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The Kashima-Shinry
Samurai Martial Culture
F. F
RIDAY
UNIVERSITYOFHAWAI
IPRESS
02 01 00 99 98 97 5 4 3 2 1
Friday, Karl F.
Legacies of the Sword: the Kashima-Shinry
culture/Karl F. Friday, with Seki Humitake.
p. cm.
ISBN 0824818474 (alk. paper). -- ISBN 0824818792 (pbk. :
1. Martial arts--Japan--History. I. Seki, Fumitake, 1937
II. Title
GV1100.77.A2F75 1997
796.8 15--dc20 9633624
List of Illustrationsvii
Forewordix
Prefacexiv
1.Introduction
2.Heritage and Tradition
Ry
The Kashima Grand Shrine and Takemikazuchi-no-Mikoto19
The Three Founders24
The Students of Kamiizumi Ise-no-kami and the
Line32
Line39
The Kashima-Shinry
u as an Organization50
3.The Philosophy and Science of Combat
and the Martial Way63
The Framework of the Art: The Fivefold Laws and the
Eight Divine Coordinates67
Applied Constructs82
4.The Martial Path
Kata and Pattern Practice102
Practice108
The Kashima-Shinry
u Kata120
Texts and Written Transmission137
Meditation and the Integration of Body, Mind, and Spirit151
Epilogue
Appendixes
Historical Texts
Appendix 1: The
Kashima-Shinry
u hy
Appendix 2: The
Appendix 3: The
Kashima-Shinry
umenkyo kaiden
Kashima-Shinry
Appendix 4: Constitution of the Kashima-Shinry
Federation of Martial Sciences178
Appendix 5: Constitution of the Kashima-Shinry
Federation of North America182
Notes191
Bibliography209
Index221
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
1.Principal teacher-student relationships of the Kashima-
Shinry
u and branch schools20
2.Kashima-Shinry
lineages34
3.Naganuma Kunisato and his successors39
4.Ancestry of the Kunii family42
5.The
oy
o-d
and the Fivefold Laws69
7.Comparison of the rates of application of power of a
beginner and an expert71
Kami-hass
Shimo-hass
Tsukikage
14.Three-cornered and four-cornered movement74
15.Application of power from the perspective of
Origination and Manifestation as One75
16.Interplay of attack and counterattack in the context
of Emptiness and Reality as One77
17.The Eight Divine Coordinates and the five vectors
of Kashima-Shinry
u martial art79
Kyoku henjite h
o to naru
perpendicular)80
Ei henjite en to naru
(a wedge becomes a spiral)80
Ei henjite kyoku to naru
a diagonal)81
Ei henjite choku to naru
(a wedge becomes direct)81
is direct)82
23.A medieval/early modern
and a spear121
24.The Kashima-Shinry
Warizuki
Reiki-no-h
31.The Kashima-Shinry
bokut
32.The Kashima-Shinry
1.The main hall of the Kashima Grand Shrine109
FOREWORD
YANCESTORS
Shinry
with the smell of fresh cedar. When I announced myself, a young
womans face appeared from the darkened room beyond the train-
ing hall. I explained my interest in becoming a student, adding that I
ojutsu
, the art of the spear, but
would have to come back some other time. As I turned to leave, she
noticed my student uniform, and asked if I was from the University
of Tokyo. I was puzzled at the time by the question, and even more
Foreword
had time to really absorb anything, but having no choice in the mat-
ter, I attempted to imitate his posture and his actions as best I could.
Even I knew I looked ridiculous. For a short time the group around
Foreword
declared his intention to see to it that if I did make a second visit, I
his companions held for University of Tokyo students. In the opin-
Tokyo students, having been in the forefront of the demonstrations
against the renewal of the U.S.-Japan Mutual Security Agreement,
were all out to destroy Japan and deserved to be obliterated. Kunii
Foreword
This was only a few years after I had begun my training, but by
then I had filled out to 275 pounds, and had developed a physical
confidence in myself that told me I would not lose a fight to any-
Foreword
PREFACE
HISPROJECT
Kashima-Shinry
u in the first place. It was Will that discovered the
Kashima-Shinry
u Club at the University of Tsukuba, where the two
my friend, fellow student, training partner, and more recently, fel-
low teacher, scholar, and administrator. He has also backed and
I would also like to thank Paul Varley for his advice and sugges-
tions on revising the manuscript; Cappy Hurst, for goading me into
writing on the martial arts in the first place and for sharing with me
the drafts of his own book on the subject; Patricia Crosby and Cheri
Motteler for their time and efforts in polishing the manuscript and
those illustrations and who, as always, acted throughout as a patient
listener and sounding board for my ideas; the Kunii family, who
shared essential documents and photographs with me; Tanaka
Kichiz
earlyand one of my bestKashima-Shinry
departure owing to perceived religious conflicts forced me to clar-
Preface
, the seventeenth-century samurai philosopher, was
troubled by the continued, privileged existence of a warrior class in
Introduction
EGACIESOFTHE
EGACIESOFTHE
(15341582), Toyotomi Hideyoshi (15361598), and Tokugawa
Ieyasu (15421616)eliminated many of the smaller daimy
unified the rest into a nationwide coalition. In 1603 Ieyasu assumed
the title of sh
hereditary daimy
EGACIESOFTHE
the turn of the eighth century.
words overlapped to a considerable extent, but by the Tokugawa
period, hy
oh
o had narrowed considerably, from a general term to
one of several alternative names for swordsmanship. Bugei, in the
meantime, had become a generic term for samurai fighting arts.
Today, heih
scholars and practitioners of traditional swordsmanship and related
Two other words closely related to bugei
bud
Pre-Meiji sources use bugei and bujutsu interchangeably,
but bud
*While the debate over the demarcation of and appropriate nomenclature for
backward into Tokugawa times, as Western literature on Japanese
Errors of this sort persist in Western writings due in large mea-
overwhelming majority of the literature on Japanese martial art has
mic training in premodern Japanese culture or history. Not surpris-
takes and misinformation tend to circulate and recirculate largely
tle odd, when one considers that interest in Japanese or other mar-
tial arts has served many students as a springboard to wider study of
things Japanese.
More importantly, the bugei were an integral ele-
EGACIESOFTHE
Western literature on the bugei often asserts that during the Tokugawa
with -d
o, meaning way, in the names of their disciplines, to distinguish the
sublime from the purely technical applications and purposes of martial art. Thus
kend
the way of the sword;
bud
the martial way; and so on (the late Donn F.
Draeger seems to have been the originator of this thesis; see, for example,
Bud
record does not support this conclusion. Meiji period educators, like j
ud
Kan
o Jigor
o, did differentiate -jutsu and -d
o in precisely this fashion, but their
forebears did not. In the Tokugawa period, bud
ment of samurai culture and remain a formidable piece of Japanese
culture today.
an intuitive perception of what the bugei are and how they function
10L
EGACIESOFTHE
around them approximatesmore closely than any other academic
initiates, my analysis reverses the order in which students normally
abstract principles of ry
martial art training and the transmission of ry
the mind and spirit one must first train the body. Accordingly, it pre-
nearly exclusive province of men, in more recent decades an ever-increasing num-
ber of women have taken them up. Certain weapons, among them the knife and
The Kunii family administered the Kashima-Shinry
Heritage and Tradition
hands of various Buddhist and Shint
o deitiesshould he fail to live
(ka
. Some ry
Item: From the time I take up my discipline I will never engage in
Should I ever turn my back on the above promises,
fer unto death the divine punishment not only of the August Divinity
of Kashima, but of all the myriad gods and spirits. Under these terms
Addressed to his lordship, the headmaster of the Kashima-Shinry
DateName
56L
EGACIESOFTHE
they might have mislearned or misapplied the ry
But most importantly, instruction to the wrong sort of person could
pose severe moral problems, insofar as a bugei ry
tion were initiated into their ry
uha as though into a brotherhood or
Heritage and Tradition
tices. The shift to indoor halls or enclosed courtyards was probably
an effect of the commercialization of bugei instruction, as teachers
the efficacy of the style they had learneda particularly acute dan-
54L
EGACIESOFTHE
all that the school had to offer. The Kashima-Shinry
Heritage and Tradition
duced by j
ud
o pioneer Kan
o Jigor
52L
EGACIESOFTHE
Kan
os system of colored belts represented one of the first attempts to associ-
innovation as a means of identifying the skill levels of students he did not know,
when he visited high school and other j
ud
o clubs throughout the country.
one of the reasons that it is so difficult to establish even teacher-stu-
Heritage and Tradition
aikid
Seki has more than equaled Kuniis passion for promoting the wel-
fare and reputation of the Kashima-Shinry
u. He has authored three
books and dozens of magazine and journal articles about Kashima-
Shinry
u history and theory, and has further organized and system-
atized both the schools curriculum and its administrative structure,
50L
EGACIESOFTHE
forty-first year of Sh
der roared incessantly, mourning the passing of the sword-saint.
than one. Not only was the Modern Musashi the last of a breed
fected by Westernizationbut he broke with a centuries-old family
Heritage and Tradition
Kashima-Shinry
Zenyas view, when Kunii Taizen was forced to resign his post as
steward of the sh
oguns tax-rice storehouse. Both Taizen and his
son, Zentar
involvement with anti-Tokugawa activists. Zentar
os son, Ky
in Kashima-Shinry
In his later years Kunii Zenya trained dozens of notable students,
including the actor Nakadai Tatsuya, who came to him on various
on his tombstone in the family burial plot in Iwaki City, Fukushima
aside his diligence. Awake or asleep he kept to his sword, unifying deity
consummate skill. He opened a school in Tokyos Takinokawa district.
He was pure and sincere of temperament, loyal to his friends and
associates, and disinterested in money. He would delight in becom-
ing gloriously drunk and singing. Always in his martial art he was as
Into his seventy-second year he practiced martial art morning and
48L
EGACIESOFTHE
whereby the two branches would alternate with one another in providing succeed-
possible that such men could both have been bested by a 16-year-
old boy. Further investigation, however, confirmed Zenyas version
Heritage and Tradition
Chiy
oda-ku, as a center for the study of
studies, was a school of indigenous historical and literary scholarship based on the
a career that spanned six decades and included scores of formal and
informal matches and duels. More importantly, he combined the
46L
EGACIESOFTHE
samurai. In the event, however, the government judged his actions
Taizen earned certificates of mastery from both his grandfather,
Yoshinori, and Ono Shigemasa, thus merging the shihanke into the
oke line. He also originated the concept of
mus
literally, the
unbeheld sword. In essence, mus
Heritage and Tradition
fought with the Western forces at Sekigahara, attached to the forces
of Ukita Hideie.
Yoshitoki was killed in the struggle; Yoshimasa,
though wounded, was able to escape alive. He spent the winter hid-
ing and convalescing on Mt. Ibuki, in
Omi province. From there he
44L
EGACIESOFTHE
The Ukita comprised a powerful daimy
who was only a child when his father Naoie died in 1582, was raised by Hideyoshi
and became one of his top commanders. At the time of Hideyoshis death, he con-
Hajij
towns or in the shogunal capital of Edo and performing administra-
tive duties for their daimy
For the Kunii house, this brave new world was particularly inhos-
pitable. Yoshitoki and his son, the fifth-generation s
oke Yoshimasa,
Heritage and Tradition
Noriko
Prince
Sadamasa
Prince
Sadachika
Minamoto
Nagafuchi
Minamoto
Nagakazu
Minamoto
Naganori
Minamoto
Nagayori
Princess
The advent of Tokugawa power marked the beginning of a whole
new political, social, and economic order for the samurai. What had
42L
EGACIESOFTHE
Emperor
Yorinobu
Kunii
Sonpi bunmyaku
Heritage and Tradition
Kiyomasa (15621611) was the daimy
headed one of Hideyoshis two main armies in the first Korean campaign, the other
being led by Konishi Yukinaga.
granting them a surname (usually Minamoto or Taira) and demot-
derives from the Sino-Japanese reading of the surname Minamoto.)
40L
EGACIESOFTHE
The Former Nine Years War, waged against Abe Yoritoki and his son Sadat
did much to enhance the prestige of the Minamoto as leaders of the emerging war-
rior order. The Abe were powerful local figures in northeastern Japan who found
themselves involved in a rebellion against the authority of the provincial governor
(Yoriyoshi) who was commissioned to suppress them. Yoritoki was killed in 1057,
but Sadat
a son of Yoshinori, the eleventh-generation successor to the s
line. His student Ono Seiemon Taira no Shigemasa in turn trained
Kunii Taizen Minamoto no Ritsuzan, who, having acquired a cer-
tificate of mastery from his father, Yoshinori, as well as from Ono,
merged the shihanke and s
oke lineages. For the next two and a half
centuries, the Kashima-Shinry
u continued as a family ry
uha, passed
The Kunii House and the S
descended from Emperor Seiwa (r. 858876), as a result of the
Heritage and Tradition
Yamada Ippusai
Tsunasato (Saito
Tadasato
(great-nephew,
Chuhachi Yorihito
Ryuha
38L
EGACIESOFTHE
Ipp
usais original surname was Naganuma; he acquired the name Yamada
Genshinsais younger brother. Prior to this, he had trained in sev-
Heritage and Tradition
Okuyama was followed by Ogasawara (Genshinsai) Kinzaemon
Minamoto no Nagaharu of T
ot
Yoshimoto, joining Tokugawa Ieyasu after Yoshimotos death in
He later left Ieyasu for Takeda Shingens heir, Katsuyori,
and then jumped to H
oj
36L
EGACIESOFTHE
Imagawa Yoshimoto (15191560) was a major power in central Japan, con-
trolling the provinces of Mikawa, T
ot
of Oda Nobunaga in the battle of Okehazama. Tokugawa Ieyasu, the founder of
the Tokugawa shogunate, was born to a minor daimy
His family served as vassals of Imagawa Yoshimoto until Okehazama, after which
Takeda Katsuyori (15461582), Shingens third son, succeeded his father in
1582 Nobunaga and Ieyasu routed him again at Temmokuzan, and Katsuyori com-
Soke
Figure 2. Kashima-Shinry
Kakuzenb
o Inei, the progenitor of the H
os
oin-ry
(s
Komagawa Kaishin-ry
Aizu Itt
o-ry
and support. But in its Chinese reading (
in Mandarin;
ry
Heritage and Tradition
32L
EGACIESOFTHE
Keng
ited defense of the latter relationship, but it is most unlikely. Not only did Bokuden
style the Shint
o-ry
techniques used by the two warriors, as recorded in documents they
left behind, bear little resemblance to one another.
But while there
one of
a pair of key concepts in martial art theoryand rejected its
Heritage and Tradition
could have come from Matsumotos student Tsukahara Bokuden, rather than
oj
Kanhassh
describe Bokuden as Kamiizumis teacher.
On the other hand, at least three early modern textsthe
Gekken s
Honch
bugei sh
Meiry
o k
Gekken s
Honch
o bugei sh
30L
EGACIESOFTHE
To begin with, it is by no means clear that Matsumoto ever actu-
ally used the name Shinkage-ry
Hy
oh
Kamiizumi, none of Matsumotos other students used this name.
Arima Kiminobu called his style the Arima-ry
Heritage and Tradition
28L
EGACIESOFTHE
Yoshiteru and Yoshiaki, as well as Takeda Shingen and his general Yamamoto
Kansuke. In his travels about Japan, leading an entourage at times numbering more
technique hinging on the swordsmans timing, the position to which
he steps, and the angle at which he strikes. Properly performed, it is
virtually impossible to counter.
Matsumotos most important students were Arima Yamato-no-
kami Kiminobu, Tsukahara Bokuden, and, according to Kashima-
Shinry
u and Jikishin-Kagery
u lore, the third of the Kashima-Shinry
Heritage and Tradition
Kage,
Keng
but Kashima-Shinry
number, while
is a logical mistake, insofar as ichi-no-tachi in application always involves dropping
the opponent with a single blow, but it does not capture the real essence of the
of the Kashima-Shint
ory
for 1743. Tenbun (
26L
EGACIESOFTHE
Matsumoto never left the Kashima area and neverat least insofar
as the written record attestsparticipated in a duel; his reputation
Matsumotos birth and death are uncertain. A medieval war tale and
The aforementioned medieval war tale is the only extant record of
Heritage and Tradition
presuming to dispute what a ry
become a major landholder, with an income exceeding 25,000
of rice annually.
In the late twelfth century, Kashima Rokur
(g
later became known as Kashima Castle or Yoshioka Castle.
For the
In 1590, Kashima Harutoki, a
stronghold reduced by Satake Yoshishige. Yoshishige (15471612)
was a major power in eastern Japan during the late sixteenth century,
controlling most of Hitachi, Kazusa, and Shim
son Yoshinobu (15701633) inherited his fathers lands in 1590 and
ruled the area until about 1600, when, as punishment for his attempt
to remain neutral in the struggle that brought Tokugawa Ieyasu to
national hegemony, he was moved to Dewa province and replaced in
Hitachi by the Mito branch of the Tokugawa house. His progeny
Kashima-Shinry
Matsumoto Bizen-no-kami Ki no Masamoto (or Masanobu), Kunii
Genpachir
24L
EGACIESOFTHE
Defined as the amount of rice needed to support one person for one year, it was
Documents belonging to the Jikishin-kagery
as Sugimoto Bizen-no-kami Ki no Masamoto. Most authorities believe this to be
the result of a copyists error, substituting the character sugi () for matsu (),
but Ishigaki Yasuz
Amenoko Yane-no-Mikoto, built an altar at Takamanohara and offered
devotions. Receiving the guidance of the August Deity, he revealed the
literally, the sword of Kashima. He reportedly
derived this from an exorcising ritual called
swordplay of Takemikazuchi when he chastised and pacified the dis-
obedient deities of the earth. In the modern Kashima-Shinry
sion of this technique, the sword is drawn horizontally from the scab-
in a diagonal cut, from left to right
finally, the sword is
Heritage and Tradition
Floating Bridge, they took up a jeweled spear, dipped it into the sea,
and stirred. When they withdrew the weapon, the drops that fell
The pair then descended to this new land, where they gave birth
Takeminakata-no-Kami, challenged Takemikazuchi to a test of
boulder on his fingertips, Takeminakata then attempted to take hold
of Takemikazuchis arm. The latter, however, changed the arm into
a column of ice, and then changed it again into a sword blade, caus-
ing his opponent to draw away in fear. When, in his turn,
Takemikazuchi took hold of Takeminakatas arm, it was like taking
hold of a young reed; he grasped it and crushed it, throwing it aside.
Immediately [Takeminakata] ran away.
At this, O
take up his rule of the earth. His grandson was later enthroned as
Emperor Jimmu, the first human ruler of Japan. Takemikazuchi, his
The first human to benefit from Takemikazuchis guidance was
Kuninazu-no-Mahito, a legendary attendant at the Kashima Grand
Shrine during the seventh century. The August Deity [enshrined
at Kashima], notes the compendium cited earlier,
22L
EGACIESOFTHE
Kashima-Shinryu
Yamamoto
Yoshinaka
Shin-Shinkageryu
Jikishin-ryu
Yorihito
Kashima-Shinryu
Kashima-Shinryu
Yoshimaka
Shinkageryu
Hojo Awa-
Hojo-ryu
Jikishin-ryu
Takahashi
Jikishin Seito-ryu
Yamada Ippusai
Jikishin Kage-ryu
Jikishin Kage-ryu
Jikishin Kage-ryu
Yoshisato
Jikishin-Kageryu
Yoshitada
Jikishin-Kageryu
Jikishin-Kageryu
Various
Various
Tsunasato
Kage-ryu
Tanabe
Tamemoto
Tanabe-ryu
Kashima-Shinryu
Kashima-Shinryu
Kashima-Shinryu
Kunii Takamasa
Kashima-Shinryu
Kunii Yoshitsugu
Kashima-Shinryu
Kunii Yoshinori
Kashima-Shinryu
Kunii Taizen
Kashima-Shinryu
Kashima-Shinryu
Kashima-Shinryu
Kashima-Shinryu
Kashima-Shinryu
Kashima-Shinryu
Kashima-Shinryu
Kashima-Shinryu
Tsuchiya Shogen
Shinkage-ryu
Bokuden-ryu
Shinkage-ryu
Takemikazuchi
Kage-ryu
Maniwa Nen-ryu
Shinto-ryu
Figure 1. Principal teacher-student relationships of the Kashima-Shinry
The Kashima Grand Shrine and Takemikazuchi-no-Mikoto
At the wellspring of the Kashima-Shinry
Heritage and Tradition
*Takemikazuchi-no-Mikoto (also called Takemikazuchi-no-Kami in some
texts) is an extraordinarily complex deity, possessing multiple identities, of which
lineage. Few, moreover, had only a single successor. Instead, lines of
descent from famous warriors tend to branch again and again, like
streams endlessly dividing as they flow outward from their common
Most bugei ry
uha did not develop the articulated organizational
latter, senior disciples receive licenses to teach and to open branch
schools. Those of sufficient rank are even permitted to certify their
own students to open subbranches. But the authority for all instruc-
tion at all levels is derived from the ry
uhas headmaster, or
Branch instructors
18L
EGACIESOFTHE
enough. Followers of Confucianism or Taoism call this achieve-
the cosmological premises underlying Confucian or Taoist sage-
hood and Buddhist enlightenment differ radically, the three states
Western sense that recognizes the mastery of the piano as a dis-
The medieval Japanese concept of michi, then, saw expertise in
activities of all sortsfrom games and sports to fine arts, from prac-
deriving from its relationship to a common, ultimate goal.
Concentrated specialization in any activity was held to be an equally
Heritage and Tradition
Buddhist rituals and cosmology, and Taoist magic that promises those
who master it not only spiritual tranquility, but supranormal, even
Shugend
16L
EGACIESOFTHE
teachings by written documents. Similarly, samurai who hoped to
survive and prosper in the
jakuniku-ky
(literally, the weak are
meat; the strong eat) world of the Sengoku era sought out warriors
with reputations as expert fighters and appealed to them for instruc-
tion. Such masters of combat in turn codified their knowledge and
Heritage and Tradition
in front of him with his sword raised, Norimitsu drew his own blade
14L
EGACIESOFTHE
otherwise, the Kashima-Shinry
ever, be less enlightening an account for that.
Ry
Heritage and Tradition
ancient records] convey that the Kashima-Shinry
Age of the Gods, with a mission as champion for the Imperial court.
. . . After Takemikazuchi-no-Mikoto had pursued and chastised all
through feats of arms prayed to this deity.
HUSBEGINS
Kashima-Shinry
u hy
oh
sive headmasters of the Kashima-Shinry
Heritage and Tradition
History is a distillation of rumour.
ARLYLE
One legend recalls another, and I hear tonight many strange
Thus Kashima-Shinry
u bugei is, in a phrase, the art of h
oy
implications. What this means for ry
Know that the essence of Kashima-Shinry
the unavailing joy of felling an enemy, of destroying evil, but in fos-
neutrality and total impartiality. Of its own accord it maintains the
ing, as a result, the epitome of form and contour.
turn, manifests h
oy
o-d
victory. If the heart is not pure, he who willfully attacks will only be
is clear. Is it [not] then worthwhile for men of spirit to come to train
diligently? Thinking thus the Kashima-Shinry
body, at the midpoint cultivates heartfelt human relationships, and
tal principles of the Universe. This is the inner truth of the Kashima-
Shinry
u. As in days of old, it is the great Way of the sacred nation of
Having outlined, then, what it is that Kashima-Shinry
acquire in their journeys toward shinbu and h
oy
o-d
oka, in the next
chapter I will describe the path itself, the process of training and
transmission of ry
Kashima-Shinry
u techniques executed from the gassh
position all apply the Axiom of the Moon on the Water, particu-
larly the gontaiy
swordsman must neither push nor withdraw, but maintain a perfect
zero figure indicates the relative application of power by both oppo-
nents, not the absolute power applied by either. The Axiom of the
Moon on the Water must be maintained throughout when execut-
Kashima-Shinry
ry
98L
EGACIESOFTHE
way to disengage and attempt another strike, or use j
their opponent. Moreover, on the battlefield, where armor protects
bamboo swords), protective gear, or rules make it difficult to deliver
opponent wishes to avoid killing or maiming the other, using a
weapon in a j
ujutsu-like manner to immobilize or throw the oppo-
nent can offer the most efficient means to victory.
(T
oh
and his friends declare the match a draw, claiming that both contestants struck each
other at the same instant; the master swordsman, however, calmly states that his
blow was a fraction of a second faster. The angry challenger insists on a rematch,
this time with live blades, which, predictably, results in his death. Such I-got-you-
pull their blows a fraction of an instant before actual contact. It is neither necessary
nor possible when one combatant throws or pins his opponent instead. On the bat-
openings in their fallen opponents armor.
of this sort are common in training where students use standardized
96L
EGACIESOFTHE
Kashima-Shinry
Kashima-Shinry
u kamae. All Kashima-Shinry
beginning for a smaller number still. The relative effec-
swordsmans range of choices, for he will wish to avoid attacks eas-
ily defended against from the posture assumed by his opponent, and
against the techniques most easily or most probably launched from
his opponents kamae. Instead, he will seek to adopt a ready posture
ideally suited for both attacking and countering the best moves that
fering kamae, only a few combinations of techniques become likely.
94L
EGACIESOFTHE
is unfocused and he cannot respond properly to an attack (or any
his forehead by rolling his hands upward to his left, raising his blade
his right so that it protects his forehead. In the instant in which the
attacking sword collides with his, he steps forward and slightly to
under it. In this way, the attack slides harmlessly off his sword, much
weakness lies in the fact that the swordsmans counterattack cannot
92L
EGACIESOFTHE
response from the opponent, they must be
feints. To perform them inattentively or without content is to flirt
90L
EGACIESOFTHE
easily pierced by a knife or sword. Because of the manner in which
self. The enemy was the warriors own enemy, killed because of the
erally, to stop), comes from a Chinese-derived folk belief that
in Mandarin), is associated with yang, and one, the
), is associated with yin. After death, the kon
88L
EGACIESOFTHE
(kuss
chest prevented the kon from escaping before it was ready to make its heavenward
journey. The Japanese buried their dead in this manner from the Yayoi period (ca.
and continued on his way. A few steps later he saw a dark shape
blow, but this sort of vocalizationclosely related to those of weight
86L
EGACIESOFTHE
nique. It therefore exemplifies h
oy
o-d
tum to the attacking blade, momentum a skilled opponent can easily
To maximize his power for kiriotoshi and other applications, a
Kashima-Shinry
body and his mind. The traditional term for this is
84L
EGACIESOFTHE
Collectively, the Fivefold Laws and the Eight Divine Coordinates
generations of Kashima-Shinry
But to understand Kashima-Shinry
u bugei as a historical phenome-
non, to appreciate it and its sister martial art ry
components of samurai lives and culture, we must focus more closely
generations of headmasters summarizes Kashima-Shinry
oy
Fifteen of these also appear in a copy of a Jikishin Kagery
Shinry
u and the Jikishin Kagery
concepts by name, without commentary, making it impossible to
82L
EGACIESOFTHE
deflects an attack and defeats the opponent. All Kashima-Shinry
Ei henjite kyoku to naru
Ei henjite choku to naru
Kyoku henjite h
o to naru
Ei henjite en to naru
when they are applied in combination. Blows delivered at an acute
angle utilize the mechanical principles of the wedge and the lever to
Kashima-Shinry
Shinry
u fighting techniques. (Figures 1822 depict unarmed appli-
cations of each of the five patterns.) In the first of these,
jite h
o to naru
(a diagonal becomes perpendicular), one avoids the
opponents attack by stepping diagonally past it and counters with a
horizontal strike or throwing action. In the second,
ei henjite en to
naru
throws or pins the opponent with a tight spiraling motion (of the
ei henjite kyoku to naru
pling him with a diagonal slash or throwing action.
to naru
an angular parry into a straight thrust or vertical blow. And in the
Shinry
Kunii-ke s
oden Kashima-Shinry
u j
series of techniques. The second attack exists
nent even when unrevealed. For this reason, bugei theorists refer to
it as an
enshrouded in the lining of the outside or manifest technique,
other and each is at once both Empty and Real. When an encounter
remains unmanifested and Empty. When the combat proceeds to
becomes Empty. In either event, the interconnection of the omote-
waza and the ura-waza deprives the opponent of any opportunity to
counter successfully.
While the Fivefold Laws outline the conceptual structure (omote)
of Kashima-Shinry
u bud
o, the physical structure (ura) of Kashima-
Shinry
u bujutsu is framed by the Eight Divine Coordinates
accord with the principles of imperial justice, impartiality, and
mercy). Kashima-Shinry
u fighting techniques arise when an adept
another.
As figure 17 illustrates, the Eight Divine Coordinates define five
but the coordinates are more properly conceived of as surrounding
five vectors are named relative to the vertical plane connecting the
centerline of ones body with that of ones opponent: perpendicular
(h
In their purest form, perpendicular, diagonal, and direct move-
motions. Spirals, as we have already observed, underlie all Kashima-
Shinry
78L
EGACIESOFTHE
before him and his body square to his opponent. Its very empti-
ness, however, makes mugamae a position of pure, unlimited
potential from which all manner of techniques (reality) can freely
From mugamae, then, the swordsman launches an attack. If the
opponent offers no countertechnique, this initial action becomes
decisive (sen-no-sen). If, on the other hand, the opponent attempts
ply shifts in mid-course to a new technique, which becomes deci-
became Empty, but then gave rise to a subsequent attack that was
Practioners of modern kend
sen somewhat differently from Kashima-Shinry
u masters. In kend
strike has begun. See Jeffrey Dann, Kend
dissertation, University of Washington, 1978) 159161.
tactics to conform to the principle of Offense and Defense as One,
Traditional Japanese bugei theory analyzes attacks in terms of ini-
defeats the opponent with ones first strike;
in which one
time as ones opponent.
When one executes sen and go simultane-
ously, in a single technique, Offense and Defense become One, and
Offense and Defense as One follows logically from h
oy
o-d
and is, in fact, impossible without it. First of all, h
oy
o-d
cipal reason why Kashima-Shinry
strategy, which involves reacting
opponents actions. Moreover, to approach an encounter without
the total impartiality and utter lack of concern for the outcome dic-
tated by h
oy
o-d
ones cause and/or begin to take pleasure in defeating ones oppo-
nentsor, conversely, to fear or shrink from themengenders a
preoccupation with results that divorces Offense from Defense by
focusing ones attention unduly on one or the other.
Kashima-Shinry
76L
EGACIESOFTHE
In his famous
Of the three forms of initiative, the first is when one attacks the enemy first.
of initiative. Any fight must begin with one of these three forms of initiative;
Nihon bud
another, it renders the swordsman vulnerable to counterattack dur-
striking power, or linear momentum, is equal to the mass of the weapon times its
Nihon bud
tional bugei documents and expressing the same idea is
By manipulating their weapons in spirals, Kashima-Shinry
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EGACIESOFTHE
Figure 14. Three-cornered and four-cornered movement (source: Seki,
bud
continual acceleration. Spirals are
Mugamae
or
Kami-hass
Shimo-hass
Tsukikage
time, he cannot constantly move at full velocity, for, among other
72L
EGACIESOFTHE
the warriors body or weapon is moving at the start of the technique (),
The orthography for the hass
o of kami-hass
o and shimo-hass

however, both speed and power are relative considerations; the
nent, and even this is relative. For what matters most is not which
at the critical moment in which a blow is delivered.
beginner, illustrates this point succinctly. Even though the beginner
portrayed in the graphs can ultimately generate greater speed and
power are greater than those of the beginner, enabling him to defeat
can apply his full power.
Generating sufficient power to perform a given task, then, is a matter of accelerat-
ing the tool with which the task is to be performed to a sufficient velocity.
is a change in velocity over time (). At a given rate

Figure 7. Comparison of the rates of application of power of a beginner and an
Nihon bud
passivity of yin tempers the violent aggressiveness of yang to achieve
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EGACIESOFTHE
Hardacre explains the kokoro as including the facilities of mind, will, and emotion.
is not, however, the sum of these facilities in the abstract but differs in
strength, activity, creation, and things visible or male. Written with
are conceived of as complimentary, not opposing forces. Other than
as abstract concepts, neither exists in its pure form anywhere or at
indeed neither exists alone even as a concept, inasmuch as neither
has meaning except in reference to the other. Yin and yang are cease-
lessly interactive, such that each moment in time and each phenom-
Nihon bud
tively rendered heart, heart-mind, will, or self. In
Kurozumiky
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EGACIESOFTHE
But h
oy
o-d
oka also has a broader (ura) meaning: that the warrior
joy of felling an enemy, of destroying evil, as one Kashima-Shinry
Specifically, this
requires the warrior to exorcise the attitudes known as the
ten evils: insolence, overconfidence, greed, anger, fear, doubt, dis-
serve both an omote and an ura purpose. First, emotions, even rela-
tively virtuous ones like pleasure or satisfaction derived from vic-
tory in the interests of justice, can blind a warrior, cause him to
make mistakes, or otherwise interfere with his ability to function at
to ones body,
y
to fortitude and prowess. Gontaiy
66L
EGACIESOFTHE
oy
o-d
in fact possible without the other. Thus, for the Kashima-Shinry
the highest expression of shinbu is
out recourse to clash of arms. Moreover, the essence of tatazu-no-
kachior any other form of shinbulies in the physical, mental,
oy
o-d
(roughly: acceptance and resorp-
tiple levels of omote and ura at which bugei terms and principles
described h
oy
o-d
With his great arrowheads he shot down enemy leaders again and again, never
loosing an arrow in vain, always hitting his mark. Like the thunder he rushed; like
the wind he flew. He was shinbu, incarnate in this world. (
Tai ni tai nashi; shin o motte
Banj
Suich
make a sword of the body.
Like a firefly, round; by its
Waiting not, scheming not,
As if pressing a gourd in water.
oy
o-d
oka and related expressions employed by other ry
by the Axiom of the Moon on the Water
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EGACIESOFTHE
comparable to attempting to describe precisely what one sees in two
mirrors positioned so as to reflect one another. Ordinarily, bugei
practitioners make no such efforts. Instead they deal rationally with
allow their intuition or subconscious to perceive the rest along with
are as much phenomena of the universe as are drops of water,
Outside and Inside as One has important applications in the field
of martial art. Kashima-Shinry
u bugei as practiced today consists of
broad groups: the omote arts, consisting of kenjutsu (swordsman-
ship), batt
a kind of glaive or voulges), s
(use of throwing darts); and the ura arts, consisting of j
kenp
tant
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EGACIESOFTHE
not the same. Yin and yang represent primeval forces or essences that mix and
One feature of this premodern Japanese worldview key to under-
standing Kashima-Shinry
Japanese conceptualized their universe, and they provided the only
60L
EGACIESOFTHE
be rediscovered by Kuninazu no Mahito in the seventh century.
Historically, it traces back to Matsumoto Bizen-no-Kamis fif-
teenth-century reformulation of Mahitos shinmy
HETERM
ry
uha, prosaically translated as school, can be more
literally and more evocatively rendered as branch of the current.
The Philosophy and Science of
Buddhist ny
uga-gany
u meditation techniques discussed earlier.
Teachers of the bugei and other traditional Japanese arts have
160L
EGACIESOFTHE
sufficient to guide students to realization and understanding of the
Nevertheless, advanced Kashima-Shinry
involves visualization exercises utilizing Takemikazuchi-no-Mikoto
158L
EGACIESOFTHE
thought, and which negates all awareness of the self and the world.
Esoteric Buddhism, however, views this as merely a preliminary
awareness that affirms the self and all that exists. Rather than focus-
ing on a passive state of no mind, no thought, mikky
formed in conjunction with postures and vocalizations, and all based
156L
EGACIESOFTHE
and bodyof spirit and matteras a whole. Accordingly, Yuasa views
the meridian system that describes its movement and function as a
psychology.
Although these source traditions differ
fact, the Shugend
154L
EGACIESOFTHE
states of mind; even physical sensations derive from mental calcu-
lations processing sensory input, which is why we can be fooled into
experiencing pain in amputated limbs, or dry ice as hot to the touch.
injury, or intoxication. A single instant of imperfection can cost him
his life and/or the success of his mission. True mastery of the war-
rior arts, therefore, must include the ability to perform at ones peak
To do this, one must be able to reach beyond the limitations nor-
mally imposed by ones body or mind, to tap into the deeper poten-
Thus, very advanced stu-
152L
EGACIESOFTHE
Okami no gohy
A catalpa bow, a journey with no
Hikky
Izukun zo konch
Taigo kaigen shite tenji o ky
o keirin onozukara fukuch
Truly this is shinbu
Meditation and the Integration of Body, Mind, and Spirit
Students begin study of the traditional bugei with pattern practice,
through which they intuitively absorb their ry
them. Later, their teachers augment the lessons of the kata with ver-
bal and written illuminations of the underlying principles. But while
technical virtuosity, that technical virtuosityeven at levels
approaching perfectionstill falls short of true mastery of the art of
150L
EGACIESOFTHE
Tenchi manbutsu
okon ikk
Tsune no kokoro ni
Words in ones everyday heart;
To hold these is true discipline
[Kashima-Shinry
Tsukuba yama
Mt. Tsukuba leaves and space;
Te wa ha no ji
Yanagi to fuki harai ite ni
Ge ni mo t
Truly precious and noble
Were the teachings of ones far-
Tachimukau
Yaiba no shita wa
Tate to mise
Yoko kiru kyo tachi
Tate yoko ya naname
Tsuki tachi-tai atari
Vertical, horizontal, and diagonal
Tai o hinarite
Gokuraku (, paradise) is utilized here in the same meaning as
148L
EGACIESOFTHE
A Confucian concept, the Five Virtues
(goj
Wisdom, Fidelity, and Benevolence.
Ken no michi
Ken no michi
Toil at technique!
power of the jeweled sword flows outward and the people are liber-
night and day, revering it like a god and guarding it as he would guard
Literally, are severed from interchange with drawn blades. Judging from
see that] victory and defeat are found in the dual essence of Yin and
146L
EGACIESOFTHE
could indicate that the document was a later compilation. The Jikishin-kagery
document is reproduced in
Nihon bud
Kashima-Shinry
Ry
Hy
oh
techniques. A sudare is rolled for storage or to open areas it is oth-
erwise used to screen; viewed from the end when rolled, the slats
form an irregular spiral with no apparent beginning or end. This
may have been the allusion that Matsumoto was attempting to draw.
Tengu sho
Kashima-Shinry
u tradition, it was not the last. Kamiizumi Ise-no-
There is, however, a problem with the date as recorded on the Jikishin-
kagery
Ry
The Tenp
teen yearsthere was no fifteenth year of Tenp
bugei jargon, and are thus far less opaque to followers even of other
ry
144L
EGACIESOFTHE
8)Repeated Spirals
9)Clinging to a Gourd and Bewitching a Person
10)Garden Lantern
(t
or
11)Intermediate Killing
(ch
12)Stop by Intermediate Killing
(ch
13)Dragon Sword
(ry
14)Cutting Opposite with a Dragon Sword
(ry
uken gyaku ni kiru)
15)Entering Opposite with a Dragon Sword
(ry
uken gyaku ni iru)
16)Extended Dragon Sword
(nobe no ry
17)Night Sword
(yoru no tachi)
18)Night Sword Crouching and Cutting
(yoru no tachi fushite kiru)
19)Enveloping and Striking without Closing Range
20)Ensnaring and Cutting Upward
(kakoi gyaku ni kiru)
On Flying Dragons (Hiry
1)Dance of the Tengu
2)Entering Inside the Strike to Overturn It
3)Seven Warriors
4)Entering without a Sword
(mut
5)The Importance of Rising Slowly
6)Cautions on Turning and Changing Cuts
(mawari kiri y
7)Thunderbolt
8)Discerning Inner Rhythms
(uchiby
9)The Omote and Ura of Inner Rhythm
(uchiby
oshi hy
10)The Omote and Ura of the Sword
(ken no hy
11)The Omote and Ura of the Body
(tai no hy
12)Flying Swallow
13)Circling Monkey
14)The Birds Roost
15)Running Tiger
16)Hidden by the Tree Leaves
(ko no hagakure ari)
17)Sword of Oneness
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EGACIESOFTHE
Ha here is an alternative reading for the character
(), which denotes
extrapolation from the order and content of the rest of the scroll,
however, suggests it must have been harai-tachi (exorcising
In the
Tengu sho,
with minimal use of Chinese characters. The document is, more-
over, unevenalmost erratic by modern conventionsin its cover-
age; included terms range from diffuse philosophical constructs to
the nine techniques) to label a list of nine tactics and principles he gathered from
various ry
Tengu sho,
however, this heading introduces a subsection con-
should not be taken in its literal meaning. It may be a pun on homophones mean-
and books. Originals of some of these documents have been passed
140L
EGACIESOFTHE
formed a fundamental premise of esoteric Buddhism, which stressed
that while exclusive study of doctrine without grounding in practice
even as they developed pattern practice as their chief instructional
traditional bugei training. But while it is true that being overly con-
138L
EGACIESOFTHE
Figure 32. The Kashima-Shinry
Nihon bud
against one another at full speed and power, Kashima-Shinry
bokut
by kend
(suburit
schools to develop arm strength and striking power. A light bokut
would break too readily in Kashima-Shinry
affected. For similar reasons, the Kashima-Shinry
plate 9). While most other types of bokut
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EGACIESOFTHE
Figure 31. The Kashima-Shinry
bokut
Nihon bud
To perform Reiki-no-h
134L
EGACIESOFTHE
Reiki-no-h
Warizuki
shitachi to cut. The shitachi then steps forward and performs a kesa-
giri, with the kiai, t
except that he uses it against a lower, stabbing attack from the uchi-
tachi. As before, both swordsmen begin in seigan and then step into
130L
EGACIESOFTHE
With the kiai, ya, the uchitachi bends forward and to his right,
ward) shin. At that instant, the shitachi bends forward from the hips
and without raising his hands, swings the tip of the sword in a tight,
and to the right of his lead (right) leg, and his blade should be per-
tachis wrist. He is now in control of his opponents movements. The
The two partners then raise their swords back to the
u kata, for the level of
swordsmen grip their weapons firmly, but naturally, with the little
fingers of their left hands overlapping the ends of the sword hilts
and their right hands nearly touching the hand guards. This grip is
as well as to prevent the hilt from becoming snared on loose sleeves
simultaneously lowering his sword to the mugamae or otonashi-no-
kamae posture, resting just above his right leg, with the tip pointed
shitachi moves with him, stepping forward with his right foot into
the same mugamae posture. As they do this, both execute a kiai of
126L
EGACIESOFTHE
learns: the Reiki-no-h
o drill of j
ujutsu and the Kihon-tachi series of
schools limit access to their real art to a chosen few who have proven
their capacity to receive it, the Kashima-Shinry
The special nature of the Kihon-tachi and the Reiki-no-h
124L
EGACIESOFTHE
14 cm.
1 cm.
3
Figure 24. The Kashima-Shinry
bud
bladed head, called a
122L
EGACIESOFTHE
respectively.
ujutsu, students move on to other weapons. The order and pace at
which they are introduced to these other arts vary widely, depending
on individual interest, aptitude, and training circumstances, but most
Warrior monks is the name by which the s
riors. But both translationsand the Japanese originals, akus
o and s
ohei, as well
employed by temples had any direct involvement with the temples religious orders.
For more on s
ohei, see Hirada Toshiharu,
Hiyoski Sh
ohei kenky
or Katsuno Ry
An excellent discussion of the naginata and its history appears in Ellis Amdur,
naginata(top)
The Kashima-Shinry
K
ob
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EGACIESOFTHE
The proverb literally refers to K
ob
o Daishi, the posthumous name of K
(744835), a Buddhist priest of the Shingon sect. He was noted for his calligraphy
schools, skill in pattern practice became an end in and of itself. Kata
through them with little attempt to internalize anything but the
By the end of the seventeenth century, Ogy
ages past, they lamented, had degenerated into flowery swordplay
(kah
o kenp
and gamesmanship. In the words of Fujita T
118L
EGACIESOFTHE
believed by many authorities to have been common among serious
bugei students. Ordinarily, such students would begin their instruc-
tion with a teacher near their home, train with him until they had
Although government prohibitions on interschool contests did not eliminate
Kashima-Shinry
u hy
oh
Tengu sho
Plate 9. Wooden training swords in the collection of the Kunii family. Some
of these are believed to have belonged to Tsukahara Bokuden.
Plate 10. Minamoto Yoshitsune receiving a scroll
Interestingly, in this depiction, Michael holds
Shinry
Shinry
Shrine (June 12, 1994)
Masamoto (My
osenji, Shimizu City, Shizuoka prefecture)
in the back row is Kunii Zenya, the eighteenth-gen-
eration headmaster of the Kashima-Shinry
are Imaizumi Teisuke, kokugaku scholar and
founder of the Nihon Daigaku Imaiizumi Kenky
ujo; Ashizu K
ojir
scholar and hereditary attendant (g
uji) of the Dazaifu Tenmang
Plate 1. The main hall of the Kashima Grand Shrine (Kashima-machi, Ibaraki
tures of his teachers exactly, and is allowed no departure from the
is difficult for him to move or react in any fashion outside the frame-
sciously seeks to break down this framework and step outside it. He
perfecting his grasp of the principles that underlie the forms. Only
stage of true mastery. Here he regains his individuality. Whereas pre-
viously he merged himself
the kata, he now emerges fused
the kabala of the ry
uha. He moves freely, unrestricted by the frame-
an efficacious means of training and transmission of knowledge, but
108L
EGACIESOFTHE
This concept is emphasized by many bugei ry
uha in their choice of orthogra-
chanoy
use the character , most bugei schools write it with with
106L
EGACIESOFTHE
explanation. Both force the student to fully invoke his powers of
directly from Confucian pedagogy and its infatuation with ritual
acquire
them in this way. Ritual is stylized
low it to wisdom and understanding. Those who seek knowledge
and truth, then, must be carefully guided through the right kind of
ry
hy
oh
heih
(techniques or tactics). Hy
oh
104L
EGACIESOFTHE
viewed as being superficial, adjustments to the outward form of the
kata; the key elementsthe marrowof the kata do not change. By
definition, more fundamental changes (when they are made inten-
tionally and acknowledged as such) connote the branching off of a
new ry
transmission. In modern cognate martial arts, such as kend
ud
o, kata is often only one of several more or less coequal training
If the essence of a ry
ry
ugithe body of knowledge that defines itthe essence of that
102L
EGACIESOFTHE
Western audiences usually equate kata training with the solo exercises of
transmission or special transmission outside the texts. Learning in
teacher could not transmit [in that way]. Nor is such learning foundonly in the study of Zen, for in the meditations of the Confuciansages and in all of the arts, mastery lies in mind-to-mind transmis-sion, special transmission outside the texts. Texts and doctrine
on ones own. Understanding is not bestowed by the teacher.
Teaching is easy; listening to doctrines is also easy; but to find with
awakening from the dream of delusion; it is the same as understand-ing. This does not change.1To say that understanding comes from within the student
should not, however, imply that mastery of the martial (or other)
students to internalize the key precepts of ry
not innately know how to balance, pedal, and steer, nor will he be
likely to discover how on his own. At the same time, no one can
fully explain any of these skills either; one can only demonstrate
Kashima-Shinry
dents are ready to internalize ry
pline their bodies; the body, as the receptacle, must first acquire the
UGEIRY
exist chiefly to propagate knowledge, but not knowl-
edgein the conventional Western sensealone. In the martial and
learning acquired by the heart rather
The Martial Path
duction of effects that seem to flow forth spontaneously, as though
band
literally East of the Barrier, refers to eastern Japan
principally the provinces of Sagami, Musashi, Kazusa, Shim
Jikishin-kagery
3. 11591189; the great hero of the Gempei Wars of 11801185, out of
Yoshitsune has become one of Japans best-loved heroes. He had a falling out
with his elder brother, Yoritomo, the founder of the shogunate, shortly after
the Gempei fighting ended and was hunted down and killed by Yoritomo.
4. This last sentence does not appear in the Jikishin Kagery
5. The Okudaira had once been vassals of the Takeda. In 1573 they left this
support. But in its Chinese reading (
in Mandarin Chinese), it has
Notes to Pages 166168
Health, Sex, and Longevity,
of Master Swordsmen,
Notes to Pages 140154
Nihon bud
4041. See also, Kaku Sh
oz
Nihon bud
Nihon bud
Nihon bud
Nihon bud
104; see also Matsushita, S
og
in contemporary Japan. Nancy Ukais Kumon Approach to Teaching and
Learning is an enlightening discussion of the former.
16. Jeffrey Dann, Kend
o in Japanese Martial Culture, 237244, offers an
kend
o. Donn Draeger,
gy
o, shugy
Notes to Pages 106120
3. The following discussion of kata is elaborated from Karl Friday, Kabala
4. Fujiwara Yoshinobu,
Menhy
oh
Kenjutsu Keiko no ikk
The date of publication of Yoshinobus text is unknown, but it is believed to
have been written in the late Edo period. The ry
Shinkage-ry
u tradition, transmitted within the Nabeshima family.
5. cf. Tomiki Kenji,
Bud
Nihon bud
Kunii-ke s
oden Kashima-Shinry
u menkyo kaiden mokuroku
seit
o ichiry
u hy
oh
5. Following a tradition established in the eighteenth century by Hirayama
Gy
oz
of Bugei (bugei j
uhappan). This list varies somewhat from author to author,
but it typically includes the following arts: the bow, the spear, the sword,
espionage. (Sasama Yoshihiko,
Sh
escort Prince Yoshinaga, the future Emperor Murakami, to Mutsu in 1336,
Kashima-Shinry
u hy
oh
Nakabayashi, Kend
Jikishin Kagery
The Armed Martial Arts of Japan,
orthography used in the 1567 document employs the same character later
adopted by Kamiizumis student Okuyama Ky
ugasai Kimishigesee below.
Ch
nenry
Ch
ukory
26. Biographical information on Aisu Ik
Watatani Kiyoshi,
Nihon keng
Keng
483; Nakayama Nobuna, ed.,
Ibaraki-ken shi, ch
gives no date for the battle of Takamagahara, but the
Imagawa Yoshimoto in 1543, but no record of this offensive appears in other
extant sources. Moreover, the Takeda and the Imagawa had concluded a mar-
Shizuoka-ken shiry
650651, 726), making it highly unlikely that Shingen would have opened hos-
sive against the Imagawa in 1568, but if the Kunii family records actually refer
Alternatively, the Kunii documents may have confused this 1568 campaign
Japan. I entered the Kashima-Shinry
u in September of that year and received
see the discussion in chapter 2) in 1987 and the designation of
instructor) two years later.
Chapter 2: Heritage and Tradition
and W. G. Aston,
Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to 697
2. Friday,
Hired Swords,
8121; Friday, Valorous Butchers; G. Cameron
The Armed Martial Arts of Japan,
Konjaku monogatari-sh
Ichij
NOTES
1. Quoted in de Bary, ed.,
Sources of Japanese Tradition,
(Full Initiation), Menky
A.Directors initiated to the level of Okuden or higher may conduct
and grade testing for initiation to levels of Ch
190L
EGACIESOFTHE
all matters of Kashima-Shinry
u technique and philosophy.
in any way that would contravene or undermine this authority. All
Kashima-Shinry
u Shihany
o bujutsu ky
(Teaching Manual of
Kashima-Shinry
except as amended by the current Headmaster.
D.Instructors shall not teach KSR to any persons who are not mem-
E.Instructors shall normally teach only KSR as defined in Section 1/C
F.As per the by-laws of KSR/IN, an exception shall be made for
Directors initiated at the rank of Ch
have branched off from the Kashima-Shinry
by KSR/NA. In the event that a Director must be absent from an
designate Acting Director(s) to carry out his/her duties in his/her
may, if they choose, participate in activities open to members and
188L
EGACIESOFTHE
G.The GC shall not pass any by-law nor propose any amendment to
D.The Treasurer shall be chosen from among all members of
KSR/NA. The Treasurer shall be responsible for all financial activi-
create and promulgate by-laws for the organization and to propose
appropriate and necessary, additional members of the GC may be
chosen from among the senior members of the organization by two-
Okuden level or higher; however, under special circumstances, per-
sons of Ch
A.GC members may be expelled for cause by unanimous vote of all
B.GC members wishing to withdraw from membership may resign
C.In all other cases, membership on the GC shall be for life.
D.All members of the GC, including the President and Vice-
E.The GC shall have the sole authority to create and promulgate by-
of all members of the Council. When necessary, Council members
186L
EGACIESOFTHE
E.The organization shall maintain a roster of all practitioners of KSR
F.The organization shall sanction and certify all awarding of ranks
1. The organization shall manufacture and distribute diplomas for stu-
levels of Kirikami, Sh
omokuroku, Shoden, Ch
Hawaii who have been initiated at the level of Kaiden and higher.
G.The organization shall collect dues and/or fees as deemed necessary
Kashima-Shinry
u bud
o renmei;
The organization shall take as its main purpose the promotion, dif-
fusion and advancement of Kashima-Shinry
B.The organization shall take responsibility within North America
or any logograms incorporating the names Kashima-Shinry
D.The organizatio
184L
EGACIESOFTHE
The goals of the Kashima-Shinry
Shinry
Know that the Kashima-Shinry
u delights naught in the use-
less joy of felling an enemy, of destroying evil. Rather, it fos-
ters gentlemen of . . . a heart that would always kill one only to
save a thousand. . . . In the beginning, prepare the body; at the
mate, find insight into the original principles of the Universe.
consist of the Instructor as chief examiner and a proportionate num-
ber of assistant examiners. For tests conducted at the headquarters,
RTICLE
only to those ranking kaiden or above. However, in special cases
where the President deems it necessary, persons corresponding to
RTICLE
OMMENDATIONS
Constitution of the Kashima-Shinry
TATEMENTOF
northeastern seacoast. In the mid-seventh century a Kashima shrine
these techniques to a new level. In the late fifteenth century two
warriors of extraordinary insight, Kunii Genpachir
182L
EGACIESOFTHE
ch
Testing requirements shall be as follows:
Rank Kata Other
KirigamiKihon tachi, Uratachi
Sh
omokurokuAishin kumitachi2 tachiai
ShodenJissen tachigumi5 tachiai
Written test (2 questions)
Ch
udenKasen tachi10 tachiai
Written test (5 questions)
OkudenTsubazerai, TaoshiuchiThesis
KaidenAll omote wazaThesis
2) J
KirigamiIdori, Tachiwaza5 reiki-nage
Sh
omokurokuNagewaza10 reiki-nage
ShodenKumiwaza10 tachiai
gusokudoriWritten test (2 questions)
Ch
udenTorite gaeshi10 tachiai
Written test (5 questions)
OkudenUshirowazaThesis
Kaidenb
ojutsuThesis
in both the kenjutsu and j
Members shall prepay all dues every year. Once paid, dues shall not
180L
EGACIESOFTHE
Kashima-Shinry
Kashima-Shinry
Constitution of the Kashima-Shinry
RTICLE
ULESAND
EGULATIONS
2) Correspondent to a martial event, the organization shall once annu-
RTICLE
178L
EGACIESOFTHE
certain life comes to be. This is a manifestation of h
oy
od
Certain life is certain control, is certain victory. To attack when the
lishing righteousness: The principle is clear. Is it not then worth-
the Kashima-Shinry
u first prepares the body, then cultivates heart-
felt human relationships, and arrives ultimately at realization and
understanding of the fundamental principles of the Universe. This
[Shingen]s great tactician, Yamamoto Kansuke, also studied
Kashima-Shinry
176L
EGACIESOFTHE
Kashima-Shinry
sacred edict to form the Mundane Realm.
tial spear and with it brought forth all below the heavens. Later,
Imperial grandchild three sacred treasures, and decreed that he andhis progeny should rule over the Mundane Realm.27Such was thegrand origin of the sacred mission of the Imperial house.In truth this was the fountainhead of Japans shinbu. He who wouldlearn the arts of war should make this his heart. Shinbu is of the will ofHeaven, a manifestation of the hearts of the deities who rule over theMundane Realm. Accordingly, it exists neither in attack nor in defense
but operates of itself, the paradigm that reveals the great moral law of
oy
o-d
oka. Truly and clearly indomitable is Japans shinbu; so too is
the great martial path our countrymen must follow readily clear.
Kashima-Shinry
from of old at the Kashima Grand Shrine. One thousand two hun-
inated this and handed it on to the world. Gradually, however, it
eral known throughout the realm for his valor. Later he succeeded
his deeply felt need, he strove to understand shinbu. He worshipped
the Kashima Deity, seeking a divine revelation. At last through the
aid of Kunii Genpachir
request by the r
onin of Mit
174L
EGACIESOFTHE
ENERATION
XXXI (Kashima-Shinry
u Generation X) Yoshitsugu
Called Shinpachir
ENERATION
XXXII (Kashima-Shinry
u Generation XI) Yoshinori
Called Gentar
o; he continued the Kashima-Shinry
ENERATION
XXXIII (Kashima-Shinry
Called Banzan; while continuing the Kashima-Shinry
ENERATION
XXXIV (Kashima-Shinry
u Generation XII) Taizen
Kunii Taizen Minamoto no Ritsuzan continued the Kashima-
Shinry
the Tenmei era [17811788]
occurred during the time that Taizen
Upon saying this, Yoshitoki resolved to die in battle and rushed at
the enemy host. Yoshimasa tried to follow but, his horse wounded,
Mt. Ibuki, arriving at last at the mountain hut he sought. Cared for
by friends of his father, his wounds soon healed.
At that time, Satake too came to this place. To Yoshimasa he said,
When I parted from Yoshitoki, he gave me a message for you. As I
knew that you would come here, I followed. [Yoshitokis] message
172L
EGACIESOFTHE
Kashima-Shint
ory
u. He later bequeathed this to Matsumoto
Bizen-no-kami, and made Matsumoto the founder of the Kashima-
Shinry
u, while he himself served as counselor.
In the ninth month of the twelfth year of Tenmon [1543],
170L
EGACIESOFTHE
ENERATION
ENERATION
Called Kunii Zenya Michiyuki. He inherited the Kashima-Shinry
passed down traditionally within the Kunii house. He taught at the
Kashima Grand Shrine, at the T
oyama Military Academy, and other
places, and founded the Nihon Kobud
o Shin K
okai, to promote the
martial way. He had no equals under Heaven in the arts of the war-
stricken with a sudden ailment of the heart. At his funeral the thun-
der roared incessantly, mourning the death of the sword-saint. He
was laid to rest in his ancestral place, Yumoto Sekibune in Fukushima
ENERATION
Thus you may know at a glance of the names and procession of the
or Geneology of the Kunii House, con-
stitutes the principal record of the Kashima-Shinry
u s
oke, it is a history, not a historical document. Nevertheless, it
ENERATION
XXII (Kashima-Shinry
ENERATION
Naganuma Shir
ozaemon-no-j
Kunisato, was already skillful when he inherited the teachings of his
father. He trained diligently in all of these, and was never neglect-
ful. When he died in his thirty-sixth year, all men grieved.
ENERATION
Motooka Ch
uhachi Fujiwara no Yorihito studied the arts of the war-
rior under Naganuma Norisato. He learned the deepest of the eso-
teric teachings of his art, and restored the name Kashima-Shinry
Motooka Ch
ENERATION
Ono Seiemon Taira no Shigemasa mastered the principles of the
Divine School. Following the will of Motooka Ch
all of this on to Kunii Taizen. After this, the post of shihanke of the
Kashima-Shinry
family.
ENERATION
Kunii Taizen Minamoto no Ritsuzan became an expert in the war-
168L
EGACIESOFTHE
the arts of war] was as brilliant as the color of well-tempered, highly
ENERATION
Kamiya Bunzaemon-no-j
o Taira no Masamitsu, later called
Upright Heart] Ry
gods. He created the new name because his teachings were a new,
ENERATION
Takahashi Danj
o-zaemon-no-j
called Jiki
[16881704] he gathered disciples and endeavored in the arts ofwar. Bemoaning the proliferation of schools and the confusion of
Jikishin-Seit
o [Correct Heart-True Lineage] Ry
ENERATION
Yamada Heizaemon-no-j
and night he prayed before the altar of Kashima, pledging himself
Genkur
o [Minamoto] Yoshitsune.
166L
EGACIESOFTHE
Historical Texts
u hy
oh
Kashima-Shinry
u hy
oh
is the oldest extant history of
the Kashima-Shinry
u shihanke lineage. As noted in chapter 4,
the Jikishin-kagery
all actions. Bud
precisely because of the indivisibility of pragmatic military, moral,
Novices normally approach them first at the level of physical com-
bat and advance into others as their training progresses. But those
who have mastered the arts conceptualize these various levels not as
164L
EGACIESOFTHE
This intricate entanglement of tactical, corporeal, mental, and
unique forms of weapons (particularly the bow and the sword), style
cal bugei still practiced today are bits of living history that continue
otherwise disappeared over a century ago. By studying them, histo-
162L
EGACIESOFTHE
Epilogue
train . . .
F. B
URTON
ONCEIVEDIN
Japans classical age as the servantsthe claws and
Gekokuj
Senran Nihonshi. Tokyo: Daiichi h
Nanbokuch
Senran Nihonshi. Tokyo: Daiichi h
Sengoku no guny
Senran Nihonshi. Tokyo: Daiichi
Sengoku no guny
Senran Nihonshi. Tokyo: Daiichi
Tenka fubu.
Senran Nihonshi. Tokyo: Daiichi h
Tenkajin e no michi.
Senran Nihonshi. Tokyo: Daiichi h
usha no j
Senran Nihonshi. Tokyo: Daiichi h
Yoshida Yutaka.
Bud
Tokyo: Tokuma shoten, 1968.
Yoshitani Osamu. Kenjutsu kata no k
oz
o to kin
o ni kansuru kenky
Nihon Bud
ogaku Kenky
ed. Watanabe Ichir
o ky
oj
Japanese, 114129. Tokyo: Shimazu shob
Yuasa Yasuo.
The Body, Self-Cultivation, and Ki-Energy.
Trans. Shigenori
Nagatomo and Monte S. Hull. Albany, NY: State University of New
York Press, 1993.
Yumoto, John M.
The Samurai Sword: A Handbook.
Rutland, VT: Tuttle, 1959.
Tanaka Fumon.
Kory
Tokyo: Airy
ud
Tanaka Jigohei.
Chinkonh
o no jissh
Tokyo: Kasumigaseki shob
Tanaka Mamoru. Kinsei kenjutsu densh
o ni miru kamae no k
Nihon bud
ogaku kenky
ed. Watanabe Ichir
o ky
oj
6790. Tokyo: Shimazu shob
Kashima jing
Tokyo: Gakuseisha, 1968.
Tomiki Kenji.
Bud
Tokyo: Daish
Tominaga Kengo.
Kend
Tokyo:Hyakusen shob
Totman, Conrad.
The Collapse of the Tokugawa Bakufu, 18621868.
Japan Before Perry: A Short History.
Politics in the Tokugawa Bakufu.
Cambridge, MA: Harvard University
Tsumoto Y
u. Kobud
Bungei shunsh
Yagy
u Hy
3 vols. Tokyo: Mainichi shinbunsha, 1986.
Tully, Joan. So What Does It Do?
Turnbull, Stephen R.
London: Arms and Armour Press,
The Samurai: A Military History.
New York: Macmillan, 1976.
Samurai Armies, 15501615.
London: Osprey, 1979.
Literary and Art Theories in Japan.
Cleveland, OH: Western
Ukai, Nancy. The Kumon Approach to Teaching and Learning.
Journal of
Varley, H. Paul. Samurai in School: R
yuha in Traditional Japanese Martial
Journal of Asian Martial Arts
Watatani Kiyoshi.
Nihon keng
Tokyo: Akita shoten, 1971.
Watatani Kiyoshi, and Yamada Tadachika, eds.
Bugei ry
Tokyo:
Wilson, William R. Way of the Bow and Arrow: The Japanese Warrior in the
Wilson, William Scott, ed.
Ideals of the Samurai: Writings of Japanese Warriors.
Yagy
The Sword and the Mind.
Trans. Hiroaki Sato. Woodstock,
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Yagy
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Yamamura Kozo, ed.
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Japanese Arms and Armor.
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Nihon bud
Zenkoku shohan keng
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Mass, Jeffrey.
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oriteki ni shid
Shinry
Gekken kend
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Gekken kend
Keenans Yog
ac
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New York: Paragon,
Minami Tsugumasa.
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Minouchi S
Bud
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uden to hipp
Tokyo:
Tsuru shob
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Japan in Transition: From
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oh
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Compiled by Toyoda Takeshi and Tashiro Osamu (Zoku Gunsho
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Watanabe Ichir
Bud
Tokyo: T
oky
. Friday, an associate professor of Japanese his-
tory at the University of Georgia, is a specialist in pre-
modern military and institutional history. His publica-
tions in this field include
Hired Swords: the Rise of Private
Warrior Power in Early Japan
Press, 1992), Valorous Butchers: the Art of War
JapanForum,
1993), Bushid
Warrior Tradition (
The History Teacher,
1994), and the
forthcoming Pushing Beyond the Pale: the Yamoto
tion, he has studied samurai and other combative arts
ranking from the Kashima-Shinry
u, as
teacher, role of in traditional
Temmei Famine (17811788), 4445, 173
Tengu sho,
terminology,
inter-relationship of,
origins in religious vocabulary, 59
Toda-ry
), 87
Tokugawa Ieyasu, 5, 24, 33, 36n, 41, 170,
Tokugawa period (16001868), 5, 88, 119;
Tominaga Kengo, 137
Toyotomi Hideyoshi, 5, 36, 36n, 41
training gear, 118, 119, 122123, 135137
Tsukahara Bokuden, 25, 27, 29, 108, 139,
Bizen-no-kami and Kamiizumi Ise-
Shimada Toranosuke, 174
shimo-hass
Shinkage-Jikishin-ry
Shinkage-ry
naori-taich
Neko no my
Nen-ry
u, 26, 169; Ch
uko-nenry
gogy, 104106
Niita Yoshisada, 47n
niss
shinmy
ny
uga gany
ob
Ogy
oy
6567; in Kashima-Shinry
Ono-ha Itt
ory
hy
Oy
Wang Yang Ming
Kunii Taizen, 32, 39, 4445, 48, 168, 173,
176; and j
Kunii Takamasa, 172
Kunii Yoshimasa, 171; biographical infor-
Kunii Yoshinori, 173
Kunii Yoshitoki, 171; biographical infor-
Kunii Yoshitsugu, 43, 173
Kunii Zenday
Kunii Zengor
Kunii Zentar
o, 173; and j
duels, 3, 4647; Kashima-Shinry
organization under, 57; organiza-
information, 2728; documents by,
Fud
ochi shinmy
movable Wisdom and Divine
Fujita T
Fujiwara Yoshinobu, 102, 104
gassh
goko-no-h
oj
(counter-strike initiative), 76
gontaiy
heih
Heih
(Book of Family Traditions
Hikida Bungor
Hirada Toshiharu, 121n
hiry
Hiyoshi Sh
oj
Hori, Victor, 104, 105
os
oin Kakuzenb
os
oin-ry
oy
o-d
oz
oin Kakuzenb
oz
oin-ry
hy
oh
military arts, 67; strategy, 104
hy
Iizasa Ch
Imagawa Yoshimoto, 170, 176; biographi-
Imaizumi Teisuke, 47
iny
o ittai.See
Yin and Yang as One
Ishigaki Yasuz
It
Itt
o-ry
Jikishin Kagery
147n; founder of, 25n; Reflections
split with the Kashima-Shinry
Jikishin-Seit
ory
u: True Lineage of the
Jikishin-ry
oko-ry
Kage-ry
kah
o kenp
kami-hass
oy
o-d
Aisu Ik

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