a country desperate for labour.
By the mid-1840s millions of immigrants made their way to America as a result of a potato blight in Ireland and continual revolution in the German homelands. Meanwhile, a trickle of Chinese immigrants began to approach the American West Coast. Almost 19 million people arrived in the United States between 1880 and 1921, the year Congress first passed severe restrictions. Most of these immigrants were from Italy, Russia, Poland, Greece and the Balkans. Non-Europeans came, too: east from Japan, south from Canada and north from Mexico.
Ex. 5: Translate into Russian using antonymous translation or extension and compression.
1. I have just said to myself if it were possible to write, those white sheets would be the very thing, not too large or too small, but I do not wish to write, except as an irritant.
2. Of all things coming home from a holiday is undoubtedly the most damned.
3. Freedom which now she found made it quite easy for her to refuse Sybil's invitations, to take life much more strongly and steadily.
4. It is a decaying village, which loses its boys to the towns where not a boy of them, said the Rev. Mr Hawkesford, is being taught to plough.
5. To look at, he is like some aged bird; a little, small-featured face, with heavily lidded smoky bright eyes; his complexion still ruddy; but his beard is like an unweeded garden.
6. We went to Amberley yesterday and thought of buying a house there.
7. Angelica was so mature and composed; all grey and silver; such an epitome of all womanliness; and such an unopened bud of sense and sensibility wearing a grey wig and a sea-coloured dress.
8. The world is swinging round again and bringing its green and blue close to one's eyes.
9. I see Chartres in particular, the snail, with its head straight, marching acioss the flat country, the most distinguished of all churches.
10. This was the last day of August and like almost all of them of extraordinary beauty when each day is fine enough and hot enough for sitting out.
Ex. 6: Give several ways of translation for the following sentences:
1. 'Here's a new anthology of French verse for you, Walter,' said Burlap taking the little book from Beatrice.
2. There was always Mr Chivers at hand to do the rough work.
3. To gain freedom one sacrifices something -- the house, the comfort, the tulips in the garden, and all that these things signify.
4. Not that he particularly liked the house or the surrounding scenery. He was hardly aware of them.
5. But Sidney was only a facade. Behind the handsome front lived the- genuine' Sidney, feeble, lacking all tenacity of purpose in important matters, though obstinate where trifles were concerned.
6. Even the cleverness turned out to be no more than the kind of cleverness which enables brilliant schoolboys to write jubilee verses and humorous parodies.
7. Certainly a performer or speaker knows about audience energy.
8 Presently I became aware of a sense of unity with the others in the room.
9. Gerry hated the idea that one must do what one does not want to do.
Ex. 7: Translate into Russian using replacements or conversion.
1. If the guest was sufficiently sympathetic, he would take him into his study and show him (or preferably her) the enormous apparatus of card indices.
2. On one occasion after reading a book about American efficiency, he bought a large outfit of costly machinery, only to discover that the estate was not large enough to justify the expenditure.
3. Time passed and the book showed no signs of getting itself written.
4. And what could it mean for those who had never seen a Greek statue or read about Achilles in a book with a crinkle sheepskin cover?
5. Gradually 1 began to be more free in applying my new ideas to the life and work around me.
6. He was going to write about being drawn into the spiritual dimension.
7. He didn 't seem to feel the dashing peculiarity of the place -- none of it seemed to dazzle him or cause his mouth to drop open.
8. She matched the atmosphere in the shop - or maybe I was being theatrical.
9. What is the right attitude towards criticism? 10. I shall be laughed at and pointed at.
Ex. 8: Translate into Russian using extension or compression.
1. Hard work and constant attention might conceivably have made them profitable in time; meanwhile, however, the improvement had resulted in a dead loss.
2. With respect to the Bible, I used its terminology - that is, angels, pillars of fire and so on - because those were words used by the ancients to describe phenomena in the terms understandable in their day.
3. We were surrounded and enchanted by the milling paradisiacal mess that was Hong Kong - the teeming millions swollen and spilling into the bay.
4. When I turned to look at her, she recognized me and suggested that she introduce me to the owner who was in his office having tea.
5. How can you talk people into thinking they can do what they really cannot?
6. They were wise enough not to think about coming back but about eating and drinking and laughing and dancing.
7. Oliver was an experienced publisher and did not approve 'a philosophy' about the book: he did not believe in people's reading of riddles.
8. Sometimes animals injure themselves in the most ridiculous way imaginable.
9. He swaggered away happily with the proud smile of a champion, his shrivelled head high and his emaciated chest out.
10. All the others who had come running to the uproar in horror began cheering ecstatically in a tremendous relief.
Ex. 9: Compare the two texts as to the morphological transformations. Give your translation.
I was early when I got there, so I just sat down on one of those leather couches right near the clock in the lobby and watched the girls. A lot of schools were home for vacation already, and there were about a million girls sitting and standing around waiting for their dates to show up. Girls with their legs crossed, girls with their legs not crossed, girls with terrific legs, girls with lousy legs, girls that looked like swell girls, girls that looked like they'd be bitches if you knew them. It was really nice sightseeing, if you know what I mean. In a way, it was sort of depressing, too, because you kept wondering what the hell would happen to all of them. When they got out of school and college, I mean. You figured most of them would probably marry dopey guys.
Я приехал слишком рано, сел на кожаный диван под часами и стал разглядывать девчонок. Во многих пансионах и колледжах уже начались каникулы, и в холле толпились тысячи девчонок, ждали, пока за ними зайдут их кавалеры. Одни девчонки сидели, скрестив ноги, другие держались прямо, у одних девчонок ноги были мировые, у других - безобразные, одни девчонки с виду были приличные, а по другим сразу было видно, что они дрянь, стоит их только поближе узнать. Вообще смотреть на них было приятно, вы меня понимаете. Приятно и вместе с тем как-то грустно, потому что все время думалось: а что с ними со всеми будет? Ну, окончат они свои колледжи, пансионы. Я подумал, что большинство, наверно, выйдут замуж за каких-нибудь гнусных типов.
Ex. 10: Translate into Russian, comment on your choice of grammatical structures. Airplane Etiquette
Airports can bring out the worst in people. With our skies and planes so crowded, it's no longer possible to say exactly when a flight will depart. Scheduling meetings to begin forty minutes after your expected arrival time is foolish, and leads to the phenomenon we call Executive Stampede: the rude behaviour of clock-watching executives who, garment bags held high, think nothing of mauling anyone who happens to be in their way in their maniacal determination to be the first passengers off the plane and at the head of the taxi line. So spare yourself, your colleagues, and your clients the need to revise meeting schedules in order to cope with travel delays, by planning to arrive the night before a meeting. This will allow you to rest after a trip, schedule a productive breakfast meeting, and then use the entire day for meaningful work.
Ex. 11: Compare the two texts as to their style. Give your variant of translation. БАРЫШНЯ-КРЕСТЬЯНКА
Таковы были сношения между сими двумя владельцами, когда сын Берестова приехал к нему в деревню. Алексей был в самом деле молодец. Он был воспитан в университете и намеревался вступить в военную службу, но отец на то не соглашался. К статской службе молодой человек чувствовал себя совершенно неспособным. Они друг другу не уступали, и молодой Алексей стал жить покамест барином, отпустив усы на всякий случай.
Легко вообразить, какое впечатление Алексей должен был произвести в кругу наших барышень. Он первый перед ними явился мрачным и разочарованным, говорил им об утраченных радостях и об увядшей своей юности. Барышни сходили по нем с ума.
Но всех более занята была им дочь англомана моего, Лиза (или Бетси, как звал ее обыкновенно Григорий Иванович). Отцы друг ко другу не ездили, она Алексея еще не видала, между тем как все молодые соседки только об нем и говорили. Ей было семнадцать лет. Черные глаза оживляли ее смуглое и очень приятное лицо. Она была единственное и следственно балованное дитя.
Such were the relations between these two proprietors when Berestov's son came to visit him. Alexei was indeed a fine young fellow. Educated at the university, he intended to go into the army, but his father would not give his consent to this. The young man felt himself completely unfitted for government service. Neither would give in, and in the meantime the youthful Alexei lived the life of a gentleman at large, cultivating a moustache so as to be ready for any exigency.
It is easy to conceive the impression bound to be made on our young ladies by Alexei. He was the first gloomy, disillusioned being they had met, the first to speak to them of spent pleasures and blighted youth. All this was quite new to the province. All the girls were frantic about him.
But none of them devoted so much thought to him as the daughter of the Anglomaniac, Lisa (or Betsy, as her father usually called her). The fathers did not visit each other's houses, so that she had not yet seen Alexei, whereas all the young women of the neighbourhood talked of nothing but him. Lisa was seventeen years old. Her attractive, olive-skinned countenance was lit up by a pair of black eyes. Being an only child, she was, of course, spoilt and petted.
Ex. 12: Find the proper equivalents for the following:
Змей Горыныч. Once upon a time. Баба Яга, Костяная нога. Headless Boggard. Кощей Бессмертный. Tom Tit Tot. В тридевятом царстве, в тридесятом государстве. A Cure for a Fairy. Избушка на курьих ножках. The Headley Kow. Жили-были старик со старухой. Jacky-my- Lantern. Мальчик-с-пальчик. A Pottle of Brains. Иван-дурак.
Class 5. Syntactic transformations
Ex. 1: Translate the sentences using functional replacement where necessary, comment on your choice. What lexico-semantic changes are necessary due to these replacements?
1. То protect the Constitution from hasty alteration, Article V stipulated that amendments to the Constitution be proposed either by two-thirds of both houses of Congress or by two-thirds of the states, meeting in convention.
2. Americans today think of the War for Independence as a revolution, but in important respects it was also a civil war.
3. Although Cornwall's defeat did not immediately end the war -- which would drag on inconclusively for almost two more years -- a new British government decided to pursue peace negotiations in Paris in early 1782, with the American side represented by Benjamin Franklin, John Adams and John Jay.
4. Inevitably, too, that westward expansion of the European colonists brought them into conflict with the original inhabitants of the land: the Indians.
5. The Sioux of the Northern Plains and the Apache of the Southwest provided the most significant opposition to frontier advance.
6. Government policy ever since the Monroe administration had been to move the Indians beyond the reach of the white frontier.
7. The voices of anti-imperialism from diverse coalitions of Northern Democrats and reform-minded Republicans remained loud and constant.
8. 'I'm dead serious about those other guys,' he continued grimly.
9. Having overseas possessions was a new experience for the United States.
Ex. 2: Translate the sentences using transpositions and the ensuing omissions and additions.
1. It's pretty tough to make people understand you when you're talking to them with- two crab apples in your cheeks.
2. Yossarian decided not to utter another word, thinking that it would be futile.
3. He knew he was right, because, as he explained to Clevinger, to the best of his knowledge he had never been wrong.
4. It was a busy night; the bar was busy, the crap table was busy, the ping-pong table was busy.
5. It was a sturdy and complex monument to his powers of determination.
6. It was truly a splendid structure, and he throbbed with a mighty sense of accomplishment each time he gazed at it and reflected that none of the work that had gone into it was his.
7. There were four of them seated together at a table in the officer's club the last time he and Clevinger had called each other crazy.
8. In a bed in the small private section at the end of the ward was the solemn middle-aged colonel who was visited every day by a gentle, sweet-faced woman.
9. Most Americans were either indifferent to or indignant at the purchase of Alaska from Russia by Secretary of State William Seward, and Alaska was widely referred to as "Seward's Folly" and "Seward's Icebox".
10. The heat pressed heavily on the roof, stifling sound.
Ex. З: Give antonymous translation:
1. The warrant officer was unimpressed by the entire incident and seldom spoke at all unless it was to show irritation.
2. It seemed there was a very little basis to their conversation at all.
3. The Texan wanted everybody to be happy but Yossarian and Dunbar; he was really very sick.
4. 'Who's complaining?' McWatt exclaimed. 'I'm just trying to figure out what I can do with it.'
5. Force is wrong, and two wrongs never make a right.
6. Just about all he could find in favour of the army was that it paid well and liberated children from the pernicious influence of their parents.
7. It was impossible to go to the movie with him without getting involved afterward in a discussion.
8. Do you happen to know where the ducks go when it gets all frozen over?
9. I was too depressed to care whether I had a good or bad view or whatever view at all.
10. He was too afraid his parents would answer, and then they would find out he was in New York.
Ex. 4: Translate into English using replacements
1. Надо было поторапливаться.
2. Кругом была сумеречная муть, глухой ватный воздух.
3. Вокруг, куда ни посмотришь, бродили недоумевающие, разочарованные люди.
4. Николай по дороге уснул, скособочившись в неудобной, смешной позе.
5. Окно опустело, но через минуту распалась темнота за дверью и послышались быстрые женские шаги.
6. Она так вся исполнилась нежной жалости, что, казалось, не будь этой жалости, не было бы и жизни.
7. В газетах появилось сообщение, что Лужин заболел нервным переутомлением, не доиграв решительной партии.
8. То, что его жизнь прежде всего озарилась именно с этой стороны, облегчило его возвращение.
9. То, что он вспоминал, невозможно было выразить в словах.
10. Ни об его некультурности, ни о прочих его недостатках мать больше не говорила после того дня.
Ex. 5: Translate into English using addition, omission or replacement or transposition.
1. Однако впереди их ждали настоящие чудеса: хозяин открывал одну из дверей каменного сарая, и в этот миг сказка про Али-Бабу и сорок разбойников сбывалась во всей своей ослепительности.
2. Этот профессор в типажи не годился, поскольку читал он лекции с настоящим талантом, выраставшим по мере того, как рос его предмет.
3. Там же, за широким столом, служащие молчаливо вспарывали новые, только что доставленные с таможни посылки, из которых, вея тончайшим ароматом, вынимались нежные охлажденные фиалки.
4. Летнюю кофейню не закрывали на зиму, и тогда ее назначенье становилось странною загадкой.
5. Улицы лепились по крутизне, располагались друг под другом и своими подвалами смотрели на чердаки соседних.
6. При комнате был маленький балкончик, выходивший на соседний огород, где, превращенный в курятник, стоял старый, снятый с осей вагон.
7. По мере приближенья к университету улица, летевшая под гору, все больше кривела и суживалась.
8. По-русски врать означает скорее нести лишнее, чем обманывать. В таком смысле врет и искусство.
9. Дворцы Венеции - их зовут дворцами и могли бы звать чертогами, но все равно никакие слова не могут дать понятия о коврах из цветного мрамора, отвесно спущенных в ночную лагуну, как на арену средневекового турнира.
10. По горбатым мостам проходили встречные, и задолго до ее появления о приближении венецианки предупреждал частый стук ее туфель по каменным плиткам квартала.
Ex. 6: Translate into Russian analyzing the transformations of the grammatical structures and their relations with the lexico-semantic components of the sentences.
Although Salinger was publishing stories as early as 1940, serious interest in his work was slight until The Catcher in the Rye (1951) occasioned a belated deluge of critical comment. In 1963 the "Salinger industry" (the term is George Steiner's) reached its highwater mark, with almost 40 percent of the volume of the Faulkner's industry -- big business indeed. But a reaction had already set in. In that year the first book-length study of Salinger turned out to be disappointing in its critical judgement and strangely hostile toward Salinger himself. Many other critics had begun to scold him for an increasing social irresponsibility, obfuscation, and obsession with Eastern philosophy and religion, and for the narrow exclusiveness of his view of life -- in short, for his failure to develop in directions which the critics could approve of. And the word used more and more to describe Salinger's talent and achievement was "minor." But the fact is that Sallinger is not minor.
Ex. 7: The Russian translation of the following text is a kind of a literal one and is characterized by syntactic divergencies. Make the necessary corrections.
Anyone who has contact with customers is a sales person - that includes the telephonist who answers the phone and the service engineer who calls to repair a machine. So that probably includes you!
The relationship between a sales person and a client is important: both parties want to feel satisfied with their deal and neither wants to feel cheated. A friendly, respectful relationship is more effective than an aggressive, competitive one.
A sales person should believe that his product has certain advantages over the competition. A customer wants to be sure that he is buying a product that is good value and of high quality. No one in business is going to spend his company's money on something they don't really need (unlike customers, who can sometimes be persuaded to buy "useless" products like fur coats and solid gold watches!)
Some sales people prefer a direct "hard sell" approach, while others prefer a more indirect "soft sell" approach. Whichever approach is used, a good sales person is someone who knows how to deal with different kinds of people and who can point out how his product will benefit each individual customer in special ways. A successful sales meeting depends on both the sales person and the customer asking each other the right sort of questions.
Всякий, кто связывается с клиентами, является продавцом - это включает телефонистку, которая отвечает на телефонные звонки, и обслуживающего инженера, который приходит чинить машину. Так что это, наверное, включает и вас!
Отношения между продавцом и клиентом очень важны: обе стороны хотят почувствовать себя удовлетворенными своей сделкой, и ни одна не хочет почувствовать себя обманутой. Дружеские, уважительные отношения гораздо более эффективны, чем агрессивные, конкурентные.
Продавец должен верить, что его товар имеет определенные преимущества в конкуренции. Клиент хочет быть уверенным, что он покупает товар, который имеет хорошую ценность и высокое качество. Никто в бизнесе не собирается тратить деньги своей компании на то, что им на самом деле не нужно (в отличие от потребителей, которых можно иногда убедить купить "бесполезные" товары, вроде меховых шуб или часов из чистого золота!).
Некоторые продавцы предпочитают прямой "жесткий" подход к продаже, в то время как другие предпочитают косвенный "мягкий" подход. Какой бы подход ни применялся, хороший продавец это тот, кто знает, как вести дело с различными типами людей, и кто может показать, как его товар принесет пользу каждому отдельному клиенту по-своему. Успешная торговая сделка зависит как от продавца, так и от клиента, задающих друг другу правильные вопросы.
CLASS 6. Lexico-semantic modifications
Exercise 1. Translate the text paying special attention to some words that need concretization.
Dostoevsky was a deeply religious man and politically a strong conservative Slavophile. For a short time, he became editor of the archconservative magazine The Citizen and later a regular contributor. He waged war against the liberals and the revolutionaries, who repaid him by calling his work "corruption" and "lunacy". For Dostoevsky, Western society was too materialistic and commercial; instead he felt the values of the simple Russian people -- meekness, compassion and acceptance of the will of God -- were what society should emulate.
During their parallel careers, as Tolstoy was writing about the world of the country gentry, a class and a way of life which were gradually disappearing, Dostoevsky was creating the anti-heroes who haunted the dark streets of misty St. Petersburg. Yet, although they were very different -- Tolstoy the champion of nature and man, the brilliant recorder of reality in its most precise detail, and Dostoevsky the relentless explorer of the dark recesses of men's souls -- they were joined in their belief that in the Russian people lay the virtues that could illuminate the world.
Exercise 2. Translate the sentences paying special attention to the words that need generalization.
1. Городские стены служили гарантией независимости и самоуправления народа: только они могли обеспечить процветание торговли, искусств, ремесел и светской, мирской литературы.
2. Существуют своеобразные свидетельства широкой грамотности городского населения той поры: стены древнерусских храмов на высоту человеческого роста процарапаны фразами, буквами, рисунками и даже текстами деловых документов с перечислением и подписями свидетелей сделок.
3. Городская - деревянная и каменная - Русь возникла в последних веках первого тысячелетия нашей эры на перекрестке важнейших торговых путей Восточной Европы.
4. Сместились какие-то пласты сознания, и память, словно автомат, выбрасывающий билетик, выщелкнула вдруг этот странный текст, который проявил окружающий меня мир, как фотографическую пластинку.
5. Этот Север я находил в записках моих предшественников, которые стали первыми исследователями края.
6. Не только средневековье, но и наше цивилизованное время наполнено до отказа войнами и грабежами, масштабы которых не могли присниться викингам и в кошмарных снах.
7. Воспитательное значение искусства всего удобнее определить его отношением к нравственности.
8. До XV века русская мысль была усвоением идеалов, принесенных со стороны, христианством, и обращалась к туземной действительности только для того, чтобы уразуметь ее непримиримое несогласие с этими идеалами.
Exercise 3. Find in the text the sentences that need neutralization or, on the contrary, emphatisation. Explain your choice where alternative is possible. Find translation units that need concretization, generalization or transcription.
At one point during my career I held an administrative point in the government, which generally precluded the practice of ongoing therapy. I did from time to time, however, see people for brief consultations. Often they were high-ranking political figures. One such was Mr. R., a wealthy lawyer on leave of absence from his firm while serving as general counsel to a large federal department. It was June. Mr. R. had consulted me about his son, Roger, who had turned fifteen the month before. Although Roger had been a good scholar in one of the suburban public schools, his marks had declined gradually but steadily throughout the ninth grade. In his end-of-the-year evaluation the school guidance counselor had told Mr. and Mrs. R. that Roger would be promoted to the tenth grade but suggested a psychiatric evaluation to determine the cause of his academic decline.
Exercise 4. Translate the sentences into English making them emphatic.
1. Попытки Петра найти посредников в переговорах со Швецией не увенчались успехом.
2. Во время похода шведскую армию восторженно приветствовали местные протестанты.
3. Все это время его терзали сомнения.
4. Он мечтал разделить блистательную славу с победителем, а выбрал свою погибель.
5. Поляки были в своем репертуаре - вечные интриги, зависть, метание из стороны в сторону.
6. Одна за другой терпели крах все его надежды.
7. Жестокий, смертоносный огонь артиллерии в клочья разметал вражеские шеренги на левом фланге.
8. Большинство ее портретов изображают пышущую здоровьем белогрудую даму с черными как смоль волосами и выразительным ртом.
9. Силы нации нужно было беречь, а не ввязываться в новые сумасбродные авантюры.
10. Он буквально засыпал своего предполагаемого патрона всевозможными предложениями и идеями.
Exercise 5. Translate the texts into Russian finding functional replacement to some translation units.
1. In many parts of Great Britain, the custom of First-footing in the early hours of January 1st is kept with great vigour. The First Foot comes as soon as possible after midnight has struck. The First Foot is traditionally supposed to influence fortunes of the householders in the following twelve months.
2. The Old and unusual game known as the Hood Game, or Throwing the Hood, is played every year on Old Christmas Day, January 6th at Haxey in north Lincolnshire. The ceremonies of Haxey Hood begin in the early afternoon with the procession of the. Fool and his twelve Boggans up the village street to a small green place outside the parish church. The Boggans are the official team and play against all comers. Chief among them is the King Boggan, or Lord of the Hood, who carries a wand, or roll of thirteen willows as a badge of office. He and all his team should wear scarlet flannel coats and hats wreathed with red flowers. The "hoods" used in the game bear no resemblance to the headgear from which they are supposed to take their name. The main hood, or Leather Hood, is a two-foot length of thick rope encased in stout leather. The lesser 'hoods' are tightly-rolled pieces of canvas, tied with ribbons.
3. Jack-in-the-Green is that very ancient figure who represents the Summer. As Green George, or the Wild Man, his counterparts exist all over Europe. In England, he takes the form of a man encased in a high wickerwork cage which completely covers him and is in its turn entirely smothered in green branches, leaves and flowers. Only his eyes are visible, looking through the hole cut in the cage, and his feet below the level of the wicke-work. Sometimes he goes about alone, sometimes with only a few attendants, and a musician or two.
4. Egg-shackling takes place on Easter Monday, or Ducking Monday, as it is often called in Eastern Europe. Young men splash unmarried girls vigorously with water. The girls are, of course, expected to submit with good grace, and even, in some areas, to pay for the privilege with gifts of painted eggs, or glasses of brandy.
Exercise 6. Translate the text into Russian, giving the translator’s comments where necessary.
The conflict that took shape in the 1790s between the Federalists and the Antifederalists exercised a profound impact on American history. The Federalists, led by Alexander Hamilton, who had married into the wealthy family, represented the urban mercantile interests of the seaports; the Antifederalists, led by Thomas Jefferson, spoke for the rural and southern interests. Hamilton feared anarchy and thought in terms of order; Jefferson feared tyranny and thought in terms of freedom. Washington and the Congress accepted Hamilton's view -- and an important precedent for an expansive interpretation of the federal government's authority.

CLASS 7. Phraseological Units
Exercise 1. Translate the sentences into Russian trying to find identical or analogous idioms.
1. Не had to keep a sharp eye on his sister for the sake of her good.
2. The woman obviously had the gift of second sight, whatever it might be.
3. It was still not unheard of for an angry parent to cut off his son with a shilling.
4. If you haven't been born under a lucky star you just have to work all the harder to get what you want.
5. Oh, by the way, if you want a bath, take one. There ain't a Peeping Tom on the place.
6. The mere sound of that execrable, ugly name made his blood run cold and his breath come in laboured gasps.
7. He would stand second to none in his devotion to the custom.
8. I can't make out how you stand London society when it has gone to the dogs, a lot of damned nobodies talking about nothing.
9. According to Michael, they must take it by the short hairs, or they might as well put up the shutters.
10. He knew how the land lay between his hopes and the number of missions Colonel Cathcart was constantly increasing.
11. I thought it my duty to warn you, but I'm prepared to take the rough and the smooth.
Exercise 2. Translate the sentences into Russian. Define the source of phraseological units.
1. The most depressing rumours are about here as to the next... production -- Julius Caesar or some such obsolete rubbish... Will nothing persuade him that Queen Anne is dead!
2. I could not let him talk to me like some Dutch uncle.
3. She offered me a choice between French and Russian dressing, and I chose the latter, and she brought something red in a small saucer.
4. He replied that The Star-Spangled Banner was the greatest piece of music ever composed.
5. They couldn't touch him because he was Tarzan, Cain and the Flying Dutchman.
6. Aunt Ursula knew Oswald well enough to be a little suspicious of his Greek gifts, but could not help being flattered by his attention.
7. This is a Trust Fund. Anything that it supports must be Caesar's wife.
8. In short, gentlemen, I come to you bearing an olive branch.
9. At last he would return, like the prodigal son, gloomy, worn out, and disgusted with himself.
10. They motored up, taking Michael Mont, who, being in his seventh heaven, was found by Winifred 'very amusing'.
Exercise 3. Translate the sentences into English paying attention to phraseological units. Give explanation where necessary.
1. Выражение Иов многострадальный заимствовано из Библии и употребляется в значении: человек, безропотно переносящий бедствия и испытания.
2. Последним из могикан называют последнего представителя общественной группы, поколения или типа людей.
3. Бог запретил Адаму вкушать плоды со всех деревьев, за исключением древа познания добра и зла, плоды которого объявил запретными.
4. Метафора почить на лаврах означает, что человек удовлетворен достигнутым и склонен отдохнуть от трудов и свершений.
5. Выражение львиная доля заимствовано из басни Эзопа о льве, который с помощью других зверей поймал оленя, а потом силой и угрозами заставил их отдать ему добычу целиком.
6. Сказано в Евангелии: не мечите бисер перед свиньями -- зачем тратить время и красноречие на профанов, которые не способны этого оценить?
7. Незначительное, на первый взгляд, противоречие стало настоящим яблоком раздора, которое привело компанию к полному краху.
8. Вот уже много веков филологи всего мира пытаются разгадать тайну вавилонского столпотворения.
Exercise 4. Give the English corresponding proverbs, comment on linguistic and cultural divergences.
От горшка два вершка, пройти огонь, воду и медные трубы, держать в ежовых рукавицах, мастер на все руки, ходить на задних лапках , жить как у Христа за пазухой , откуда ни возьмись, не могу взять в толк, Не вешай нос! ищи ветра в поле , через пень-колоду ума палата , бабушка надвое сказала, бить баклуши, ни богу свечка, ни черту кочерга ; метать громы и молнии ; море по колено ; он звезд с неба не хватает.
Exercise 5. Translate into Russian paying attention to phraseological units with a cultural component of meaning. Comment on your choice.
1. I just want to get the hell out of this black hole of Calcutta.
2. Spring has been playing Box and Cox with winter for months past.
3. Perhaps in a society that needs to cling to some remnants of faith, the preachers dwindling and political leaders in goal, the union man must be Simon Pure.
4. If we wish to be reminded why Ireland continues to hold John Bull in such loathing, we should listen.
5. Our Austin is a bit of a Jekyll and Hyde, and Dorina is afraid of him.
6. And there were three young couples in camp, also a Darby and John.
7. Apparently he did not even trouble to acknowledge a very gracious epistle from Richard giving him the Hobson 's choice of going to the Egypt expedition as second-in-command or returning to Mysore.
8. You can't stay an Uncle Tom when your people are fighting for their rights.
9. It looks like we have got another John Doe in this case.
Exercise 6. Translate the periphrases and give the original name. The Garden State the Rose against the Lily the Lake State the Golden State the City of Seven Hills the Wise Men of the East the Union Jack колыбель трех революций третий Рим the Eternal City the Emerald Isle страна фьордов John Doe and Richard Roe Город Желтого Дьявола the Cotton State one-armed bandit.
Exercise 7. Translate the text into English giving the Biblical phraseological units for the Russian ones.
У Адама и Евы были два сына: старший -- Каин и младший -- Авель. Авель пас овец, Каин обрабатывал землю. Однажды случилось так, что Каин принес богу в дар плоды земли, Авель же посвятил ему первородных ягнят от стада своего. Бог благосклонно принял дары Авеля, а на подношение Каина даже не посмотрел. Каин был разгневан и, снедаемый завистью, заманил Авеля в поле и коварно убил его. Увидев, что свершилось преступление, бог обратился к Каину: " Где Авель, брат твой!" А Каин ответил: "Не знаю: разве я сторож брату моему1!" Тогда бог в великом гневе проклял Каина и отметил его печатью, чтобы всякий, кто встретит его, знал, что он убийца.

Class 8. Stylistic Devices: Metaphor.
Exercise 1. Compare the translations, define the translation devices used and comment on their effectiveness.
1. The cat sat bolt upright on the seat opposite ours, staring out the window, pretending not to eavesdrop on our conversation.
Кот сидел неподвижно, как часовой, уставившись в окно, и притворялся, что не подслушивает нашу беседу.
2. Gradually there appeared out of the mists shapes more visible perhaps to the imagination than the sight: magic castles rising from the foam -- the ruined but majestic walls of ancient temples.
Постепенно из тумана проступали очертания не столько видимых, сколько воображаемых форм: волшебные замки, рожденные, словно Афродита из пены, - величественные руины древних храмов.
3. It would require more than unsuitably clad, garrulous crowds to rob the Valley of the Kings of its grandeur.
Нужно нечто более серьезное, чем толпы крикливо одетых, болтливых туристов, чтобы лишить величественную Домну Царей ее великолепия.
4. The clouds on Emerson's noble brow cleared.
Чело Эмерсона, напоминавшее ненастный день, прояснилось.
5. You are the bravest little woman I know, Amelia, and that stiff upper lip of yours is a credit to the whole British nation.
Ты самая отважная из всех женщин, с которыми я знаком, Амелия, а твоя упрямая верхняя губка - просто воплощение британского национального характера.
6. Years had passed since I last beheld the plain of Amarna, yet in eternal Egypt a decade is no more than the blink of an eye.
Много лет прошло с тех пор, как я в последний раз побывал на плоскогорьях Амарны, хотя для вечного Египта десятилетие значит не больше, чем мгновение ока.
7. Any artefact made of or covered with gold could start the gossip mills grinding and lead to the usual exaggeration.
Любая вещь, сделанная из золота или хотя бы позолоченная, запускалась в мельницу пересудов и кривотолков и выходила оттуда в преувеличенном виде.
Exercise 2. Translate the sentences that contain metaphors into Russian, comment on your choice.
1. I passed a crocodile of choir boys, in starched collars and peculiar caps, on their way to Tom Gate.
2. All undergraduates and graduates and wives and tradespeople walked that unmistakable English church-going pace which eschewed equally both haste and idle sauntering,
3. Criss-cross about the world he travelled with them, waxing in wickedness like a Hogarthian page boy.
4. She was entrancing, with that fragile beauty which in extreme youth sings out for love and withers at the first cold wind.
5. I went there full of curiosity and the faint, unrecognised apprehension that here, at last, I should find that low door in the wall, which opened on an enclosed and enchanted garden, which was somewhere, not overlooked by any window, in the heart of that grey city.
6. Long hours of work in her youth, authority in middle life, repose and security in her age, had set their stamp on her lined and serene face.
7. Here was planted the seed of what would become his life's harvest.
8. A nightmare distorted the images of the evening into horrific shapes.
9. Everything was black and dead-still in the quadrangle; only at the quarter-hours the bells awoke and sang over the gables.
10. He could tell her nothing new of the wonders of his presentation and knighthood; and his civilities were worn out like his information.
Exercise 3. Translate the text into English trying to give traditional equivalents or replacements for the metaphors.
Сначала населяющие землю люди говорили на одном языке. Они занимали плодородную равнину в бассейне рек Тигра и Евфрата, и земля кормила их так, что им жилось все лучше и лучше. В ослеплении своем они возводили башню своей гордости все выше и выше, и вскоре ее вершина достигала до самого неба. Человеческая гордыня вызвала гнев Божий, и Бог смешал языки, чтобы посеять раздор и смятение среди людей. Люди не смогли договориться между собой и рассеялись по всему свету. Так человеческая гордыня разрушила единение людей, и вместо того, чтобы строить из камней башню, каждый спрятал свой камень за пазухой. Город, на который обрушилась кара Божья и где произошло смешение языков, назвали Вавилон.
CLASS 9. Stylistic Devices: Metonymy
Exercise 1. Find cases of metonymy in the following sentences and translate into Russian.
1. The world was insane, and I no longer wished to have anything to do with it.
2. There was a further knock on the front door, then silence, and I raged at the stupidity of the country police.
3. Very soon afterwards there was a concerned official face staring at me through the jagged hole in the glass of the kitchen door.
4. As soon as he cut me free, he insisted on providing the immemorial English answer to all the major crises of the existence and motherly watched me down two cups of his dark brown tea.
5. I had to disillusion him as to the lengths to which the literary London will go in pursuing me for my "ungainly" book.
6. I understand the commune was subsequently raided, but nothing more incriminating was found than the inevitable cannabis.
7. I spent a month of misery, I suppose, in something very like a profound sulk.
8. A carbon of the first three typed-out chapters had remained in London.
9. I have tried my best, but I may have exaggerated, especially in the attempts to transcribe my persecutor's dialogue.
10. I have a small vice, I am rather fond of watching football matches, the sight of so much mindless energy devoted to the modern equivalent of the Roman circus.
Exercise 2. Analyze the metonymic usage of “the Smithsonian” in the following text and find various correspondences depending on the context in the English language. Translate the text into Russian.
The Smithsonian Institution brings to life the American cultural, social, scientific, and artistic treasures and heritage. It was born from the generous legacy of James Smithson, a wealthy English scientist, and created by an act of Congress in 1846 to carry out the terms of Smithson's will. Today the Smithsonian has become the largest complex of museums, art galleries, and research facilities in the world. The Smithsonian includes 14 museums -- from the National Air and Space Museum to the National Zoological Park. About 20 million visitors come to the museums each year, and millions more share in the Smithsonian through travelling exhibitions displayed across the United States and abroad, magazines and educational programmes. It took the Smithsonian 5 years (1978-1983) to complete the first comprehensive inventory of its collections. The collections continue to grow, and only a tiny percentage of them is on display in the Smithsonian museums at any one time. In addition, the Smithsonian has a number of special research facilities,, such as an animal conservation and research centre near Front Royal, Virginia; a marine station at Fort Pierce, Florida; and an astrophysical station near Tucson, Arizona. Smithsonian research, now well into its second century, is still just beginning.
Exercise 3. Translate the sentences into English paying attention to cases of metonymy.
1. Маршрутка не каждому по карману, но вообще транспорт этот удобный и мобильный.
2. Большой Театр не каждый год балует нас своими творческими визитами.
3. Единственный в России музей дождевого червя прибыл из Москвы в Петербург.
4. "Ленэнерго" охарактеризовало свои переговоры с акционерами и "Газпромом" как трудные и посоветовало не ждать эмиссии акций в текущем году.
5. На днях Гута-банк объявил, что переговоры о кредите приостановлены из-за недостаточности представленных гарантий.
6. С точки зрения потребителя, комфортабельность и надежность машины не менее важны, чем ее технические характеристики.
7. "Спортивные Ведомости" сообщают, что Англия побила Польшу на чужом поле.
8. Хотя Магнитогорск потерял в межсезонье двух ведущих хоккеистов, тем не менее команда выступила в начале сезона весьма удачно.
9. Первая ракетка мира не вполне еще обрел оптимальную спортивную форму.
10. Зритель пришел полюбоваться блестящей финальной дуэлью старинных соперниц.
11. Водолеи в четверг будут не в самой лучшей форме, поэтому им лучше провести день среди родных и близких.
CLASS 10. Translation of Irony.
Exercise 1. Find the basis for irony in the given examples and translate them into Russian.
1. Their only hope was that it would never stop raining, and they had no hope because they all knew it would.
2. Late that night Hungry Joe dreamed that Huple's cat was sleeping on his face, suffocating him, and when he woke up, Huple's cat was sleeping on his face.
3. There were too many dangers for Yossarian to keep track of. There was Hitler, Mussolini and Tojo, for example, and they were all out to kill him.
4. At the end of ten days, a new group of doctors came to Yossarian with bad news: he was in perfect health and had to get out of the hospital.
5. After that, Colonel Cathcart did not trust any other colonel in the Squadron. The only good colonel, he decided, was a dead colonel, except for himself.
6. Nately had lived for almost twenty years without trauma, tension, hate, or neurosis, which was proof to Yossarian of just how crazy he really was.
7. It was already some time since the chaplain had first begun wondering what everything was all about. Was there a God? How could he be sure? Being an Anabaptist minister in the American Army was difficult enough.
Exercise 2. Translate the text into Russian preserving its general ironic character.
Milo purchased spot radio announcements on Lord Haw Haw's daily propaganda broadcasts from Berlin to keep things moving. Business boomed on every battlefront. Milo's planes were a familiar sight. They had freedom of passage everywhere, and one day Milo contracted with the American military authorities to bomb the German-held highway bridge at Orvieto and with the German military authorities to defend the highway bridge at Orvieto with antiaircraft fire against his own attack. His fee for attacking the bridge for America was the total cost of the operation plus six per cent, and his fee from Germany for defending the bridge was the same cost-plus-six agreement augmented by a merit bonus of a thousand dollars for every American plane be shot down. The consummation of these deals represented an important victory for private enterprise, since the armies of both countries were socialized institutions. Once the contracts were signed, there seemed to be no point in using the resources of the syndicate to bomb and defend the bridge, inasmuch as both governments had ample men and material right there to do the job, which they were very happy to do. In the end Milo realized a fantastic profit from both halves of this project for doing nothing more than signing his name twice.
Exercise 3. Translate the text into English, trying to preserve its ironic character.
На десятом отделении скопилось, естественно, больше всего политических - примерно 35-40 человек из пятидесяти пяти. Большую часть из них составляли "побегушники" - ребята, пытавшиеся удрать из СССР. Какими только способами не пытались они бежать из любимого отечества', и вплавь, на резиновых лодках, в аквалангах под водой, по воздуху на самодельных вертолетах, планерах и ракетах, пешком через границу, в трюмах пароходов и под товарными вагонами. Буквально не могу придумать такой способ, который не был бы уже использован. И все они, разумеется, были невменяемыми - потому что какой же нормальный человек захочет бежать теперь, когда наконец-то, после всех ошибок, стали вырисовываться контуры коммунизма! Некоторым удавалось благополучно пройти границу, но их выдавали назад. Со мной рядом спал парень по прозвищу Хохол - старый уголовник, полжизни просидевший по лагерям. На все расспросы следователя о причинах, толкнувших его бежать из страны, он говорил: “Так какая вам разница, гражданин начальник? Я же ведь плохой, преступник, рецидивист. Чего же вы меня держите, не пускаете? Я здесь хорошую жизнь порчу, так зачем я вам нужен! Пусть гады-капиталисты со мной мучаются!” Конечно, от такого опасного бреда ему предстояло принудительно излечиться.
Exercise 4. Find the basis for irony in the given examples and translate them into Russian.
1. I did not see Strickland for several weeks. I was disgusted with him, and if I had had an opportunity I should have been glad to tell him so, but I saw no object in seeking him out for the purpose.
2. Dick Stroeve flattered himself on his skill in cooking Italian dishes, and I confess that his spaghetti were very much better than his pictures.
3. His life was a tragedy written in the terms of a knock-about farce.
4. A photograph could not have been more exact than his pictures to look at which you would have thought that Monet, Manet, and the rest of the Impressionists had never been.
5. She was making money but she could not get over the idea that to earn her living was somewhat undignified, and she was inclined to remind you that she was a lady by birth.
6. The women were too nice to be well-dressed, and too sure of their position to be amusing.
8. It was the kind of the party which makes you wonder why the hostess has troubled to bid her guests, and why the guests have troubled to come.
9. I used to listen with astonishment to the stinging humour with which they would tear a brother-author to pieces the moment that his back was turned.
Exercise 5. Translate the text into Russian preserving its general ironic character.
A man should make an honest effort to get the names of his wife's friends right. This is not easy. The average wife who has graduated from college at any time during the past thirty years keeps in close touch with at least seven old classmates. These ladies, known as "the girls", are named, respectively: Mary, Marion, Melissa, Marjorie, Maribel, Madeleine and Miriam; and all of them are called Myrtle by the careless husband we are talking about. Furthermore, he gets their nicknames wrong. This, to be sure, is understandable, since their nicknames are, respectively: Molly, Muffy, Missy, Midge, Mabby, Maddy and Minis. The careless husband, out of thoughtlessness or pure cussedness, calls them all Mugs, or, when he is feeling particularly brutal, Mucky. All the girls are married, one of them to a Ben Tompkins, and as this is the only one he can remember, our hero calls all the husbands Ben, or Tompkins, adding to the general annoyance and confusion. If you are married to a college graduate, then, try to get the names of her girlfriends and their husbands straight. This will prevent some of those interminable arguments that begin after Midge and Harry (not Mucky and Ben) have said a stiff good night and gone home.

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