From Inquiry to Academic Writing A Practical Guide, 3rd edition- facebook.com/LinguaLIB


Чтобы посмотреть этот PDF файл с форматированием и разметкой, скачайте его и откройте на своем компьютере.
Steps to Academic Writing: A Quick Reference Guide
Seeking and Valuing Complexity, p. 8
Collecting Information and Material, p. 13
Evaluating Library Sources, p. 144
Working with Sources
Writing a Paraphrase, p. 155
Writing a Summary, p. 163
Writing a Synthesis, p. 181
Avoiding Plagiarism, p. 193
Integrating Quotations into Your Writing, p. 198
Compiling an MLA List of Works Cited, p. 346
Compiling an APA List of References, p. 350
Writing
Writing Yourself into an Academic Conversation, p. 54
Formulating a Working Thesis, p. 111
Stuart Greene
University of Notre Dame
April Lidinsky
Indiana University South Bend
Bedford/St. Martins

BO
S
TON



N
EW YORK
FROM INQUIRY TO

ACADEMIC WRITING
A Practical Guide
THIRD EDI
T
ION
00_GRE_6169_BRF_FM_i_xxvi.indd 1
5/5/15 11:15 AM
/St. Martin’s
Vice President, Editorial, Macmillan Higher Education Humanities:
echnical Writing:
Katie Watterson, MPS North America LLC
f

For information, write:
ISBN 978-1-4576-6390-1 (Instructor’s Edition)
Text acknowledgments and copyrights appear at the back of the book on
pages354–355, which constitute an extension of the copyright page. Art
they cover. It is a violation of the law to reproduce these selections by any means
whatsoever without the written permission of the copyright holder.
ing. That’s where
From Inquiry to Academic Writing
comes in. It addresses
From Inquiry to Academic Writing
Is Organized
academic reading and research, integrating academic writing through
We punctuate every chapter with short readings and activities that prompt
Specically, Chapter 1 is an overview of academic writing as a process
motivated by inquiry and introduces academic habits of mind. Chapter 2
encourages students to practice writerly reading


writing.
What’s New in the Third Edition?
, a crucial genre, is presented in Chapter6.
, including the literature
Available as an e-Book to Go
From Inquiry to Academic Writing
Available with an Anthology of Readings
From Inquiry to Academic Writing
is available in an alternative version that
appends an extensive collection of readings to its text chapters. The longer
From Inquiry to Academic Writing: A Text and Reader,
Third Edition,
includes an additional forty readings organized in chapters focusing on issues
in the elds of education, media studies, sociology, biology and psychology,
An Instructor’s Manual Is Available for Download
We have prepared an instructor’s manual,
Resources for Teaching From
Inquiry to Academic Writing,
Third Edition, that addresses every step of
problems and questions students and instructors may
we also suggest background readings on the research informing our
approach. The instructor’s manual can be downloaded via the catalog page,
We would rst like to thank the many reviewers who commented on the
proposal, the manuscript, and the rst edition, as well as the reviewers of
the second edition in both its full and compact iterations. Invariably their
comments were useful, and frequently helpful and cheering as well. The list
Loyola University–Chicago; Steve Adkison, Idaho State University; Teresa
Fernandez Arab, University of Kansas; Yesho Atil, Asheville-Buncombe
Technical Community College; Anthony Atkins, University of North Car
olina, Wilmington; Paula Bacon, Pace University–Pleasantville; Susan
Bailor, Front Range Community College; Mary Ellen Bertolini, Middle
bury College; Laurel Bollinger, University of Alabama–Huntsville; Marga
Claudia Rubner, Mercer County
Community College; David
Ryan, University of San Francisco; Daniel
Schenker, University of Alabama–Huntsville; Amanda McGuire Rzicznek,
Bowling Green State University; Roy Stamper, North Carolina State Uni
versity; Scott Stevens, Western Washington University; Sarah Stone, Uni
University–Fort Wayne; Jackie White,
Lewis University; and Audrey Wick, Blinn College.
We are also grateful to the many people at Bedford/St. Martin’
s, starting
with vice president and editorial director of humanities Edwin Hill, composi
tion publisher Leasa Burton, and executive director for English Karen Henry.
Stuart Greene writes:
whom I have worked over the years. Specically,I would like to thank
Kelly Kinney, Stephen Fox, Rebecca Nowacek, and Katherine Weese, who
always appreciate the many discussions I have had with John Duffy dur
gave this book direction. Finally, to Denise Della Rossa, who has listened
to me rehearse these ideas for years. I dedicate this book to her.
I am grateful for the superb pedagogical mentorship
Ireceived from Lou Kelly at the University of Iowa. I thank Kurt Spellmeyer,
Hunter and Tom Lidinsky, for their model of lifelong reading and learning,
and to Ken Smith, Grace Lidinsky-Smith, and Miriam Lidinsky-Smith for
RY
Macmillan Higher Education offers resources and format choices that
From Inquiry to Academic Writing:
tudents Learn
—is
by adding your own materials and mixing them
with our high-quality
multimedia content and ready-made
assessment
adaptive quizzing. For instance, students
will enjoy clicking though a presentation refuting the idea that women
From Inquiry to Academic Writing
can also be purchased
An activation code is required. To order LaunchPad Solo for
From
Inquiry to Academic Writing
Choose from Alternative Formats of
From Inquiry
to Academic Writing
Bedford/St. Martin’s offers a range of affordable formats, allowing stu
Writing,
t. Martin’s Title
elect Value Packages
From Inquiry to Academic Writing.
To learn more about package options
for any of the following products, contact your Bedford/St. Martin’s sales
LearningCurve for Readers and Writers,
Bedford/St. Martin’s adaptive
quizzing program, quickly learns what students already know and helps them
From Inquiry to Academic Writing
at a signicant discount. An activation
code is required. To order
packaged with the print book, use
i-series
This popular series presents multimedia tutorials in a exible
format
because there are things you can’t do in a book.
with six multimedia tutorials, an illustrated glossary, and a wide array
Make Learning Fun with
e:Writing 3
dents in new ways of writing. You’ll nd tutorials about using common digital
writing tools, an interactive peer review game, Extreme Paragraph Makeover,
all for free and for fun. Visit
You have a lot to do in your course. Bedford/St. Martin’s wants to make it
all free for instructors. Visit
collects creative ideas
for teaching a range of composition topics
in an easily searchable blog format. A community of teachers
scholars, authors, and editors
style, technology, peer review, and much more. Take, use, adapt, and pass
own suggestion. Visit
From Inquiry to Academic Writing
Multimodal readings, such as video, audio, images, and Web texts
Laura Hartigan, “Understanding the Unique Affordances of
Multimodal, Creative Writing, and Academic Writing” [annotated
Dylan Garity, “Rigged Game” [video]
Trailers for
The Mask You Live In
How
upports WPA
irst-Year
S
tarting with Inquiry: Habits of Mind of Academic Writers
F
eading as a Writer to Writing as a
F
F
orming Questions
F
ormulating to Developing a
F
F
ummary to
F
thos to Logos: Appealing to Your
F
F
diting: Working with Peer Groups
O
Appendix: Citing and
ndex of Authors, Titles, and Key Terms
xiii
Preface for
I
nstructors

iii
H
ow This Book Supports WPA
O
utcomes for First-Year Composition

xxiii

1

S
tarting with Inquiry

Habits of Mind of Academic Writers

1
What Is Academic Writing?

1
What Are the Habits of Mind of Academic Writers?

3
Academic Writers Make Inquiries

4


Steps to
I
nquiry

6


A Practice Sequence:
I
nquiry Activities

6
Academic Writers
S
eek and Value
C
omplexity

6


Steps to Seeking and Valuing Complexity

8


A Practice Sequence: Seeking and Valuing Complexity

8
Academic Writers
S
ee Writing as a
C
onversation

8


Steps to Joining an Academic Conversation

10


A Practice Sequence: Joining an Academic Conversation

11
Academic Writers
U
nderstand
T
hat Writing Is a Process

12
Collect Information and Material

12


Steps to Collecting
I
nformation and Material

13
Draft, and Draft Again

13


Steps to
D
rafting

13
Revise Signicantly

14


Steps to
R
evising

14
C
ontents
T
o access
Tutorials, LearningCurve
activities, and
E-readings,
visit

macmillanhighered.com/frominquiry3e
.
00_GRE_6169_BRF_FM_i_xxvi.indd 13
5/5/15 11:15 AM
xiv
Becoming Academic:
T
wo
N
arratives 15
R
ICH
A
RD
R
ODRI
G
UEZ,
Scholarship Boy

16
GER
AL
D GR
A
FF,

D
isliking Books

23


A Practice Sequence: Composing a Literacy
N
arrative

27

2

From Reading as a Writer to Writing

as a Reader

29
R
eading as an Act of
C
omposing: Annotating

29
Tutorials
C
ritical
R
eading / Active
R
eading Strategies
R
eading as a Writer: Analyzing a
T
ext
R

32
E
.
D
.
H
IR
S
CH JR.,
Preface to
Cultural Literacy

33
Identify the Situation

36
Identify the Writers Purpose

36
Identify the Writers Claims

37
Identify the Writers Audience

38


Steps to Analyzing a Text
R

38


A Practice Sequence: Analyzing a Text
R

39
E
U
G
ENE
F
. PROVENZO JR.,

H
irschs
D
esire for a
N
ational
C
urriculum

39
Writing as a
R
eader:
C
omposing a
R

41
DA
VID
TYA
CK,

W
hither
H
istory
T
extbooks?

42
An Annotated
S
tudent
R

45
QUENTIN
C
O
LL
IE,
A
R
W
hither
H
istory
T
extbooks?

46
Writing a
R

48
SHERR
Y

T
URK
L
E,

T
he
F
light from
C
onversation

49


A Practice Sequence: Writing a
R

52
Writing Yourself into Academic
C
onversations

53


Steps to Writing Yourself into an Academic Conversation

54


A Practice Sequence: Writing Yourself into

an Academic Conversation

54

3

From Identifying Claims to Analyzing Arguments

55
Identifying
T
ypes of
C
laims

55
M
Y
R
A

A
ND
DA
VID S
A
DKER,

H
idden Lessons

56
T
o access
Tutorials, LearningCurve
activities, and
E-readings,
visit

macmillanhighered.com/frominquiry3e
.
00_GRE_6169_BRF_FM_i_xxvi.indd 14
5/5/15 11:15 AM
xv
Identify Claims of Fact

59
Identify Claims of Value

60
Identify Claims of Policy

61


Steps to
I
dentifying Claims

61


A Practice Sequence:
I
dentifying Claims

62
Analyzing Arguments

62
Analyze the Reasons Used to Support a Claim

62


Steps to Evaluating Support for a Claim

65
Identify Concessions

66
Identify Counterarguments

66
An Annotated
S
tudent Argument

68
M
A
R
Q
UE
S

CAMP
,

T
he
E
nd of the
W
orld May Be
N
igh,

and
I
ts the
K
indles
F
ault

68


Steps to Analyzing an Argument

71


A Practice Sequence: Analyzing an Argument

71
SU
SA
N
D
. B
L
U
M
,

T
he
U
nited States of (
N
on)
R
eading:

T
he
E
nd of
C
ivilization or a
N
ew
E
ra?

71
Analyzing and
C
omparing Arguments

74
STU
A
RT
R
O
JS
T
A
CZER,
Grade
I
nation Gone
W
ild

74
PHI
L
PRI
MA
CK,

D
C
Anymore?

76


A Practice Sequence: Analyzing and Comparing
Arguments

78

4

From Identifying Issues to Forming Questions

80
Identifying Issues

81
Draw on Your Personal Experience

82
Identify What Is Open to Dispute

82
Resist Binary Thinking

83
Build on and Extend the Ideas of Others

84
Read to Discover a Writers Frame

85
Consider the Constraints of the Situation

87


Steps to
I
dentifying
I
ssues

88
Identifying Issues in an
E
ssay

88
ANN
A
QUIND
L
EN,

D
oing
N
othing
I

89


A Practice Sequence:
I
dentifying
I
ssues

91
F
ormulating Issue-Based Questions

92
Rene Your Topic

94
Explain Your Interest in the Topic

94
Identify an Issue

95
00_GRE_6169_BRF_FM_i_xxvi.indd 15
5/5/15 11:15 AM
xvi
Formulate Your Topic as a Question

95
Acknowledge Your Audience

95


Steps to Formulating an
I
ssue-Based Question

96


A Practice Sequence: Formulating an
I
ssue-Based
Question

96
An Academic
E
ssay for Analysis

98
W
I
LL
I
AM

D
ERE
S
IEWICZ,

T
he
E
nd of Solitude

98

5

From Formulating to Developing

a Thesis

106
Working versus Denitive
T
heses

107
Developing a Working
T
hesis:
F
our Models

108

108
The Filling-the-Gap Model

109
The Modifying-What-Others-Have-Said Model

110
The Hypothesis-Testing Model

110


Steps to Formulating a Working Thesis:

Four Models

111


A Practice Sequence:
I
dentifying Types of Theses

111
E
stablishing a
C
ontext for a
T
hesis

112
An Annotated
S
tudent Introduction: Providing a
C
ontext

for a
T
hesis

113
C
O
L
IN
O

N
EI
LL
,
Money Matters:
F
raming the
C
ollege

Access
D
ebate

113
Establish That the Issue Is Current and Relevant

116
Briey Present What Others Have Said

116
Explain What You See as the Problem

117
State Your Thesis

117


Steps to Establishing a Context for a Thesis

118
Analyze the Context of a Thesis

118
K
RI
S
GUTIRREZ,

from

T
eaching
T
oward Possibility:

Building
C
ultural Supports for
R
obust Learning

119


A Practice Sequence: Building a Thesis

122
An Annotated
S
tudent
E
ssay:
S
tating and
S
upporting
a
T
hesis

123
V
ERONI
A
ST
A
FFORD,

T
exting and Literacy

124
T
o access
Tutorials, LearningCurve
activities, and
E-readings,
visit

macmillanhighered.com/frominquiry3e
.
00_GRE_6169_BRF_FM_i_xxvi.indd 16
5/5/15 11:15 AM
xvii

6

From Finding to Evaluating Sources

129
Identifying
S
ources

130
Consult Experts Who Can Guide Your Research

132
Develop a Working Knowledge of Standard Sources

133

133

134


Steps to
I
dentifying Sources

136


A Practice Sequence:
I
dentifying Sources

136
S
earching for
S
ources

137
Perform a Keyword Search

138
Try Browsing

139
Perform a Journal or Newspaper Title Search

140


Steps to Searching for Sources

141


A Practice Sequence: Searching for Sources

141
E
valuating Library
S
ources

141
Read the Introductory Sections

142
Examine the Table of Contents and Index

143
Check the Notes and Bibliographic References

143
Skim for the Argument

143


Steps to Evaluating Library Sources

144

A Practice Sequence: Evaluating Library Sources

145
E
S
ources

145
Evaluate the Author of the Site

145
Evaluate the Organization That Supports the Site

146
Evaluate the Purpose of the Site

147
Evaluate the Information on the Site

147


Steps to Evaluating
I

148


A Practice Sequence: Evaluating
I

148
Writing an Annotated Bibliography

148


Steps to Writing an Annotated Bibliography

149


A Practice Sequence: Writing an Annotated
Bibliography

150

7

From
S
ummary to
S
ynthesis

Using Sources to Build an Argument

151
S
ummaries, Paraphrases, and Quotations

151
Writing a Paraphrase

152


Steps to Writing a Paraphrase

155


A Practice Sequence: Paraphrasing

156
00_GRE_6169_BRF_FM_i_xxvi.indd 17
5/5/15 11:15 AM
Writing a
ummary
Describe the Key Claims of the Text
Select Examples to Illustrate the Author’s Argument
Present the Gist of the Author’s Argument
Contextualize What You Summarize
Steps to Writing a Summary
A Practice Sequence: Writing a Summary
ummary
Writing a
Make Connections Among Different Texts
Decide What Those Connections Mean
Formulate the Gist of What You’ve Read
Steps to Writing a Synthesis
A Practice Sequence: Writing a Synthesis
on’t
You
Avoiding Plagiarism
Steps to Avoiding Plagiarism
Integrating Quotations into Your Writing
Take an Active Stance
Explain the Quotations
Attach Short Quotations to Your Sentences
ntegrating Quotations into Your Writing
LearningCurve
[APA]
esearched Argument:
Tutorials, LearningCurve
macmillanhighered.com/frominquiry3e
Appealing to Your Readers
Establish That You Have Good Judgment
Convey to Readers That You Are Knowledgeable
Show That You Understand the Complexity of a Given Issue
Show That You Know What Your Readers Value
Use Illustrations and Examples That Appeal to Readers’ Emotions
Consider How Your Tone May Affect Your Audience
vidence
State the Premises of Your Argument
Use Credible Evidence
Demonstrate That the Conclusion Follows from the Premises
Analyzing the Appeals in a
A Practice Sequence: Analyzing the Appeals
Identify What Draws Your Attention
Reect on What Draws Your Attention
Analyze the Pathos in the Ad
Understand the Logos of the Ad
urther Advertisements for Analysis
Tutorials
xx

9

From Introductions to Conclusions

Drafting an Essay

257
Drafting Introductions

257
The Inverted-Triangle Introduction

258
The Narrative Introduction

259
The Interrogative Introduction

260
The Paradoxical Introduction

261
The Minding-the-Gap Introduction

262


Steps to
D
rafting
I
ntroductions: Five Strategies

263


A Practice Sequence:
D
rafting an
I
ntroduction

263
Developing Paragraphs

264
EL
IZ
AB
A
RTNEZ,

from

R
einventing America:
C
all for a
N
ew
N
ational
I
dentity

265
Use Topic Sentences to Focus Your Paragraphs

269
Create Unity in Your Paragraphs

270
Use Critical Strategies to Develop Your Paragraphs

272


Steps to
D
eveloping Paragraphs

275


A Practice Sequence: Working with Paragraphs

276
Drafting
C
onclusions

276
Echo the Introduction

277
Challenge the Reader

278
Look to the Future

279
Pose Questions

280
Conclude with a Quotation

280


Steps to
D
rafting Conclusions: Five Strategies

281


A Practice Sequence:
D
rafting a Conclusion

281
Analyzing
S
trategies for Writing:
F
rom Introductions
to
C
onclusions

282
B
A
R
BA
R
A

E
HRENREICH,

C
ultural Baggage

282

10

From Revising to Editing

Working with Peer Groups

286
R
evising versus
E
diting

286
T
he Peer
E
diting Process

287


Steps in the Peer Editing Process

288
Peer Groups in Action: A
S
ample
S
ession

289
T
o access
Tutorials, LearningCurve
activities, and
E-readings,
visit

macmillanhighered.com/frominquiry3e
.
00_GRE_6169_BRF_FM_i_xxvi.indd 20
5/5/15 11:15 AM
xxi
An Annotated
S
tudent Draft

289
R
E
B
ECC
A
JE
G
IER,
Student-
C
entered Learning:

C
atering to Students
I
mpatience

290
Working with
E
arly Drafts

296
Understand the Writers Responsibilities

296
Understand the Readers Responsibilities

297
Analyze an Early Draft

297
TAS
H
A

TAYL
OR,
Memory through Photography

298
Working with Later Drafts

300
Understand the Writers Responsibilities

300
Understand the Readers Responsibilities

301
Analyze a Later Draft

301
TAS
H
A

TAYL
OR,
Memory through Photography

302
Working with
F
inal Drafts

305
Understand the Writers Responsibilities

305
Understand the Readers Responsibilities

305
Analyze a Near-Final Draft

306
TAS
H
A

TAYL
OR,
Memory through Photography

306
F
urther
S
uggestions for Peer
E
diting Groups

311

11


Interviews and Focus Groups

313
Why Do
O
riginal
R
esearch?

314
S
tarted: Writing an Idea
S

315
A
S
tudents Annotated Idea
S

317
DA
N GR
A
CE,

I
C
hild Autism Study

314
Writing a Proposal

318
Describe Your Purpose

319
Review Relevant Research

319

320
Discuss Your Implications

320
Include Additional Materials That Support Your Research

321
Establish a Timeline

322


Steps to Writing a Proposal

324
An Annotated
S
tudent Proposal

324
L
A
UR
A

HA
RTI
GA
N,
Proposal for
R
esearch:
T
he Affordances of
Multimodal,
C
reative, and Academic
W
riting

325
Interviewing

331
Plan the Interview

332
00_GRE_6169_BRF_FM_i_xxvi.indd 21
5/5/15 11:15 AM
Prepare Your Script
Conduct the Interview
Make Sense of the Interview
Turn Your Interview into an Essay
nterviewing
Select Participants for the Focus Group
Plan the Focus Group
Prepare Your Script
Conduct the Focus Group
L

Multimodal,
multimodal research paper] / Annotated Poster Presentations ofLaura
artigan’s Paper
Steps to Compiling an MLA List of Works Cited
The Basics of APA Style
Steps to Compiling an APA List of
Tutorials
to
atabase in APA Style /

ebsite in APA Style
ndex of Authors, Titles, and Key Terms
Tutorials, LearningCurve
macmillanhighered.com/frominquiry3e
upports WPA
irst-Year
This chart aligns with the latest WPA Outcomes Statement, ratied
PA
ELEVANT
F
EATU
I
RY
A
W
A P
Learn and use key rhe
torical concepts through
Sequence that follows (pp.15–27).
ORTS WPA
RST-YE
PA
ELEVANT
F
EATU
I
RY
A
W
A P
(pp.106–128).
A poster presentation in LaunchPad Solo is afliated with the
strategies via different technologies, for example video, PowerPoint,
for inquiry, learning, think
texts, attending especially
ORTS WPA
RST-YE
PA
ELEVANT
F
EATU
I
RY
A
W
A P
se strategies
such as
to com
writer’s ideas with those
Within chapters, the Practice Sequences often present compound
activities for chapter-specic writing projects, such as comparing
arguments in Chapter 3 (pp.78–79) and developing a synthesis in
gies for reading, drafting,
and tools as a means to
Throughout, the text chapters, the importance of rereading and
Chapter 5 teaches the importance of revising a thesis in light of new
tive and social aspects of
of composing practices
Practices Sequences assignments often encourage students to reect
grammar, punctuation, and
develop knowledge of linguistic structures, including grammar,
ORTS WPA
RST-YE
PA
ELEVANT
F
EATU
I
RY
A
W
A P
mechanics vary.
copyright and intellectual property.
The Appendix on documenting sources (specically MLA and APA
and APA styles systematically in their own work.
1
Starting with Inquiry
Habits of Mind of Academic Writers
WHAT IS ACADEMIC WRITING?
I
n the strictest sense,
academic writing
is what scholars do to communi
-
cate with other scholars in their elds of study, their
disciplines
. Its the
composes, the media analysis a lm scholar produces. At the same time,
academic writing
is what you have to learn so that you can participate in
the different disciplinary conversations that take place in your courses.
You have to learn to
think
like an academic,
read
like an academic,
do
research
like an academic, and
write
like an

academic



even if you have
no plans to continue your education and become a scholar yourself. Learn
-
ing these skills is what this book is about.
Fair warning: It isnt easy. Initially you may be perplexed by the vocab
-
ulary
and sentence structure of many of the academic essays you read.
Scholars use specialized language to capture the complexity of an issue
or to introduce specic ideas from their discipline. Every discipline has
its own vocabulary. You probably can think of words and phrases that
are not used every day but that are necessary, nevertheless, to express
certain ideas precisely. For example, consider the terms
centrifugal force
,

Oedipus

complex
, and
onomatopoeia.
These terms carry with them a his
-
tory of study; when you learn to use them, you also are learning to use the
ideas they represent. Such terms help us describe the world specically
Sentence structure presents another challenge. The sentences in aca
-
demic writing are often longer and more intricate than the sentences in
01_GRE_5344_Ch1_001_028.indd 1
11/19/14 11:07 AM
TARTI
Y: H
multiple points of view, to make surprising connections that would not
occur to someone who has not studied the subject carefully. It follows that
to examine an issue, knowledgeably, from many different perspectives,
research. To become an adept academic writer, you have to learn these
practicesaswell.
Academic writing will challenge you, no doubt. But hang in there. Any
initial difculty you have with academic writing will pay off when you dis
over, the habits of mind and core skills of academic writing are highly
valued in the world outside the academy.
Basically, academic writing entails making an
text crafted
often in the service of changing people’s minds
and behaviors. When you write an academic essay, you have to
support your argument with good reasons; and
anticipate and address readers’ reasons for disagreeing with you,
Academic argument is not about shouting down an opponent. Instead,
it is the careful expression of an idea or perspective based on reasoning
and the insights garnered from a close examination of the arguments
someone to do or to believe
important. Writing is a process of balancing our goals with the history of
similar kinds of communication, particularly others’ arguments that have
going on about a subject are the subject’s historical context.
HAT ARE THE HA
WHAT ARE THE HABITS OF MIND
mind and core skills of academic writing. By
, we mean the
type of experience to another, and identify the causes and consequences of
mind that welcomes complexities and seeks out and weighs many differ
ent points of view, a mind willing to enter complex conversations both in
and out of the academy. We discuss academic habits of mind in the rest of
Such habits of mind are especially important today, when we are bom
may or may not be true. For example, in “106 Science Claims and a Truck
The Best American Science and Nature Writing
William Speed Weed illustrates the extent to which the claims of science
vie for our
attention alongside the claims of advertising. He notes that
ably ones you already share. You are behaving “academically” when you
is, you are pausing
TARTI
Y: H
lar issue. The newspaper editors have performed a preliminary analysis for
you. They’ve asked, “Who are
the candidates?” “What are the issues?” and
“Where does each candidate stand on the issues?”; and they have presented
for in an elected ofcial? And you may want to investigate further by visit
ing the candidates’ Web sites or by talking with your friends to gather their
demic habits of mind and then to rene your practice of them. We
seeking and valuing complexity,
so many different perspectives that they can ask questions that may not
occur to people who are just scanning the information. That is, academic
You will nd that the ability to ask good questions is equally valuable
and gained by bringing Tolkien’s
ena or behaviors that puzzle you or challenge your beliefs and values (in
examining alternatives
(Maybe
this doesn’t need to exist. Maybe this could happen another way instead.).
For example, Mark Edmundson, a professor of English at the Uni
Virginia,
has altered the college experience.
In his essay “On the Uses of
themselves

different ways of presenting the
history of a nation that
prides itself on justice and the protection of its people’s civil rights (Maybe
this doesn’t need to exist. Maybe this could happen another way.). The aca
and seeks to nd rich answers.
6
CHAPTER 1

|

S
TARTI
NG W
ITH
INQU
IR
Y: H
A
B
ITS
OF M
I
ND OF A
CA
D
EMIC

WRITERS
ACADEMIC WRITERS SEEK AND VALUE COMPLEXITY
Seeking and valuing complexity are what inquiry is all about. As you read
academic arguments (for example, about school choice), observe how
the media work to inuence your opinions (for example, in political ads),
or analyze data (for example, about candidates in an election), you will
explore reasons why things are the way they are and how they might be
or reasons. Instead, look for multiple explanations.
When we rely on
binary thinking



imagining there are only two
sides to an issue



we tend to ignore information that does not fall tidily
into one side or
the other. Think of the sound-bite assertions you hear
A Practice Sequence: Inquiry Activities
The activities below will help you practice the strategies of observing,
asking questions, and examining alternatives.

1



Find an advertisement for a political campaign (you can find many
you observe in the ad that puzzles you or that challenges your
beliefs and values.
Next, write down questions you might have (Do
things have to be this way?). Finally, write down other ways you
think the ad could persuade you to vote for this particular candi
-
date (Maybe this could happen another way instead.).

2


Locate and analyze data about the students at your school. For
example, you might research the available majors and

which departments have the highest and lowest enrollments.
(Some schools have fact books that can be
accessed online; and
typically the registrar maintains a database with this

informa

tion.)
Is there anything that puzzles you? Write down

any

questions you
have (Why are things the way they are?). What alternative expla
-
nations can you provide to account for differences in the popular
-
ity of the subjects students major in?
Steps to Inquiry

1

Observe.

Note phenomena or behaviors that puzzle you or

challenge your beliefs and values.

2

Ask questions.

Consider why things are the way they are.

3

Examine alternatives.

Explore how things could be different.
01_GRE_5344_Ch1_001_028.indd 6
11/19/14 11:07 AM
VAL
issue like stem-cell research or abortion: “It’s just wrong/right because

or-against
mind open
to complex possibilities. (We say more about identifying issues
Bronwen
Low, a professor of education, provides a window on the steps we can take
to examine the complexity of a topic. In the introductory chapters of her
School: Learning Through Conict in the Hip Hop and
Spoken
Word Classroom,
she begins with the observation that hip-hop “is the
single-most inuential cultural force shaping contemporary urban youth
culture in the United States, and its international reach is growing.” She
then denes what she means by hip-hop culture, distinguishing it from
sibility.” Motivated by a sense of curiosity, if not puzzlement, Low asks
questions that guide her inquiry: What is it that makes hip-hop culture so
compelling to young people across such a wide spectrum of race, culture,
8
CHAPTER 1

|

S
TARTI
NG W
ITH
INQU
IR
Y: H
A
B
ITS
OF M
I
ND OF A
CA
D
EMIC

WRITERS
A Practice Sequence: Seeking and Valuing Complexity
These activities build on the previous exercises we asked you to

1



Look again at the political ad. Think about other perspectives that
would complicate your understanding of how the ad might per
-
suade voters.

2


Imagine other perspectives on the data you found on the students
on student majors. How did you explain the popularity of certain
majors and the
unpopularity of others? How do you think other
students would explain these discrepancies? What explanations
would faculty members offer?
ACADEMIC WRITERS SEE WRITING AS A CONVERSATION
Another habit of mind at the heart of academic writing is the understand
-
ing that ideas always build on and respond to other ideas, just as they do
in the best kind of conversations. Of course, conversations in academic
writing happen on the page; they are not spoken. Still, these conversations
are quite similar to the conversations you have through e-mail and instant
said) and are writing back in anticipation of future responses.
Academic writing also places a high value on the belief that good,
thoughtful ideas come from conversations with others,
many
others. As
your exposure to other viewpoints increases, as you take more and differ
-
ent points of view into consideration and build on them, your own ideas
-
you want to find out what really happened at an event when your friends
Steps to Seeking and Valuing Complexity

1

Reect on what you observe.

Clarify your initial interest in a phe
-
reect on what is most interesting and least interesting to you

2

Examine issues from multiple points of view.

Imagine more than
two sides to the issue, and recognize that there may well be other
points of view too.

3

Ask issue-based questions.

Try to put into words questions that
will help you explore why things are the way they are.
01_GRE_5344_Ch1_001_028.indd 8
11/19/14 11:07 AM
VERSATI
are telling you different stories, you listen to all of them and then evaluate
a human
behavior that has the potential to bring about real understand
as in “hospitality suites” and
differs from historical usage, particularly biblical
usage. To counter the incredulity or incomprehension of those who do not
Marty brings another scholar, Darrell Fasching, into the conversa
tion to explain that hospitality entails welcoming “the stranger . . . [which]
stand the perspectives that shape what people think, believe, and value. To
which each opinion might
be true and then to represent the strengths of
that position accurately.
10
CHAPTER 1

|

S
TARTI
NG W
ITH
INQU
IR
Y: H
A
B
ITS
OF M
I
ND OF A
CA
D
EMIC

WRITERS
(less dependence on foreign oil). If you can demonstrate your knowledge
of these factors, those committed to developing resources in protected
areas will listen to you. To convey empathy and respect while presenting
your own point of view, you might introduce your argument by saying:
Although it is important to develop untapped resources in remote areas of the
United States both to lower gas prices and create new jobs and to eliminate
our dependence on other countries resources, it is in everyones interest to use

alternative sources of power and pr
otect our natural resources.
As you demonstrate your knowledge and a sense of shared values, you
could also describe the conditions under which you might change your
own position.
People engaging in productive conversation try to create change by
listening and responding to one another rather than dominating one
another. Instead of trying to win an argument, they focus on reaching a
mutual understanding. This does not mean that effective communica
-
tors do not take strong positions; more often than not they do. However,
they are more likely to achieve their goals by persuading others instead of
ignoring them and their points of view. Similarly, writers come to every
issue with an agenda. But they realize that they may have to compromise
on certain points to carry those that mean the most to them. More impor
-
tant, they understand that their perceptions and opinions may be flawed
or

limited, and they are willing to revise them when valid new perspectives
are introduced.
In an academic community, ideas develop through give-and-take,
through a conversation that builds on what has come before and grows
stronger from multiple perspectives. You will find this dynamic at work in
your classes, when you discuss your ideas: You will build on other peoples
insights, and they will build on yours. As a habit of mind, paying attention
to academic conversations can improve the thinking and writing you do in
every class you take.
Steps to Joining an Academic Conversation

1

Be receptive to the ideas of others.
Listen carefully and empa
-

2

Be respectful of the ideas of others.

When you refer to the opin
-
ions of others, represent them fairly and use an evenhanded tone.
Avoid sounding scornful or dismissive.

3

Engage with the ideas of others.

Try to understand how people
have arrived at their feelings and beliefs.

4

Be exible in your thinking about the ideas of others.

Be willing
to exchange ideas and to revise your own opinions.
01_GRE_5344_Ch1_001_028.indd 10
11/19/14 11:07 AM
ACA
D
EMIC
W
RITERS SEE
W
RITI
NG
AS A C
ON
VERSATI
ON
11
A Practice Sequence: Joining an Academic Conversation
The following excerpt is taken from Thomas Pattersons
The Vanishing
Voter
(2002), an examination of voter apathy. Read the excerpt and
the
Chicago Tribune
said in an editorial, it may be humiliating that the
United States, the oldest continuous democracy, has nearly the lowest
voting rate in the world. But does it have any practical signicance? . . .
The increasing number of nonvoters could be a danger to democracy.
Although high participation by itself does not trigger radical change, a
ood of new voters into the electorate could possibly do it. Its difcult
to imagine a crisis big and divisive enough to prompt millions of new
voters to suddenly ock to the polls, especially in light of Americans
aversion to political extremism. Nevertheless, citizens who are outside
the

electorate are less attached to the existing system. As the sociologist
Seymour

more explosive than one in which most citizens are regularly involved in
activities which give them some sense of participation in decisions which
affect their lives.
Voting can strengthen citizenship in other ways, too. When people
issues affecting them. Voting also deepens community involvement, as
the philosopher John Stuart Mill theorized a century ago. Studies indi
-
cate that voters are more active in community affairs than nonvoters
are. Of course, this association says more about the type of person who
votes as opposed to the effect of voting. But recent evidence, as Harvard
Universitys Robert Putnam notes, suggests that the act of voting itself
encourages volunteering and other forms of government citizenship.

1



In this excerpt, Patterson presents two arguments: that increasing
voter apathy is a danger to democracy and that voting strengthens
citizenship. With which of these arguments do you sympathize
more? Why? Can you imagine reasons that another person might
not agree with you? Write them down. Now do the same exercise
with the argument you find less compelling.

2



Your instructor will divide the class into four groups and assign
each group a position



pro or con



on one of Pattersons argu
-
ments. Brainstorm with the members of your group to come up
with examples or reasons why your groups position is valid. Make
a list of those examples or reasons, and be prepared to

present
them to the class.

3



Your instructor will now break up the groups into new groups,
each with at
least one representative of the original groups. In turn
with the other members of your new group, take a few moments
01_GRE_5344_Ch1_001_028.indd 11
11/19/14 11:07 AM
TARTI
Y: H
ACADEMIC WRITERS UNDERSTAND
THAT WRITING IS A PROCESS
happen quickly, that learning to write in one context prepares you to write
and express complexity.
There are three main stages to the writing process: collecting informa
tion, drafting, and revising. We introduce them here and expand on them
Collect Information and Material
Always begin the process of writing an essay by collecting
in writing
the
important point here is that you start to put your ideas on paper. Good

academic essay. (In Chapter 2, these steps are illustrated and discussed in

Finally, with the other members of your new group, talk about the
merits of the various points of view. Try to find common ground
not to pronounce a winner (who made the best case for his or her
ACA
D
EMIC
W
RITERS
UND
ERSTA
ND
THAT
W
RITI
NG
IS A PR
O
CESS
13

Draft, and Draft Again
The next stage in the writing process begins when you are ready to think
about your focus and how to arrange the ideas you have gathered in the
collecting stage. Writers often nd that writing a rst draft is an act of dis
-
covery, that their ultimate focus emerges during this initial drafting pro
-
Aha! This is what I really want to talk about in this essay! Later revisions
of an essay, then, are not simply editing or cleaning up the grammar of a
rst draft. Instead, they truly involve
re
vision, seeing the rst draft again to
establish the clearest possible argument and the most persuasive evidence.
This means that you do not have to stick with the way a draft turns out
the rst time. You can



and must!



be willing to rewrite a substantial
amount of a rst draft if the focus of the argument changes, or if in the
process of writing new ideas emerge
that enrich the essay. This is why its
important not to agonize over wording in a rst draft: Its difcult to toss
your ideas down on paper so that you and your peers can discuss what you
see there, with the knowledge that you (like your peers) will need to stay
open to the possibility of changing an aspect of your focus or argument.
Steps to Collecting Information and Material

1

Mark your texts as you read.
Note key terms; ask questions in the
margins; indicate connections to other texts.

2

List quotations you nd interesting and provocative.
You might
even write short notes to yourself about what you nd signicant
about the quotes.

3

List your own ideas in response to the reading or readings.
Include what youve observed about the way the author or authors
make their arguments.

4

whose work you plan to use in your essay.
Where would they
agree or disagree? How would each respond to the others argu
-
ments and evidence?
Steps to Drafting

1

Look through the materials
you have collected to see what inter
-
ests you most and what you have the most to say about.

2


Identify what is at issue
what is open to dispute.
01_GRE_5344_Ch1_001_028.indd 13
11/19/14 11:07 AM
14
CHAPTER 1

|

S
TARTI
NG W
ITH
INQU
IR
Y: H
A
B
ITS
OF M
I
ND OF A
CA
D
EMIC

WRITERS
Steps to Revising

1


Draft and revise the introduction and conclusion.

2

Clarify any obscure or confusing passages
your peers have
pointed out.

3


where your peers have asked
for new or more information.

4

Check to be sure you have included opposing points of view
and
have addressed them fairly.

5

Consider reorganization.

Revise Signicantly
The nal stage, revising, might involve several different drafts as you con
-
tinue to sharpen your insights and the organization of what you have writ
-
ten. As we discuss in Chapter 10, you and your peers will be reading one
anothers drafts, offering feedback as you move from the larger issues to
the smaller ones. It should be clear by now that academic writing is done
in a community of thinkers: That is, people read other peoples drafts and
make suggestions for further clarication, further development of ideas,
-
ing someones writing for grammatical errors and typos. Instead, drafting
and revising with real readers, as we discuss in Chapter 10, allow you to
participate in the collaborative spirit of the academy, in which knowledge
making is a group activity that comes out of the conversation of ideas.
Importantly, this process approach to writing in the company of real read
-
ers mirrors the conversation of ideas carried on in the pages of academic
books and journals.

3

Formulate a question
that your essay will respond to.

4


Select the material you will include,
and decide what is outside
your focus.

5

Consider the types of readers
who might be most interested in
what you have to say.

6

Gather more material
once youve decided on your purpose




what you want to teach your readers.

7

Formulate a working thesis
that conveys the point you want to make.

8


Consider possible arguments
against your position and your
response to them.
01_GRE_5344_Ch1_001_028.indd 14
11/19/14 11:07 AM
NARRATIVES

along the way, phrases that help a reader understand your purpose

making inquiries, seeking and valuing
complexity, understand
ing writing as a conversation, and understanding writing as a
writer. The core skills
we discuss through the rest of the book build on
Moreover, the kind of writing we describe in this chapter may chal
lenge some models of writing that you learned in high school, particularly
or kind, of
writing that offers writers a conventional formula for transmitting infor
mation to readers. While there is nothing wrong with such a formula, it
does not effectively represent the conversations of ideas that transpire in
the academy. By contrast, academic writing is a genre responsive to the
role that readers play in guiding writing and the writing process. That
is, academic writing is about shaping and adapting information for the
purpose of inuencing how readers think about a given issue, not simply
placing information in a conventional organizational pattern. We expect
pate writers’ efforts to address their concerns. Therefore, as writers, we
need to acknowledge different points of view, make concessions, recognize
ing necessarily plays a prominent role in the many forms of writing that
you do, but not necessarily as a process of simply gathering information.
ARRATIVES
as readers. Trained as academic writers, Richard Rodriguez and Gerald
Graff are well known outside the academy. In this excerpt from
excerpt, from
Beyond the Culture Wars
, Graff narrates how he disliked
TARTI
Y: H
“the guest speaker”
lecture on the mystery of the sounds of our words to rows of difdent
students. “Don’t you hear
it? Listen! The music of our words. ‘
Sumer is
And someone’s mouth elongates
heavy, silent words through the bar
rier of glass. Silent words
the lips straining to shape each voiceless
graduate years as an English major. Both of their narratives turn around
inquiries, seeking and valuing complexity, seeing writing as a kind of
Richard Rodriguez was born into a Mexican immigrant family in San
Francisco, California, and spoke only Spanish until age six.
He had a formi
dable education, receiving a BA from Stanford University and an MA from
Columbia University; studying for a PhD at the University of
California,
Berkeley; and attending the Warburg Institute in London on a Fulbright fel
lowship. Instead of pursuing a career in academia, he became a journalist.
The NewsHour with
and for his controversial opposition to afrmative action and
Education of
Richard Rodriguez
(1981),
Mexico’s Children
(1990),
Days of Obligation: An
Argument with My Mexican Father
Brown: The Last Discovery
ofAmerica
(2002).
class. But only one student seems to be listening. A girl, maybe fourteen.
eral quick answers to
give in reply. I’d admit, for one thing, that I went
very good students. (They often brought home the shiny school trophies
As important as these factors were, however, they account inadequately
bad student. I was a “scholarship boy,” a certain kind of scholarship
boy. Always successful, I was always uncondent. Exhilarated by my
progress. Sad. I became the prized student
anxious and eager to
learn. T
oo eager, too anxious
an imitative and unoriginal pupil.
and corrected the “simple” grammatical mistakes of our parents. (“Two
to my family’s
3
4
TARTI
Y: H
me. (Much more is written about the more typical case, the lower-class
student who barely is helped by his schooling.) Then one day, leang
through Richard Hoggart’
The Uses of Literacy
I found, in his descrip
tion of the scholarship boy, myself. For the rst time I realized that there
Hoggart’s description is distinguished, at least initially, by deep
7
8
school, there is mental calm. Teachers emphasize the value of a reec
of the tradition
whatever comes into his head. The boy has to cut himself off mentally, so as
The next day, the lesson is as apparent at school. There are even rows of
difcult. Good schooling requires that any student alter early childhood
habits. But the working-class child is usually least prepared for the
change. And, unlike many middle-class children, he goes home and sees
in his parents a way of life not only different but starkly opposed to that
there is little chance for success. Typi
cally most working-class children are barely changed by the classroom.
these, Richard Hoggart estimates, most manage a fairly graceful transition.
Somehow they learn to live in the two very different worlds of their day.
There are some others, however, those Hoggart pejoratively terms “scholar

ally mediocre, Hoggart supposes
though it may be more pertinent to note
to become a
(London:
Chatto and Windus, 1957), chapter 10.
7
8
11
12
TARTI
Y: H
student. (Education is not an inevitable ornat
growing up.)
the gures of lost authority, the persons toward whom he
I enjoyed. Their every casual
to appraise so well
14
15
16
ments teachers paid me years ago come quickly to mind even today.
I intended to hurt my mother and father. I was still angry at them for
having encouraged me toward classroom English. But gradually this anger
was exhausted, replaced by guilt as school grew more and more attractive
to me. I grew increasingly successful, a talkative student. My hand was
raised in the classroom; I yearned to answer any question. At home, life
was less noisy than it had been. (I spoke to classmates and teachers more
my father’s favorite. And
much about my family life was easy then, comfortable, happy in the
rhythm of our living
TARTI
Y: H
much, so often, to myself. Sad. Enthusiastic. Troubled by the excitement
of coming upon new ideas. Eager. Fascinated by the promising texture of
a brand-new book. I hoarded the pleasures of learning. Alone for hours.
or back on
my memories. Nights when relatives visited and the front rooms were
sounding book
Winnie the Pooh
, I wanted to know,
“What is it like?” My companion, however, thought I wanted to know
about the plot of the book. Another day, my mother surprised me by ask
Gerald Graff received his BA in English from the University of Chicago and
his PhD in English and American literature from Stanford University. In
his distinguished academic career, he has taught at numerous universities
Illinois at Chicago. He is probably best known for his pedagogical theo
ries, especially “teaching the controversies,” an approach he argues for
Beyond the Culture Wars: How Teaching the Con
2
3
-
ful aversion to books showed a ne impartiality, extending across the
whole spectrum of literature, history, philosophy, science, and what
by then (the late 1940s) had come to be called social studies. But had
ible practical use, and you could have fun solving the problems in the
textbooks with their clear-cut answers. Literature and history had no
apparent application to my experience, and any boy in my school who
would have marked
himselfas a sissy.
Mike Rose,
(New York: Free Press, 1989), pp. 46–47.
TARTI
Y: H
perspective, however, I took for granted a freedom that school, knowl
My father, a literate man, was frustrated by my refusal to read any
thing besides comic books, sports magazines, and the John R. Tunis and
Silver Skates
), stories of scientic
discovery (Paul de Kruif
’s
, a major disappointment
9
11
Iwould have been an excellent customer. (As it was, I did avail myself of
What rst made literature, history, and other intellectual pursuits
of New Mexico and then Northwestern University. But one of the rst
attempt, Twain’s novel was just another assigned classic that I was
to read with a sense of
TARTI
Y: H
personal engagement that I had not felt before. Reading the novel with
ing of things that I might say about what I was reading, things that may
have belonged partly to the critics but also now belonged to me. It was as
if having a stock of things to look for and to say about a literary work had
was not just the novel’s value but its cultural
received the novel as one of its representative cultural documents and
had made Twain a folk hero? This critic had also made the intriguing
that time
talk could give you a
certain power in the real world. As the possibil
BEC
O
MI
NG A
CA
D
EMIC
: TWO
NARRATIVES
27
15
16
17
A Practice Sequence: Composing a Literacy
N
arrative
A
literacy narrative



a rsthand, personal account about reading or
composing



is a well-established genre that is popular both inside
and outside the academy. Rodriguezs and Graffs autobiographical

stories dealing with aspects of how they became literate and their
relationship with reading and writing are literacy narratives. Rodri
-
guezs narrative is part of
Hunger of Memory: The Education of Rich
-
ard Rodriguez,
a memoir that also explores the politics of language
in American culture. Graff

s narrative is embedded in his
Beyond the
Culture Wars: How Teaching the Conicts Can Revitalize American
Education
, which, as the subtitle suggests, presents arguments and
proposals for altering educational practices.
Huckleberry Finn
that my helplessness in the face of the novel abated
contact with the text was for me a curiously triangular business; I could
not do it directly but needed a conversation of other readers to give me
the issues and terms that made it possible to respond.
As I think back on it now, it was as if the critical conversation I needed
had up to then been withheld from me, on the ground that it could only
interfere with my direct access to literature itself. The assumption was
that leaving me alone with literary texts themselves, uncontaminated
with the texts only left me feeling bored and helpless, since I had no
language with which to make them mine. On the one hand, I was being
asked to speak a foreign language



literary criticism



while on the
other hand, I was being protected from that language, presumably for
The moral I draw from this experience is that our ability to read well
depends more than we think on our ability to
talk well
about what we
read. Our assumptions about what is primary and secondary in the
reading process blind us to what actually goes on. Many literate people
learned certain ways of talking about books so long ago that they have
forgotten
they ever had to learn them. These people therefore fail to
understand the reading problems of the struggling students who have
still not acquired a critical vocabulary.
How typical my case was is hard to say, but many of the students I
teach seem to have grown up as the same sort of nonintellectual, non
-
bookish person I was, and they seem to view literature with some of the
advantage for a teacher to know what it feels like to grow up being indif
-
ferent to literature and intimidated by criticism and what it feels like to
overcome a resistance to talking like an intellectual.
01_GRE_5344_Ch1_001_028.indd 27
11/19/14 11:07 AM
TARTI
Y: H
We would like you to write your own literacy narrative. The fol

Reect on your experiences as a reader. Spend some time jotting
down answers to
these questions (not necessarily in this order) or





Whyare they favorites?



only to discover later that it wasn’t true, or sufcient? Explain.

Write your literacy narrative, focusing on at least one turning
point, at least one moment of recognition or lesson learned. Write

Then start a conversation about literacy. Talk with some other people
about their experiences. You might talk with some
and
about their memories
of becoming literate. You might interview some people you grew
about their memories
of you as a reader and writer and about their own memories of
becoming literate. Compare their memories to your own. Did you
all have similar experiences? How were theydif
ent? Do you see

pressions and what

Recast your literacy narrative, incorporating some of the insights

Like Graff, who takes his own experience as a starting point
you’ve learned from reading Graff
’s and Rodriguez’s literacy nar
tasks, but reading is the rst step in the writing process. In this chap
NNOTATING
ing. When you mark the pages of a text, you are reading critically, engaging
with the ideas of others, questioning and testing those ideas, and inquiring
distinguish it from memorization, when you just read for the main idea so
that you can “spit it back out on a test.” When you read actively and critically,
you bring your knowledge, experiences, and interests to a text, so that you
can respond to the writer, continuing the conversation the writer has begun.
Experienced college readers don’t try to memorize a text or assume they
agreement, dismay, enthusiasm, confusion. They
ing the conversation. In effect, they are traces of your own responding voice.
Developing your
own system of marking or annotating pages can help
you feel condent when you sit down with a new reading for your classes.
Based on our students’ experiences, we offer this practical tip: Although
wide-tipped highlighters have their place in some classes, it is more useful to
read with a pen or pencil in your hand, so that you can do more than draw
a bar of color through words or sentences you nd important. Experienced
readers write their responses to a text in the margins, using personal codes
(boxing key words, for example), writing out denitions of words they have
looked up, drawing lines to connect ideas on facing pages, or writing notes
to themselves (“Connect this to Edmundson on consumer culture”; “Hirsch
see his ideas on memorization in primary grades”;
TAT
keyideas in other texts, you have begun the process of writing an essay. When
you start writing the rst draft of your essay, you can quote the passages you
have already marked and explain what you nd signicant about them based
on the notes you have already made to yourself. You can make the connections
to other texts in the paragraphs of your own essay that you have already begun
to make on the pages of your textbook. If you mark your texts effectively, you’ll
never be at a loss when you sit down to write the rst draft of an essay.
The spatial isolation of black Americans was achieved by
private behaviors, and
practices that disenfranchised blacks from urban
court decisions prohibited public authorities from placing
housing projects exclusively in black neighborhoods. Despite
these changes, however, the nation’s largest black
remained as segregated as ever in 1980. Indeed, many urban
areas displayed a pattern of intense racial isolation that could
Although the racial climate of the United States improved
freedom of black Americans; it just did so in less blatant ways.
In the aftermath of the civil rights revolution, few whites voiced
openly racist sentiments; realtors no longer refused outright to
rent or sell to blacks; and few local governments went on record
to oppose public housing projects because they would contain
blacks. This lack of overt racism, however, did not mean that
1. racist aitudes
2. private behaviors
practices
lead to
on public record.
Authors say situation
of “spatial isolation”
remains despite court
decisions. Does it?
I remember this happen
ing where I grew up, but I
didn’t know the govern
ment was responsible.
Is this what happened in
There Are No Children
Here
Lack of enforcement of
Civil Rights Act? Fair
Housing Act?
Gautreaux
and
Shannon
hy?
Why
not?
-
stand the argument the authors make.

and institutional practices) that inuenced the formation of
despite laws and court decisions designed to end residential segregation.
By understanding the authors’ arguments
and making these connec
:
NALYZING A
ICALLY
When you study how writers inuence readers through language, you are
the writer’s purpose for writing,
intended audience,
as we analyze the following preface from E.D. Hirsch’s book
interest developed from his (and others’) perception that today’s students
contemporary problems of illiteracy and poverty can be traced to a lack of
cultural literacy.
Read the preface. You may want to mark it with your own questions
and responses, and then consider them in light of our analysis (following
REFACE
CULTURAL
D
should put into your breeches rst. Sir, you may stand disputing which is best
to put in rst, but in the meantime your backside is bare. Sir, while you stand
has learn’t ’em both.
J
Quite the contrary. Cultural literacy constitutes the only sure avenue of
opportunity for disadvantaged children, the only reliable way of com
class homes.
our

2
3
prevailing theories of education. The theories that have dominated
American education for the past fty years stem ultimately from Jean
Jacques Rousseau, who believed that we should encourage the natural
development of young children and not impose adult ideas upon them
before they can truly understand them. Rousseau’s conception of educa
tion as a process of natural development was an abstract generalization
meant to apply to all children in any time or place: to French children of
Believing that a few direct experiences would sufce to develop the
placed too much faith in children’s ability to learn general skills from a
other members of their community.
are founded upon specic shared information. Americans are differ
ent from Germans, who in turn are different from Japanese, because
each group possesses specically different cultural knowledge. In an
Plato, that other great educational theorist, believed that the specic
contents transmitted to children are by far the most important elements
sidedness in the best of human generalizations. History, not supe
rior wisdom, shows
us that neither the
neutral curriculum of
REFACE
CULTURAL
adult culture is “unnatural” to young children. Rousseau, Dewey, and
In contrast to the theories of Plato and Rousseau, an anthropological
theory of education accepts the naturalness as well as the relativity of
human cultures. It deems it neither wrong nor unnatural to teach young
logical view stresses the universal fact that a human group must have
effective communications to function effectively, that ef
mission of specic information to
children. Literacy, an essential aim
of education in the modern world, is no autonomous, empty skill but
tion. Dewey was deeply mistaken to disdain “accumulating information
in the form of symbols.” Only by accumulating shared symbols, and the
nicate effectively with one another in our national community.
is what moves a writer to write. To understand what moti
ties a second concern when he states that poverty and illiteracy reect “an
unacceptable failure of our schools, one which has occurred not because
our teachers are inept but chiey because they are compelled to teach a
fragmented curriculum based on faulty educational theories.” When he
introduces a second problem, Hirsch helps us see the interconnected and
dentify the Writer’s
for writing an essay may be to respond to a particular
cally, what does the writer want readers to do? Does the writer want us
LYZING
LLY
to think about an issue, to change our opinions? Does the writer want to
make us aware of a problem that we may not have recognized? Does the
writer advocate for some type of change? Or is some combination of all
three atwork?
Hirsch’s main purpose is to promote educational reforms that will
with a broad statement about the importance of cultural literacy: “Cul
-
fact that a human group must have effective communications to function
effectively, that
effective communications require shared culture, and that
dentify the Writer’s
crystallizes a writer’s main point, helping readers track the idea as it devel
ops throughout the essay. A writer’s purpose clearly inuences the way he
or she crafts the main claim of an argument, the way he or she presents all
Hirsch’s main claim is that “cultural literacy constitutes the only sure
38
CHAPTER 2

|

F
R
OM R
EA
DING
A
S
A
W
R
I
TER

T
O W
R
I
T
ING
A
S
A
R
EA
D
ER
basic information needed to thrive in the modern world. Although this is
an assertion that requires support, it is a
minor claim
; it does not shape
what Hirsch writes in the remainder of his essay. His main claim, or thesis,
is really his call for reform.


I
dentify the Writers
A
udience
A writers language can help us identify his or her
audience
, the readers whose
opinions and actions the writer hopes to inuence or change. In Hirschs text,
words and phrases like
,
cycle of poverty and illiteracy
,
edu
-
cational reforms
,
prescriptive
, and
anthropological
indicate that Hirsch believes
his audience is well educated. References to Plato, Socrates, Rousseau, and
Dewey also indicate the level of knowledge Hirsch expects of his readers.
Finally, the way the preface unfolds suggests that Hirsch is writing for
an audience that is familiar with a certain
genre
, or type, of writing: the
formal argument. Notice how the author begins with a statement of the situ
-
ation and then asserts his position. The very fact that he includes a preface
speaks to the formality of his argument. Hirschs language, his references,
and the structure of the document all suggest that he is very much in conver
-
sation with people who are experienced and well-educated readers.
More specically, the audience Hirsch invokes is made up of people
who are concerned about illiteracy in the United States and the kind of
-
vantaged to poverty. Hirsch also acknowledges directly those who have
closely followed recent discussions of education, including the conser
-
s ideas (para. 3). Moreover, Hirsch appears
to assume that his readers have achieved mature literacy, even if they
are not actually culturally literate. He is writing for an audience that not
only is well educated but also is deeply interested in issues of education as
they relate to social policy.

1

Identify the situation.
What motivates the writer to write?

2


Identify the writers purpose.
What does the writer want readers
to do or think about?

3


Identify the writers claims.
What is the writers main claim?
What minor claims does he or she make?

4


Identify the writers audience.
What do you know about the writ
-
ers audience? What does the writers language imply about the
readers? What about the writers references? The structure of the
essay?
02_GRE_5344_Ch2_029_054.indd 38
11/19/14 4:03 PM
39
P
R
OV
E
NZO

|

HI
R
S
CH
S
DE
SI
RE

F
O
R

A

NAT
ION
A
L CU
RR
I
C
ULUM
Hirschs writings on cultural literacy have inspired and provoked many
responses to the conversation he initiated more than twenty years ago.
Eugene F. Provenzos book
Critical Literacy: What Every American Needs to
Know
, published in 2005, is a fairly recent one. Provenzo examines the source
of Hirschs ideas, his critiques of scholars like John Dewey, the ex

tent to
which Hirschs argument
is based on sound research, and the implications of
Hirschs notion of cultural literacy for teaching and learning. Despite the pas
-
sage of time, Hirschs book remains relevant in discussions about the purpose
of education, demonstrating how certain works become touchstones and the
ways academic and cultural conversations can be sustained over time.
A Practice
S
To practice the strategies of
for a National Curriculum, an excerpt from Eugene F. Provenzos
book, using these questions as a guide:
�t

What motivates Provenzo as a writer?
�t

What does he want readers to think about?
�t

What is Provenzos main point?
�t

Given the language Provenzo uses, who do you think his main
audience is?
Hirschs Desire for a National Curriculum

Eugene F. Provenzo Jr. is a professor in the Department of Teaching and
Learning in the School of Education at the University of Miami in Coral
Gables, Florida. His career as a researcher has been interdisciplinary in
nature. Throughout his work, his primary focus has been on education as
a social and cultural phenomenon. One of his prime concerns has been the
of computers on contemporary children, education, and culture. He is
author or co-author of numerous books, including
Teaching, Learning, and
Schooling: A Twenty-rst Century Perspective
(2001);
Research for Teachers
(Third Edition, 2004); and
Observing in Schools: A
Guide for Students in Teacher Education
(2005)
.

EUG
ENE
F. P
R
OV
EN
ZO J
R
.
T
o a large extent, Hirsch, in his efforts as an educational reformer,
wants to establish a national curriculum.
Our elementary schools are not only dominated by the content-neutral ideas of
Rousseau and Dewey, they are also governed by approximately sixteen thousand

1
02_GRE_5344_Ch2_029_054.indd 39
11/19/14 4:03 PM
independent school districts. We have viewed this dispersion of educational
authority as an insurmountable obstacle to altering the fragmentation of the
school curriculum even when we have questioned that fragmentation. We have
content already found in local school systems around thecountry.
LYSIS
Council of Teachers of English. One need only look at standards in dif
do not learn to divide before they learn how to add or multiply. Local and
state history is almost universally introduced for the rst time in either
third or fourth grade. It is reintroduced in most states at the seventh or
eighth grade levels. Algebra is typically taught in the ninth grade. Tradi
tions, developmental patterns of students, textbook content, and national
Hirsch’s complaint that there is no national curriculum is not
curriculum that reects his cultural and ideological orientation. It is a
of the last twenty years in the United States.
7
:
NALYSIS
adults thought children should learn about the past”
However, the search for common values in ofcial histories (what he calls
white, male, Protestant ideology. Tyack also writes about the ways in which

DAV
TYA
history textbook today is hardly the republican catechism that
Noah Webster appended to his famous speller. It is more like
pieces of a sprawling novel with diverse characters and fascinating
tive. Now a noisy confusion reigns about what stories the textbooks
should tell. Special-interest groups of the right and left pressure
publishers to include or drop topics, especially in big states such as
publishing companies
plays an important part in deciding which historical truths shall be
ofcial. T
a risky business. It’s very expensive to create and print textbooks, and
888pages, on average
The traditional American fear of centralized power, salient today
and local governments, lobby groups of many persuasions, individuals
makes such a change very difcult (though ne history textbooks have
What are some strategies to cope with the cross-cutting demands
on history textbooks? Three possible ones are these: muddling
through with modest improvements; turning over the task of writing
textbooks to experts; or devising texts that depart from the model of
spectives. Each of these has some advantages and faults that are worth
that’s the way to cope amid all the
times advocated in the United States today. Muddling through just
maintains the status quo and guarantees incoherence in textbooks
publishing, “truth” becomes whatever the special interests (left or
right) pressure textbook companies to say. Current textbooks are
TATE
LYSIS
ANNOTATED
ANALYSIS
that engages students in learning. Those who call for expertise suggest
lems. Calling in the experts doesn’t eliminate disputes; PhDs love to
differ among themselves. Teachers are adept at sabotaging reforms
cial interests now rife in the process of selecting textbooks, the public
fought George Armstrong Custer, needed not two monuments, one in
“a different kind of memorial
and Custer, but also to the enlisted men dragooned into the slaughter, to
Custer’s
widow, to the families of the white soldiers, and to the children
Such perspective-taking lies at the core of historical understanding of a
46
CHAPTER 2

|

F
R
OM R
EA
DING
A
S
A
W
R
I
TER

T
O W
R
I
T
ING
A
S
A
R
EA
D
ER
1
2
3
Quentin Collie

Collie 1
f

Whither History Textbooks?
In my analysis, I will focus on Whither History Textbooks?
which serves as a conclusion to David Tyacks chapter on American
history textbooks in his book
Seeking Common Ground.
In this section,
Tyack explains the state of history textbooks in American schools
today, the causes and inuences that result in what he sees as a
problem with trying to cover too many topics without much depth,
and possible ways in which history textbooks can be changed and
improved. In advocating for a pluralistic account of history, Tyack use
specic words and phrases that convey his impatience with American
history textbooks and presents a number of options to make his
discussion appear fair.
Tyack points out that in this section that todays textbooks
are, for the most part, bulky and disjointed. Many storylines and
narrative ow or style. Textbooks have come to take this form
because of two signicant inuences. On one hand, nearly every
interest group argues for certain events, gures, or issues to be
included in the history curriculum. On the other hand, in a more
economical sense, textbooks that present the traditional and generic
American narrative have been the most successful. As a result,
of new pieces into the original American narrative. This results in
the heavy and boring textbooks that students use in the classroom
today. Tyack offers three possibilities for how to navigate through
the demands and difculties involved in history textbook production:
continuing the use of current textbooks with moderate additions and
improvements, delegating the writing of textbooks to experts, and
embracing a new style of textbook which emphasizes the multiple
perspectives of Americans.
In this particular section of the book, Tyacks purpose seems

to be a call for change. In describing the current types of textbooks,

he implies his personal stance through his word choice. Tyacks use

of vivid imagery throughout this part of his book allows him to
The student pro
-
vides an overview
of the authors
argument.
The student
summarizes the
authors argument
specically, the
source of what
the author sees
as a problem in
teaching history.
This is the situa
-
tion that calls for
some response
in writing: that
textbooks have
become heavy
and boring.
The student
then describes
three possible
approaches that
the author takes
to address the
problem he identi
-
es in teaching
history in school.
02_GRE_5344_Ch2_029_054.indd 46
11/19/14 4:03 PM
47
4
5

Collie 2
delve into the te
xtbook problem by appealing to the emotions of the
reader. For instance, Tyack explains that the average American history
textbook is 888 pages long and laments this length as the reason that
most of todays history books are bloated and devoid of style or
coherence (para. 3). He also alludes to anarchy when he claims that
textbook adoption can be a free-for-all (para. 2), establishing his
skeptical perspective on the decision processes of textbook writers as
well as of those who buy them. Another way Tyack explains his views
an allusion to a Rube Goldberg system (para. 4) in his description
of how textbooks are created and sold. This reference implies that our
making changes in history textbooks difcult or impossible.
Tyack does not advocate for just any change, but, rather,
a particular change and ideal type of textbook. He does not make
an outright statement of support for a particular plan. Instead, he
presents an examination of possibilities that leads the audience
to decide which one option is superior. The possibilities include
using the same format with slight changes, having experts write the
textbooks, and departing from the regular model of textbooks to
include new truths and multiple perspectives. He makes a point to
state that each option has both pros and cons to be considered.
Tyack writes that teachers, in general, do not have a large
problem with the current types of textbooks, and pedagogical reforms
rarely work if imposed on teachers. This evidence argues in favor of
using the same types of textbooks. The discussion of this particular
option, however, ends with its success resting on a hope that the
students in fact
do read
the textbooks! (para. 8). This statement
carries a tone of sarcasm, leaving the reader with a feeling that
Tyack believes that students will not read this type of textbook, so
this particular plan of action is not likely to improve the schools.
In addition, Tyacks exact phrasing for this possibility is muddling
through with modest improvements (para. 5). From word choice
alone, the reader can see that Tyack discredits this idea. The verb
muddle
is associated with things being confused, messed up, and
unclear, so his choice of this word implies that he thinks using
The student
points to the
authors conces
-
sion that not
everyone agrees
that the quality of
textbook writing
is a problem. The
student again
demonstrates
how word choice
conveys an
authors point of
view and that the
author does not
nd this rst solu
-
tion very tenable.
The student
underscores the
authors purpose.
He then shows
how language
reects the
authors point of
view. In addition,
the student helps
us see that the
situation the
author responds
to is not only
about how text
-
books are wrien,
but how educators
choose to adopt
textbooks.
He points out the
authors strategy
for developing the
argument, one
that forces knowl
-
edgeable readers
to draw their own
conclusions.
A
N
A
NNO
TATE
D

S
T
UD
E
N
O
R
I
CA
L
A
N
A
LYSIS
02_GRE_5344_Ch2_029_054.indd 47
11/19/14 4:03 PM
48
CHAPTER 2

|

F
R
OM R
EA
DING
A
S
A
W
R
I
TER

T
O W
R
I
T
ING
A
S
A
R
EA
D
ER
W
R
R
ICAL
A
NALYSIS
-
cal analysis of your own and then sharing your analysis and the strategies
youve learned with your classmates.
Read the next text, The Flight from Conversation by Sherry Turkle,
annotating it to help you identify her situation, purpose, thesis, and audi
-

annotations



possibly
with a

different color pen or pencil, circled, or keyed with asterisks



in
which you

comment on or evaluate the effectiveness of her essay. What
do you like or dislike about it? Why? Does Turkle
persuade you to accept
her point of view? What impressions do you have of her as a person?
Would you like to be in a conversation withher?
6
7

Collie 3
the current f
ormat for textbooks results in teachers and students
having a confused and incorrect view of American history. Eventually,
he concludes that muddling through just maintains the status quo and
guarantees incoherence in textbooks and hence learning (para.9).
His next suggested approach is using textbooks written by
students should be learning about history by those most informed. This
option, however, also has its faults as Tyack argues that the experts
differ in their opinions. Furthermore, the public does deserve some
input about material to be taught to its children, which this option
would take away.
Tyacks nal option is a pluralistic model of history that
contrasts with both muddling through and textbooks by experts
(para. 12). Tyack argues that such perspective-taking lies at the core
of historical understanding of a socially diverse nation. Pluralistic
(para. 13). Tyack supports this point of view with quotations from a
professor of history, which gives credibility to this option. In addition,
Tyack does not discuss any possible difculties in pursuing this type
of textbook, even though he stated earlier that each option has both
benets and faults. In this, Tyack appears to be considering multiple
possibilities for textbook reform, but, at the same time, he dismisses
two of the options and advocates for a particular course of action
through his writing strategy.
He summarizes
the authors
second possible
solution to the
problem but
explains why the
author is not sym
-
position.
Although it would
seem that the
-
ers draw their own
conclusions, the
student explains
how Tyack uses
research to give
credence to this
last solution to
the problem. This
is the one solution
that the author is
not critical of.
02_GRE_5344_Ch2_029_054.indd 48
11/19/14 4:03 PM
AT
Sherry Turkle
the Abby Rockefeller Mauzé Professor of the Social
Studies of Science and Technology in the Program in Science, Tech
is a
sonality psychology from Harvard
University. Director of the MIT Initia
tive on Technology and Self, she is the author or editor of many books,
Life

A 16-year-old boy who relies on texting for almost everything says
almost wistfully, “Someday, someday, but certainly not now, I’d like to
In today’s workplace, young people who have grown up fearing con
versation show up on the job wearing earphones. Walking through a col
just right.
have learned the habit of cleaning them up with technology. And the
move from conversation to connection is part of this. But it’s a process
in which we shortchange ourselves. Worse, it seems that over time we
romance, and friendship. But no matter how
valuable, they do not sub
-
selves. So our ight from conversation can mean diminished chances to
learn skills of self-reection. These days, social media continually asks
one who will listen when others won’t.
tionships with technology, I have often heard the sentiment “No one is
automatic listeners. And it helps explain why
designed to be companions to the elderly, to children, to all of us.
One of the most haunting experiences during my research came
when I brought one of these robots,
designed in the shape of a baby seal,
to an elder-care facility, and an older woman began to talk to it about the
And so many people found this amazing. Like the sophomore who
wants advice about dating from articial intelligence and those who look
forward to computer psychiatry, this enthusiasm speaks to how much we
have confused conversation with connection and collectively seem to have
sion as sufcient unto the day. And why would we want to talk about love
and loss with a machine that has no experience of the arc of human life?
Have we so lost condence that we will be there for one another?
We expect more from technology and less from one another and seem
increasingly drawn to technologies that provide the illusion of companionship
vide three powerful fantasies: that we will always be heard; that we can put our
attention wherever we want it to be; and that we never have to be alone. Indeed
our new devices have turned being alone into a problem that can be solved.
AT
52
CHAPTER 2

|

F
R
OM R
EA
DING
A
S
A
W
R
I
TER

T
O W
R
I
T
ING
A
S
A
R
EA
D
ER
used to think, I have a feeling; I want to make a call. Now our impulse
is, I want to have a feeling; I need to send a text.
So, in order to feel more, and to feel more like ourselves, we connect.
But in our rush to connect, we ee from solitude, our ability to be sepa
-
rate and gather ourselves. Lacking the capacity for solitude, we turn to
other people but dont experience them as they are. It is as though we use
them, need them as spare parts to support our increasingly fragile selves.
We think constant connection will make us feel less lonely. The
opposite is true. If we are unable to be alone, we are far more likely to
be lonely. If we dont teach our children to be alone, they will know only
how to be lonely.
I am a partisan for conversation. To make room for it, I see some rst,
deliberate steps. At home, we can create sacred spaces: the kitchen, the
dining room. We can make our cars device-free zones. We can demon
-
strate the value of conversation to our children. And we can do the same
thing at work. There we are so busy communicating that we often dont
have time to talk to one another about what really matters. Employees
asked for casual Fridays; perhaps managers should introduce conversa
-
tional Thursdays. Most of all, we need to remember



and e-mails and Facebook posts



to listen to one another, even to the bor
-
ing bits, because it
is often in unedited moments, moments in which we
hesitate and stutter and go silent, that we reveal ourselves to one another.
I spend the summers at a cottage on Cape Cod, and for decades I
walked the same dunes that Thoreau once walked. Not too long ago,
people walked with their heads up, looking at the water, the sky, the sand
and at one another, talking. Now they often walk with their heads down,
typing. Even when they are with friends, partners, children, everyone is
on their own devices.
23
24
25
26
27
A Practice
S

1



to your notes and citing passages where she indicates her situa
-
tion, purpose, main claim, and audience.

2


An option for group work: As a class, divide into three or more
groups. Each group should answer the following questions in re
-
sponse to their reading of Turkles essay:
Group 1:
Identify the situation(s) motivating Turkle to write. Then

evaluate: How well does her argument function as a conversa
-
tion with other authors who have written on the same topic?
Group 2:
Analyze the audiences identity, perspectives, and con
-
ventional expectations. Then evaluate: How well does the argu
-
ment function as a conversation with the audience?
02_GRE_5344_Ch2_029_054.indd 52
11/19/14 4:03 PM
AT
SATIONS
Sherry Turkle laments the erosion of conversation in our culture, blaming
technology that encourages broad and shallow connection without real

To what extent does the author’s ability as a conversation
that is, her ability to enter into a conversation with other

54
CHAPTER 2

|

F
R
OM R
EA
DING
A
S
A
W
R
I
TER

T
O W
R
I
T
ING
A
S
A
R
EA
D
ER
Steps to Writing Yourself into an Academic Conversation
�t�
��
, including the relevance of the topic and
situation, for readers by briey discussing an authors key claims
and ideas. This discussion can be as brief as a sentence or two and
include a quotation for each author you cite.
�t�


Respond to the ideas of others
by helping readers understand the con
-
text in which another
�t�


Discuss possible implications
by putting problems aside and

asking, Do their claims make sense?
�t�

Introduce conicting points of view

and raise possible criticisms
have overlooked.
�t�


Formulate your own claim

to assert what you think.
�t�

Ensure that your own purpose as a writer is clear to readers.
A Practice
S
equence: Writing
Y
ourself into an Academic Conversation

1




The Flight from Conversation, follow the steps to writing your
-
self into the conversation and write a short one-page argument.
s argument in
ways that demonstrate you understand her argument and under
-
lying assumptions, and formulate your own position with a clear
sense of purpose.

2


An option for group work:
�t

As a group, discuss Turkles argument, listing reasons why it makes
sense and reasons that members of the group take issue with it.
�t

In turn, formulate your own point of view on the argument.
�t

Each individual in the class should write an argument that follows
the steps above in Writing Yourself into an Academic Conversation.

3


As an alternative, work individually or in groups to develop an
argument in which you enter the conversation with E.D. Hirsch
they make, explain why their ideas are worth taking seriously
, iden
-
tify what they may have ignored, and formulate your own claim.
You may, for example, afrm others for raising important issues, but
assert that they have not given those issues the thought or emphasis that
they deserve. Or you may raise a related issue that has been ignored entirely.
02_GRE_5344_Ch2_029_054.indd 54
11/19/14 4:03 PM
to Analyzing Arguments
evidence
, summarizes the writer’s position
claims, along with their supporting evidence, that the writer makes
As readers, we need to identify a writer’s main claim, or thesis, because
it helps us organize our own understanding of the writer’s argument. It
LYZ
S
Dr. Sadker coauthored
MYRA SADKER AND
AVID

to the same teacher, boys and girls receive very different educations.
likely to be invisible members of classrooms. Teachers interact with
esteem, decline in achievement, and elimination of career options
at the heart of the
educational process. Until educational sexism is
Psychological backlash internalized by adult women is a frightening
Editor’s note: Journalist Susan Faludi’s book
Backlash: The Undeclared War Against American
Women
(1991) was a response to the antifeminist backlash against the women’s movement.
5
6
7
our daughters, andto

morrow’s women.
of classroom observation, we
remain amazed at the stubborn persis
of gender bias, we looked rst in the classrooms of one of Washington,
D.C.’s elite and expensive private schools. Uncertain of exactly what to
look for, we wrote nothing down; we just observed. The classroom was
vital phrase or gesture, the insidious incident, the tiny inequity that held

der bias embedded in them.
Trained raters coded classrooms
LYZ
S
staff members
were wearing blinders. We halted the tape, pointed out the sexist behav
again. There is a classic “aha!” effect in education when people nally
-
sisting that if the government were to harness the vast natural resources in
Alaska, there would be no “crisis.” This is also a claim of fact, in this case
an assertion that a condition will exist in the future. Again, it is based on
evidence, evidence gathered from various sources that indicates sufcient
resources in Alaska to keep up with our increasing demands for resources
Our point is that most claims of fact are debatable and challenge us
tual information, but they are not necessarily true. Most claims of fact
chose boy after boy to speak. In one interaction she peered through the
raised hand of a boy in the back of the room. Startled by the teacher’s
themselves, they began to understand.
LYZ
S
(an inference), and offer an explanation based on that conclusion (an
Identify Claims of Value
A claim of fact is different from a
.
values the beauty of the land over the possible benets of development.
Sadker and Sadker make a claim of value when they suggest that
a “majority of our nation’s schoolchildren” have become “second-class
educational citizens” and point out that the consequences of treating
girls differently from boys in school has resulted in a “loss of self-esteem,
decline in achievement, and elimination of career options” for girls
(para. 2). Of course, the critical reader’s task is to question these evalua
tions: Does gender bias in the classroom affect self-esteem, achievement,
and career options? Both of these statements are minor claims, but they
ID
E
N
TIF
Y
I
NG TY
PE
S O
F
CL
AI
MS
61
make assertions that require support. After all, how do the Sadkers know
depends on the evidence or reasons that the authors use to support them.
We discuss the nature of evidence and what constitutes good reasons
later in this chapter.


Identify Claims of
P
olicy
A
claim of policy
is an argument for what should be the case,
that a

condition should exist
. It is a call for change or a solution to a problem.
Two recent controversies on college campuses center on claims of

policy. One has activists arguing that universities and colleges should
have a policy that all workers on campus earn a living wage. The other has
activists arguing that universities and colleges should have a policy that
prevents them from investing in countries where the government ignores
human rights.
Claims of policy are often signaled by words like
should
and
must
:
For public universities to live up to their democratic mission, they
must

provide all their workers with a living wage. Myra and David Sadker
make a claim of policy when they assert that educational sexism must be
eradicated; otherwise, they point out, more than half our children will be
Not all writers make their claims as explicitly as the Sadkers do, and
are based on the inferences we draw from evidence. Thus, it is the writers
sufcient evidence. But you should be able to identify the three different
types of claims. Moreover, you should keep in mind what the situation is
and what kind of argument can best address what you see as a problem.
Ask yourself: Does the situation involve a question of fact? Does the situ
-
ation involve a question of value? Does the situation require a change in
policy? Or is some combination at work?
Steps to Identifying Claims

1


A
sk:
Does the argument assert that a problem or condition has
existed, exists, or will exist? If so, its a claim of fact.

2


A
sk:

Does the argument express an evaluation of a problem or
condition that has existed, exists, or will exist? If so, its a claim
ofvalue.

3

A
sk:

Does the argument call for change, and is it directed at some
future action? If so, its a claim of policy.
03_GRE_5344_Ch3_055_079.indd 61
11/19/14 11:06 AM
62
CHAPTER 3

|

F
R
OM ID
E
N
TIF
Y
I
NG CL
AI
MS
T
O AN
A
LYZ
I
NG A
R
GUM
E
N
T
S
A
NALYZ
I
NG
A
RGUMENTS
Analyzing an argument involves identifying the writers main and minor
claims and then examining (1) the reasons and evidence given in support
of each claim, (2) the writers concessions, and (3) the writers attempts to
handle counterarguments.


A
nalyze the
R
easons
U
sed to
S
upport a Claim
Stating a claim is one thing; supporting that claim is another. As a critical
good reasons
to
support for a claim is recent, relevant, reliable, and accurate. As a writer,
you will need to use the same criteria when you support your claims.
Is the source recent?

Knowledgeable readers of your written arguments
not only will be aware of classic studies that you should cite as intellectual
A Practice
S
equence: Identifying Claims
What follows is a series
of claims. Identify each one as a claim of fact,
value, or policy. Be prepared to justify your categorizations.

1

Taxing the use of fossil fuels will end the energy crisis.

2

We should reform the welfare system to ensure that people who
receive support from the government also work.

3

Images of violence in the media create a culture of violence in
schools.

4

The increase in homelessness is a deplorable situation that contra
-
dicts the whole idea of democracy.

5

Distributing property taxes more equitably is the one sure way to
end poverty and illiteracy.

6

Individual votes dont really count.

7

Despite the 20 percent increase in the number of females in the
workforce over the past forty years, women are still not treated
equitably.

8

Afrmative action is a policy that has outlived its usefulness.

9

There are a disproportionate number of black males in American
prisons.

10

The media are biased, which means we cannot count on news
-
papers or television news for the truth.
03_GRE_5344_Ch3_055_079.indd 62
11/19/14 11:06 AM
LYZ
about molecular biology, you might very well cite James Watson and
Francis Crick’s groundbreaking 1953 study in which they describe the
the life sciences in a fundamental way.
mention E. D. Hirsch’s 1987 book
Hirsch’s book did not
Watson and Crick’s study changed the way scientists think about biology,
tial to this day.
Although citing Hirsch is an effective way to suggest you have studied
the history of an educational problem, it will not convince your readers
that there is a crisis in education today. To establish that, you would need
to use as evidence studies published over the past few years to show, for
sell their condominiums for the price they asked. You can claim there is a
ation or condition?
if you want your readers to take your argument
seriously. For example, you might scan real estate listings to see what the
asking prices are for properties comparable to your friends’ properties.
If your friends are disappointed that their one-bedroom condominiums
ing in the same neighborhood, it may well be that their expectations
weretoohigh.
In other words, if you aren’t comparing like things, your argument is
a “reasonable price” differs dramatically from everyone else’s, their expe
LYZ
S
Is the source reliable?
conrmation of experts who report on, study, evaluate, and have an in
-
covered. Y
ou would probably not want to rely on the testimony of a single
real estate agent, who may have a bias; instead, talk with several agents to
factual information presented numer
is difcult to
verify. To a certain extent, then, their veracity has to be taken on faith.
researchuni

AN
A
LYZ
I
NG A
R
GUM
E
N
T
S
65
To reassure yourself one way or the other, you may want to check the
sources of the authors statistics



go right to your sources sources



which
a responsible author will cite. That will allow you to look over the raw data
and come to your own conclusions. A further step you could take would be
to discuss the article with other experts



local real estate agents



to nd
out what they think of the article and the information it presents.
back to Myra and David Sadkers essay. How do they develop
their assertion that girls are treated differently from boys in classrooms from
grade school through graduate school? First, they tell us (in para. 4) that they
have been conducting research continuously for almost two decades and
that they have accumulated thousands of hours of classroom observation.
This information suggests that their research is both recent and relevant.
the reliability criterion is conrmed by the grants they received over the
-
mined that it deserved to be funded. Grants confer authority on research.
In addition, the Sadkers explain that they observed and rened their analy
-
ses over time to achieve accuracy: As we watched, we had to push our
-
selves beyond the blind spots of socialization and gradually focus on the
In paragraph 7, the authors provide more evidence that the observations
that support their claim are accurate. Not only have they observed many in
-
stances of gender bias in classrooms; so have trained raters. The raters add
objectivity to the ndings because they did not share the Sadkers interest in
Also the raters observed a wide cross section of

students and teachers from
the end of their study, the Sadkers
had collected thousands of pieces of data and could feel quite condent about
their conclusion



that they had discovered a syntax of sexism so elusive that
Steps to Evaluating Support for a Claim
Ask yourself:

1

I
s the source recent?
Has it been published in the past few years?
How have things changed since then? If the source was not pub
-
lished recently, is it still an important part of the

conversation
worth acknowledging?

2

I
s the source relevant?
Does the evidence have real bearing on the
claim? Is it pertinent? Is it typical of a larger situation or

condition?

3

I
s the source reliable?
Does the evidence come from recognized
experts and authoritative institutions?

4

I
s the source accurate?

Are the data presented in the source suf
-
-
sibly? How do they compare with other data you have found?
03_GRE_5344_Ch3_055_079.indd 65
11/19/14 11:06 AM
LYZ
S
sons is to offer a
agree with every point the writer is making. A concession is a writer’s way
of saying, “Okay, I can see that there may be another way of looking at the
plexity and the importance
of multiple perspectives. It also acknowledges
“I agree with X that Y is an important factor to consider.”
Generally, the writer will then go on to address the concession, explaining
the writer’s perspective on the issue.
As the term suggests, a
is an argument raised in re
-
sponse to another argument. You want to be aware of and acknowl
edge what your readers may object to in your argument. Anticipating
readers’ objections is an important part of developing a conversational
For example, if you were arguing in support of universal health care,
you would have to acknowledge that the approach departs dramatically
from the traditional role the federal government has played in providing
health insurance. That is, most people’s access to health insurance has
LYZ
depended on their individual ability to afford and purchase this kind of
insurance. You would have to anticipate how readers would respond to
[T]here’s no gender bias in this
teacher’s class.” Two women whom the Sadkers describe as “intelligent”
and “concerned about fair treatment in school” agreed: “We’ve been play
ing this over and over. The teacher is terric. There’s no bias in her teach
Notice the Sadkers’ acknowledgment that even intelligent, concerned
people may not see the problems that the Sadkers spent more than twenty
that sexism does not
Conveying to readers that their different views are understood.
The structure of an argument, according to the Rogerian approach,
68
CHAPTER 3

|

F
R
OM ID
E
N
TIF
Y
I
NG CL
AI
MS
T
O AN
A
LYZ
I
NG A
R
GUM
E
N
T
S
A
N
A
NNOTATED
S
TUDENT
A
RGUMENT
student writer uses, as well as some of the other argumentative moves
he performs. The assignment was to write an argument out of personal
experience and observation about the cultural impact of a recent innova
-
tion. Marques Camp chose to write about the Kindle, an electronic reading
-
load books for a fee. However, the user cannot share the download elec
-
tronically with other users. Camp touches on a number of issues reected
in his claims.
As you read the essay, imagine how you would respond to his various
claims. Which do you agree with, which do you disagree with, and why?
What evidence would you present to support or counter his claims? Do you
Camp 1
Marques Camp
Professor Fells
English 1020
January 28, 20



The End of the W
orld May Be Nigh, and Its the Kindles Fault

Libraries will in the end become cities.



Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, German polymath
The future of written h
uman history will come, as they
will have us believe, in the form of the Amazon Kindle, all 10.2
ounces of it, all 2 GB and 532 MHz of it, all 240,000+ titles of
it,
ready to change the way people read, ready to revolutionize
the way people see the world
.
The Kindle is a signpost for our times, the nal check
-
point in our long and adventurous journey from the world of
printed paper to the twenty-rst-century world of digitalization.
We rst saw this paradigm shift with newspapers, where weekly
columns were taken over by daily blog posts, where 48-point
sans-serif headlines transformed into 12-point Web links. We
then moved on into television, where Must-See TV was replaced
with On-Demand TV, where consumers no longer sat around in
the living room with their families during prime time but rather
watched the latest episode of their favorite show commercial-
free from the comfortable and convenient connes of their
1
2
The student pre

sents a
claim of fac
t that others
have made.
He lays the basis for a
counterargument by
is a real threat at all, cit
-
ing some technological
precedents.
03_GRE_5344_Ch3_055_079.indd 68
11/19/14 11:06 AM
AN ANNO
TATE
D
ST
UD
E
N
T
A
R
GUM
E
N
T
69
laptop, able to fast-forward, rewind, and pause with a delightful
and devilish sense of programming omnipotence. We are now
seeing it, slowly but surely, slay the giant that we never thought
could be slain: the world of books.
Contrary to popular belief, easier access to a wider
quantity of literature is not a universal revolution. The Kindle
speaks to the world that measures quantity by the number of
cable television channels it has, speed by the connectivity of its
travels for vacation. Yes, the Kindle is the new paradigm for uni
-
versal access and literary connectivity. But it is much like a col
-
lege degree in the sense that it is merely a gateway to a wealth
of opportunity. The problem, however, is gaining access to this
gateway in the rst place
.
Books often pass from hand to hand, from friend
to friend, from generation to generation, many times with
the mutual understanding that remuneration is not neces
-
sary



merely the promise o
f hope that the new reader is as
touched and enlightened by the book as the previous one.
This
transfer serves more than a utilitarian function; symbolically, it
represents the passage of hope, of knowledge, of responsibility
.
The book, in many cases, represents the only sort of
hope for the poorest among us, the great equalizer in a world
full of nancial and intellectual capital and highly concentrated
access to this capital. The wonderful quality of the book is that
its intellectual value is very rarely proportional to its nancial
value; people often consider their most valuable book to be one
they happened to pick up one day for free.
The proliferation of the Kindle technology, however,
elite



as the old saying goes, th
-
cial disconnect



this is a widening of th
e gap in the world of
ideas. And this is, perhaps, the most dangerous gap of all.
The Kindle Revolution, ironically, may end up contribut
-
-
tion: illiteracy. Make no mistake, the Kindle was not designed
with the poor in mind. For those in most need of the printed
Camp 2
3
4
5
6
7
In this paragraph, he
makes a claim of fact
about unequal access to
technological innovation
and oers a concession
to what many see as the
value of the Kindle.
He supports his claim of
fact with evidence based
on experience: that
sharing books provides
cannot oer.
He supports his claim of
fact with evidence based
on experience: that
sharing books provides
cannot oer.
He supports his claim of
fact with evidence based
on experience: that
sharing books provides
cannot oer.
He supports his claim of
fact with evidence based
on experience: that
sharing books provides
cannot oer.
He supports his claim of
fact with evidence based
on experience: that
sharing books provides
cannot oer.
Evidence from observa
-
tion: not everyone has
access to new tech
-
nologies, but people will
always have access to
books.
An evaluative
claim



that the
ween
rich and poor is danger
-
ous



adds another
lay
er to the argument.
A further evaluative
claim



that new t
ech
-
nological devices oer
lile hope to victims of
illiteracy



is follow
ed
by a claim of fact that
03_GRE_5344_Ch3_055_079.indd 69
11/19/14 11:06 AM
70
CHAPTER 3

|

F
R
OM ID
E
N
TIF
Y
I
NG CL
AI
MS
T
O AN
A
LYZ
I
NG A
R
GUM
E
N
T
S
word, for those who are the most vulnerable victims of the illit
-
eracy threat, the $359 Kindle offers little in the way of hope.
One book for a poor person is all he or she needs to be inspired
and change the world; with the Kindle, that one book is consoli
-
dated and digitized, transformed from a tangible piece of hope
-
cally innite dimension of cyberspace. A

book

on the Kindle is
a book wedged among many other books, separated by nothing
more than title, devoid of essence, devoid of uniqueness, devoid
of personality, devoid of its unique position in space



precisely
what makes a book a

book,

as opposed to a mere collection
of words. It is no longer singular, no longer serendipitous, no
longer distinguishable.
The e-book cannot, like a bound book, pass through
ready to be unleashed as a tool to change the world. Due to the
restrictions on sharing and reselling e-books with the Kindle,
the very nature of reading books transforms from highly com
-
munal to individualistic, from highly active to somewhat passive
.
The Kindle will lead to the mystication of books, wherein they
become less unique capsules of thoughts and ideas and experi
-
ences and more utility-oriented modes of information-giving.
What many Kindle advocates fail to realize is that oftentimes,
the transformative quality of books resides less in the actual
words comprising the book and more in the actual experience of
reading.
-
poreality of books that lies at the h
Libraries are physical testaments to all that we have learned
and recorded during human history. The sheer size of librar
-
ies, the sheer number of volumes residing in them, tell us,
accumulated in the course of our existence, and all the power
we have to further shape and dene the world we live in.
The
Kindle and other digital literary technologies are threatening
-
rial world, threatening to take our literal measures of progress
and hide them away in the vast database of words and ideas,
Camp 3
8
9
books inspire people to
create change in the
world.
An evaluative claim
in which the author
observes that technol
-
ogy can make reading
passive. Then a claim of
fact: that the experience
of reading can be trans
-
formative.
The student oers a nal
evaluative claim, observ
-
ing that the Kindle
threatens to mask the
ideas and the world.
03_GRE_5344_Ch3_055_079.indd 70
11/19/14 11:06 AM
AN ANNO
TATE
D
ST
UD
E
N
T
A
R
GUM
E
N
T
71
available only to those with $359 to spare and a credit card for
further purchases.
If libraries will indeed become cities, then we need to
carefully begin to lay the foundations, book on top of book on
top of book, and we are going to have to ensure that we have
enough manpower to do it
.
Camp 4
10
His concluding claim falls
just short of making a
proposal



but he do
es
suggest that those in
positions of power must
ensure the proliferation
of books.
Steps to Analyzing an Argument

1

I
dentify the type of claim.

Is it a claim of fact? Value? Policy?

2

A
nalyze the reasons used to support the claim.
Are they recent?
Relevant? Reliable? Accurate?

3


I
dentify concessions.
Is there another argument that even the
author acknowledges is legitimate?

4


I
dentify counterarguments.
What arguments contradict or

challenge the authors position?
A Practice
S
equence: Analyzing an Argument
Use the criteria in the Steps to Analyzing an Argument box to ana
-
lyze the following blog post by Susan D. Blum. What types of claim
does she advance? What seems to be her main claim? Do you nd her
reasons recent, relevant, reliable, and accurate? What sort of conces
-
sions does she make? What counterarguments would you raise?
The United
S
tates of (
N
on)
R
eading:

The
E
nd of Civilization or a
N
ew
E
ra?
Susan D. Blum is a Professor of Anthropology at the University of Notre
Dame, whose wide areas of professional interest and expertise include
Asian Studies and education. She has written or edited many publica
-
tions, including
Portraits of Primitives: Ordering Human Kinds in the
Chinese Nation
(
2001
)
, My Word! Plagiarism and College Culture
(2009),
and
Making Sense of Language: Readings in Culture and Communication

(2009; 2013). She also writes the Learning versus Schooling blog for the
Hufngton Post
, where this essay was posted on October 8, 2013.

SU
SAN
D
. B
LUM

03_GRE_5344_Ch3_055_079.indd 71
11/19/14 11:06 AM
LYZ
S
friend’s boast that he had not read anything for school since fth
grade. A student at an excellent university, successful, “clever,” “smart,”
Carnegie Professor of the Y
wrote on the Web
site of Oberlin College’s Center for Teach
STATE
cluded that adults’ reading habits were in severe decline. Only 57per
in1992.
more than half read books for pleasure
(or would if the Government were functioning) as “literature.”
shrinking. Technology plays a role in this, as many of us spend much
most of its efforts into its headlines. Blogs should be at most one thou
likely to avoid it entirely.
Actually, I have stopped worrying constantly about this. Students
are reading. The public is
reading. They may not sit for hours, still and
attentive, and focus on one item. They may confuse their facts. They
Don't misunderstand. I worship reading. When I travel for three
days, in addition to all my devices I bring six books and ve (print)
LYZ
S
Writing has evolved, and will evolve. And with it reading changes.
philosophical arguments on paper, from paintings for the royal afterlife
writing has transformed, and will continue
to change. It is not entirely
that the medium is the message, but the medium affects the message.
A former professor of geophysics at Duke University with a PhD in applied
earth sciences, Stuart Rojstaczer has written or coauthored many geo
Gone for Good: Tales of University Life After the Golden Age

ousarticles on higher education and grading. He is the creator of

NALYZ
NG AND COMPAR
As an academic writer, you will often need to compare disparate claims
and evidence from multiple arguments addressing the same topic. Rarely,
however, will those arguments be simplistic pro/con pairs meant to rep
work with similar evidence to come up with different, and not necessarily
TAC
ATI
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
bout six years ago, I was sitting in the student union of a small lib
Grades were up. Way up.
Web. Then Icre

nd this data. I learned that
grades started to shoot up nationwide in
the 1960s, leveled off in the 1970s, and then started rising again in the
higheredu

cation, the average GPA at public schools is 3.0, with many
agship state schools having average GPAs higher than 3.2. At a private
“A” is average at those schools! At elite Brown University, two-thirds of
that’s less than half the hours they spent studying 40 years ago.
Paradoxically, students are spending more and more money for an edu
LYZ
S
oesn’t
Phil Primack is a journalist, editor, and policy analyst who teaches journal
ism at Tufts University, where he is a senior fellow at the Jonathan M. Tisch
New York Times

One paper was especially weak; another was late. But then I began
3
4
5
6
7
“Low grade”? Back when I attended Tufts in the late 1960s, a B in
which has always stood for “good”
as a transcript wrecker,
as unmitigated disaster. More and more aca
willing to act
against it, leaving their professors all alone in the mine
for grade ination, even though some of its top ofcials have warned
78
CHAPTER 3

|

F
R
OM ID
E
N
TIF
Y
I
NG CL
AI
MS
T
O AN
A
LYZ
I
NG A
R
GUM
E
N
T
S
8
9
10
without institutional backing, individual faculty members simply yield
to whining students.
But not everywhere. The most cited



and extreme



case of taking
As account
for less than 35 percent of undergraduate course grades.
From 2004 to 2007, As (A-plus, A, A-minus) accounted for 40.6 percent
of undergraduate course grades, down from 47 percent in the period
2001 to 2004.
Closer to home, Wellesley College calls for the average grade in basic
undergraduate courses to be no higher than a B-plus (3.33 GPA). Its
who teaches chemistry. Wellesleys GPA, which stood at 3.47 in 2002 and
was 3.4 when the policy was implemented two years later, fell to 3.3 this
year, mainly because of more B grades and fewer As. The A has really
become the mark of excellence, she says, which is what it should be.
The problem, says Rojstaczer, is that such policies are the excep
-
tions, and that grade ination will be reduced only through consistent
prodding and action by top ofcials. In truth, some university leaders
are embarrassed that grading is so lax, but they are loath to make any
changes, he says in an e-mail. Grade ination in academia is like the
you worry. Thats where we are with grade ination: public denial and
private concern.
A Practice
S
equence: Analyzing and Comparing Arguments

1


To practice these strategies, rst break up into small groups to
disc

uss four different concerns surrounding grade ination:
Group 1:

Dene what you think grade ination is.
Group 2:


problem at the university or college you attend. What

evidence can you provide to suggest that it is or is not a
problem?
Group 3:

Why should students or faculty be concerned with
grade ination? Whats at stake?
Group 4:

How would you respond if the administration at
your university or college decided to limit the number

of As that faculty could give students?
Reassemble as a class and briey report on the discussions.
03_GRE_5344_Ch3_055_079.indd 78
11/19/14 11:06 AM
LYZ
PARI

Analyze Stuart Rojstaczer’s argument
in “Grade Ination Gone
Wild,” addressing the following questions:
found effect on “life and learning”?
To
necessary or that such a change would make a difference?

Now compare Phil Primack’s and Stuart Rojstaczer’s strategies
To
extent is his approach as persuasive as Rojstaczer’s?
egies that you might employ to develop your own argument?
To
sor Susan D. Blum make about the state of reading today. Con
which argument you nd more persuasive, and why. Feel free to
draw on your own experience and make use of personal anec
80
4
R
emember that inquiry is central to the process of composing. As you
move from reading texts to writing them, you will discover that writing
grows out of answering these questions:
�t�
What are the concerns of the authors Ive been reading?
�t�
What situations motivate them to write?
�t�
What frames or contexts do they use to construct their arguments?
�t�
What is my argument in response to their writing?
�t�
What is at stake in my argument?
�t�
Who will be interested in reading what I have to say?
�t�
�t�
What kinds of evidence will persuade my readers?
�t�
What objections are they likely to raise?
To answer these questions, you must read in the role of writer, with an
eye toward
�t�

identifying an issue
(an idea or a statement that is open to dispute) that
compels you to respond in writing,
�t�

understanding the situation
(the factors that give rise to the issue and
shape your response), and
�t�

formulating a question
(what you intend to answer in response to the
issue).
In Table 4.1, we identify a series of situations and one of the issues
and questions that derive from each of them. Notice that the question
From Identifying Issues
toForming Questions
04_GRE_60141_Ch4_080_105.indd 80
10/30/14 7:46 AM
you ask denes the area of inquiry as you read; it also can help you for
mulate your working thesis, the statement that answers your question.
(We say more about developing a thesis in Chapter 5.) In this chapter,
in addition to further discussing the importance of situation, we look at
In this section we present several steps to identifying an issue. You don’t
have to follow them in this particular order, and you may nd yourself
Keep in mind that issues do not simply exist in the world well formed.
ITUATION
Different state legislatures
city with the promise of
creat
ing new jobs in a period
You feel that this company
pollute the air.
Your school has made an
You see that the school has
stepped up its efforts to
though the shelters off
How can you persuade the
NG ISSUES TOFO
understand your issue and that in your writing you will have to explain
You may have been taught that formal writing is objective, that you must
in a college-level paper. The fact is, however, that our personal expe
ences we draw. It makes sense, then, to begin with you
where you are
We all use personal experience to make arguments in our everyday lives.
his own and his son’s
a human face on the research he cites. He presents his issue, that schools
What is the issue? Hirsch’s issue emerges in the presence of an alterna
learn. Kozol points out that students in many inner-city schools are
windows that won’t close, for example
In tension are two different views of the reform that can reverse illit
eracy: Hirsch’s view that educational reform should occur through cur
ricular changes, and Kozol’s view that educational reform demands
Resist Binary
As you begin to dene what is at issue, try to tease out complexities that
In a school where stud
ents and teachers had free rein to abuse anyone dif
ferent from them, I was constantly abused. As the only black student in English
honors, I was commonly belittled in front of my “peers” by my teacher. If I devel
oped courage enough to ask a question, I was always answered with the use of
improper grammar and such words as “ain’t” as my teacher attempted to simplify
NG ISSUES TOFO
the
material to “my level” and to give me what he called “a little learning.” After
discussing several subjects, h
e often turned to me, singling me out of a sea of white
faces, and asked, “Do
understand, Mila?” When asking my opinion of a subject,
he
frequently questioned
, “What do
people think about this?” Although he
insisted on including such readings as Martin Luther King’s “I Have a Dream” speech
in the curriculum, the speech’s themes of tolerance and equity did not accompany
ars have confronted the issue of racism in schools directly. Although she
grants that curricular reform and increased funding may be necessary to
are. For this student, the issue wasn’t one of two positions
curriculum or provide more funding. Instead, it combined a number of dif
demic writer, you will nd that by extending other people’s ideas, you will
extend your own. You may begin in a familiar place, but as you read more
Stormont-Spurgin’s description of homeless
went to school after less than three hours o
f sleep. They wore the
same wrinkled clothes that they had worn the day before. What will their teachers
families will inevitably contin
the difference be
-
reality of citizens in a democracy living in abject poverty on the other.
This student offers
us an important lesson about the role of inquiry
ing, raising questions, writing, and seeing problems a number of times.
iscover a Writer’s
ers involves reading to discover a writer’s
which a writer presents his or her arguments. Writers want us to see the
world a certain way, so they frame their arguments much the same way
NG ISSUES TOFO
football stadium on campus, you would focus on what you would most
mation that every educated citizen should know. Hirsch’s implica
tion, of course, is that people who are not culturally literate are not well
educated. But that is not necessarily true. In fact, a number of educa
as
the goal of education, Hirsch is framing his argument; he is bringing his
Hoggart’s

which
With his family, the boy has the intense pleasure of intimacy, the family’s con
at school, the instruction bids him to trust lonely reason primarily. Immediate
The boy has to cut himself off mentally, so as to do his
Here is Rodriguez’s response to Hoggart’s description of the scholar
ship boy:
to nd infrequent and slight mention of students like me.
Then one day,
leang through Richard Hoggart’s
tion of the scholarship boy, myself. For the rst time I realized that there were
Notice how Rodriguez introduces ideas from Hoggart “to frame” his
own ideas: “I found, in his description of the scholarship boy, myself. For
the rst time I realized that there were other students like me, and so I
the loss.” Hoggart’s scholarship boy enables Rodriguez to revisit
his own experience with a new perspective. Hoggart’s words and idea ad
-
vance Rodriguez’s understanding of the problem he identies in his life:
his inability to nd solace at home
and within his working-class roots.
spontaneity at home and reection at
Rodriguez’s response to Hoggart’s text shows how another writer’
lens can help frame an issue. If you were using Hoggart’s term
ask how the term illuminates new aspects of another writer’s examples
or your own. And then you might ask, “To what extent does Hirsch’s cul
describe?”or “How do my experiences challenge, extend, or complicate
In identifying an issue, you have to understand the situation that gives rise
to the issue, including the contexts in which it is raised and debated. One of
. In thinking about your issue, you must consider
the extent to which your potential readers are involved in the dialogue you
want to enter, and what they know and need to know. In a sense, audience
, a factor that narrows the choices
you can make in responding to an issue. An understanding of your potential

88
CHAP
TE
R 4

|

F
R
OM IDENT
IF
Y
I
NG ISSUES TOFO
R
M
I
NG QUEST
I
ONS
IDENT
I
FY
I
NG ISSUES
I
N AN
E
SSAY
In the following editorial, published in 2002 in
Newsweek
, writer Anna
Quindlen addresses her concern that middle-class parents overschedule their
childrens lives. She calls attention to the ways leisure time helped her develop
as a writer and urges parents to consider the extent to which childrens cre
-
ativity depends on having some downtime. They dont always have to have
note what words and phrases Quindlen uses to identify the situation and to
indicate who her audience is. Identify her main claim as one of fact, value, or
policy. Finally, answer the questions that follow the selection to see if you can
discern how she locates, denes, and advances her issue.
more space for illustrations and support, for example.
Finally, the situation itself can function as a major constraint. For in
-
stance, suppose your topic is the decline of educational standards. Its dif
-
cult to imagine any writer making the case for accelerating that decline,
or any audience being receptive to the idea that a decline in standards is a
good thing.
Steps to Identifying Issues

1

Draw on your personal experience.
Start with your own sense
of whats important, what puzzles you, or what you are curious
about. Then build your argument by moving on to other sources
to support your point of view.

2

Identify what is open to dispute.
Identify a phenomenon or some
idea in a written argument that challenges what you think or
believe.

3

Resist binary thinking.
Think about the issue from multiple

perspectives.

4

Build on and extend the ideas of others.
As you read, be open to
new ways of looking at the issue. The issue you nally write about

5

Read to discover a writers frame.
What theories or ideas shape
the writers focus? How can these theories or ideas help you frame
your argument?

6

Consider the constraints of the situation.
Craft your argument to
form.
04_GRE_60141_Ch4_080_105.indd 88
10/30/14 7:46 AM
ummer is coming soon. I can feel it in the softening of the air, but I
can see it, too, in the textbooks on my children’s desks. The number
of uncut pages at the back grows smaller and smaller. The loose-leaf
in mothballs. Pencils with their points left broken. Open windows. Day
Of course, it was the making of me, as a human being and a writer.
staring at the tedious blue of the summer sky. I don’t believe you can
helds will be sold in Toys “R” Us. Our children are as overscheduled as
Anna Quindlen is a best-selling author of novels and children’s books, but
New York Times
Good Dog. Stay.
2
3
4
5
6
NG ISSUES TOFO
Play movement: in the Third World it is often about child labor, but
in the
is hufng or boosting cars: If kids are
91
QU
I
NDLEN

|

D
O
I
NG
N
OT
HI
NG IS
S
HI
NG
Reading as a Writer

1.

What evidence of Quindlens personal responses and experiences can you
identify?

2.

What phenomenon has prompted her
to reect on what she thinks and
believes? How has she made it into an issue?

3.

Where does she indicate that she has considered the issue from multiple
perspectives and is placing her ideas in conversation with those of others?

4.

What sort of lens does she seem to be using to frame her argument?

5.

What constraints (such as the format of an editorial) seem to be in play in
the essay?
during the school year into the life of frantic and often joyless activity
with which our children are saddled while their parents pursue frantic
and often joyless activity of their own, what about summer? Do most
adults really want to stand in line for Space Mountain or sit in trafc to
even more enriching for their children to stay at home and do nothing?
For those who say they will only watch TV or play on the computer, a
piece of technical advice: The cable box can be unhooked, the modem
removed. Perhaps it is not too late for American kids to be given the
gift of enforced boredom for at least a week or two, staring into space,
bored out of their gourds, exploring the inside of their own heads. To
contemplate is to toil, to think is to do, said Victor Hugo. Go outside
and play, said Prudence Quindlen. Both of them were right.
A Practice
S
equence: Identifying Issues
This sequence of activities will give you practice in identifying and
clarifying issues based on your own choice of reading and collab
-
oration with your classmates.

1


Draw on your personal experience. Reect on your own responses to
what you have been reading in this class or in other classes, or issues
that writers have posed in the media. What concerns you most?
Choose a story that supports or challenges the claims people are
making
in what you have read or listened to. What questions do you
have? Make some notes in response to these questions, ex

plaining
your personal stake in the issues and questions you formulate.

2


Identify what is open to dispute. Take what you have written and
formulate your ideas as
an issue, using the structure we used in
�t
��
�1�B�S�U
�
��
�
�:�P�V�S
�
�W�J�F�X
�
�P�G
�
�B
�
�H�J�W�F�O
�
�U�P�Q�J�D
�t
��
�1�B�S�U
�
��
�
�"�U
�
�M�F�B�T�U
�
�P�O�F
�
�W�J�F�X
�
�U�I�B�U
�
�J�T
�
�J�O
�
�U�F�O�T�J�P�O
�
�X�J�U�I
�
�Z�P�V�S
�
�P�X�O
04_GRE_60141_Ch4_080_105.indd 91
10/30/14 7:46 AM
NG ISSUES TOFO
say about this issue.

late the issue that
you may not have thought about. What objec
tions, if any, do they make to your statement in part 1? Write



lated an issue from dif
ferent perspectives, explaining your


conver
using this structure: “Although some people would argue _____, I

Read to discover a writer’s frame. As an experiment in trying out
to understand your argument. You can employ the same sentence
Iuse E. D. Hirsch’s notion of cultural literacy to show_____.”

local newspaper. This means that you will need to limit your
argument to about 250 words. You also will need to consider the
MULAT
in the context of its situation. Ideally, the situation and the issue will be
statistics and giving the problem of homelessness a face: “The children...
the issue. Ask yourself, “What is on people’s minds these days?” “What do
you feel is most relevant and timely, you can formulate an issue-based
writing about. This question should be specic enough to guide inquiry
asking “how,” “why,” “should,”
you are answering the question. In turn, the answer to your question will
In the following section, we trace the steps one of our students took to
formulate an
sity. Although we pre
sent the steps in sequence,
be aware that they are
NG ISSUES TOFO
ex

ample, homelessness, tests, and violence
are all topics. So are urban


homelessness in New York City, aptitude tests versus achievement tests,
can be explored effec
The topic our student wanted to focus on was language diversity, a
the extraordinary range of languages spoken in the United States, not just
At this point, the student encountered E. D. Hirsch’s
Cultural Literacy
in her reading, which had both a provocative and a clarifying effect on
her thinking. She began to build on and extend Hirsch’s ideas. Reacting
to Hirsch’s assumption that students should acquire the same base of
knowledge and write in Standard Written English, her rst, somewhat
ing took another turn, and she began to contemplate the effect of Hirsch’s
The more she thought about Hirsch’s ideas, and the more she read about
language diversity, the more concerned our student grew. It seemed to her
that Hirsch’s interest in producing students who all share the same base of
knowledge and all write in Standard Written English was in tension with
language is not English. That tension claried the issue for her. In identify
“American.” However
this list certainly overlooks several crucial inuences in American culture. Most
oversights generally come at the expense of the minority populations.


the student’s inquiry.
ormulate
To further dene her inquiry, the student formulated her topic as a ques
tion that pointed toward an argument: “To what extent can E. D. Hirsch’s
notion of ‘cultural literacy’ coexist with our country’s principles of democ
To what extent
a yes or no answer would sufce, possibly foreclosing avenues of inquiry
Instead, despite her misgivings about the implications of Hirsch’s
-
quiry. She acknowledged the usefulness and value of sharing a common
language and conceded that Hirsch’s points were well taken. She wrote:
Some sort of unication is necessary. Language, . . . on the most fundamental level
of human interaction, demands some compromise and chosen guidelines. . . . How
can we learn from one another if we cannot even say hello to each other?
her willingness to examine the issue from different perspectives indicated
the empathy that is a central component of developing a conversational
This student’s question (“To what extent can E. D. Hirsch’s notion of ‘cul
tural literacy’ coexist with our country’s principles of democracy and
inclusion?”) also acknowledged an audience. By invoking cultural literacy,
96
CHAP
TE
R 4

|

F
R
OM IDENT
IF
Y
I
NG ISSUES TOFO
R
M
I
NG QUEST
I
ONS
she assumed an audience of readers who are familiar with Hirschs ideas,
probably including policymakers and educational administrators. In ges
-
probably admire the principles of democracy. But in specifying inclu
-
sion as a democratic principle, she wisely linked all Americans who believe
in democratic principles, including the parents of schoolchildren, with
all people who have reason to feel excluded by Hirschs ideas, especially
non


native speakers of English, among them immigrants from Mexico
and speakers of African American Vernacular English. Thus, this student
was acknowledging an audience of policymakers, administrators, parents
(both mainstream and marginalized), and those who knew about and per
-
haps supported cultural literacy.
Steps to Formulating an

Issue-

Based Question

1

Rene your topic.
Examine your topic from different perspec
-
tives. For example, what are the causes of homelessness? What
are its consequences?

2

Explain your interest in the topic.
Explore the source of your
interest in this topic and what you want to learn.

3

Identify an issue.

4

Formulate your topic as a question.
Use your question to focus
your inquiry.

5

Acknowledge your audience.
Reect on what readers may know
about the issue, why they may be interested, and what you would
like to teach them.
A Practice
S
equence: Formulating an Issue-Based Question
As you start developing your own

issue-

based question, it might be
useful to practice a

ve-

step process that begins with a topic, a word
or phrase that describes the focus of your interests. Here, apply the
process to the

one-

word topic
homelessness
.

1


Expand your topic into a phrase. I am interested in the
conse-
quences
of homelessness, I want to
describe
what it means to be
homeless, or I am interested in discussing the
cause
of home
-
lessness.

2


Explain your interest in this topic. I am interested in the conse
-
quences of homelessness because
it challenges democratic prin
-
ciples of fairness.
04_GRE_60141_Ch4_080_105.indd 96
10/30/14 7:46 AM

my belief in social justice.”

Formulate your topic as a question. “To what extent can we allow
democratic nation that prides itself

quences of homelessness because I want people who believe
in democracy to understand that we need to work harder
to make sure that everyone has access to food, shelter, and
state your main claim this way: “Although homelessness persists as a
widespread problem in our nation, we must develop policies that
shelter, and employment. This is especially important in a democracy
that embraces social justice and equality.”
you will need to support: “We must develop policies that eliminate
homelessness, ensuring that everyone has access to food, shelter, and
must take responsibility for lifting themselves out of poverty, home
Try using the
your own topic as a question, or try formulating the following
as questions:
performer, an icon)
standardized tests
gown relationships
NG ISSUES TOFO
SSAY F
NALYS
The following essay by William Deresiewicz provides an intriguing aca
(p.89): the need for the young to have solitary, unscheduled time. His
Deresiewicz’s essay, you might use the following questions as a guide:
What is Deresiewicz’s thesis? Would you characterize his claim as one
of fact? Value?
What do Deresiewicz’s vocabulary and citations indicate about his tar
tivity. As the two technologies converge
broadband tipping the Web
William Deresiewicz taught English at Yale University from 1998 to 2008
He is now a contributing writer at
National Magazine Award for his reviews and criticism. His essay “The
nected with others. Posting on MySpace, Twitter, and Facebook enables us
to be visible and helps validate who we are as individuals. However, he wor
ries that this instinct to be connected also has an adverse effect: We lose a
3
4
5
, then to the hundreds, on Twitter or Facebook. This is the qual
seen by others. The great contemporary terror is anonymity. If Lionel
Trilling was right, if the property that grounded the self, in Romanti
cism, was sincerity, and in modernism it was authenticity
modernism it is visibility.
our lives is solitude. Technology is taking away our privacy and our con
centration, but it is also taking away our ability to be alone. Though I
shouldn’t say taking away. We are doing this to ourselves; we are discard
That’s 100 a day, or about one every 10 waking minutes, morning, noon,
time, and toothbrushing time. So on average, she’s never alone for more
than 10 minutes at once. Which means, she’s never alone.
-
selected few. Through the solitude of rare spirits, the collective renews
NG ISSUES TOFO
Hamle
t,
and even Don Quixote. The last gure alerts us to reading’s essential role
if less for Rousseau and still less for Thoreau,
the most famous solitary of all, then certainly for Wordsworth,
Whitman, and many others. For Emerson, “the soul environs itself
Trilling’s “sincerity”: the belief that the self is validated by a congruity of
ship with both itself and others. Especially
, as Emerson suggests, one
Schiller, Wordsworth and Coleridge, Hawthorne and Melville.
Modernism decoupled this dialectic. Its notion of solitude was harsher,
actions,
Hume’s social sympathy gave way to Pater’s thick wall of personality and
sible to others, can’t choose but be alone. With exceptions, like Woolf,
paraged
it; D. H. Lawrence was wary of it; the modernist friendship pairs
Conrad and Ford, Eliot and Pound, Hemingway and Fitzgerald
were
more austere, more embattled form of self-validation, Trilling’s “authen
ticity,” where the essential relationship is only with oneself. (Just as
10
marriages.) Solitude becomes, more than ever, the arena of heroic self-
discovery, a voyage through interior realms made vast and terrifying by

sions without inching; Trilling’s exemplar here is Kurtz.
a Dostoyevsky, a Joyce, a Proust.
But we no longer live in the modernist city, and our great fear is not
submersion by the mass but isolation
from the herd. Urbanization gave
-
ther and farther apart
-
other. The busy parent can stay in touch with far-ung friends. The gay
seems increasingly beside the point. The goal now, it seems, is simply to
become known, to turn oneself into a sort of miniature celebrity. How
blog? How many Google hits does my name generate? Visibility secures
NG ISSUES TOFO
connection. Not long ago, it was easy to feel lonely. Now, it is impossible
me that Sally Smith (whom I haven’t seen since high school, and wasn’t
all that friendly with even then) “is making coffee and staring off into
space”? My students told me they have little time for intimacy. And of
or to be fair, our use of tech
seems to involve a constant effort to stave off the possibility
of solitude, a
continuous attempt, as we sit alone at our computers,
Trilling wrote about “the
modern fear of being cut off from the social
mean that we have put it to rest. Quite the contrary. Remember my stu
dent, who couldn’t even write a paper by herself. The more we keep
aloneness at bay, the less are we able to deal with it and the more terrify
I speak from experience. I grew up in the 1960s and 1970s, the age
of television. I was trained to be bored; boredom was cultivated within
never fully adjust to this idea; I still have to ght against boredom,
12
13
14
16
17
doesn’t have to be a bad thing. The alternative to boredom is what Whit
So it is with the current generation’s experience of being alone. That
company, it is grief over that absence. The lost sheep is lonely; the shep


Romantics, and the modernists (and Socrates, for that matter) placed
it shing “in the Walden Pond of [our] own natures,” “
hooks with darkness.” Lost, too, is the related propensity for sustained
ping of our attention spans. Reading now means skipping and skim
and this should come as no surprise
NG ISSUES TOFO
tailing here with postmodern critical theory). One of the most striking
things about the way young people relate to one another today is that
they no longer seem to believe in the existence of Thoreau’s “darkness.”
-

especially, Emerson added, during youth. “God is alone,”
Thoreau said, “but the Devil, he is far from being alone; he sees a great
deal of company; he is legion.” The university was to be praised, Emerson
the physical space of solitude. Today, of course, universi
ties do everything they can to keep their students from being alone, lest
22
seek privacy,” Emerson said, “to ends the most public and universal.” We
are back to the seer, seeking signposts for the future in splendid isolation.
Solitude isn’t easy, and isn’t for everyone. It has undoubtedly never
been the province of more than a few. “I believe,” Thoreau said, “that
men are generally still a little afraid of the dark.” Teresa and Tiresias
soul, who step to the beat of a different drummer. But if solitude disap
do that. But it takes a willingness to be unpopular.
The last thing to say about solitude is that it isn’t very polite. Thoreau
back and observe life dispassionately, is apt to make us a little unpleas
their company. But then, he didn’t worry overmuch about being genial.
He didn’t even like having to talk to people three times a day, at meals;
one can only imagine what he would have made of text-messaging. We,
however, have made of geniality
the weak smile, the polite
our grasp, but our friendliness is
universal. Not for nothing does “gre
ing one’s self-possession was worth a few wounded feelings. He may
have put his neighbors off, but at least he was sure of himself. Those
Writing as a Reader

Recast Deresiewicz’s essay as Anna Quindlen might in her
colum
n. Obviously, her
column is much shorter (an important
constraint). She also writes for a more general audience than Deresiewicz,
and her tone is quite different. To strengthen your sense of her approach,
you may want to browse some of Quindlen’s other essays in editions of
page89.

Recast Deresiewicz’s essay in terms of a writer you read regularly
example, a columnist in your
local newspaper or a blogger in some online
venue. Use your imagination. What is the audience, and how will you have
argument.
An academic thesis
is placed at the beginning of the essay.
From Formulating to
acknowledges points of view that differ from the writer’s own, reect
It is a myth that writers rst come up with a thesis and then write their
essays. The reality is that writers use issue-based questions to read, learn,
and develop a thesis throughout the process of writing. Through revising
process, after not one draft but many.
Writers are continually challenged by the need to establish their purpose
and to make a clear and specic assertion of it. To reach that assertion,
you must rst engage in a prolonged process of inquiry, aided by a well-
because it helps you read selectively, in the same way that your issue-based
question guides your inquiry. Reading raises questions, helping you see
thesis as necessary. A more denitive thesis will come onceyouaresat
-
of femininity in the media. In particular, she focused on why the Barbie
consider Barbie’s “outrageous and ultimately unattainable physical char
acteristics.” Our student’s working thesis suggested she would develop an
The harmful implications of ongoing exposure to these unattainable ideals, such
as low self-esteem, eating disorders, unhealthy body image, and acceptance of
violence, mak
e urgent the need for change.
Barbie’s unattainable proportions have a damaging effect on women’s self-
AT
compelling project would be less Barbie-centric. Instead, she chose to
according to
What are some ways to develop a working thesis? We suggest four models
that may help you organize the information you gather in response to the
question guiding your inquiry.
understated the impact of
limited resources” as a way to reframe the problem in his thesis. In crafting
of value. Consider this student’s argument that discussions of cultural
If America is truly a “melting pot” of cultures, as it is often called, then why is it that
stories and events seem only to be in black and white? Why is it that when
history
courses are taught about the peri
od of the civil rights movement, only the memoirs of
African Americans are read, like those of Melba Pattillo Beals and IdaMae Holland?
Where are the works of Maxine Hong Kingston, who tells the story of alienation and
segregation in schools through the eyes of a Chinese child?
African Americans wer
e
denied the right to vote, and many other citizenship rights; but Chinese Americans
were denied even the opportunity to become
citizens. I am not diminishing th
e issue
of discrimination against African Americans, or belittling the struggles they went
through.
I simply want to call attention to
discrimination against other min
groups and their often-overlooked struggles to achieve equality.
In the student’s thesis, the gap in people’s knowledge stems from their lim
ited understanding of history. They need to understand that many minor
appeared to contradict each other. She noticed a gap others had not seen:
In both “The Albatross” and “Beauty,” Charles Baudelaire chooses to explore the
the “winged
voyager” so awkwar
d in the ordinary world. “Beauty” takes what appears to be a less
AT
-
The modication model of thesis writing assumes that mutual understand
ing is possible. For example, in proposing a change in policy, one student
Although scholars have claimed that the only sure way to reverse the cycle of
homelessness in Ameri
ca is to provide an adequate education, we need to build
onthis work, providing school-to-work programs that ensure graduates have
accessto employment.
Here the writer seeks to modify other writers’ claims, suggesting that edu
The hypothesis-testing model begins with the assumption that writers
DE
V
ELO
P
ING
A
WORKING THESIS: F
OUR

M
O
D
ELS
111
warming can be attributed to any one cause or explanation. At this point,
we dont have denitive evidence that an array of natural phenomena or
human behavior cause global warming.
The hypothesis-testing model assumes that the questions you raise
The following is one way to formulate such an argument in which you
examine rival hypotheses before coming to a conclusion.
Some people explain
this
by suggesting
that
, but a close analysis of the

You may not nd a denitive explanation, so you will need to sort through
the evidence you nd, develop an argument, and acknowledge the reason
-
able counterarguments that critical readers will raise. In the end, you are
warming, but you are helping readers understand what you see as the best
case given the available evidence.
Steps to Formulating a Working Thesis: Four Models

1

Although many scholars have argued
about A and B, a careful examination suggests C.

2

Gap model:
Although scholars have noted A and B, they have
missed the importance of C.

3

Modication model:
Although I agree with the A and B ideas of
other writers, it is important to extend/rene/limit their ideas withC.

4

Hypothesis-testing model:
Some people explain A by suggesting B,
but a close analysis of the problem reveals the possibility of

several
A Practice
S
equence:
I
dentif

ying Types of Theses
Below is a series of working theses. Read each one and then identify the
model







that it represents.

1

-
rimental effect on adolescent behavior. However, few research
-
ers have examined key environmental factors like peer pressure,
music, and home life. In fact, I would argue that many researchers
have oversimplied the problem.

2

Although research indicates that an increasing number of African
American and Hispanic students are dropping out of high school, re-

searchers have failed to fully grasp the reasons why this has occurred.
05_GRE_60141_Ch5_106_128.indd 111
11/11/14 2:56 PM
AT
ESTABLISHING A CONTEXT FOR A
In addition to dening the purpose and focus of an essay, a thesis must

that it is on people’s minds or should be.

I want to argue that studies supporting single-sex education are rela
, we don’t really know the long-term ef

fects of
single-sex education, particularly on young women’s career paths.

Although recent studies of voting patterns in the United States indicate

Indeed, it’s not surprising that students are majoring in elds that


It is clear that cities need to clean up the dilapidated housing proj
ects that were built over half a century ago; but few, if any, studies
have examined the effects of doing so on the life chances of those

In addition to its efforts to advance the cause of social justice in
the new global economy, the university must make a commitment

Although the writer offers evidence to explain the sources of illit
factors, among them history, culture, and economic well-being.
10

More and more policymakers argue that English should be the
English is important, we should not limit people’s right to main
tain their own linguistic and cultural identity.
A
N
A
NNO
TAT
E
D
S
T
U
D
EN
T
IN
T
RO
D
U
CT
ION
: P
RO
V
I
D
ING
A C
ON
T
E
XT F
OR
A T
HESIS
113

4.

State your thesis, suggesting that your view on the issue may present
what others have argued.
You need not follow these steps in this order as long as your readers come
away from the rst part of your essay knowing why you are discussing a
given issue and what your argument is.
AN

ANNOTATE
D
STU
D
ENT

INTRO
D
U
C
TION
:
PRO
V
I
D
ING

A
C
ONTEXT

FOR

A

THESIS
We trace these four steps below in our analysis of the opening paragraphs
of a students essay. Motivating his argument is his sense that contemporary
writers and educators may not fully grasp the issues that limit the oppor
-
tunities for low-income youth to attend college. His own family struggled
nancially, and he argues that a fuller appreciation of the problem can help
educators partner with families to advise youth in more informed ways.
Colin ONeill

ONeill 1
Money Matters:

Framing the College Access Debate
College is expensive. And with prices continuing to rise
or not college is a worthy investment. In a recent
Newsweek
article, journalist Megan McArdle (2012) asserts that the process of
obtaining a college degree has morphed into a national neurosis
for lifelong success. McArdle joins a chorus of voices calling upon
a reevaluation of the current educational pipeline at a time when
the number of American students who are ill-

prepared to face the

rigors of a college

curriculum has increased. Som
e writers suggest
that a renaissance of

vocational educati
on may, in fact, begin to
compensate for the disparate nature of American education. Based
on research conducted by Bozick and DeLuca (2011), it is clear
that these opinions are grounded in reality.
Of nearly 3,000 surveyed college non-enrollees, roughly
50 percent attributed their withdrawal from the education system
1
2
The student estab
-
lishes the timeli
-
ness and relevance
of an issue that
challenges widely
held assumptions
about the value of
aending college.
He begins to
summarize what
others have said
to demonstrate
his familiarity with
the conversation in
popular media and
scholarship.
05_GRE_60141_Ch5_106_128.indd 113
11/11/14 2:56 PM
114
C
H
APT
ER
5

|

FROM FORMUL
AT
ING
T
O DE
V
ELO
P
ING
A
THESIS

ONeill 2
to either the high cost o
f college education or the desire to look
for work and embark along their chosen career path. However,
for those like me, who believe strongly that higher education is
a right that ought to be available to all students, McArdles and
others assertions add to the list of physical and social barriers
that keep students of poorer backgrounds from pursuing their
educational aspirations. The ability to pay for college may not be
the only consideration keeping students from exploring higher
education. Instead, researchers have overlooked the extent to
which knowledge (or the lack of it) of college costs and awareness
of different nancing options (such as grants, scholarships, and
loans) may preemptively alter the way in which children envision
themselves within the college experience.
In many cities where the median household income
often hovers slightly above $30,000, college is, according
to some educators, a pipedream to which nearly every family
aspires, but most are not convinced this goal will ever become a
reality (United States Census Bureau). Indeed, with the average
cost of a college education rising to upwards of $20,000, it is
parents have a strong desire to send their kids to college, the
nancial numbers do not seem to add up. While educators have
tended to leave parents responsible for educating their children
on the nancial realities of higher education, researchers
such as Elliot, Sherraden, Johnson, and Guo (2010) make the
case that awareness of college costs makes its way into the
worldview of students as young as second grade. In light of
this work, it becomes important to note that the large price
tag of a college degree may have implications that spread far
beyond a particular familys capacity to fund their childrens
education. As the recent research of Bozick and DeLuca (2011)
suggests, the cost of college is changing and challenging the way
students begin to examine the purpose and necessity of college
education. College costs are diminishing ones access to college
in more ways than restricting their ability to foot the bill. For
low-income students and their families, for whom every day is
lled with nancial burdens of all sorts, high college costs are
changing the way they perceive college as aninstitution.
students perceptions of the cost of higher education is not an
3
4
The student cites
research to further
dene the problem
and show that he
is aware of the
very real barriers
that aect college
access for low-
income youth.
The student
identies what he
sees as a problem
signaled by words
like however,
overlooked, and
instead and
begins to formulate
his own argument.
He uses research
to understand
further a problem
that others may
have overlooked or
ignored.
He points out a
misconception
that he wants to
correct.
05_GRE_60141_Ch5_106_128.indd 114
11/11/14 2:56 PM
TAT
O’Neill 3
unexamin
ed phenomenon. Many researchers have looked at
the ways in which the cost of a college education affects the
income stud
ents begin to foster a relationship with
the college system. The existing body of research, however, has
tended to focus solely on high school students, students who are
mere months away from beginning the college search process.
According to Cabrera and LaNasa (2000), the college choice
collegiate experien
ce.
Given the ndings of prior research, it is important to push
back the discussion about college affordability and college access
to examine how the notion of cost impacts the fragile, emerging
relationship that middle school students are just beginning to
develop. To recognize how students begin to understand college
and develop college aspirations, then, I conducted interviews with
middle school children to assess how early awareness of college
costs plays a role in shaping families’ decisions about the need,
desire for, and accessibility of higher education. By doing so, I
have tried to ll gap left behind by previous research and add
to the wider discussion of college affordability and its overall
impact on college access amongst students of all ages. Although
educators may argue that American education ought to revert
to an old, draconian system of vocational education, preparing
low-income students to enter technical elds, I argue that it is
important to create programs that encourage parents, teachers,
and students to think early about the costs of college and the
possibilities that exist to help children pursue a college degree.
He begins to oer
a solution to a
problem research
ers have not fully
appreciated.
The student
explains that
the purpose of
his research is
to ll the gap he
identies above
and correct a
misunderstanding.
Here he makes
a policy-related
claim that chal
lenges a conicting
point of view.
Citing a key study,
the student under
scores a gap in the
research, again sig
naled by “however.”
He adopts a frame
through which to
think about the
issue and narrow
his focus.
AT
Ideally, you should convey to readers that the issue you are discussing is both
current (what’s on people’s minds) and relevant (of sufcient importance to
have generated some discussion and written conversation). In the rst two
sentences of the rst paragraph, O’Neill explains that the increase in college
costs has not only become a focus of national attention, evidenced in a recent
entering. After all, you are interrupting that conversation to make your
TAT
touchstones, the scholars (e.g., Cabrera and La Nasa [2000]) who need
tobe cited in any academic conversation about college access. A review
sent a writer’s choice of the most relevant participants in the conversation.
O’Neill’s choice of sources, and how he presents them, convey that he is
xplain What You
If a review indicates a problem, as O’Neill’s review does, the problem can
college choice process
actually begins much earli
tate Your
An effective thesis statement helps readers see the reasoning behind a
writer’s claim; it also signals what readers should look for in the remainder
of the essay. O’Neill closes paragraph 5 with a statement that speaks to
Although educators have argued that American education ought to revert to an old,
draconian system of vocational education, preparing low-income
students to enter
cal elds, I argue that it is important to create
programs that encour
age
118
C
H
APT
ER
5

|

FROM FORMUL
AT
ING
T
O DE
V
ELO
P
ING
A
THESIS

parents, teachers, and students to think early about the costs of

college and the
possibilities that e
xist to help children pursue a college degree.
In your own writing, you can make use of the strategies that ONeill
uses in his essay. Words like
although
,
however
,
but
,
instead
, and
can
One might argue that vocational programs may provide a reasonable
ignores the range of possibilities that exist for changing policies to ensure
that all children have access to a college education.
Steps to Establishing a Context for a Thesis

1

Establish that the issue is current and relevant.
Point out the
extent to which others have recognized the problem, issue, or
question that you are writing about.

2

Briey present what others have said.
Explain how others have
addressed the problem, issue, or question you are focusing on.

3

Explain what you see as the problem.
Identify what is open to
dispute.

4

State your thesis.
Help readers see your purpose and how you
intend to achieve it



by correcting a misconception, lling a gap,
modifying a claim others have accepted, or stating an hypothesis.

A
nalyze the Context of a
T
hesis
In Teaching Toward Possibility, educator Kris Gutirrez argues that
teaching should focus on student learning and provide students with mul
-
tiple tools from different disciplines to ensure that students engage in
what she describes as deep learning. She also explains that culture plays
a key role in learning, particularly for students from nondominant groups.
which she distinguishes from inert conceptions of culture based on indi
-
-
lished in 2011, is addressed to educators, teachers, and policy makers. As
you read the following excerpt, you may be puzzled by some of Gutirrezs
vocabulary and perhaps even excluded from the conversation at times.
Our purpose in reprinting this excerpt is to show through our annotations
how Gutirrez has applied the strategies we have been discussing in this
chapter. As you read, make your own annotations, and then try to answer
the questions



which may involve careful rereading



that we pose after
the selection. In particular, watch for signpost words or phrases that signal
the ideas the writer is challenging.
05_GRE_60141_Ch5_106_128.indd 118
11/11/14 2:56 PM
TAT
“Teaching Toward Possibility: Building
environmental inequities or environment racism
deeply and broadly. We did just this over a number of
Students learned environmental science, learned
learned about the history of the area of study, as well
ing across genres, points of view, and across histori
toricized, textured, layered, and deeply supported in
work in and through the contradictions and tensions
inherent in knowledge production and authentic
science/learning issues.
In the following section, I draw on the case of
teaching science to migrant students mentioned
roaches to teaching and learning that offer the
“quick-x” and provide “off the shelf” solutions to
establishes the
relevanc
e and
timeliness of th
This is particularly
relevant for an
audience of teach
who want to know how
to motivate students
whose backgrounds
they may unfamiliar
Gutiérrez further
establishes the
relevance of teaching
non-dominant
students and
seeks to correct
a misconception
about the nature of
teaching, learning,
and culture.
AT
ing and general traits of individuals are attributable
individuals).
ström, 2003; Engeström, 1987; Leontiev, 1981) is one
productive means toward
challenging static and a his
torical understandings of cultural communities and
their practices, as this view focuses attention on varia
tions in individual and group histories of engagement
in cultural practices. Variations, then, are best under
tories of engagement with specic cultural activities,
als. In other words, individual and group experience in
Within this view, it becomes easier to understand
group may be characterized as learning analytically
TAT
populations. However, attribution of learning style or
difference based on group membership can serve to
ties, which in turn can hinder effective assistance to
student learning (Gutiérrez & Rogoff, 2003).
a practice that often
leads to one-size-ts-all approaches and understand
dominant communities. Consider familiar statements
African
American students” and even, “Asian students are
good at math.” Such generalizations are based on the
assumption that people
hold uniform cultural prac
that is, 100-percent of Mexi
cans do not hit piñatas 100-percent of the time. While
piñatas may in fact be a prevalent cultural artifact in
many Mexican and Mexican-descent communities (and
now across many household and communities in the
Southwest), we would not make generalizations about
their use and would expect variation in piñata practices,
facts mediate human activity, they have varying func
tions in use and in practice, just as there is regularity and
Her use of “however”
distinguishes
what she sees as a
prevailing school of
thought and what
she believes should be
the case. Educators’
misconceptions
about culture are the
source of the problem
she identies.
Gutiérrez rearms
122
C
H
APT
ER
5

|

FROM FORMUL
AT
ING
T
O DE
V
ELO
P
ING
A
THESIS
A Practice
S
equence: Building a Thesis
We would like you to practice some of the strategies we have covered
in this chapter. If
you have already started working on an essay, exer
-
cises 1 through 4 present an opportunity to take stock of your prog
-
ress, a chance to sort through what youve discovered, identify what
you still need to discover, and move toward rening your thesis. Jot
down your answer to each of the questions below and make lists of
what you know and what you need to learn.

1

Have you established that your issue is current and relevant, that
it is or should be on peoples minds? What information would you
need to do so?

2


Can you summarize briefly what others have said in the past to
show that you are familiar
with how others have addressed the
issue? List some of the key texts you have read and the key points
they make.

3


Have you identified any misunderstandings or gaps in how oth
-
ers have addressed the issue? Describe them. Do you have any
ideas or information that would address these misunderstandings
or help fill these gaps? Where might you find the information you
need? Can you think of any sources you should reread to learn
more? (For example, have you looked at the works cited or bibli
-
ographies in the texts youve already read?)

4


At this point, what is your take on the issue? Try drafting a

working thesis statement that will present readers with some
-
thing new to think about, building on and extending what oth
-
ers have argued. In drafting your thesis statement, try out the
Reading as a Writer

1.

What specic places can you point to in the selection that illustrate what is
at issue for Gutirrez?

2.


3.

What specic words and phrases does she use to establish what she sees as
-
ing what others have said?

4.

What would you say is Gutirrez
s thesis? What specics can you point to
in the text to support your answer?

5.

What would you say are the arguments Gutirrez wants you to avoid?
answer?
05_GRE_60141_Ch5_106_128.indd 122
11/11/14 2:56 PM
TAT
Y:
STAT
models discussed in this chapter and see if one is an especially



ing B, but a close analysis of the problem reveals the possibil











NNOTATE
:
TATING AN
UPPORTING A
We have annotated the following student essay to illustrate the strategies we
have discussed in this chapter for stating a thesis that respondstoarele

vant,
timely problem in a given context. The assignment
was to write an argument
focusing on literacy based on research. Veronica Stafford chose to write about
her peers’ habit of texting and the ways in which this type of social interaction
affects their intellectual development. Stafford develops a thesis that provides a
corrective to a misconception that she sees in the ongoing conversations about
124
C
H
APT
ER
5

|

FROM FORMUL
AT
ING
T
O DE
V
ELO
P
ING
A
THESIS
texting. Her approach is a variation on the strategy in which writers correct a
-
ation in making an argument for changing her peers penchant for texting.
As you read the essay, reect on your own experiences: Do you think
the issue she raises is both timely and relevant? How well do you think she
places her ideas in conversation with others? How would you respond to
her various claims? Which do you agree with and disagree with, and why?
What evidence would you present to support or counter her claims? Do
you think she offers a reasonable corrective to what she believes is a mis
-
conception about texting?
Stafford 1
Veronica Stafford
Professor Wilson
English 1102
April 20



Texting and Literacy
As students walk to class each day, most do not notice
the other people around them. Rather than talking with others,
they are texting their friends in the next building, in their dorm,
use for text messages, they are not used solely for socializing.
While texting is a quick and easy way to keep up with friends, it
threatens other aspects of our lives. When students spend time

texting rather than focusing on those other important aspects,


their schoolwork, and their relationships with others are all

negatively affected by text messaging
.
Due to the mass appeal of text messaging, students
pass their free time chatting through their cell phones rather
than enjoying a great book. Texting is so widespread because

25 percent of students under age eight, 89 percent of students
ages eleven

to thirteen, and over 95 percent of students over
age fteen have a

cell phone (Mobile Phones). On average,
75.6 million text

messages are sent in a day, with 54 percent of
the population texting

more than ve times per day (Mobile
Phones). In contrast to

the time they spend texting, fteen- to
The student identies

an issue, or problem,

and states her thesis

as an evaluative claim
that aempts to cor
-
rect a misconception.
1
2
She summarizes
research, placing the
conversation in a larger
context. Her citations
also indicate that the
problem she identies is
relevant and timely.
05_GRE_60141_Ch5_106_128.indd 124
11/11/14 2:56 PM
AN ANNO
TAT
E
D

ST
U
D
EN
T

E
SS
A
Y:
STAT
ING
A
N
D

S
U
PP
OR
T
ING
A
THESIS
125

Stafford 2
twenty-four-year-olds

read a mere seven minutes per day for
fun and only 1.25 hours

a week (NEA 10), which is less than
half the time that

seventh-grade students spend texting: 2.82
hours a week (Bryant,

Sanders-Jackson and Smallwood). While
more than half of the population texts every day, almost as
many (43
percent
) have not read a single book in the past
year (NEA 7). It seems there is

reading and texting because, as

text messaging increases in
popularity, reading decreases. The National Endowment for
the Arts surveyed eighteen- to twenty-four-year-olds and
discovered that the enjoyment of reading in this age group is
declining the fastest. Inversely, it is the group that sends the
most text messages: 142 billion a year (N
EA
10). From 1992 to
2002, 2.1million potential readers, aged eighteen to twenty-
four years old, were lost (N
EA
27). As proved by the direct
correlation, reading does not have the same appeal because
of texting. Students prefer to spend time in the technological
world rather than sitting with a book.
However, reading well is essential to being successful

academically. Although some argue that text messages force

students to think quickly and allow them to formulate brief

responses to questions, their habit is actually stiing creativity
.
When a group of twenty students was given a chance to write
responses to open-ended questions, the students who owned
cell phones with text messaging wrote much less. They also had
more grammatical errors, such as leaving apostrophes out of
(Ward).
Because of text messages, students perceive writing

as a fun way to communicate with friends and not as a way to

strongly voice an opinion. Students no longer think of writing

as academic, but rather they consider it social. For instance,
in Scotland, a thirteen-year-old student wrote this in a school
essay about her summer vacation: My smmr hols wr CWOT. B4
we used 2 go to NY 2C my bro, & 3 kids FTF ILNY, its gr8

.

.

.
(Ward). She used writing that would appear in a te
xt message
for a friend rather than in a report for school. Furthermore,
She uses evidence
to support her

thesis



that we

take f
or granted a

mode of communica-

tion that actually
threatens the devel
-
opment of liter
acy.
3
She renes her thesis,
rst stating what

people assume is true
and then oering a cor
-
rective in the second
part of her thesis.
She also makes a

secondary
claim re

-


lated to her th
esis.
05_GRE_60141_Ch5_106_128.indd 125
11/11/14 2:56 PM
AT
Stafford 3
students who text become so accustomed to reading this type of
shorthand lingo that they often overlook it in their own writing
(O’Connor). This means that teachers have to spend even longer
correcting these bad habits. Regardless, Lily Huang, a writer for
, believes that text messages increase literacy because
a student must rst know how to spell a word to abbreviate it in
texting
. However, texting affects not only the way that students
write, but also the way in which they think about language. As
a critic of Huang’s article writes, “Habitual use of shorthand
isn’t just about choppy English, but choppy thinking” (Mufe).
Writers who text will have trouble thinking creatively, and will
The student pre
sents
a possible c
ounterargu
ment from a published
writer and then restates
her thesis in an eort to
correct a misconception.
The student pre
sents
a possible c
ounterargu
ment from a published
writer and then restates
her thesis in an eort to
correct a misconception.
The student pre
sents
a possible c
ounterargu
ment from a published
writer and then restates
her thesis in an eort to
correct a misconception.
The student pre
sents
a possible c
ounter
argument from
a pub
lished writer and then
restates her thesis in
an eort to correct a
misconception.
She restates an evalu
ative claim that runs
through the essay
like the skewer we
discussed earlier.
And she elaborates on
this claim to point out
She provides current
research to support
her
thesis.
AN ANNO
TAT
E
D

ST
U
D
EN
T

E
SS
A
Y:
STAT
ING
A
N
D

S
U
PP
OR
T
ING
A
THESIS
127
Stafford 4
communication. Friends must be able to convey emotions
and empathize with others (McKay). However, friends who
communicate solely through text messages will miss out on any
truly personal interaction because they can never see the other
persons posture, body language, or gestures.
All of the negative effects of text messaging additionally

readers who eagerly absorb written words. A devotion to
schoolwork encourages students to read so that they may be
informed
about important topics. Through book clubs and
conversations
about great literature, even relationships can
foster a love for
reading
focus on teaching English at an early age because of the active
role that it forces students to take (Le Guin). While students
can passively text

message their friends, they need to focus on
reading to enjoy it.

In order to really immerse themselves in the
story, they need to

use a higher level of thinking than that of
texting
. This learning is what causes avid readers to become so
successful. Those who read for fun when they are young score
(NEA 69). The decline in literacy caused by text messaging
could inevitably cost a student a selective job. If students spent
less time texting and more time reading, it could give them
classes without any students eyes to the ground. Imagine that
Notre Dame students are not texting acquaintances hours away.
Perhaps instead they are all carrying a pen and notebook and
those around them. Instead of spending time every week text
messaging, they are reading. When those other students text
lol, it no longer is an abbreviation for laugh out loud, but
for loss of literacy.
5
She also concludes
with a claim in which
she proposes that

students need to
elevate th
e way they
read and write.
She concludes by
restating her premise
about the value of
reading and her evalu
-
ation of texting as a
form of communication
that erodes what she
considers the very
denition of literacy.
05_GRE_60141_Ch5_106_128.indd 127
11/11/14 2:56 PM
128
C
H
APT
ER
5

|

FROM FORMUL
AT
ING
T
O DE
V
ELO
P
ING
A
THESIS
Stafford 5
Works Cited
Bryant, J. Alison, Ashley Sanders-Jackson, and Amber M. K.
Smallwood. IMing, Text Messaging, and Adolescent Social
Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication
11.2 (2006): n. pag. Web. 28 Mar. 20--.
Huang, Lily. The Death of English (LOL).
Newsweek.
Newsweek,
2 Aug. 2008. Web. 28 Mar. 20--.
The Importance of Nonverbal Communication.
EruptingMind
Self Improvement Tips.
N.p., 2008. Web. 1 Apr. 20--.
Le Guin, Ursula K. Staying Awake: Notes on the Alleged Decline
of Reading.
Harpers Magazine.
The Harpers Magazine
Foundation, Feb. 2008. Web. 30 Mar. 20--.
McKay, Don. Communication and Friendship.
EzineArticles.
EzineArticles.com, 22 Feb. 2006. Web. 27 Mar. 20--.
Mobile Phones, Texting, and Literacy.
National Literacy Trust.
NLT, 2008. Web. 1 Apr. 20--.
Mufe. Member comment. The Death of English (LOL).
News-
week.
Newsweek, 18 Aug. 2008. Web. 28 Mar. 20--.
National Endowment for the Arts.
To Read or Not To Read: A
Question of National Consequence.
Washington, NEA, Nov.
2007. PDF le.
OConnor, Amanda. Instant Messaging: Friend or Foe of Stu
-
dent Writing.
New Horizons for Learning.
New Horizons for
Learning, Mar. 2005. Web. 27 Mar. 20--.
Technology Has Tremendous Impact on How Teens Communi
-
cate.
Cellular-news.
Cellular-news, 20 Feb. 2007. Web. 27
Mar. 20--.
Ward, Lucy. Texting Is No Bar to Literacy.


Guardian.co.uk.
Guardian N
ews and Media Limited, 23 Dec. 2004. Web. 2
Apr. 20--.
05_GRE_60141_Ch5_106_128.indd 128
11/11/14 2:56 PM
n this chapter, we look at strategies for expanding the base of sources
you will need to assess the claims the writers make, the extent to which
they provide evidence in support of those claims, and the recency, rele
vance, accuracy, and reliability of the evidence. The specic strategies we

ATI
We assume that by the time you visit the library or log on to the Inter
Standard Types of Sources for Doing Research
I
TI
A
TI
Brief summary
of a text and the
History: An Intro
ject and author,
vidual’s life and
author’s bias
Biography.com
National
To help
reviewer’s bias
To give research
Technical
United Nations Bib
graphic Information
System
Data,
To help research
Election Studies
ATI
xperts Who
Your writing instructor.
Your rst and best expert is likely to be your writ
ing instructor, who can help you dene the limits of your research and
I
TI
A
TI
To explain key
Webster’s
Oxford English Dictionary
The Oxford
Current English
Concise art
Lack of
information
The CQ Researcher
Encyclopedia Brittanica
Online
Hill Encyclopedia
of Science & Technology
Yahoo!
Newspaper,
To locate timely
reporter’s or
medium’s bias
World News Connection
For alternative
Pro Quest
Librarians at your campus or local library.
your writing course, in response to a reading assigned in, say, your psy
chology or economics
course. If so, you may want to discuss your topic
Manuals, handbooks, and dedicated web sites.
for general research as well as for
and resources, although they also offer practical advice on how to use and
or handbooks, or recommend
a Web site, at the beginning of the course. If
evelop a Working Knowledge of Standard Sources
sources are available and what they can help you accomplish. Table6.1
known examples. Although it may not help you pinpoint
ATI
which youwill need to answer your question. Your instructor may specify
kind of account
kers’ndings along with other studies of gender dynamics in the
-
only movement, you would draw on both primary and secondary sources.
You would be interested in researchers’ rsthand (primary) accounts of
you would also want to know from secondary sources what others think
USA Today
Time
and
Field &

are written for a general
audience. This
read by people who are not physicians, but they are not the journal’s pri
on the journal’s conversation of ideas; they are not expected to contribute
peer review.
be published.
When you begin your research, you may nd that popular sources
provide helpful information about a topic or an

na

tional poll, for example. Later, however, you will want to use scholarly
sources to advance your argument. You can see from Table 6.2 that popu
resources? How do the advertisements appear? If you nd ads and glossy
pictures and illustrations,
you are probably looking at a popular magazine.
in an education, psychology, or microbiology journal. Given your experi


language you need to use in your writing.
Popular Magazines Versus Scholarly Journals
J
Numerous full
ads
Few if any ads
Appearance
Eye
tures and illustrations
Plain; black
Rarely give full citationsExtensive bibliography
Content
General articles to inform,
Psychology Today
Commercial publisherProfessional organization,
university, research insti
SOURCE: Adapted from materials at the Hesburgh Library, University of Notre Dame.
136
CHAPTER 6

|

F
R
OM F
I
ND
I
NG
T
O EV
A
LU
ATI
NG SOU
RCES
Again, as you dene your task for yourself, it is important to consider
why you would use one source or another. Do you want facts? Opinions?
News reports? Research studies? Analyses? Personal reections? The ex

-
tent to which the information can help you make your argument will serve
Steps to Identifying Sources

1

Consult experts who can guide your research.
Talk to people who
can help you formulate issues and questions.

2

Develop a working knowledge of standard sources.
Identify the dif
-
ferent kinds of information that different types of sources

provide.

3

Decide what
type of information can best help you
answer your research question.

4

what kind of information will persuade your readers.
A Practice Sequence: Identifying Sources
We would now like you to practice using some of the strategies we have
discussed so far: talking with experts, deciding what sources of infor
-
can best help you develop your paper and persuade your readers. We
assume you have chosen a topic for your paper, identied an issue, and
perhaps formulated a working thesis. If not, think back to some of the
topics mentioned in earlier chapters. Have any of them piqued your
interest? If not, here are ve very broad topics you might workwith:
�t��I�J�H�I�F�S
�
�F�E�V�D�B�U�J�P�O
�
�T�U�V�E�F�O�U
�
�M�P�B�O�T��t
�
�T�D�J�F�O�D�F
�
�B�O�E
�
�S�F�M�J�H�J�P�O
�t��U�I�F
�
�N�F�E�J�B
�
�B�O�E
�
�H�F�O�E�F�S�
�t
�
�J�N�N�J�H�S�B�U�J�P�O
�t��H�M�P�C�B�M
�
�I�F�B�M�U�I
Once youve decided on a topic, talk to experts and decide which
types of sources you should use: primary or secondary, popular or
scholarly. Consult with your classmates to evaluate the strengths and

weaknesses of different sources of information and the appropriateness
of using different types of information. Here are the steps to

follow:

1


-
mation about your topic (for example, databases, abstracts, or
bibliographies). Be sure to take notes.
06_GRE_60141_Ch6_129_150.indd 136
11/11/14 2:46 PM

or secondary, popular or

information you need. You might begin with a tour of your university or
local library, so that you know where the library keeps newspapers, gov
offer efcient access to government records and other sources essential to
only movement.
When you log on to the library’s site,
you nd a menu of choices: Catalog,
irtual Reference
Desk, and Services & Collections. (The
wording may vary slightly from library
to library, but the means of locating
information will be the same.) When you
click on Catalog, another menu of search
choices appears: Keyword, Title, Author,

Talk to an expert who can provide you with some ideas about


Search Strategies
ATI
Perform a Keyword Search
is essentially your topic: It denes the topic of your search.
To run a keyword search, you can look up information by author, title,
or subject. You would search by author to locate all the works a particu
lar author has written on a subject. So, for example, if you know that
ment, you might begin with an author search. You can use the title
search to locate all works with a key word or phrase in the title. The
should end up with a list of authors, titles, and subject headings to guide
anothersearch.
A search by subject is particularly helpful as you begin your research,
while you are still formulating your thesis. You want to start by think
ing of as many words as possible that relate to your topic. (A thesaurus
can help you come up with different words you can use in a keyword
search.) Suppose you type in the phrase “English only.” A number of
different sources appear on the screen, but the most promising is Paul
Lang’s book
TheEn

glishLanguage Debate: One Nation, One Language?
You click on this record, and another screen appears with some valu
able pieces of information, including the call number (which tells you

View Bibliographic Entry
English-
only movement
Bilingual


words to use in nding relevant
information. The lesson here is that it is important to generate keywords
ry Browsing
references for each entry.
What appears in the
window is “Browse List: Choose a eld, enter a phrase
headings or titles appears on the screen. This is not a list of books, and not
seem relevant:
only debate
only movement.
ATI
headings (Figure 6.4) that differs from those of your initial search. This list
We suggest that you do a keyword search rst and then a browse
search to home in on a subject. Especially when you don’t know the exact
relevant results.
Perform a Journal or
Finally, you can search by journal or newspaper title. For this kind of
search, you will need exact information. You can take the name of a jour
nal, magazine, or newspaper cited in your keyword or browse search.

print, microform or
New York Times
New York Times.
You would run a basic search under the category “Peri-
“Periodical Title begins with
.” That would give you
accessto
only movement. To nd
more recent articles, you could go to
New York Times
Web site (nytimes.com), where you could nd many
EV
A
LU
ATI
NG
LI
B
RAR
Y SOU
RCES
141
E
VALUAT
I
NG
LIB
RARY SOURCE
S
The information you collect can and will vary in terms of its relevance and
overall quality. You will want to evaluate this information as systemati
-
cally as possible to be sure that you are using the most appropriate sources
to develop your argument. Once you have obtained at least some of the
sources you located by searching your librarys catalog, you should eval
-
uate the material as you read it. In particular, you want to evaluate the

following information for each article or book:
�t�

the authors background and credentials (What is the authors educa
-
tional background? What has he or she written about in the past? Is
this person an expert in the eld?)
�t�

the writers purpose
�t�

the topic of discussion
�t�

audience
in helping you establish the timeliness and relevance of your research. To
see the full text of the articles, you must subscribe or pay a nominal fee,
although you can usually preview the articles because the Web site will
include a few sentences describing the content of each article.
A Practice Sequence: Searching for Sources
If you tried the practice sequence on identifying sources (p. 136),
explore your topic further by practicing the types of searches dis
-
cussed in this section: a keyword search; a browse; and a journal or
newspaper title search (or a subject search).
Steps to Searching for Sources

1

Perform a keyword search.
Choose a word or phrase that best
describes your topic.

2

Try browsing.

3

Perform a journal or newspaper title search.
Find relevant

citations by identifying the exact title of a journal or newspaper,
or by subject.
06_GRE_60141_Ch6_129_150.indd 141
11/11/14 2:46 PM
ATI
what the author’s own view is
the accuracy of the author’s evidence (Can you nd similar informa

offers




ead the Introductory Sections
Turn to the introductory sections of the text rst. Many authors use a pref
ace or an introduction to explain the themes they focus on in a book. An
serves a similar purpose, but article abstracts are usually only
250 words long. In the introductory sections, writers typically describe the
search of others. For example, in the preface to her book
Valdés explains that even after two years of language instruction, many
speaking youngsters the entire school day. It is designed to ll a gap
background youngsters by offering a
glimpse of the challenges and difculties faced by four
ATI
now surround the education of immigrant children in this country. (p. 2)
in particular the consequences of
that movement for young students, you
might very well nd Valdés’s words compelling and decide the book is

the “Politics of Teaching English.” You also should turn to the back of
what the author has to say on this subject. You would also nd references

sheltered instruction.”
Especially in the initial stages of writing, you should look closely at writ
voices in the eld. Frequent citation of a particular researcher’s work may
Valdés’s bibliography, you would nd such titles as “Perspectives on Of
guage and Power,” and “The Cultural Politics of English.”
Skimming a book or an article entails briey looking over the elements we
144
CHAPTER 6

|

F
R
OM F
I
ND
I
NG
T
O EV
A
LU
ATI
NG SOU
RCES
index, and the notes and bibliography. Skimming also can mean reading
-
mine the relevance of a book or an article.
Skimming the rst chapter of
Learning and Not Learning English
, you
would nd several topic sentences that reveal the writers purpose:
In this book, then, I examine and describe different expressions that
both learning and

not
-
learning English took among four youngsters.
In the chapters that follow

.

.

.
What I hope to suggest

.

.

.
use to you.
If, after youve taken these steps, a source still seems promising, you
-
tion. Keep in mind the critical reading skills youve learned and see if you
can discern the authors overall situation, purpose, claims, and audience.
Assess the evidence used to support the claims



is it recent, relevant,
accurate, reliable? What kinds of evidence does the author use? Primary
or secondary? Popular or scholarly? What kind of data, facts, or statistical
to a thorough understanding of
its argument and all the note taking and
critical thinking that will entail.
Steps to Evaluating Library Sources

1

Read the introductory sections.

researchers argument.

2

Examine the table of contents and index.
Consider the

most

relevant chapters to your topic and the list of relevant

subjects.

3

Check the notes and bibliographic references.
Identify the
authors a researcher refers to (do the names come up in

many

different books?) and the titles of both books and

articles.

4

Skim for the argument.
Read chapter titles, headings, and topic

Go deeper to assess the type and quality of evidence the author
-
port the argument.
06_GRE_60141_Ch6_129_150.indd 144
11/11/14 2:46 PM
EV
A
LU
ATI
NG IN
TER
N
SOU
RCES
145
E
VALUAT
I
S
Without question, the World Wide Web has revolutionized how research is
conducted. It has been a particular boon to experienced researchers who
have a clear sense of what they are looking for, giving them access to more
pit

falls for inexperienced researchers. That is, sites that appear accurate
-
side your school library
s catalog pose problems because anyone can post
anything he or she wants. Unfortunately, there is no way to monitor the
can be useful, particularly because they are current, you must take steps to
evaluate them before using information from them.

E
valuate the
A
uthor of the Site
If an authors name appears on a Web site, ask the following: Who is this
person? What credentials and professional afliations qualify this person
to make a legitimate argument in the eld being investigated?
A Practice Sequence: Evaluating
L
ibrary Sources
For this exercise, we would like you to choose a specic book or

article
to examine in order to practice these strategies. If you are far along on
your own research, use a book or an article you have identied as
potentially useful.

1


Read the introductory sections. What issue is the author respond
-
ing to? What is the writers purpose? To correct a misconception?
To ll a gap? T
o build on or extend the work of others? To address
a hypothesis?

2

Examine the table of contents and index. What key words or
phrases are related to your own research? Which topics does the
author focus on? Are you intending to give these topics similar
emphasis? (Will you give more or less emphasis?)

3


Check the notes and bibliographic references. Make a list of the
sources you think you want to look up for your own research. Do
certain sources seem more important than others?

4


Skim for the argument. What is the authors focus? Is it relevant
to your own topic, issue, question, working thesis? What kinds
of evidence does the author use? Does the author use primary
or secondary sources? Popular
or scholarly articles? Statistics?
Facts or opinions? Do you want to commit yourself to grappling
with the authors argument?
06_GRE_60141_Ch6_129_150.indd 145
11/11/14 2:46 PM
ATI
One of our students googled “English only” and clicked on the rst

English Only Movement,” which eventually
led her to James Crawford’s Language Policy Web Site & Emporium. On

formerly the
Washington editor of
Week

who specializes in the politics of
English
Bilingual Education
Perhaps
most important, Crawford has authored four
books and a number of articles and has testied before Congress on “Ofcial
Less certain, however, are the credentials of the writer who penned
an article titled “Should the National Anthem Be Sung in English Only?”
which appeared on another Web site our student visited. Why? Because
the writer’s name never appears on the site. An anonymous posting is
the rst clue that you want to move on to a more legitimate source of
hat Supports the Site
organization; .com, a commercial organization. You will need to
approach these Web sites with a degree of skepticism because you cannot
body. (In fact, even .edu sites may turn out to be postings by a student at a
college or university.)
Policy. Is the institute a regulatory body that oversees what appears on
Who sits on its board of directors? As a critical thinker, the student had to
Education Week
familiar with a publication and are uncertain about its legitimacy, you can always ask
, a librarian, or another expert to vouch for its reliability.
ATI
Information is never objective, so whenever you evaluate a book, an
or a Web site, you should consider the point of view the writer or sponsor
is taking. It’s
especially important to ask if there is a particular bias among
Not all Web sites provide easy answers to these questions. However,
James Crawford’s Language Policy Web Site & Emporium is quite explicit.
of language policy issues, expose misguided school ‘reforms,’
” and, among
question about his degree of objectivity.
What about a site like Wikipedia (“The Free Encyclopedia”)? The site
appears to exist to convey basic information. Although the popularity of
valuate the Information on the Site
In addition to assessing the purpose of a Web site like Wikipedia, you
needto evaluate the extent to which the information is recent, accurate,
consistent with information you nd in print sources and clearly

lated sites. For example, clicking on “The modern
-
only
movement” on Wikipedia takes you to a timeline of sorts with a num
mation? What is included? What is left out? You should check further
mind the four criteria for evaluating a

recency, relevance,
reliability, and accuracy
Web
tion, there is no shortage of material, but you have to train yourself not to
148
CHAPTER 6

|

F
R
OM F
I
ND
I
NG
T
O EV
A
LU
ATI
NG SOU
RCES
WR
I
T
I
NG AN
A
NNOTATED B
IB
L
I
OGRA
P
HY
In this chapter, we have suggested some strategies that you can use to
locate information to help you learn more about a topic, issue, or ques
-
tion and to assess the extent to which this information can help you
develop a legitimate, credible, and well
-
supported argument. As you read,
it is important to write down the citation, or bibliographic information,
of each source, including the authors name, date of publication, the title
of an article
or book, the journal title where an article appears, page num
-
bers, and publishing information for a book.
Collecting the basic information about each source is useful, but we
also suggest that you write an annotated bibliography to give some shape

1

Evaluate the author of the site.
an expert.

2

Evaluate the organization that supports the site.
Find out what
the organization stands for and the extent of its credibility.

3

Evaluate the purpose of the site.
What interests are represented
on the site? What is the site trying to do? Provide access to legiti
-
mate statistics and information? Advance an argument? Spread
propaganda?

4

Evaluate the information on the site.
Identify the type of infor
-
mation on the site and the extent to which the information is
recent, relevant, reliable, and accurate.
For this exercise, we would like you to work in groups on a common
topic. The class can choose its own topic or use one of the topics we
suggest on pages 14547. Then google the topic and agree on a Web
site to analyze:
Group 1:

Evaluate the author of the site.
Group 2:

Evaluate the organization that supports the site.
Group 3:

Evaluate the purpose of the site.
Group 4:

Evaluate the information on the site.
the extent to which you believe you could use the information on this
site in writing an academic essay.
06_GRE_60141_Ch6_129_150.indd 148
11/11/14 2:46 PM
W
RITI
NG
A
N ANNO
TATE
D
BI
BL
I
OG
RAPH
Y
149
to the information you nd. In writing an annotation, you should include
the key ideas and claims from each source. You can also identify where
you see gaps, misconceptions, and areas that you can build upon in devel
-
oping your own argument. That is, in addition to stating what a given
source is about, you can address the following questions: What is the issue
the author responds to? What is the writers purpose? To what extent is
the argument persuasive? Does it overlook any issues that are important?
Finally, you can explain the relevance of this work to your own research,
given your own purpose for writing and what you want to demonstrate.
You can limit each annotation to a few sentences in which you pres
-
ent another writers key claims and ideas, briey analyze the writers argu
-
ment, and then explain how you will use that information in your own
researched argument. The annotation below provides one such example,
using APA format for the citation.
Loftstrom, M., & Tyler, J. H. (2009). Finishing high school:

Alternative pathways and dropout r
ecovery.
The Future of

Children, 19
ugust 28, 2012 from JSTOR
at http://www.jstor.org/stable/27795036
This article provides a good history and analysis of the present
dropout problem facing our nation. Researchers examine the

discrepancy in statewide hi
that have led to debates about reality of dropout rates. The
authors also examine social and economic consequences of failure
as a replacement for a high school diploma. The researchers
conclude by examining some dropout prevention programs and by
calling for more research in this area. In doing so, they identify a
gap that my research at an alternative high school can help to ll,
especially my interviews with students currently enrolled in the
program and those who have droppedout.
Steps to Writing an Annotated Bibliography

1

Present key ideas.
Describe in just a few sentences what this
research is about and what you have learned.

2

Analyze.
Explain the situation the author responds to, the pur
-
pose of the research, possible gaps in reasoning or misconcep
-
tions, and adequacy of evidence.

3

Discuss how you might use this research
in developing your own argument. As background for your own
work? To explain how you ll a gap or correct a misconception?
Will you build upon and extend this work?
06_GRE_60141_Ch6_129_150.indd 149
11/11/14 2:46 PM
150
CHAPTER 6

|

F
R
OM F
I
ND
I
NG
T
O EV
A
LU
ATI
NG SOU
RCES
A Practice Sequence: Writing an Annotated
B
ibliography
Write an annotation of a book, book chapter, or article that you have
read for your
research. Follow the steps in the previous box by rst
discussing the content of what you have read and analyzing the
write an annotation of a book, book chapter, or article related to any
of the following broad topics:
�t��I�J�H�I�F�S
�
�F�E�V�D�B�U�J�P�O
�
�T�U�V�E�F�O�U
�
�M�P�B�O�T
�t��U�I�F
�
�N�F�E�J�B
�
�B�O�E
�
�H�F�O�E�F�S
�t��H�M�P�C�B�M
�
�I�F�B�M�U�I
�t��T�D�J�F�O�D�F
�
�B�O�E
�
�S�F�M�J�H�J�P�O
�t��J�N�N�J�H�S�B�U�J�P�O
06_GRE_60141_Ch6_129_150.indd 150
11/11/14 2:46 PM
151
W
hen you start to use sources to build your argument, there are certain
strategies for working with the words and ideas of others that you
will need to learn. Often you can quote the words of an author directly; but
just as often you will restate and condense the arguments of others (para
-
phrasing and summarizing) or make comparisons to the ideas of others in
the process of developing your own argument (synthesizing). We walk you
through these more challenging strategies in this chapter. We also briey
discuss plagiarism and ways to avoid it and how to integrate quotations
into your writing.
SUMMARIE
S
, PARA
P
HRA
S
E
S
, ANDQUOTATION
S
In contrast to quotations, which involve using another writers exact words,
paraphrases and summaries are both restatements of another writers ideas
in your own words, but they differ in length:
�t�

A paraphrase is usually about the same length as the original passage.
�t�

A summary generally condenses a signicantly longer text, convey
-
ing the argument not only of a few sentences but also of entire para
-
graphs, essays, or books.
In your own writing, you might paraphrase a few sentences or even
a few paragraphs, but you certainly would not paraphrase a whole essay
(much less a whole book). In constructing your arguments, however, you
will often have to summarize the main points of the lengthy texts with
which you are in

conversation.
From Summary to Synthesis
Using Sources to Build an Argument
07_GRE_5344_Ch7_151_210.indd 151
11/19/14 1:59 PM
Both paraphrasing and summarizing are means to inquiry. That is, the
act of recasting someone else’s words or ideas into your own language, to suit
your argument and reach your readers, forces you to think critically: What
ment? How can I best present it to my readers? It requires making choices,

phrase, summary, or direct quotation. In general, the following rules apply:
the language may be difcult for your readers to understand.
effective

so clear, so concise, so authori

WRITING A PARA
own words, using your own sentence structure and composed with your
When you paraphrase a passage, start by identifying key words and
phrases and substituting synonyms for them. A dictionary or thesaurus
can help, but you may also have to reread what led up to the passage to
remind yourself of the context. For example, did the writer dene terms
ers. As you shufe words and phrases, you should begin arriving at a
nary
plays a
*Gunn’s essay appears in
Mapping the World of Harry Potter: An Unauthorized
Exploration of the Bestselling Fantasy Series of All Time
who favor other,
be the offspring of such unremarkable parents; in the Harry Potter books, the
According to James Gunn, the circumstances and depiction of Harry Potter as a
normal boy with special abilities captivate us by playin
g on our empathy. Gunn
observes that, like Cinderella, Harry is scorned by his guardians, who treat him far
worse than they treat his
admirable peers. And lik
e another
fairy-
tale gure,
the chan
geling, Harry embodies the fantasies of children who refuse to believe that
they were born of their undistinguished parents (146).
paraphrase is about the same length as the original and says essentially the
same things as Gunn’s original.
Now, compare the paraphrase with this summary:
RY
James Gunn observes that Harry Potter’s character is compelling because readers
empathize with Harry’s fairy tale–like plight as an orphan whose gifts are ignored by
his foster parents (146).
The summary condenses the passage, conveying Gunn’s main point with-

maryindicate that the ideas are James Gunn’s, not the
writer’s

“According


and signal, with page references,
where Gunn’s ideas end.
subject we come back to in our discussion of plagiarism on page 192. The
point we want to make here is that borrowing from the work of others is not
always intentional. Many students stumble into plagiarism, especially when
emember that it’s not enough to change
ou may be wondering: “If paraphrasing is so tricky, why bother? What
does it add? I can see how the summary of Gunn’s paragraph pre
mation more concisely and efciently than the original, but the paraphrase
doesn’t seem to be all that different from the source and doesn’
t seem to add
Good questions. The answer is that you paraphrase when the ideas in a
passage are important but are conveyed in language your readers mayhave
difculty understanding. When academics write for their peers, they draw
on the specialized vocabulary of their disciplines to make their arguments.
By paraphrasing, you may be helping your readers, providing a translation
Time Passages: Collective Memory and American Popular Culture
ication of commercialized leisure from the invention of the telegraph tothe
1890s. The second involved the transition from V
consumer-
and deindustrialization accelerated the demise of traditionin America, while
from World War II to the present marks the nal
leisure, and with it an augmented crisis overthe lossof connection to the past.
Historian George Lipsitz argues that Americans’ sense of the past is rooted in
cultural changes datin
g from the 1800s and has evolved through three stages.

the “codication of commercialized leisure,” “the transition from
consumer-
hedonist values,” “the dislocations of urban renewal,
suburbanization, and

have disappeared. The writer
not only looked up these terms and phrases in the dictionary but also reread
155
W
R
I
T
ING
A
P
ARAPHRASE
The paraphrase is not an improvement on the original

passage



in
fact, historians would probably prefer what Lipsitz

wrote



but it may
help readers who do notshare Lipsitzs expertise understand his point
without distorting his argument.
Now compare this summary to the paraphrase:
SU
MMA
RY
Historian George Lipsitz argues that technological, social, and economic changes
the loss of connection to the past, in which Americans nd themselves cut off from
the memories of their traditions (12).
in and of itself. Their correctness and appropriateness depend on how the
restatements are used in a given argument. That is, the decision to para
-
phrase or summarize depends entirely on the information you need to con
-
summary sufcient? In this case, if you plan to focus your argument on the
causes of Americas loss of cultural memory (the rise of commercial enter
-
tainment, changes in spending habits, globalization), then a paraphrase
might be more helpful. But if you plan to dene
loss of cultural memory
, then
a summary may provide enough context for the next stage of your argument.
Steps to Writing a Paraphrase

1

If your readers dont need all the
information in the passage, consider summarizing it or presenting
the key points as part of a summary of a longer passage. If a passage

is clear, concise, and memorable as originally written, consider quot
-
ing instead of paraphrasing. Otherwise, and especially if the original
was written for an academic audience, you may want to paraphrase
the original to make its substance more accessible to your readers.

2

Understand the passage.
Start by identifying key words, phrases,
and ideas. If necessary, reread the pages leading up to the passage,
to place it in context.

3

Draft your paraphrase.

R
eplace key words and phrases with
synonyms and alternative phrases (possibly gleaned from the
context provided by the surrounding text).
E
xperiment with
word order and sentence structure until the paraphrase captures
your understanding of the passage, in your own language, for
your readers.

4

Acknowledge your source.
Thats the only sure way to protect
yourself from a charge of plagiarism.
07_GRE_5344_Ch7_151_210.indd 155
11/19/14 1:59 PM
156
CHAPTER 7

|

F
R
OM SUMM
AR
Y
T
O SYN
THES
I
S
WRITING A SUMMARY
As you have seen, a
summary
condenses a body of information, present
-
ing the key ideas and acknowledging the source. A common activity or
assignment in a composition class is to
summarize
a text.
Y
ou may be
asked to read a text, reduce it to its main points, and convey them, without
is to sharpen your reading and thinking skills as you learn to distinguish
-
tion in this manner is crucial to critical thinking.
However, summarizing is not an
active way to make an argument.
While summaries do provide a common ground of information for your
readers, you must shape that information to support the purposes of
their main ideas for your readers.

1.

describing the authors key claims,

2.

selecting examples to illustrate the authors argument,

3.

presenting the gist of the authors argument, and

4.

contextualizing what you summarize.
We demonstrate these steps for writing a summary following Clive
Thompsons article On the New Literacy.
A Practice Sequence: Paraphrasing

1


In one of the sources youve located in your research, nd a sen
-
tence of some length and complexity, and paraphrase it. Share the
original and your paraphrase of it with a classmate, and discuss
the effectiveness of your restatement. Is the meaning clear to your
reader? Is the paraphrase written in your own language, using
your own sentence structure?

2

R
epeat the activity using a short paragraph from the same source.
Y
ou and your classmate may want to attempt to paraphrase the
same paragraph and then compare results. What differences do
On the New Literacy
A print journalist at
New York Magazine
, Clive Thompson started his blog,
C
L
IVE TH
O
MPS
ON
07_GRE_5344_Ch7_151_210.indd 156
11/19/14 1:59 PM
again
about how kids today can’t write
book encourages narcissistic blabbering, video and PowerPoint have
replaced carefully crafted essays, and texting has dehydrated language
lish professor John Sutherland has moaned). An age of illiteracy is at
Andrea Lunsford isn’t so sure. Lunsford is a professor of writing
niversity, where she has organized a
moth project called the Stanford Study of Writing to scrutinize college
everything from in-class assignments, formal essays, and
journal entries to e-mails, blog posts, and chat sessions. Her conclusions
we haven’t seen since Greek civilization,” she says. For Lunsford, tech
t killing our ability to write. It’s reviving it
than any generation before them. That’s because so much socializing
life writing, as Lunsford calls it. Those Twitter
It’s almost hard to remember how big a paradigm shift this is. Before
ducing text (like in law, advertising, or media), they’d leave school and
But is this explosion
of prose good, on a technical level?
es. Lunsford’s
team found that the
assessing their audience and adapting their tone
and tech

to identify how the writer develops his or her argument.
what we call “chunking,” grouping
author’s argument. It is especially helpful if the paragraphs are lengthy
Wired
s paragraphs are generally rather short, but it’s still worth taking a
Facebook encourages narcissistic blabbering, video and PowerPoint have
Andrea Lunsford isn’t so sure. Lunsford is a professor of
niversity, where she has organized a
mammoth project called the Stanford Study of Writing to scrutinize college
from sprawling TV-show recaps to 15,000-word videogame
has given them a chance to write enormously long and
We think of writing as either good or bad. What today’s young people
entries to e-mails, blog posts, and chat sessions. Her conclusions are stirring.
paragraph
rst, and a national study designed to examine students’ literacy in the sec
ond
people’s reliance on blogs and posts to communicate. How will Thompson
Notice the author’s point of view and use of transitions.
for identifying major points is to pay attention to
descriptive words and
paragraph. Specically, he describes these critics as “pundits,” a word that
traditionally refers to an expert or knowledgeable individual. However, the
less positive, or neutral, or even negative
expect students to “[master] formal academic prose.” However, he follows
ing literacy into
cool directions.” Thompson also recognizes that students
serves to introduce Thompson’s strongest claim: New media have given
students “a chance to write enormously long and complex pieces of prose,
Thompson’s key claims in this way:
E
previous generations, and students have learned to
adapt what they
are writing in order to have some tangible effect on what people think
Arguably, reliance on blogging and posting on Twitter and Facebook
students write lengthy, complex pieces that
contribute to creating sig
uthor’s
son’s main points:
E
previous generations, and students have learned to
adapt what they
are writing in order to have some tangible effect on what people think
Arguably, reliance on blogging and posting on Twitter and Facebook
can foster some bad
habits in writing.
Examples of these bad habits
Thompson’s descrip
tion of texting’s “haiku-like concision”
3.
But at least one major study demonstrates that the benets of using the
Examples include Thompson’s
Andrea Lunsford observes that students are “remarkably adept
assessing their audience and adapting
-
uthor’s
of an argument, you are expressing the author’s
the author’s thesis statement. Instead, it is your formulation of the author’s
Thompson’s observations in paragraph 8 represent his thesis: “But it’s also
becoming clear that online media are pushing literacy into cool directions.
from
sprawling TV-show recaps to 15,000-word videogame walkthroughs
has
given [students] a chance to write enormously long and complex pieces of
prose, often while working collaboratively with others.” In this paragraph,
Thompson clearly expresses his central ideas in two sentences, while also
, in formulating the gist of
ou want
to use his position to support your own. For example, suppose you want to
qualify the disapproval that some educators have expressed in drawing their
ou would want to mention Thompson’s
In his essay “On the New Literacy,” Clive Thompson, while acknowledging some aca
demic criticism of new media, argues that these media give students opportunities
to write more than in previous generations and that students have learned to adapt
what they are writing in order to have some tangible effect on what people think
and how they act.
Notice that this gist could not have been written based only on Thomp
son’s thesis statement. It reects knowledge of Thompson’s major points,
What is the author’s expertise?
What was the occasion of the work’s publication? What prompted
Again, because a summary must be concise, you must make decisions
about how much of the conversation your readers need to know. If your
assignment is to practice summarizing, it may be sufcient to include only
information about the author and the source. However, if you are using
our practice summary of Thompson’s essay should mention that
essay.
ou also may want to include information about Thompson’s audi
ence, publication information, and what led to the work’s publication. Was
e compiled our notes on Thompson’s essay (key claims, examples,
Here is our summary of Thompson’s essay:
In his essay “On the New Literacy,” Clive Thompson, while
tangible effect on what people think and how they act.
7.1

C
E
lectronic media
difference.

Arguably, reliance

effect on the world”
gible effect on what
Wired
in August 2009
(http://www.wired
The gist of Thompson’s
argument.
W
R
I
T
ING
A
SUMM
AR
Y
163
Arguably, reliance on blogging and posting on Twitter and
Facebook can foster some bad habits in writing. But at least
one major study demonstrates that the benets of using
the new media outweigh the disadvantages. Students write
lengthy, complex pieces that contribute to creating signi
-
Steps to Writing a Summary

1

Describe the key claims of the text.
To understand the shape and
direction of the argument, study how paragraphs begin and end,
and pay attention to the authors point of view and use of transi
-
tions. Then combine what you have learned into a few sentences
describing the key claims.

2
S
elect examples to illustrate the authors argument.
Find one or
two examples to support each key claim.
Y
ou may need only one
example when you write your summary.

3
P
resent the gist of the authors argument.
Describe the authors
central idea in your own language with an eye to where you expect
your argument to go.

4

Contextualize what you summarize.
Cue your readers into
theconversation. Who is the author? Where and when did
the textappear? Why did the author write? Who else is in the

conversation?
A Practice Sequence: Writing a Summary

1


Summarize a text that you have been studying for research or for one
of your other classes.
Y
ou may want to limit yourself to an excerpt of
just a few paragraphs or a few pages. Follow the four steps weve
-
mary of the text. Then share the excerpt and your summary of it with
two of your peers. Be prepared to justify your choices in composing

the summary. Do your peers agree that your summary captures what
is important in the original?

2


With a classmate, choose a brief text of about three pages.
E
ach of
of the text.
E
xchange your summaries and
-
cuss the effectiveness of your summaries.
E
ach of you should be
prepared to discuss your
choice of key claims and examples and
This concession helps
to balance enthusiasm
based on a single study.
Thompsons main point
with example.
07_GRE_5344_Ch7_151_210.indd 163
11/19/14 1:59 PM
UMMARY
contrast to a summary, which
explains the context of a source, a synthesis
creates a context for your own argument. That is, when you write a synthe
the larger conversation about the issue and begin to claim your own place
ingthecontributions of their predecessors as
they advance their own points ofview.
ather,
Comparing different points of view prompts you to ask why they differ
.
passages where claims
conict (“writer X says
asserts just the opposite”) or at least
sees it
differently”). And it starts you formulating your own
counterarguments:
Keep in mind that the purpose of a synthesis is not merely to list the
similarities and differences you nd in different sources or to assert your
agreement with one source as opposed to others. Instead, it sets up your argu
ment. Once you discover connections among texts, you have to decide what
those connections mean to you and your readers. What bearing do they have
To compose an effective synthesis, you must (1) make connections among
ideas in different texts, (2) decide what those connections mean, and
wrote a summary. The difference is that in a synthesis, your gist should be
but the relationship among different ideas in multiple texts.
To help you grasp strategies of writing a synthesis, read the follow
ing essays by journalists Cynthia Haven and Josh Keller, which, like Clive
Thompson’s essay, deal with the effects of new media on the quality of stu
dents’ writing. We have annotated the Haven and Keller readings not only
oday’s kids don’t just write for grades anymore
Moreover, they are writing more than any previous
generation, ever, in history. They navigate in a bewil
Begins with claims
in the rst two
paragraphs for our
consideration.
and Complexity in
tudents’ Writing
The Times Literary Supplement, The Vir
ginia Quarterly Review, The Washington Post, The Los Angeles Times, The
San Francisco Chronicle, World Literature Today,
and other publications.
Le Monde, La Repubblica, The Kenyon
Review, Quarterly Conversation, The Georgia Review, Civilization,
and
others. She has been a Milena Jesenská Journalism Fellow with the
Institut für die Wissenschaften vom Menschen in Vienna.
niversity Press/Swallow Press. She is
ené

ford Study of Writing, spearheaded by Professor
Andrea Lunsford, director of Stanford’s Program in
Writing and
to participate in the study. Of the 243 invited, 189
year’s class.
Writing as
nature of our lives. They understand the dangers that
S
Connect, a social media design company (he’s also
not just for
dent in the Program in African and African American
niversity of Sussex in articial intelligence (2008),
academic writing was often “less important” than his
writing for
the “real world”
for example, the iers he
or can ramble on in
Implied comparison
ing different masks. Does much of this writing,
moreover, trap them in a world of other 19-year-olds,
Audiences Change over Tim
Otuteye noted that the students in the study were
already writing for professors, friends, and parents.
Moreover, as they transition into the work world after
graduation, they begin to see “those audiences begin
to mix and overlap. All the communication that they
do online, with the exception of e-mail, can become
public.”
“The skill of being able to manage multiple, over
lapping audiences is a principle of rhetoric, a skill I
was able to hone and perfect not only in academic
writing, but in the performance writing I did and all
the
rhetorical activity I was engaged in at Stanford.”
He said that even the computer code he writes
now follows “the same principles of rhetoric, spe
cically around audience, that is used in poetry and
academic writing.” A line of code, he said, could
have four or more audiences, including other engi
neers and computers.
Lunsford underscored the need for higher educa
tion to adapt; for example, students could post their
essays online, accommodating their preference for
an audience and online discussion. But Lunsford said
adaptation must go even further: What doesan
-
glish p
rofessor say when a student approaches her
and says, “I know you’d like me to write an essay, but
I’d like to make a documentary”?
In light of this brave new world, it can be hard to
remember that only a few decades ago doomsday
prophets were predicting the death of the written
word, as telephones and television increased their
domination over a culture, and business C
Os dic
ta
ted their letters into Dictaphones.
In those days, graduation from college largely
meant goodbye to writing. An ofce memo, letters, or
Haven raises a ques
tion that many critics
have about students
being trapped in a
limited view of the
world.
The case example
helps support the
claim that new media
enable students to
not
needs to change
to
“annotated cookbooks” were about the only written
expressions of the adult world, said Lunsford, unless
they were headed for jobs in the media or in aca
demia. Writing was “instrumental”
design
ed for a
purpose, such as a purchasing agreement, or adver
tising to sell a product.
Redening “Writing”
Today’s landscape alters fundamental notions of what
writing is. According to Lunsford, “The everyday
understanding of writing is usually operational as
opposed to epistemic.”
piste
mic writing creates knowledge. (Think of
all those times when you don’t know what to think
till you begin writing.) Such epistemic writing is an
ex

plora
tion, rather than declaration. It’s the writing
that dominates journals, letters, and many blogs.
Clearly, the students’ sense of agency extends to self-
knowl
edge as well as changing the world.
Comparing the Stanford students’ writing with
their peers from the mid-1980s, Lunsford found that
the writing of today’s students is about three times as
long
they ha
ve “the ability to generate more prose.”
They are also likely to make different kinds of
errors. The number one error twenty years ago was
spelling
a prob
lem easily circumvented today by a
spellchecker. Today’s number one error is using the
wrong word
“cons
traint” instead of “constrained,”
for example, or using the wrong preposition.
Lunsford recalls one student writing “I feel
necrotic” rather than “neurotic.”
Some nevertheless insist that writing today is sub
standard, littered with too many LOLs and OMGs.
However, Lunsford noted that Stanford students
were adept at different writing for different audi
ences.
Moreover, they are changing the game: For a
graphic novel such as Chris Ware’s
Jimmy Corrigan:
The Smartest Kid on Earth
, “traditional reading strat
egies do not work.
very si
ngle word is important.”
And web sites, though they can be skimmed with a
click, can be very labor- and thought-intensive.
Denes a specialized
term, “epistemic.”
But is the writing
“three times” as
eective? Is it good
Counterargument
to Lunsford’s posi
tion: Students have
not mastered the
technical aspects
of writing. However,
the quotation does
not really answer the
question.
“College writers need to be able to retain the best
of print literacy, and know how to deploy it for their
With the more playful, inventive and spontaneous
forms of writing available to them, are today’s stu

very time I pick
up Henry James, I have to
relearn how to read Henry James. We don’t want to
We can boil things down, prepare for different audi
ences, but when it comes to hard things, I don’t think
Concludes with a
quotation about how
the use of new media
does not devalue tra
ditional conceptions
of literacy, writing,
and classic literature.

niversity, Mark Otuteye
wrote in any medium he could nd. He wrote blog
-
glish professor, he saw academic writing as a “soul
Keller uses the same
student example as
Haven to make the
same point about
college writing
assignments.
ignore the prompt. “I got away with it,” says Mr. Otut
eration of college students who write far more, and in
But
Some scholars say that this new writing is more
engaged and more connected to an audience, and that
including Mr. Otuteye
writing class at Michigan State
niversity were asked
to keep a diary of the
writing they did in any environ
and in follow-up interviews, he says, students often
all of those things have led to an explosion in
Sums up two
opposed points of
view on the debate.
Goes beyond Haven
to cite an additional
study at Michigan
State that reached
similar conclusions as
the Stanford study.
Additional evidence
that supports the
Stanford study.
writing,” Mr. Grabill says. “People write more now
than ever. In order to interact on the Web, you have
ancey, a professor of
Florida State
the National Council of Teachers of
says, new
technologies are driving a greater number
“This is a new kind of composing because it’s so
variegated and because it’s so intentionally social,”
has a strong inuence on how students learn
to write,
she says. “We ignore it at our own peril.”
d adapt
their writing habits to their college course work, not
the other way around. Mark Bauerlein, a professor
nglish at
niversity, cites the
reading and
tional Progress, which have remained fairly at for
decades. It is a paradox, he says: “Why is it that with
ever before in human history, we nd no gains in read
The Right Writing
of the freshman class. Students were given access to
Students in the study “almost always” had more
Lunsford, the study’s director. Mr. Otuteye submitted
about 700 pieces of writing and became the study’s
most prolic contributor.
The report’s authors say they included nonaca
ple to academic
writing, which prevented researchers
were distinct from in-class work. Not surprisingly, the
ogers, one of the study’s authors.
talk about writing to coordinate out-of-class activity,”
says Mr
ogers, an assistant professor
nglish at
niversity. “A lot of them were a lot
Underscores the
diculty of drawing
conclusions either
way. This summary
of the Stanford
study suggests that
researchers there
have responded to
the complexity of
measuring outcomes
of writing in any
medium.
Cites the study at
George Mason.
Writing on blogs is
more engaging than
writing in school, and
it represents the
ways students sus
more conscious of the effect their writing was having
Mr.
routinely learn the basics of writing concepts wher
inside of class, that was sort of
Although analysis of the Stanford study is still at an
early stage, other scholars say they would like to start
niversity of California, several
ing habits for writing and literature curricula are up
Why does it have to
be “either/or”? Isn’t it
possible that there’s
a middle ground?
Grabill criticizes the
critics, pointing out
that they have lost
sight of an impor
tant goal: Students
should be able to
because it is seen as not the college’s responsibility, or
because it seems unnecessary.
write a good essay for your literature professor, you
can write anything,” Mr. Grabill says. “That’s utter
the opposite of a traditional academic paper, he says.
audience instead of a single professor, tries to solve
ondary form, online writing should be seen as “the
Ms.
ancey, at Florida State, says out-of-class writ
ancey says. “It’s the rest of the population that
Writing in electronic media probably does benet
struggling students in a rudimentary way, says
ry’s Mr
. Bauerlein, because they are at least forced
avoiding a
“re w
all”?
One critic concedes
that writing in
electronic media
can help struggling
writers, but he also
write to general, public
audience, not just aca
demic readers (paras.
wouldn’t be writing any words anyway, that’s going to
nglish courses often
turn in papers that are “stylistically impoverished,”
nglish at the
niversity of Wisconsin at Madison
who studies the
recent history of reading and writing, says the growth
of writing online should be seen as part of a broader
cultural shift toward mass authorship. Some of the
resistance to a more writing-centered curriculum, she
says, is based on the view that writing without reading

ifferent
The texts by Thompson, Haven, and Keller all deal with the emergence of
new electronic media and their effects on students’ development as writers.
These texts are very much in conversation with one another, as each author
focuses on what research tells us are the benets of the new media and the
their writing for specic
audiences and to write fairly complex texts to
affect the ways readers think and act.
Haven provides a more elaborate
analysis of the Stanford study to
argue that we are witnessing a revolution in literacy, the likes of which
Keller offers converging pieces of evidence to support the ndings
from the Stanford study
that Thompson and Haven discuss, but addi
ate agency and community
same student example as Haven to make the same
point about college writ
ment on the value of new media.” “
nlike Thompson and Haven,
Stanford study.”
With these annotations, we are starting to think critically about the
ideas in the essays. Notice, however, that not all of the annotations make
the gist of each author’s arguments,
counterarguments, and
macmillanhighered
for example, Keller quotes a scholar who cites a national study, the
ing counterarguments gives
you a sense of what is at issue for each author.
Formulate the
different ideas in multiple texts. Looking at the information juxtaposed on
prevailing arguments about electronic media’s effects on students’
literacy. Indeed, despite pundits’ complaints, students may be more
Cynthia Haven also analyzes the Stanford study, which indicates that we
may very well be experiencing a revolution in literacy. Students use elec
LLUSTRATIONS
HAT
T
New Literacy,”
Wired
effects on stu
dents’ literacy,
study, with its
study. Not
Writing,”
cates a possible
literacy.
online social
from faculty at
sity of Wiscon
steadily, as some
one’s peers online
lary.
than those of previous generations.
This can be attributed to the fact
to connect ideas that different
media have created a paradigm shift in the ways educators think about writ
to challenge prevailing arguments about electronic media’s
effects on students’ literacy. The Stanford study
Cynthia Haven also analyzes the Stanford study, indi
in literacy. Students use electronic media to sustain social
WR
I
T
ING
A

S
YN
THES
I
S
181
in previous generations. Those in higher education may have
to change in order to respond to students uses of electronic
media, not the other way around.
Finally, Josh Keller points to two additional studies of
writing to suggest that students are developing literate prac
-
tices that are more impressive than those of previous genera
-
tions. This can be attributed to the fact that current students
have more opportunities to write and they know what it
means to write for an audience. However, Keller, more than
Thompson and Haven, observes that an emerging body of
evidence challenges these recent claims, forcing educators
to consider what constitutes good writing. Kellers analysis
reveals that questions persist about studies conducted to
assess the development of students growth and develop
-
ment as writers. How persuasive are the studies conducted at
Stanford, Michigan State, and George Mason? What do we
really know, and what do we need to know? Further, how can
we test the claims experts make about electronic media and
paradigm shifts?
Writing a synthesis, like writing a summary, is principally a strategy
for framing your own argument. In writing a synthesis, you are conveying
to your readers how various points of view in a conversation intersect and
diverge. The larger point of this exercise is to nd your own

issue



your
own position in the

conversation



and make your argument for it.
Steps to Writing a Synthesis

1
M
Annotate
the texts you are working with, with an eye to comparing them. As
you would for a summary, note major points in the texts, choose
relevant examples, and formulate the gist of each text.

2

Decide what those connections mean.

compare your notes on the different texts, track counterarguments,
and record your thoughts. Decide what the similarities and dif
fer
-
ences mean to you and what they might mean to your readers.

3

Formulate the gist of what youve read.
Identify an overarching

synthesis that forges connections and makes use of the examples
youve noted.
U
se transitions to signal the direction of your

synthesis.
Transition: Both
Thompson and Haven
give less aention to
the counterargument
than they should.
-
tion of what is to follow.
07_GRE_5344_Ch7_151_210.indd 181
11/19/14 1:59 PM
182
CHAPTER 7

|

F
R
OM SUMM
AR
Y
T
O SYN
THES
I
S
A Practice Sequence: Writing a Synthesis

1


To practice the strategies for synthesizing that we describe in this
chapter, read the following three essays, which focus on the role
that electronic media play in conveying information to diverse
groups of readers or viewers. As you discuss the strategies the
authors use to develop their arguments, consider these questions:
�t


How would you explain the popularity of blogs, Twitter, and
Y
ouTube?
�t


What themes have the writers focused on as they have
sought to enter the conversation surrounding the use of
electronic media?
�t


To what extent do you think the criticisms of new media
presented by the authors are legitimate?
�t


Do blogs, Twitter, and
Y
ouTube pose a threat to traditional
journalism?
�t


Do you think that blogs, Twitter, and
Y
ouTube add anything
to print journalism? If so, what?

2


To stimulate a conversation, or a debate, we suggest that you break
up into four different groups:
Group 1:
Print journalism
Group 2:
Blogs
Group 3:
Twitter
Group 4:

Y
ouTube
Students in each group should prepare an argument indicating
the strengths and limitations of the particular mode of commu
-
nication that they represent. In preparing the argument, be sure
to acknowledge what other modes of communication might add
to the ways we learn about news and opinions. One student from
each group will present this argument to the other groups.

3


Based on the discussion you have had in exercise 1 and/or exercise 2,
write a synthesis of the three essays using the steps we have outlined
in this chapter.
�t


Summarize each essay.
�t

E
xplain the ways in which the authors arguments are similar
or different, using examples and illustrations to demonstrate
the similarities and dif
ferences.
�t


Formulate an overall gist that synthesizes the points each
author makes.
07_GRE_5344_Ch7_151_210.indd 182
11/19/14 1:59 PM
olitical Blogs: Teaching Us Lessons
Dan Kennedy, an assistant professor of journalism at Northeastern
versity, writes on media issues for

tional journalism has coincided with an explosion of opinion mon
gering. Blogs
respond to information
season, when our ideological divide is most apparent. From nakedly
Perhaps what’s happening is that the best and more popular blogs
tional news organizations and, especially, of newspapers.
ecently I
osen’s book,
postmortem on the public journalism movement. What struck me
osen’s description of public journalism’s origins, which were
ventually I came to
the conclusion . . . that journalism’s purpose was to see the public into
2
3
4
osen’s thesis
ening the civic impulse
is paralleled by
obert Putnam’s 2000
book,
ofcom
munity, based mainly on geography, remains as moribund today
asit was when
if old-fashioned communities are
on the decline, the human impulse to
to these communities, both through his PressThink blog and through
This trend toward online community-building has given us a mediascape
especially those most interested in politics
and public affairs
want the news delivered to
them in the context of
Times
the newspapers themselves cater to a wide range of different opinions.
ou look at the media in Britain, it’s vibrant and it’s exciting and it’s fun,
in Boston last fall. “And that’s a good thing, because people buy
The notion that journalism must be tied to an ideological community
may seem disheartening to traditionalists. In practice, though, journal
bit as valuable as the old model of objectivity, if approached with rigor
Last year, for instance, Talking Points Memo (TPM) and its related
.S. Department of Justice had
.S. attorneys for what appeared to be politically motivated
reasons, a scandal that led to the resignation of Attorney General Alberto
Gonzales. TPM’s reporting was based in part on information dug up and
passed along by its liberal readership. The founder and editor, Joshua
Micah Marshall, received a George Polk Award, but it belonged as much
to the community he had assembled as it did to him personally.
us make sense of the world around us. TPM’s coverage of the
-
neys scandal was outstanding, but it was also dismissive of arguments
Times
nity of well-educated, afuent, culturally liberal readers whose prefer
ences and tastes must be taken into account. Not to be a journalistic
it was produced, even an old-fashioned, inverted-pyramid-style dis
patch from the wires. Who was interviewed? Who wasn’t? Why? These
We might now be coming full circle as placeblogs
chatty, conver
sational blogs that serve a particular geographic
become
more prevalent. Lisa Williams, founder of H20town, a blog that serves
in short, our fellow citizens,” Williams says by e-mail. “The truth
is, people still want those neighbor-to-neighbor contacts, but the tradi
tional ways of doing it don’t t into the lives that people are actually
laptop, and watching
with
one eye. Give them someone to sit with.”
alists disparage bloggers for their indulgence of opinion and hyperbole,
they overlook the sense of community and conversation that blogs have
zations do poorly or not at all, is give their readers someone to sit with.
still want the truth. But we
also want to share it and talk about it with our like-minded neighbors and
friends. The challenge for journalism is not that we’ll lose our objectivity;
s that we won’t nd a way to rebuild a sense of community.
Don’t Fear Twitter
magazine’s chief political correspondent and politi
cal director of CBS News. Before joining
, Dickerson covered politics
Time
magazine, including four years as the magazine’s White House
New York Times
Washington Post
Washington Week in Review

16
f I were cleverer, this piece on Twitter and journalism would t in
Twitter’s 140-character limitation. The beauty of Twitter when prop
erly used
by both the reader and the writer
is that everyone knows
what it is. No reader expects more from Twitter than it offers, and no
witter entry,
tion, this sentence that you’re reading right now hits that mark perfectly.
someone unfortunately called it
ing his quill pen so violently.) Venerable CBS newsman
had a far lighter touch when he joked to me that he could barely say the
the presidential campaigns, Twitter is the perfect place for all of those
epublican primaries: “Weare, NH: Audience
ering Barack Obama I sent this: “Obama: ‘What’s John McCain’s prob
s too old.’ Obama: ‘No, no that’s not the
” With so many Democrats
making an issue of McCain’s age, here was the candidate in the moment
seeming to suggest that critique was unfair.
Occasionally, just occasionally
, reporters can convey a piece of news
that ts into 140 characters without context. If Twitter had been around
when the planes hit the World Trade Center, it would have been a perfect
way for anyone who witnessed it to convey at that moment what they’d
seen or heard. With Twitter, we can also pull back the curtain on our lives
a little and show readers what it’s like to cover a campaign. (“Wanna be a
The risk for journalism, of course, is that people spend all day Twit
tering and reading other people’s Twitter entries and don’t engage with
make a perfect observational Twitter entry: “A man at the front of the
restaurant is screaming at a waiter and gesticulating wildly. The snacks
on the bar aren’t a four-course meal!”
ouTube: The Flattening of
merly directed all news, political programming, and citizen journalism for
ouTube. He has been quoted as saying that he regards himself less as an
editor than as a curator of the Web site’s “chaotic sea of content.” A native
ouTube.

or a little over a year, I’ve served as
ouTube’s news and
Such wonderment might be expected since
ouTube gained its early
ouTube every minute of every day (yes
an increasing amount of the content is news and political video. And
ouTube’s global reach
and ease of use, it’s changing the way that
and its coverage
is happening.
ach of the sixteen one-time presidential
candidates had
ouTube
ouTube. Their staffs
uploaded thousands
of videos that were viewed tens of millions of times.
By early March of this year, the Obama campaign was uploading two to
ATTE
ouTube every day. And thousands of advocacy groups
ouTube to distribute their own political con
ouTube is now the
world’s largest town hall for political discussion, where voters connect
tional barriers of time and space. It doesn’t matter what time it is, or where
someone is located
as long as they have the means to connect through
the Web, they can engage in the discussion. This was highlighted in a
of presidential debates we produced with CNN during this election
ouTube
videos they’d submitted
online. In many ways, those events simply brought
to the attention of a wider audience the sort of exchanges that take place on
ouTube all the time. . . .
ouTube
ouTube does not mean there isn’t room for the mainstream
ouTube
New York Times
ouTube?
Simply put, it’s where eyeballs are going.
ouTube hundreds of millions of videos are viewed at the same time
ouTube
offers visibility without a cost. The ones that have been doing this for
ouTube and then
trying to drive viewers back to their Web sites for a deeper dive into the
ouTube.
2
ouTube’s news ecosystem has the potential to offer
ouTube provides an automatic focus group for
news content. How?
ouTube wasn’t built as merely
a “series of
tubes” to distribute online video. It is also an interactive platform.
another and form communities around content that they like. If
news organizations want to see how a particular piece of content
ouTube. And that focus group isn’t just young people:
20 percent of
ouTube users are over
age 55
which is the same
ouTube audience
ouTube provides news media orga
nizations new ways to engage with audiences and involve them
cohosted last year,
ouTube has created similar partnerships,
such as one with the BBC around the mayoral election in
Hearst afliate WM
from voters during that primary. Hundreds of videos ooded in
which highlighted this symbiotic relationship: On the Web, online
TV amplies it on a new scale.
We did similar arrangements with
news organizations in Iowa, Pennsylvania, and on Super Tues
day, as news organizations leveraged the power of voter-generated
audience share by offering a level of audience engagement
ier to achieve by
using platforms like
ouTube than it is
to do on their
ming interface), nicknamed “
ouTube
just launched
allows other companies to integrate our upload
functionality into their online platforms. It’s like having a mini
ouTube on
your Web site and, once it’s there, news organizations can encourage
and
Finally, reporters use
ouTube as source material
for their stories.
With hundreds of thousands of video cameras in use today, there is a
9
10
ATTE
scene if someone is already
there and sending in video of the event via
their cell phone. It’s at such intersections of new and old media that
ouTube demonstrates its value. It could be argued, in fact, that the
ouTube platform is the new frontier in newsgathering. On the elec
tion trail, virtually
every appearance by every candidate is captured on
nessed last fall
in Burma (Myanmar) after the government shut down
ouTube was
ouTube, creating global awareness of this situation
absence of journalists on the scene.
Citizen journalism on
ouTube
often criticized because it is produced by amateurs and therefore lacks
ouTube are fragmenting today’
s media environment, traditional news
ouTube.
Trusting What We
ouTube, it’s important
to have some context. People tend to know
ouTube, since content is clearly labeled by
username as to where it originated. A viewer knows if the video they’re
sers
ouTube is an open platform and that no one veri
ouTube is far more likely to pick apart a shoddy piece of
ouTube can provide a critical fact-checking
platform in today’
s media environment. And in some ways, it offers
ouTube.
they do as much as they ever have been. While the wisdom of crowds
might provide a new form of fact checking, and the ubiquity of technol
comes with experience and the sharpening of the craft. Without the
work of journalists,
the citizens
the electorate
lose a critical voice
Candidates and voters speak directly to one another, unltered. News
ouTube
has become a major force in this new media environment by offering
inuence the discussion is great. For those who haven’t, they ignore the
In fact,

the unacknowledged use of another’
s work,
passed off as one’s

is a most serious breach of academic integrity,
and colleges and universities deal with it severely. If you are caught pla
even be expelled from your college or university. Furthermore, although
AVOIDING PL
A
GI
AR
I
S
M
193
E
ven if you know what plagiarism is and wouldnt think about doing it,
you can still plagiarize unintentionally. Again, paraphrasing can be espe
-
cially tricky: Attempting to restate a

passage without using the

original
words and sentence structure is, to a

certain extent, an invitation to plagia
-
rism. If you remember that yourpaper is
your
argument, and understand
that any paraphrasing, summarizing, or synthesizing should reect
your

voice and style, you will beless likely to have problems with plagiarism.
Y
our paper should sound like you. And, again, the surest way to protect
yourself is to cite your sources.
TABL
E
7.1

P
rinciples Governing
P
lagiarism
1.

All written work submitted for any purpose is accepted as your own work. This
means it must not have been written even in part by another person.
2.

The wording of any written work you submit is assumed to be your own. This
means you must not submit work that has been copied, wholly or partially, from
a book, an article, an essay, a newspaper, another students paper or notebook,
or any other source. Another writer
s phrases, sentences, or paragraphs can be
included only if they are presented as quotations and the source acknowledged.
3.

The ideas expressed in a paper or report are assumed to originate with you, the
writer. Written work that paraphrases a source without acknowledgment must not
be submitted for credit. Ideas from the work of others can be incorporated in your
work as starting points, governing issues, illustrations, and the like, but in every
instance the source must be cited.
4.
R
emember that any online materials you use to gather information for a paper are
also governed by the rules for avoiding plagiarism.
Y
ou need to learn to cite elec
-
tronic sources as well as printed and other sources.
5.
Y
ou may correct and revise your writing with the aid of reference books.
Y
ou also
may discuss your writing with your peers in a writing group or with peer tutors at
your campus writing center. However, you may not submit writing that has been
revised substantially by another person.
Steps to Avoiding Plagiarism

1

Always cite the source.
Signal that you are paraphrasing,

summarizing, or synthesizing by identifying your source at the




According to James Gunn, Clive Thompson argues,
Cynthia Haven and Josh Keller . . . point out. And if possible,
indicate the end of the paraphrase, summary, or synthesis with
relevant page references to the source. If you cite a source several
times in your paper, dont assume that your rst citation has you
covered; acknowledge the source as often as you use it.

2
P
rovide a full citation in your bibliography.
Its not enough to cite
a source in your paper; you must also provide a full citation for
every source you use in the list of sources at the end of your paper.
07_GRE_5344_Ch7_151_210.indd 193
11/19/14 1:59 PM
NTEGRATING QUOTATION
OURWRITING
advice we’ve given you about writing the rest of your paper: Take your read
to develop your

to address a counter

showing readers how the specic language of
each quotation contributes
to the larger point you are making in your essay. When you integrate quo
tations, then, there are three basic things you want to do: (1) Take an active
youread

no less active when you
are using other authors’ texts to develop your own
Taking an active stance when you are quoting means knowing when to
quote. Don’t quote when a paraphrase or summary will convey the infor
mation from a source more effectively. More important, you have to make
Y
ou want to show that
you understand the writer's argument, and you
want to make evenhanded use of it in your own argument. It’s not fair
(or wise) to quote

choosing only passages that support

the writer you are quoting.
R


most important to the readers
and what justies a quotation’s being
included at all. It’s not wise (or fair to yourself) to esh out your paper
with an overwhelming number of quotations that could make readers
ideas. Don’t allow quotations to take over your paragraphs.
your readers through it, allowing sources to contribute to but not dic
ou are responsible for plotting and pacing your essay.
paragraph, holding all of
RAT
TAT
W
sure that readers know exactly what they should learn from the quotation.
ead the excerpt below from one student’s early draft of an argument
Other research emphasizes community service as an integral and integrated part
ofmoral identity. In this understanding, community service activities are not
isolated events but are woven into the context of students’ everyday lives (Yates,
1995); the personal, the moral, and the civic become “inseparable” (Colby, Ehrlich,
Beaumont, & Stephens, 2003, p. 15). In their study of minority high schoolers at
anurban Catholic school who volunteered at a soup kitchen for the homeless as
partofa class assignment, Youniss and Yates (1999) found that the students under
went
signicant id
entity changes, coming to perceive themselves as lifelong activ
ists. The researchers’ ndings are worth quoting at length here because they depict
the dramatic nature of the students’ changed viewpoints. Youniss and Yateswrote:
Many students abandoned an initially negative view of homeless people and a
disinterest in homelessness by gaining appreciation ofthe humanity of home
less people and by showing concern forhomelessness in relation to poverty,
jobtraining,
housing, prison reform, d
rug and alcohol rehabilitation,
care for thementally ill, quality urban education, and welfare policy. Sev
eralstudents also altered perceptions of themselves from
politically impotent
teenagers to involved citizen
s who now and in the future could use their tal
ent and power to correct social problems. They projected articulated pictures
of themselves as adult
citizens who could affect housing poli
cies, education
forminorities, andgovernment programs within a clear framework of social
justice. (p. 362)
The student’s introduction to the quoted passage provided a rationale for
ates at length, but it did not help her readers see how
ouniss
ates wrote,” she should have made clear that the study supports the
argument that community service
can create change. A more appropriate
One particular study underscores my argument that service can
motivate change, particularly when that change begins withinthe
students who are involved in service. Youniss and Yates(1999)wrote
that over the course of their research, the
students developed both
Frames the quotations,
explaining it in the con
text of the student’s
argument.
an “appreciation of the humanity of homeless people” and a sense
that they would someday be ableto“usetheirtalent and power to
correct social problems”
(p.362).
children to read in
black
schools?” indicates this un
thinking acceptance that
whiteness is an essential ingr
edient
to effective schooling for blacks. Bell continued:
The assumption that even the attaining of academic skills is worthless
unlessthose skills are acquired in the presence of white students illustrates
dramatically h
ow a legal precedent, namely the Supreme Court’s decision in
Brownv.Board of Education, has been so constricted even by advocates that
itsgoal

equal
education

is rend
ered inaccessible, even
unwanted,unless it can be obtained through racial balancing of the school
population. (p. 255)
Bell’s argument is e
xtremely compelling, particularly when one considers the
extentto which “racial balancing” has come to be dened in terms of large white
majority populations and small nonwhite minority populations.
Notice that the student’s last sentence helps readers understand what
the quoted material suggests and why it’s important by embedding and
extending Bell’s notion of racial balancing into his explanation.
(“Take your readers by the hand . . .”) As you read other people’s writing,
ttach Short Quotations to
The quotations we discussed above are
block quotations
lengthy quota
P, 2005).
RAT
TAT
W
If possible, use both to make your integration of quotations more interest
ing and varied.
Integrate quotations within the grammar of a sentence.
Fine, Weiss, and Powell (1998) expanded upon what others call “equal status con
tact theory” by using a “framework that draws on three traditionally independent
literatures

those on community, differen
ce, and democracy” (p. 37).
Y
sentence by using punctuation. For example, this passage attaches the
For these researchers, there needs to be recognition of differences in a way that
will include and accept all students. Specically, they asked: “Within multiracial
re-
view the
very notion
s of race that feel so xed, so hierarchical, so damaging, and so accepted
in the broader culture?” (p. 132).
198
CHAPTER 7

|

F
R
OM SUMM
AR
Y
T
O SYN
THES
I
S
In conclusion, if you dont connect quotations to your argument,
your readers may not understand why youve included them.
Y
ou need to
explain a signicant point that each quotation reveals as you introduce or
end it. This strategy helps readers know what to pay attention to in a quo
-
tation, particularly if the quotation is lengthy.
Steps to Integrating Quotations into Your Writing

1

Take an active stance.

Y
our sources should contribute to your
argument, not dictate its direction.

2
E
xplain the quotations.

E
xplain what you quote so your readers
understand how each quotation relates to your argument.

3

Attach short quotations to your sentences.
Integrate short quota
-
tions within the grammar of your own sentences, or attach them
with appropriate punctuation.
A Practice Sequence:
I
ntegrating Quotations

1

U
sing several of the sources you are working with in developing
your paper, try integrating quotations into your essay. Be sure you
are controlling your sources. Carefully read the paragraphs where
youve used quotations. Will your readers clearly understand why
the quotations are

there

the points the quotations support? Do
the sentences with quotations read smoothly? Are they grammati
-
cally correct?

2


Working in a small group, agree on a substantial paragraph or

passage (from this book or some other source) to write about.
E
ach
member should read the passage and take a position on the ideas,
and then draft a page that quotes the passage using both strategies
for integrating these quotations. Compare what
youve written,
examining similarities and differences in the use of quotations.
A
N
A
NNOTATED STUDENT
R
E
S
EAR
C
HED
A
RGUMENT:
SYNTHE
S
IZING SOUR
C
E
S
The student who wrote the essay A Greener Approach to Groceries:
Community-Based Agriculture in LaSalle Square did so in a rst-year
writing class that gave students the opportunity to do service in the local
community. For this assignment, students were asked to explore debates
about community and citizenship in contemporary America and to focus
07_GRE_5344_Ch7_151_210.indd 198
11/19/14 1:59 PM
199
AN ANNO
TATE
D S
T
UD
E
N
T
R
ESEARCHE
D A
R
GUM
E
N
T
their research and writing on a social justicerelated issue of their choice.
The context of the course guided their inquiry as all the students in the
course explored community service as a way to engage meaningfully and
to develop relationships in the community.
We have annotated her essay to show the ways that she summarized
and paraphrased research to show the urgency of the problem of food inse
-
curity that exists around the world and to offer possible solutions. Notice
how she synthesizes her sources, taking an active stance in using what she
has read to advance her own argument.
Nancy Paul
Professor McLaughlin
English 2102
May 11, 20
A Greener Approach to Groceries:

Community-Based Agriculture in LaSalle Square
the security of our future. Billions of dollars are spent tighten
-
measures so that the citizens of the United States can grow and
prosper without fear. Unfortunately, for some urban poor, the
threat from terrorism is minuscule compared to the cruelty of
their immediate environment. Far from the sands of the Afghan
and reliable food sources. Abandoned by corporate supermar
-


the nutritional poverty that cripples th
em developmentally,
physically, and psychologically.
The midwestern city that surrounds our university has
a food-desert sitting just west of the famously lush campus.
Known as LaSalle Square, it was once home to the lucrative
-
decisions have driven both stores to the outskirts of town, and
without a local supplier, the only food available in the neigh
-
borhood is prepackaged and sold at the few small convenience
stores. This available food is virtually devoid of nutrition and
The students thesis
She calls aention to
both the immediacy
and urgency of the
problem
Paul 1
1
2
07_GRE_5344_Ch7_151_210.indd 199
11/19/14 1:59 PM
200
CHAPTER 7

|

F
R
OM SUMM
AR
Y
T
O SYN
THES
I
S
inhibits the ability of the poor to prosper and thrive. Thus, an
aging strip mall, industrial site, and approximately three acres
unfortunately dene



the nei
ghborhood.
While there are multiple ways of providing food to the
destitute, I am proposing a co-op of community gardens built

on the grassy space in LaSalle Square and on smaller sites within
the neighborhood, supplemented by extra crops from Michiana
the nutritional needs of the people, provide plenty of nutritious
food, not cost South Bend any additional money, and contribute
property values. Far from being a pipe dream, LaSalle Square
would simply build upon the already recognized need and desire
for healthy food in the area. Similar coalitions around the world
are harnessing the power of community to remedy food insecu
-
rity without the aid of corporate enterprise, and South Bend is
perfectly situated to reproduce and possibly exceed their

successes.
Many, myself previously included, believe that the large-
volume, cheap industrialization of food and the welfare system
Wal-Mart and Kroger seem ubiquitous in our communities, and
it is difcult to imagine anyone being beyond their inuence.
However, prot-driven corporate business plans do not mix well
the two is growing wider. This polarization, combined with the
created food deserts in already struggling communities where
malnutrition is the enemy
inconnu
of the urban poor.
LaSalle Squares food insecurity is typical of many urban
areas. The grocery stores that used to serve the neighborhood
have relocated to more attractive real estate on the outskirts of
the city, and only local convenience stores, stocking basic neces
-
sary items and tobacco products, remain protable. Linda Wolf
-
son, a member of the steering committee for the LaSalle Square
She proposes a

possible solution.
She places her
solution in a larger
context to indicate
its viability.
Paul 2
3
4
5
More context
07_GRE_5344_Ch7_151_210.indd 200
11/19/14 1:59 PM
TATE
Redevelopment Plan, notes that if the community was scally
healthy, it would be reasonable to expect the inhabi
tants to sim
ply drive the six miles to th
e strip mall district, but unfortunately
many are marginally employed and do not have access to cars. For
them, it is economically irresponsible to spend the extra money
Synthesizing helps
illustrate the extent
of the problem and
bolster her view that
the poor suer the
most from the problem
she identies (Garne;
Smith; Brown and
Carter).
Here she paraphrases
ndings.
Paul 3
Standardized tests of impoverished siblings, one of whom
received nutritional supplements and the other who did not,
showed cognitive gains in the well-nourished child as well as
increased motor skills and greater interest in social interactions
when compared to the other child. In the highly formative tod
dler years, undernutrition can inhibit the myelination of nerve
bers, which is responsible for neurotransmitting and proper
brain function. Collaborators Emily Tanner from the University of
Oxford and Matia Finn-Stevenson from Yale University published
Again she both sum
marizes and cites
a relevant study to
advance her argument.
Paul 4
TATE
protability and maintenance. It is simply irrational for a super
She takes an active
stance in citing initia
tives that could be
applied more eectively
to alleviate the problem
of food insecurity.
She paraphrases a
researcher’s ndings.
Paul 5
available option, and the city of South Bend is ripe for alterna
tive solutions. The city is primed for a cooperative effort that
could shift the paradigm for urban renewal from a quick, cor
porate solution, to a long-term enterprise built on community
contributions and under local control.
Around the globe, many destitute urban areas have
found the means to reverse nutritional poverty through a literal
and gurative grassroots effort. In an effort to avoid packaged,
convenience store food, neighbors in the Bronx, San Francisco,
Los Angeles, London, and most successfully in Philadelphia,
have been planting their own crops right in the heart of the city
(Brown and Carter 3-4). Truly farming the food desert, coali
tions that link community gardens, local farmers, and urban
She cites a number of
examples as evidence
to demonstrate the
viability of the solu
tion she oers.
The use of multiple
sources would make
her case even stronger
than using just one
source of information,
in this case Brown and
Carter.
Paul 6
TATE
the
Journal of Public Health Policy
and the
Journal of Nutrition
and show the interrelatedness of nutritional access
and availability to healthy personal choices. While these trends
toward healthful lifestyles and gardening have been gaining
ground slowly in the United States, when food insecurity and
poverty take their toll, cities are nding that urban agriculture
is an increasingly attractive and protable alternative.
American communities have shown that creativity and
collaboration can be quite effective at reversing food inse
curity. The Garden Project of the Greater Lansing Food Bank has
successfully combined gardening and Midwest access to local
farms to bring food security to urban residents and senior citi
zens. Their eighteen community gardens and volunteers provide
She synthesizes
dierent sources
to
make her point.
Paul 7
nized, local, sustainable food. The company, Growing Com
munities, uses organic box gardens and small farms to supply
more than 400 homes with weekly deliveries of organic fruits
sufcient in a shorter tim
e frame than Ms. Brown’s ten-year plan.
Urban Philadelphia has led the way in demonstrating
the protability of community solutions to food insecurity
agricultural co-op should turn this vacant lot an
d others in
In this paragraph, she
summarizes research
to address the possible
counter-argument.
She again cites
research to address
the counterargument.
Paul 8
207
AN ANNO
TATE
D S
T
UD
E
N
T
R
ESEARCHE
D A
R
GUM
E
N
T
the neighborhood into community gardens, which would work
in tandem with the gleaning from local farms. Similar to the
Philadelphia project, these gardens would simultaneously yield
produce and improve the appearance of the neighborhood.
One PHS project, in the New Kensington neighborhood of
north Philadelphia, was the subject of a recent socioeconomic
study conducted by the University of Pennsylvanias renowned
Wharton School of Business. In the New Kensington area,
PHS recently planted 480 new trees, cleaned 145 side yards,
developed 217 vacant lots, and established 15 new community
gardens. The effort was a model of the collaborative strategy
making it the ideal subject of the Wharton study. The ndings,
published in 2004, showed signicant increases in property val
-
ues around the PHS greening projects and were the rst step in
the qualitative benets of remedying food insecurity. After ana
-
lyzing the sales records of thousands of New Kensington homes
had led to a $4 million gain in property value from tree plant
-
ings alone and a $12 million gain from vacant lot improvements.
Simply greening a vacant lot increased nearby property values
might modestly improve property values for those immediately
near the store, community greening involves multiple plots
across an area, beneting many more people and properties. The
Wharton study showed that community greening would provide
increases in the value of any property near a green space, up
to multiple millions of dollars. The New Kensington neighbor
-
hood covers 1.4 square miles, which is approximately the size
of LaSalle Square, so while the overall property values are lower
simply because South Bend is a smaller city, the gains might be
proportional (
City-Data.com
). It is reasonable to believe that
cleaning up LaSalle Square and planting gardens would quan
-
titatively benet the scal situation of the city and increase
quality of life over many acres.
She summarizes a

study and then para-

phrases.
Paul 9
16
07_GRE_5344_Ch7_151_210.indd 207
11/19/14 1:59 PM
Certainly there are challenges to the sort of dynami
cal, community-based solution that I am proposing. Such an
agricultural co-op hinges on the participation of the people it
serves and cannot be successful without the dedicated support
of the neighborhood. It could be noted that lower-income eco
nomic groups are less socially involved than their higher-income
counterparts, and some might believe that they are unlikely to
In this paragraph, she
takes an active stance
in using research to
alleviate fears that the
local community would
have to start from
scratch with limited
expertise.
Paul 10
209
AN ANNO
TATE
D S
T
UD
E
N
T
R
ESEARCHE
D A
R
GUM
E
N
T
Gardening and Cooperative Extension, offer free public educa
-
tion to cities beginning community agriculture programs, and
some will even perform on-site training (Brown and Carter 16).
supplementing that knowledge with national support groups,
South Bend has multiple resources available to train and encour
-
age its burgeoning urban farmers.
The economic and nutritional gains of the people would
only be heightened by the personal well-being that is born of inter
-
personal collaboration that crosses racial and social boundaries.
Such an effort is ambitious; it will indeed require the time and tal
-
ents of many people who care about the health of their community.
But the local community is rich with the necessary seeds for such a
project, which may, in time, blossom and grow to feed its people.
19
Paul 11
Works Cited
Brown, Katherine H., and Anne Carter.
Urban Agriculture and
Community Food Security in the United States: Farming from
the City Center to the Urban Fringe
. Venice, CA: Community
Food Security Coalition, Oct. 2003. PDF le.
City-Data.com.
Advameg, 2008. Web. 16 Apr. 20.
The Effects of Neighborhood Greening.
PHS
. Pennsylvania

and Urban Nutrition.
GeoJournal
53.2 (2001): 12533.
Print.
Ecologist
26.6 (1996): 299.
Academic Search Premier
. Web. 8 Apr. 20.
Gleaning.
Greater Lansing Food Bank
. Greater Lansing Food
Bank, n.d. Web. 15 Apr. 20.
GLFB Facts.
Greater Lansing Food Bank
. Greater Lansing Food
Bank, 2005. Web. 15 Apr. 20.
Paul 12
07_GRE_5344_Ch7_151_210.indd 209
11/19/14 1:59 PM
210
CHAPTER 7

|

F
R
OM SUMM
AR
Y
T
O SYN
THES
I
S
Local Harvest
. LocalHarvest, 2008. Web. 15 Apr. 20.
A Look at Indiana Agriculture.
Agriculture in the Classroom
.
USDA-CSREES, n.d. PDF le.
Seeing Green: Study Finds Greening Is a Good Investment.
PHS
20.
Smith, Stephen. Obesity Battle Starts Young for Urban Poor.
Boston Globe
. NY Times, 29 Dec. 2006. Web. 18 Apr. 20.
Tanner, Emily M., and Matia Finn-Stevenson. Nutrition and
Brain Development: Social Policy Implications.
American
Journal of Orthopsychiatry
72.2 (2002): 18293.
Academic
Search Premier
. Web. 8 Apr. 20.
TIF Reform.
New Rules Project
. Institute for Local Self-Reliance,
2008. Web. 15 Apr. 20.
Willis, Ben. Julie Brown of Growing Communities.
The Ecologist

June 2008: 5255. Print.
Wolfson, Linda. Personal interview. 20 Apr. 20.
Paul 13
A Practice Sequence: Thinking about Copyright

1


Now that you have read about steps to avoiding plagiarism
(pp.19293) and Nancy Pauls essay on community gardens
(p.199) we would like you to examine the idea of copyright. That
is, who
owns the rights to images that the organizers of a commu
-
that image in a paper? Or what if you wanted to use a published
ad in your own paper?
U
nder what circumstances would
you be
able to use that ad for your own purposes?

2


After conducting your own inquiry into copyright, what would
you conclude about the need to document the use of images,
ideas, and text? Are the guidelines clear or are there some ambig
-
uous areas for what to cite and how? What advice would you give
your peers?
07_GRE_5344_Ch7_151_210.indd 210
11/19/14 1:59 PM
That is, you can use your own character, by presenting yourself as some
one who is knowledgeable, fair, and just; and you can appeal to your read
the means for changing people’s minds, people’s emotions also color the
Your audience is more than your immediate reader, your instructor,
or a peer. Your audience encompasses those you cite in writing about an
tering on three kinds of appeals:
pathos:
which of their emotions do we appeal to?) inuences decisions about the
To see how an author connects with his audience, read the following ex-
cerpt from James W. Loewen’s book
Lies My Teacher Told Me:
Everything
Your American History Textbook Got Wrong.
As you read the excerpt, note
Loewen’s main points and select key examples that illustrate his argument.
As a class, test the claims he makes: To what extent do you believe that
ences in high school history classes or locating one or more of the books
Lies My Teacher Told Me
a PhD in sociology, has written several other books, including
JAMES W.
/Logos
RT
2
3

lege students. Or, if their own
class position is one of relative privilege,
“Why is your family well off
ize them charitably, are half-formed and naïve. The students blame the
state of affairs. Some textbooks cover certain high points of labor his
land broke with federal troops, or the 1911 Triangle Shirtwaist re that
killed 146 women in New York City, but the most recent event men
tioned in most books is the Taft-Hartley Act of fty years ago. No book
mentions the Hormel meat-packers’ strike in the mid-1980s or the air
trafc controllers’ strike broken by President Reagan. Nor do textbooks
describe any continuing issues facing labor, such as the growth of mul
tinational corporations and their exporting of jobs overseas. With such
“land of opportunity”
leges some people and
raises barriers for others. History textbook writers,

class,” “working class,” or “lower class.” Two of the textbooks list “mid
country. “Except for slaves, most of the colonists were members of the
of the textbooks note the explosion of middle-class suburbs after World
War II. T
social stratication, however; in fact, as Gregory Mantsios has pointed
mute class differences.”
Stressing how middle-class we all are is particularly problematic
with
the notorious exception of slavery,” chimes in
upper,
Bacon’s Rebellion and Shays’s Rebellion
movement from one
social class
became more widespread in America,”
concludes. “This meant that
RT
Textbook authors thus present an America in which, as preachers were
-
sub
cultural assumptions of the test. To no one’s surprise, social class
correlates strongly with SAT scores.
of college attendance and the type of college chosen more effectively
, including intellectual ability, however mea
1.
List what you think are Loewen’s main points. What appeals does he
seem to draw on most when he makes those points: appeals based on
Identify what you think is the main claim of Loewen’s argument, and
choose key examples to support your answer. Compare your chosen claim
and examples to those chosen by your classmates. Do they differ signi
Although we like to believe that our decisions and beliefs are based on
reason and logic, in fact they are often based on what amounts to charac
the person you trust. Similarly, the audience for your argument will be
more disposed to agree with you if its members believe you are a fair, just
person who is knowledgeable and has good judgment. Even the most well-

These strategies are interrelated: A writer who demonstrates good
ment is more often than not someone who is both knowledgeable about an
issue and who acknowledges the complexity of it by weighing the strengths
weaknesses of different arguments. However, keep in mind that these
hat You
judg

In turn, good judgment gives writers credibility.
unaware of class structure
and as a consequence “have no understanding
of the ways that opportunity is not equal in America and no notion that
social structure pushes people around, inuencing the ideas they hold and
can take some of the credit for this state of affairs” (para. 2) because,
mately agree with Loewen’s case is, at this point, up for grabs, but cer
particular, are failing students by leaving them vulnerable to class-based
hat You
of which is his awareness that a problem exists
educators, may not be aware of this problem).
In paragraph 3, Loewen makes a bold claim: “Textbooks’ treatments
of events in labor history are never anchored in any analysis of social
class.” As readers, we cannot help wondering: How does the author know
tions by dem
strating that he has
studied the subject through a sys
tematic examination of American history textbooks. He observes that six
of the twelve textbooks he examined “contain no index listing at all for
‘social class,’ ‘social stratication,’ ‘class structure,’ ‘income distribution,’
‘inequality,’ or any conceivably related topic” and that “not one book lists
” Loewen also demonstrates
his grasp of class issues in American history, from the “violent class con
icts” that “took place in and just after colonial times” (para. 5), which

bookwriters’ assertions that class conicts did not exist
during this period, to the more recent conicts in the 1980s and early
Moreover, Loewen backs up his own study of textbooks with refer
to a number of studies from the social sciences to illustrate that
hat You
not “news” (para. 11) to his educated readers, who by implication “know”
and “understand” his references to historical events and trends. What may
the United States has changed over time. With the steady erosion of middle-
class households since 1967, “class inequalities” and
the most fundamental of
opportunities in a democratic
play of mind by examining
an overlooked body of data (high school history
are still levels of complexity he hasn’t addressed explicitly. Most important,
E
are fair-minded and have the best interests of your readers in

S


ATHOS
of argument that can predispose readers one way or another. Do you want
to arouse readers’ sympathy? Anger? Passion? You can do that by knowing
Appeals to pathos are typically indirect. You can appeal to pathos by
using examples or illustrations that you believe will arouse the appropriate
To acknowledge that writers play on readers’ emotions is not to
endorse manipulative writing. Rather, it is to acknowledge that effective
For example, if you genuinely believe that the conditions some fami
lies are living in are abysmal and unfair, you want your readers to believe
it too. And an effective way to persuade them to believe as you do, in addi
hat You Know
hat Your Readers Value
ATH
injustice that results from that class structure. He believes that women liv
living in poverty should have a chance to attend college, and that certain
classes of people should not be written off to “perform specic difcult
Time and again, Loewen cites examples that reveal that the poor are dis
criminated against by the class structure in the United States not for lack of
and that such discrimination has
been going
tion an unacceptable affront to their values of fair play and democracy and
U
ppeal
You can appeal to readers’ emotions indirectly through the illustrations
ers share responsibility for high school students’ not knowing about the
continued relevance of class issues in American life. Loewen’s readers
parents, educators, historians
may very well be angered by the omissions
he points out. Certainly he
would expect them to be angry when they read
about the effects of economic class on the health care expectant mothers
and then their children receive (para. 6) and on their children’s access to
lates strongly with SAT scores” (para. 8) and so “predicts the rate of college
attendance and the type of college chosen” (para. 9), Loewen forces his
Finally, he calls attention to the fact that accumulated wealth accounts
that their inability to save prevents
-
-
dress class issues. Without
that information, Americans cannot fully
ow Your
ffect Your
tone
attitude toward yourself, your material, and your readers. Of course, your
When you are appealing to your readers’ emotions, it is tempting to
use loaded, exaggerated, and even intemperate language to convey how
you feel (and hope your readers will feel) about an issue. Consider these
sentences: “The Republican Party has devised the most ignominious
Bacon’s Rebellion and Shays’s Rebellion
took place in and just after
A
PPEAL
ING
T
O P
ATH
OS
223
classless and marked by upward mobility. And things have gotten rosier
since. But he doesnt resort to ridicule. Instead, he relies on examples
and illustrations to connect with his readers sense of values and appeal
to their emotions.
Steps to Appealing to Pathos

1
S
how that you know what your readers value.
Start from your
own values and imagine what assumptions and principles would
appeal to your readers. What common ground can you imagine
for different kinds of readers?

2

Use illustrations and examples that appeal to readers emotions.

Again, start from your own emotional position. What examples
and illustrations resonate most with you? How can you present
them to have the most emotional impact on your readers? How
would you adjust them for different kinds of readers?

3

Consider how your tone may affect your audience.
Be wary of
using loaded, exaggerated, and intemperate language that may put
off your readers; and be careful in your use of irony and sarcasm.
A Practice
S
Discuss the language and strategies the writers use in the following
passages to connect with their audience, in particular their appeals to
writers use to connect with their readers are effective or not.

1


Almost a half century after the U.S. Supreme Court concluded that
Southern school segregation was unconstitutional and inherently
unequal, new statistics from the
199899 school year show that
segregation continued to intensify throughout the 1990s, a period
in which there were three major Supreme Court decisions autho
-

limiting
the reach and duration of desegregation orders. For

African
Ameri

can students, this trend is particularly apparent in the
South, where most blacks live and where the 2000 Census shows a
From 1988 to 1998, most of the
progress of the previous two decades in increasing integration in
the region was lost. The South is still much more integrated than it
was before the civil rights revolution, but it is moving backward at
an accelerating rate.


G
ARY
O
RFIELD
, Schools More Separate:
Consequences of a Decade of Resegregation
08_GRE_5344_Ch8_211_256.indd 223
11/19/14 11:04 AM

afrmative action are not even honest enough to admit that they
knows that that is what afrmative action amounts to in practice.
Despite all the
gushing about the mystical benets of “diversity”
nize this when speaking anonymously.”
S
Afrmative Action for Blacks”

When the judgment day comes for every high school student
that day when a nal
transcript is issued and sent to the nest
throughout the land, and there will be weeping, wailing, gnash
Why can’t I read, and
why don’t I
care?” The reason for both of these oversights, as they
may eventually discover, is that the idea of the elective course
nitively and morally, can be traced back to this pervasive fact.
AT
sure other people receive from it, the student will be bitter, jealous,
and without empathy. These are the common ingredients in many
types of tragedy, violent or benign. Schools must take responsibil
for speaking in some way to each of the general types of intel
ligences. Failure to do so will result in students who lack skills,
fellow humans.
Simone Weil in her
ing dened attention as “a suspension of one’s own self as a center
of the world and making oneself available to the reality of another
being.” In Parker Palmer’s
The Courage to Teach
, modern scientic
theorist David Bohm describes “a holistic underlying implicate
ticular elds.” Rilke’s euphemism for this “holistic
order,” which Palmer borrows, is “the grace of great things.” Weil’s
term would be “God.” However, both agree that eventual percep
M
“The Educational Smorgasbord as Saving Grace”
SING REASON AND
ITUATION
To make an argument persuasive, you need to be in dialogue with your read
tics, facts, observations
to advance your claim. Remember that the type of
for example, “Alaska is cold in the
that is offered in support of a claim.
you want your readers to draw from your premises. The conclusion is also a
For instance, Loewen’s major premise is that class is a key factor in
Americans’ access to health care, education, and wealth. Loewen also of
-
readers draw the following conclusion: “We live in a class system that
the United States, and history
textbooks must tell this story. Without this
the conclusion to be
false. That is, the truth of the premises means that the
tion to reach a conclusion. Although readers may accept a writer’s prem
ises as true, it is possible for them to reject the writer’s conclusion.
AT
ION
cation, and wealth, students know
very little about the social structure
poverty cannot be blamed on the poor.
Notice that Loewen’s premises are not necessarily true. For example, read
-
he had examined a dif
false. We might accept that class matters and that high school history text
books don’t address the issue of class structure in the United States; but we
America will necessarily understand the nature of poverty. It may be that
social class is only one reason for poverty; or it may be that textbooks are
States, that textbook omissions are simply not as serious as Loewen
remises of Your
Stating a premise establishes what you have found to be true and what you
know little about how the American class structure works
this initial premise a few sentences
later, arguing that students “have no
no notion that the social structure pushes people around, inuencing the
Implicit here is the point that class matters. Loewen makes this point
explicit several paragraphs later, where he states that “social class is prob
educators
what students know or do not know. Instead, he moves right to his second
books typically cover, then identifying what he believes are the important
AT
ION
-
textbooks (
Here is how this looks in the structure of Loewen’s argument:
cation, and wealth, students
know very little about the social structure
Ultimately, if people had this knowledge, they would understand that
poverty cannot be blamed on the poor.
We’ve reprinted much of paragraph 9 of Loewen’s excerpt below
230
CHAPTER 8

|

F
R
OM E
TH
OS
T
O LOGOS: A
PPEAL
ING
T
O YOU
R
R
EA
D
ER
S
Working-class parents cannot afford to live in elite subdivisions or hire high-
quality day care, so the process of educational inequality replicates itself in
the next generation.
Finally
, afuent Americans also have longer life expectan
-
cies than lower- and working-class people, the largest single cause of which is

.

.

.
Once Loewen establishes this causal relationship, he concludes (There
-
fore, Finally) with the argument that poverty persists from one genera
-
tion to the next.
In paragraph 10, Loewen uses the transition word
ultimately
to make
the point that social class matters, so much so that it limits the ways in
about social class. (We discuss how to write conclusions in Chapter 9.)
Steps to Appealing to Logos

1
S
tate the premises of your argument.
Establish what you have
found to be true and what you want readers to accept as well.

2

Use credible evidence.
Lead your readers from one premise to the
next, making sure your evidence is sufcient and convincing and
your inferences are logical and correct.

3

Demonstrate that the conclusion follows from the premises.
In
particular, use the right words to signal to your readers how the
evidence and inferences lead to your conclusion.
RE
C
OGNIZING
L
OGI
C
AL FALLA
C
IES
We turn now to
logical fallacies
, aws in the chain of reasoning that lead
to a conclusion that does not necessarily follow from the premises, or evi
-
dence. Logical fallacies are common in inductive arguments for two reasons:
Inductive arguments rely on reasoning about probability, not certainty; and
they derive from human beliefs and values, not facts or laws of nature.
Here we list fteen logical fallacies. In examining them, think about
might hear from politicians, advertisers, and the like. That should help
you examine the premises on which you base your own assumptions and
the logic you use to help readers reach the same conclusions you do.
1.
Erroneous Appeal to Authority.
An authority is someone with exper
-
tise in a given subject. An
erroneous authority
is an author who claims to
be an authority but is not, or someone an author cites as an authority who
is not. In this type of fallacy, the claim might be true, but the fact that an
unqualied person is making the claim means there is no reason for read
-
ers to accept the claim as true.
Because the issue here is the legitimacy of authority, your concern
should be to prove to yourself and your readers that you or the people you
08_GRE_5344_Ch8_211_256.indd 230
11/19/14 11:04 AM
has become increasingly important as celebrities offer support for candi
dates running for ofce or act as spokespeople for curbing global warming
or some other cause. The candidate may be the best person for the ofce,
Keep in mind that it is always important to address the claim or the
reasoning behind it, rather than the person making the claim. “Of course
Senator Wiley supports oil drilling in Alaska
doomed to failure because women do not receive equal pay for equal work.
-

ad

vertising; for example, a commercial might attempt to persuade us to
buy a certain product because it’s popular
The growing popularity of an idea is not sufcient reason to accept that it
ment that asks readers to accept a premise that is also the conclusion read
We could improve the undergraduate experience with coed dorms because both
men and women benet from living with members of the opposite gender.
women benet from living with men
clusion. Without evidence that a shift in dorm policy could improve on
False Analogy.
Authors (and others) often try to persuade us that
African American Culture. We don’t have a Straight Studies Program or a
even if you didn’t understand a word the salesperson was
then you’re familiar
with this type of fallacy. We found this passage in one of our student’s papers:
You should use this drug because it has been clinically proven that it inhibits
the reuptake of serotonin and enhances the dopamine levels of the body’s
The student’s argument may very well be true, but he hasn’t presented any
Confusing Cause and Effect.
factor causes another. For example, how can we know for certain that eco
know that a new president’s policies are the cause of a country’s economic
well-being? Authors often assume cause and effect when two factors are
This fallacy states a fact, but it does not prove that the president’s election
Appeal to Fear.
with a given issue and often confusing cause and effect:
We should use whatever means possible to avoid further attack.
A straw man fallacy makes a generalization
Here the fallacy is that the author simply ignores a person’s actual position and
tion. This kind of fallacy often goes hand in hand with assuming that what is
of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley. She is an activist and
organizing, and community-based participatory research. With more than

PART
The complexity of many urban health problems often makes them ill suited to
-
proach that combines systematic inquiry, participation, and action to address
urban health problems. Following a brief review
approaches.

-
bining knowledge and action for
social change to improve community health
This article briey describes CBPR’s roots and core principles and
4
5
lenges and the labor-intensive nature of this approach, CBPR offers an
The roots of CBPR may be traced in part to the action research school

em

phasis on the active involvement in the research of those affected
by the problem being studied through a cyclical process of fact nd
from one another, from work with oppressed communities in
munity members and outside
researchers contribute equally,
PART

by a CBPR
ty’s School of Public Health and other potential partners to study and
address the high rates of asthma in their neighborhood. Collaborative
studies using air-monitoring and other approaches yielded data sup


balance scientic rigor and accessibility?”
The strong philosophical t
PART
partnership and community capacity building reect another source of
and Validity of Measurement Tools Through High-Quality
Community Participation in Designing and Testing
used validated instruments, such as those for depressive symptoma
tology. However, they also learned from CAB members how to word


come data was obtained, which improved our

table T
rust to develop a research committee for a study in the industrial
workers and other young men from the area. Working closely with a
with sex workers at the area’s many truck stops and with other sex part
By Increasing Community Trust and Ownership, CBPR

PART
Participatory Research
can indeed enrich both the quality and the outcomes of such studies.
side the community who has the time, skill, and commitment, and who
such instances, outside researchers must pay serious attention to com
In South Africa, for example, high rates of cervical cancer in the
Indeed, as Yoshihama and Carr

2.

ensuring equitable benets to participants
(e.g., appropriate train

-
24
25
PART
that may arise in CBPR, they can play a critical role in helping pave the
way for the continued dialogue and negotiation that must be an integral
Constraints on Community Involvement
Outside researchers committed to a CBPR approach not infrequently

press frustration at the difculty moving from the goal of heavy com
munity partner involvement in the research process to the reality. As

to be in a position to donate their time and energy.” Further, and even
portation, there are differential costs of participation by gender.

searchers consider to be “good science.” In an oft-cited CBPR study
describes
how community members at rst strongly objected to the idea of using
a questionnaire approach which they saw as “putting their thoughts in
boxes.” Through respectful listening on both sides, the value of such an
suggest,
to the formal IRB process
they propose, which offers a critical next step

24
25
27
28
29

funder. And in still other instances, including the Brazilian Reproduc
tributed to my understanding of the advantages and pitfalls of collabor
ative urban health research and I am deeply grateful. Particular thanks
are extended to Nina Wallerstein, Kathleen M. Roe, Barbara Israel,
Lawrence W. Green, and Ronald Labonte, who have greatly stimulated
PART
have shared some of the cases drawn upon in this paper. My gratitude is

Minkler M, Wallerstein N.
Community Based Participatory Re-

Green LW, Mercer
SL. Can public health researchers and agencies

Hall BL. From margins to
center: the development and purpose of

Green LW, George

Community Health Scholars Program.
The Community Health
Ann Arbor, MI; 2002.

Israel BA, Schulz AJ, Parker
EA, Becker AB. Review of community-

Lewin K. Action research and
minority problems.
J Soc Issues.

Brown LD, Tandon R.
Ideology and political economy in inquiry:
1983;

Freire P.
New York, NY
: Seabury Press;

Fals-Borda O. The application of participatory action-research in

Maguire P.
Doing Participatory
Research: A Feminist Approach.

12.

Native American Postcolonial Psychology.
Albany, N
Y: State University of New York Press; 1995.


Lasker RD, Weiss ES, Miller R. Partnership synergy: a practi
cal framework for studying and strengthening the collaborative

Tervalon M, Murray-Garcia J. Cultural humility vs. cultural com

Soc Sci

Who Will Keep the Public
Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine; 2002.

O’Fallon LR, Dearry A. Community-based participatory research
as a tool to advance environmental
Environ
19.

Loh P, Sugerman-Brozan J. Environmental justice organizing for
environmental health: case
study on asthma and diesel exhaust in

ley, MA; 2004.

Bell C.

M, Minkler M, Saunders FF. Combining research, advocacy

Shah R.




PART
Wallerstein N, eds.
Community Based Participatory Research for

Reason P.
Participation in Human Inquiry.
London, UK: Sage;

Community
Based Participatory Research (CBPR) in South Africa: Engaging
Multiple Constituents
to Shape the Research Question.

Yoshihama M, Carr ES. Community participation reconsidered:
munity Pract.

Ugalde A. Ideological dimensions of community participation in


Cram F. Rangahau Maori: Tona tika, tona pono: The validity and
integrity of Maori research. In: Tolich M, ed.


Turning Point, National
Association of County and City HealthOf
cials. Thirteen policy principles
for advancing collaborative ac


Diaz M, Simmons R. When is research participatory? Reections
J Women’s Health.

Chataway CJ. Examination of the constraints of mutual inquiry
1997;53:

participatory
research in health promotion. In: MinklerM, WallersteinN, eds.
San Francisco,
248
CHAPTER 8

|

F
R
OM E
TH
OS
T
O LOGOS: A
PPEAL
ING
T
O YOU
R
R
EA
D
ER
S
A Practice
S
equence: Analyzing the Appeals in a Researched Argument

1


Make a list of the major premises that inform Minklers argu
-
ment, and examine the evidence she uses to support them. To
what extent do you nd her evidence credible? Do you generally
agree or disagree with the conclusions she draws? Be prepared to
explain your responses to your class or peer group.

2


logos. How would you describe the ways she makes these three
types of appeals? How does she present herself? What does she
seem to assume? How does she help you understand the chain of

reasoning by which she moves from premises to conclusion?

3


in which you take issue with her argument. This does not mean
your group has to disagree with her entire argument, although of
course you may. Rather, present your groups own contribution
to the conversation in which she is participating. Y
ou may want
to ask her to further explain one or more of her points, or suggest
what she might be leaving out, or add your own take or evidence
to her argument. As a group, you will have to agree on your focus.
of it on which your group is focusing. Pay close attention to your
own strategies for appealing to

her



how you present yourselves,
how you appeal to her values and emotions, and how you present
your reasons for your own premises and conclusion.
A
NAL
Y
R
I
C
:
A
D
V
E
R
TISEMENTS
-
municate and create an argument designed to move a specic audience to
think or act in a specic way. Every day we view lms and television, read
-
age and packaging encourage us to buy products we may not need. Every
-
where we are confronted by visual images that aim to persuade us.
To examine the strategies you can use to understand how images
and texts convey meaning,
we would like you to analyze a public service
announcement (PSA) for Feeding America, distributed by the Ad

Council,
a nonprot institution founded in 1942 for the purpose of bringing atten
-
tion to social issues. The long horizontal advertisement shows a blurry
-
ground to the right is a bright red alarm bell attached to a

wooden tele
-
phone pole. The text reads, School may be out for summer but lunch is
always in

session. A sentence in smaller text below it reads, If your kids
08_GRE_5344_Ch8_211_256.indd 248
11/19/14 11:04 AM
ALY
ERT
S
rely on freeschool meals, call your Feeding America member food bank
or visit FeedingAmerica.org/SummerMeals.” Examine the advertisement
(Figure8.2) and try to answer the questions below.

Record what you think is the ad’s overall message. What does the Ad
seem to draw on
most: appeals based on our cultural relationship to

Formulate what you think is the
ad’s argument, and point out specic

receive sufcient nutrition during the summer when school is out.
Ad Council posted the Feeding America ad on billboards in a wide range
of cities across the United States. An ad on a billboard will reach many
people whose assumptions about hunger in America will vary, as will their
-
raws Your
attention. In the Feeding America ad, our attention is drawn to the cen
raws Your
Then reect on what draws your attention to this image or text. Is there
ALY
ERT
S
our gaze. Evidently the ad was composed to emphasize the children’s
We are puzzled by the alarm bell in the foreground to the right. (In the
original full-color ad, the alarm bell is bright red and demands our at


tention.)
ing during the summer with an image that for many of us represents school?
It’s dif
cult to grasp the signicance of these juxtapositions without further
inquiry, in this case without looking at the text in the foreground of the ad. We
assume that the designer expects readers to look there next, because of its size
like children’s chalk writing on
the sidewalk. Finally, our eyes are drawn to the Feeding America logo. What is
how images and text appeal
to your emotions. An appeal to pathos is meant to evoke emotions such as
empathy (which might prompt us to identify with an image)orout

rage
The sixth and nal step requires that we understand the entire composi
what the cluster of images and text convey. What is the
252
CHAPTER 8

|

F
R
OM E
TH
OS
T
O LOGOS: A
PPEAL
ING
T
O YOU
R
R
EA
D
ER
S
The text in the Feeding America ad helps clarify the meaning of the
central images of the children and the alarm bell. The alarm bell ties the
image in the background to the foregrounded text



School may be out
for summer, but lunch is always in session. Food insecurity is a problem
when school is not in session?
Hunger is not readily visible to most of us. Images of playfulness, even
childlike innocence, can mask the deprivation that any of the people sur
-
rounding us may experience in their own lives. The text makes the appeal
in the ad explicit. Those living in hunger are all around us.
The smaller text answers the question of where children
in need can
receive the nutrition they require. Children who are eligible for free lunch dur
-
ing the school year are also eligible to receive free meals during the summer.
-
quires inductive reasoning, moving from specic pieces of evidence to a
major premise. We would conclude that the argument in the ad goes some
-
thing like this:

1.

Hunger in America is a reality in the lives of many children and

families.

2.

Food insecurity exists for children year round



session or not.

3.

Feeding America can help children and families gain access to the
nutrition they require.
There are other ways to formulate the argument, and we invite you to dis
-
cuss these alternatives as a class. Our main point, though, is that visual
images make claims on us as viewers in much the same ways as any
Steps to Visual Analysis

1
N
otice where the ad appears.
what extent does the placement of the ad in a magazine or news
-

2

Identify what draws your attention.
Where does your eye go? To
an image, some text, some odd juxtaposition?

3

Reect on what draws your attention.
-
tling or shocking about the image or text, about the situation
-
thing about the use of color, the size of the image or text, or the
font that catches your eye?

4

of the ads sponsor. For example, what do you know about the
08_GRE_5344_Ch8_211_256.indd 252
11/19/14 11:04 AM
AN
ALY
ZING
V
ISU
AL
R
O
R
I
C
: ADV
ERT
IS
E
M
E
N
T
S
253
A Practice
S
To practice these strategies, we would like you to choose and analyze
the following ad for Microsoft (Figure 8.3). The photograph is of a
girl in a robe and slippers sitting on her bed looking at a laptop. The
text above the image reads, You have your best ideas in the shower.
Now you
can work in the next room. Below the image the text reads,
almost anywhere inspiration nds you. Its easier than ever to store,
-
where you happen to be. Thats because Microsoft Ofce works so eas
-
ily with a free online workspace from Microsoft. So work no longer
season. Text at the bottom of the ad reads, Ofce2007.com Micro
-
soft Ofce Real life tools. (Other advertisements for analysis appear
on pages 254256.)
-
manufactures computer software, represents as a company. In doing
this research, write a brief summary of the companys values. Do
you share those values? Are you condent in the companys ability to
produce a good product that you want to use?
Second, reect on and write about what the images and text make
you feel about your own experiences working from home. In what
ways do you identify with the message that the workplace extends
into per

sonal space?
Third, work in small groups to identify the logic of the narrative
that the images and text convey. What do you see as the main premise
of the ad? How did you arrive at your conclusion? Report your groups
ndings to the class. Be sure to present the evidence to support your
claim.

corporation or institution sponsoring the ad? To what extent do
you share its values?

5
A
nalyze the pathos in the ad.
How do the images and text appeal
to your emotions? What does the image or text make you feel or
think about?

6

Understand the logos of the ad.
What is the logic of the ad? Taken
the different images and text related to the claim that the ad is
making?
08_GRE_5344_Ch8_211_256.indd 253
11/19/14 11:04 AM
M
ALY
ERT
S
The “It’s Only Another Beer” Black and Tan. A list of “ingredients” follows:
8oz. pilsner lager. 8 oz. stout lager
110-hour day. 1 tired worker. A few rounds with the guys. Mix ingredients.
Add1 totalled vehicle. Never underestimate ‘just a few.’ Buzzed driving is drunk
Department of Transportation.
Further
H
white background next to a headline that reads: open up and say anything. The
paragraphs that will help you build your argument. Finally, we provide
new about your argument,
what is at stake, and what readers should do
with the knowledge you convey.
-
Remember that an introduction need not be limited to a single paragraph.
Keep in mind that you have to make these strategies your own. That is,
ment. You must imagine your readers and what will engage them. What
nverted-
, like an upside-down triangle, is broad
at the top and pointed at the base. It begins with a general statement of the
topic and then narrows its focus, ending with the point of the paragraph
(and the triangle), the writer’s thesis. We can see this strategy at work in the
following introduction from a student’s essay. The student writer (1) begins
with a broad description of the problem she will address, (2) then focuses
the
“banking sy
stem” of
education, a term
hooks borrows from
educator Paulo Freire.
The student then
points to the
banking
system as
the

education.
The strategy of writing an introduction as an inverted triangle entails
rst identifying an idea, an argument, or a concept that people appear to
how those
Opening with a short
, or story, is a strategy many writers use
a sequence of events and can be especially effective if you think you need
to coax indifferent or reluctant readers into taking an interest in the topic.
Of course, a narrative introduction delays the declaration of your argu
ment, so it’s wise to choose a short story that clearly connects to your argu
program at Notre Dam
university’
women’s boxing
program.
viewing this sport as a positive opportunity for women at ND indi
cates that there is growing hope that very soon more activities
your essay by asking one or more questions, which the essay goes on to
answer. You want to think of a question that will pique your readers’ inter
Gender Stratication in the Workplace.”
To what extent do women and men who work in different
occupations also work in different space? Baran and Teegar
since managers are overwhelmingly male and clerical staff
conditions of women’s work and men’s work and proposes
one another very infrequently. Further, women’s jobs can be
classied as “open oor,” but men’s jobs are more likely to be
“closed door.” That is, women work in a more public envi
of spatial control both reects and contributes to women’s
By the end of this introductory paragraph, Spain has explained some of
the terms she will use in her essay (
closed door
offered in her nal sentence a clear statement of her thesis.
In “Harry Potter and the Technology of Magic,” literature scholar
The writer then states
her thesis (what her
paper “will show”):
Despite the problems of
stereotyping, women’s
boxing oers women
signicant opportuni
ties for growth.
thesis
that men
d women have very
lile contact in the
workplace.
Finally, she outlines
the eects that this
lack of contact has on
women.
space on this list with John Grisham and Oprah Winfrey,
book industry. What these industry leaders have in common
transformed both the technologies of reading and the way
he is a wizard is to go shopping for a wand
inter
teachers but also a topic of compelling interest to literary,
enact both our fantasies and our fears of children’s
and publishing in the context of twenty-rst-century
In the nal two sentences of the introduction, Teare raises her question
about the root of this “international phenomenon” and then offers her the
what question is driving Teare’s essay and the answer she proposes to
explain throughout the essay.
paradoxical introduction
appeals to readers’ curiosity by pointing out
doxical introduction draws readers in by saying, in effect, “Here’s some
Negotiating a Glass Ceiling on Women’s Muscular Strength,” sociologist
Shari L. Dworkin
points to a paradox in our commonsense understanding
of bodies as the product of biology, not culture.
In her rst four
sentences, Teare
the gro
popularity of the Harry
Poer books.
In the fth sentence,
Teare asks the ques
tion she will try to
answer in the rest of
the essay.
Finally, in the last
sentence,
Teare o

a partial answer t
her question
her
thesis.
Current work in gender studies points to how “when examined
closely, much of what we take for granted about gender and its
causes and effects either does not hold up, or can be explained
differently.” These arguments become especially contentious
After all, “common sense” frequently tells us that esh and
blood bodies are about biology. However, bodies are also
structures of opportunity, wider cultural meanings, and
more. Paradoxically, then, when we think that we are “really
seeing” naturally sexed bodies, perhaps we are seeing the
effect of internalizing gender ideologies
carrying out social
Dworkin’s strategy in the rst three sentences is to describe common
tences beginning “However” and “Paradoxically,” she advances the surpris
ing idea that our bodies
not just the clothes we wear, for
cultural gender markers. Her essay
then goes on to examine women’s
DRAFTI
NG IN
TR
ODU
CTI
ONS
263
But these courses routinely deal with men only in their
public roles, so we come to know and understand men as
scientists, politicians, military gures, writers, and philoso
-
phers. Rarely, if ever, are men understood through the prism
of gender.
Kimmel and Messner use these opening paragraphs to highlight both what
they nd problematic about the existing literature on men and to intro
-
duce readers to their own approach.
Steps to Drafting Introductions: Five Strategies

1

Use an inverted triangle.
Begin with a broad situation, concept,
or idea, and narrow the focus to your thesis.

2

Begin with a narrative.
Capture readers imagination and interest

3

Ask a question that you will answer.
Provoke readers interest
with a question, and then use your thesis to answer the question.

4

Present a paradox.
Begin with an assumption that readers accept
as true, and formulate a thesis that not only challenges that
assumption but may very well seem paradoxical.

5

Mind the gap.
Identify what readers know and then what they
dont know (or what you believe they need to know).
The authors follow with a
question that provokes
readers interest and
points to the gap they
summarize in the last
sentence.
A Practice
S
equence:
D
rafting an Introduction

1


Write or rewrite your introduction (which, as youve seen, may
involve more than one paragraph), using one of the strategies
described above. Then share your introduction with one of your
peers and ask the following questions:
�t


To what extent did the strategy compel you to want to read
further?
�t


To what extent is my thesis clear?
�t


believe others assume to be true and my own approach?
�t


Is there another way that I might have made my introduction
more compelling?
After listening to the responses, try a second strategy and then ask
your peer which introduction is more effective.
09_GRE_5344_Ch9_257_285.indd 263
11/19/14 11:03 AM
ING PARAGRA

If you do not have your own introduction to work on, revise the
News correspond
ent Pauline Frederick once commented, “When a man
ART
N
. As you read, pay attention to how, sentence by sentence, Martínez
develops her paragraphs. We also ask that you consider how she makes
read. The series starred Dick, Jane, their white middle-class parents,
We’ve seen that nostalgia before in the nation’s history. But today it
signies a problem reaching a new intensity. It suggests a national iden
National Identity
-
500 Years of Chicano History in
for a Multi-Colored Century
(1998). In “Reinventing ‘America,’
[the] nation’s self-dened identity” has brought the country to a crisis.
Warning sirens have sounded repeatedly in the 1990s, such as the erce
battle over new history textbooks for public schools, Proposition 187’s
ugly denial of human rights to immigrants, the 1996 assault on afrma
abolish bilingual education. Attempts to copycat these reactionary mea
The attack on afrmative action isn’t really about afrmative action.
Essentially it is another tactic in today’s war on the gains of the 1960s, a
tactic rooted in Anglo resentment and fear. A major source of that fear: the
fact that California will almost surely have a majority of people of color in
Time
born babies in their hospital cribs, all of them Black or brown except
for a rare white face here and there. The headline says, “Hey, whitey! It’s
Time
zine to keep up with today’s hot issues. That manipulative image could
-
tional identity. Behind the attacks on immigrants, afrmative action,

versallyap

plicable answer, today new denitions must be found. But
too often Americans, with
supposed scholars in the lead, refuse to face
that need and instead nurse a nostalgia for some bygone clarity. They
feathers noisily with the publication of Allan Bloom’s 1987 best-selling
The Closing of the American Mind.
Bloom bemoaned the decline
ART
N
but that’s the problem).
The massive extermination of indigenous peoples provided our land
base; the enslavement of
African labor made our economic growth pos
sible; and the seizure of half of Mexico by war (or threat of renewed war)
extended this nation’s boundaries north to the Pacic and south to the
Rio Grande. Such are the foundation stones of the United States, within
an economic system that made this country the rst in world history to
-
tional identity has been the myth of the frontier, analyzed in Richard
Slotkin’s
, the last volume of a fascinating trilogy. He
s belief that the West was won thanks to
of men who impose on the course of events the latent virtues of their
tory’s protagonists. . . .
sphere so that territorial expansion became God’s will. . . .
The concept of Manifest Destiny, with its assertion of racial superiority
sustained by military power, has dened U.S. identity for 150 years. . . .
Today’s origin myth and the resulting concept of national identity

as a fundamental pillar of
this nation, going back centuries, it becomes
adventurer as the central hero of national history, with the woman as
Reading as a Writer
To what extent does the narrative Martínez begins with make you want to
ocus Your Paragraphs
provide a partial answer to the question motivating the writer.
act as an extension of the writer’s thesis and the question motivating
the writer’s argument.
the essay.
values that she believes
do not serve all children enrolled
in America’s schools. In paragraph 4, she
states her thesis, explaining that nostalgia in the United States has created
when

tion’s present and future reality.”
cutting edge of the nation’s present and future reality.
Warning sirens have
textbooks for public schools, Proposition 187’s ugly denial of human rights to
immigrants, the 1996 assault on afrmative action that culminated in Propo
nity in Your Paragraphs
Each paragraph in an essay should focus on the subject suggested by the
cussion, it should not end with another. Several strategies can contribute
For example, in para
graph 5, Martínez’s topic sentence (“Nowhere is this more apparent
than in
California, which has long been on the cutting edge of the nation’s present
and future reality”) helps to create unity because it refers back to her thesis
refers to the “national identity crisis” mentioned in paragraph 4) and
limits the focus of what she includes in the paragraph to “the erce battle
over new history textbooks” and recent pieces of legislation in California
A second strategy for creating unity is
to repeat (or use
synonyms for) key words within a given paragraph. You can
see this at work in paragraph 12 (notice the words we’ve underscored), where
but that’s the problem). The massive
Specically, Martínez tells us that the origin narrative ignores “three major
pillars of our nationhood: genocide, enslavement, and imperialist expan
among different ideas by
or
Transition
words or phrases signal to your readers the direction your ideas are tak
ing. Table 9.1 lists common transition words and phrases grouped by
drawing a conclusion about an idea.
Martínez uses transition words and phrases throughout the excerpt
here. In several places, she uses the word
. . . A few apologies, for example, might be a step in the right direction. In 1997,
to reject the notion because corrective action, not an
apology, is needed misses the point. Having dened itself as the all-time best
ous ofcial apology for anything. . . . To press for any serious, ofcial apology
Similarly, in the last paragraph, Martínez counters the argument that afr
. . . In the afrmative-action struggle, for example, opponents have said that
Movement. But
paragraph 18. We could substitute
Common Transition Words and Phrases
L
also, and, further, more
over, in addition to, in
although, alternatively,
even though, however,
identity to account for the diversity that increased immigration has created.
We can substitute any of the transition words in Table 9.1 for drawing a
The list of transition words and phrases in Table 9.1 is hardly exhaus
tive, but it gives you a sense of the ways to connect ideas so that readers
are you drawing a logical connection from a number of different ideas?
trategies to Develop Your Paragraphs
To develop a paragraph, you can use a range of strategies, depending on
-
Use examples and illustrations.
Jane books
white middle-class values. She also uses examples in paragraph 5, where
Cite data.
ing Service..
a demographic power shift from Anglos to people of color.
Provide narratives or anecdotes.
Put simply, a narrative is an account
is a
short narrative that recounts a particular incident. An anecdote, like an
example, can bring an abstraction into focus. Consider Martínez’s third
paragraph, where the anecdote about the museum attendant brings her
point about racially charged nostalgia among white Americans into

a myth
that explains “how
. the basis for a nation’s self-dened identity.” The “Great White
Origin Myth” is an
important concept in her developing argument about a
national crisis of identity.
Technically, a
-
tween two or more things, and a
shows the differences. In prac
tice, however, it is very difcult, if not impossible, to develop a comparison
some respects and different in others.” This neutral formulation is seldom
helpful when you are developing an argument. Usually, in making your
have to take an evaluative or argumentative stance.
in both cases, the object
of nostalgi
a can move people to tears
the nostalgias spring fr
om emotional
responses that are quite different and even contradictory. I will argue that the Dick
and Jane books evoke a longing for a past that is colored by a fear of the present, a
longing for a time when white middle-class values were dominant and unquestioned.
By contrast, the nostalgia for R&B music may indicate a yearning for a past when
multicultural musicians provided white folks with a sweaty release on the dance
oor from those very same white-bread values of the time.
The writer does more than list similarities and differences; she offers an
In your writing, you also
want to avoid oversimplifying. A claim like
re

analysis and qualify your
claim: “Recent studies of patterns of immigra
tion and unemployment in the United States suggest that unrestricted
DE
V
E
LO
PI
NG P
ARA
G
RAPH
S
275
immigration is a major factor in the loss of blue-collar job opportunities
in the Southwest. Certainly this sentence is less forceful and provocative
than the other one, but it does suggest that you have done signicant and
focused research and respect the complexity of the issue.
Throughout her essay, Martnez analyzes causes and consequences.
In paragraph 8, for example, she speculates that the
cause
of attacks on
immigrants, afrmative action, and multiculturalism is Euro-American
concludes that a
consequence
of Theodore Roosevelts beliefs about race
and war was a militarism [that] went hand in hand with the racializa
-
tion of historys protagonists. In paragraph 16, the topic sentence itself
is a statement about causes and consequences: Todays origin myth and
the resulting concept of national identity make for an intellectual prison
Having shown where and how Martnez uses critical strategies to
develop her paragraphs, we must hasten to add that these critical strat
-
egies usually work in combination. Although you can easily develop an
entire paragraph (or even an entire essay) using comparison, it is almost
impossible to do so without relying on one or more of the other strategies.
What if you need to tell an anecdote about the two authors you are com
-
paring? What if you have to cite data about different rates of economic
growth to clarify the main claim of your comparison? What if you are
comparing different causes and consequences?
-
ing your issue in writing. How you make use of them, individually or in
combination, depends on which can help you best communicate your
argument to your readers.
Steps to Developing Paragraphs

1

Use topic sentences to focus your paragraphs.
Remember that
a topic sentence partially answers the question motivating you to
write; acts as an extension of your thesis; indicates to your readers
what the paragraph is about; and helps create unity both within
the paragraph and within the essay.

2

Create unity in your paragraphs.
should follow logically from your topic sentence and maintain a
-
tion words also help create unity in paragraphs.

3

Use critical strategies to develop your paragraphs.
Use examples
and illustrations; cite data; analyze texts; tell stories or anecdotes;
dene terms; make comparisons; and examine causes and evalu
-
ate consequences.
09_GRE_5344_Ch9_257_285.indd 275
11/19/14 11:04 AM
276
CHAPTER 9

|

F
R
OM IN
TR
ODU
CTI
ONS
T
O CON
C
LUS
I
ONS:
DRAFTI
NG
A
N ESS
A
Y
DRAFTING
C
ONCLUSIONS
In writing a conclusion to your essay, you are making a nal appeal to your
audience. You want to convince readers that what you have written is a rel
-
them that your argument is reasonable. Rather than summarize all of the
points youve made in the essay



assume your readers have carefully read
what youve written



the service of answering the question So what? Establish why your argu
-
ment is important: What will happen if things stay the same? What will hap
-

or not readers feel that you have adequately addressed So what?



that
you have made clear what is signicant and of value.
what you have written in a broader context. (What are the sociological
implications of your argument? How far-reaching are they? Are there po
-
litical implications? Economic implications?) Finally, explain again how
extending, or even challenging what others have argued.
main points, puts her essay in a broader context, indicates whats new in
her argument, and answers the question So what?:
Accepting the implications of a different narrative could also shed light on
todays struggles. In the afrmative-action struggle, for example, opponents
have said that that policy is no longer needed because racism ended with the
Civil Rights Movement. But if we look at slavery as a fundamental pillar of this
nation, going back centuries, it becomes obvious that racism could not have
A Practice
S
equence: Working with Paragraphs
We would like you
to work in pairs on paragraphing. The objective of
this exercise is to gauge the effectiveness of your topic sentences and
the degree to which your paragraphs are unied and fully developed.
Make a copy of your essay and cut it up into paragraphs. Shuf
-
e the paragraphs to be sure they are no longer in the original order,
and then exchange cut-up drafts with your partner. The challenge is to
nished, compare your reorderings with the original drafts. Were you
able to reproduce the original organization exactly? If not, do the vari
-
ations make sense? If one or the other of you had trouble putting the
paragraph, and strategies for making paragraphs more unied and
coherent.
09_GRE_5344_Ch9_257_285.indd 276
11/19/14 11:04 AM
tier idealized the white male adventurer as the central hero of national history,

discussed, she does not merely summarize. Instead, she suggests
Americans need a different origin narrative.


She signals what’s new in her argument with the word
slavery in a new way, if we look at the frontier myth in a new way).

Finally, her answers to why this issue matters culminate in the last sen
sentence, by asserting
that a “more truthful origin narrative” could
sented by the old origin myth. Clearly, she believes the implications of
-
introduction, challenging the reader, posing questions, and concluding
with a quotation. Each of these strategies appeals to readers in different
ways; therefore, we suggest
you try them all out in writing your own con
to end. In the following example, the student writer begins with a voice
speaking from behind an Islamic veil, revealing the ways that Western cul
A voice from behind the shrouds of an Islamic veil
dical,
fundam
entalist Muslim terrorist packing an AK-47 assault rie
cularly of females, epitomizes
ultimate freedom, the h
ead-to-toe covering of a Muslim woman
seems inherently oppressive. Driven by an autonomous national
attitude, the inhabitan
ts of the “land of the free” are quick to
honor, mod
esty, and stability. Because of an unfair
American assessment, th
e aura of hijab mystery cannot be removed
By issuing a challenge to your readers, you create a sense of urgency,

voking them to act to change
the status quo. In this example, the stu
Notice that the
author begins with “a
voice from behind the
shrouds of an Islamic
veil” and then echoes
this quotation in her
conclusion: “Speak to
them from behind a
curtain.”
Notice how the con
clusion echoes the
introduction in its
reference to a voice
speaking from behind
a curtain.
The changes in AIDS education that I am suggesting are necessary
and relatively simple to make. Although the current curriculum
in high school health classes is helpful and informative, it simply
does not pertain to young women as much as it should. AIDS
is killing women at an alarming rate, and many people do not
realize this. According to Daniel DeNoon, AIDS is one of the six
leading causes of death amon
g women aged 18 to 45, and women
“bear the brunt of the worldwide AIDS epidemic.” For this reason,
DeNoon argues, women are one of the most important new popu
lations that are contracting HIV at a high rate. I challenge young
women to be more well-informed about AIDS and their link to the
disease; otherwise, many new cases may develop. As the epidemic
continues to spread, women need to realize that they can stop
the spread of the disease and protect themselves from infection
and a number of related complications. It is the responsibility
of health educators to present this to young women and inform
them of the powerful choices that they can make.
to take action. To move readers to action, you must establish the persis
passively involved in an already-in-place curriculum, more parents
might respond. Perhaps, most importantly, if teachers want par
ents to be involved in their students’ educations, they must make
the parents feel as though their opinions and concerns have real
weight. When parents such as those interviewed for this study
voice concerns and questions over their child’s progress, it is
imperative that teachers acknowledge and answer them.
ity of hate crimes. It’s useful to extrapolate from your argument, to raise
more resources? My research can also be used to understand global
conict or war. In general, groups mobilize when their established
resources are threatened by an external force. Moreover, groups use
framing processes to justify their collective action to others.
which the quotation amplies the idea that people use Barbie to advance
The question still remains, what does Barbie mean? Is she the
spokeswoman for the empowerment of women, or rather is
she performing the dirty work of conservative patriarchy? I do
not think we will ever know the answer. Rather, Barbie is the
The rst question.
Other speculative
questions follow
from possible
responses to the
writer’s rst
question.
In the last two
sentences, the
writer looks to the
future with her
recommendations.
281
DRAFTI
NG CON
C
LUS
I
ONS

undeniable American Icon. She is a toy, and she is what we want
her to be. A test performed by Albert M. Magro at Fairmont State
College titled Why Barbie Is Perceived as Beautiful shows that
Barbie is the epitome of what we as humans nd beautiful. The test
sought to nd human preferences on evolutionary changes in the
human body. Subjects were shown a series of photos comparing
different human body parts, such as the size and shape of the eyes,
and asked to decide which feature they preferred: the primitive or
derived (more evolved traits). The test revealed that the subjects
preferred the derived body traits. Ironically, it is these preferred
evolutionary features that are utilized on the body of Barbie. Barbie
is truly an extension of what we are and what we perceive. Juel
Best concludes his discourse on Barbie with these words: Toys do
not embody violence or sexism or occult meanings. People must
assign toys their meanings. Barbie is whoever we make her out to
The writer quotes an
authority to amplify
the idea that individu
-
ally and collectively,
we project signicance
on toys.
Steps to Drafting Conclusions: Five Strategies

1

Dont simply repeat
points you make in the paper. Instead, show readers how the
.

2

Answer the question So what? Show your readers why your
stand on the issue is signicant.

3

Place your argument in a larger context.
Discuss the specics of
your argument, but also indicate its broader implications.

4

Show readers what is new.
As you synthesize the key points of
your argument, explain how what you argue builds on, extends, or
challenges the thinking of others.

5

Decide on the best strategy for writing your conclusion.
Will you
echo the introduction? Challenge the reader? Look to the future?
Pose questions? Conclude with a quotation? Choose the best strat
-
egy or strategies to appeal to your readers.
A Practice
S
equence:
D
rafting a Conclusion

1


Write your conclusion, using one of the strategies described in
this section. Then share your conclusion with a classmate. Ask
this person to address the following questions:
�t

�t

Did I answer So what? adequately?
09_GRE_5344_Ch9_257_285.indd 281
11/19/14 11:04 AM
TRATEGIES FOR WRITING:
tions, developing your ideas in subsequent paragraphs, and drafting
conclusions, read Barbara Ehrenreich’s essay, “Cultural Baggage,” and
sity. It may help to refer to the practice sequences for drafting introduc
tions (p.263) and conclusions (p.281), as well as Steps to Developing
Paragraphs (p.275). Ideally, you should work with your classmates, in
groups of three or four, assigning one person to record your ideas and

After listening to the responses, try a second strategy, and then
ask your classmate which conclusion is more effective.

African Americans, Latinos, Native Americans
stand up and proudly
idea of cuisine was stuffed sheep gut washed down with whiskey? And
then there was the sting of Disraeli’s remark
in my early teens
to the effect that his ancestors had been leading
orderly, literate lives when my ancestors were still rampaging through
reminder of a genuine heritage. My parents had not believed in God
either, nor had my grandparents or any other progenitors going back to
just as, on the in-law side, my children’s other ances
tors had shaken
their Orthodox Judaism. This insight did not exactly
religions
who do
procedure for cooking
or cleaning by telling me, “Grandma did it this
way.” What did Grandma know, living in the days before vacuum clean
bounced as it was from the Highlands of
Workingwith Peer Groups
menting on your drafts, your peers can support your work as a writer.

substituting dashes for commas to create emphasis, for example.
Here are some characteristics of revising and editing that can guide how
you read your own writing and the comments you offer to other writers:
in progress
Focuses on new possibilities
both within and beyond the text
Focuses on new questions or
goals
Considers both purpose and
readers’ needs
almost-nished product
Considers grammar,
cess. Your best writing will happen in the context of real readers’ respond
you will see many people credited with having improved the book
We emphasize that the different stages of
early, later, and
call for different work from both readers and writers because
needs vary with each successive draft.
has been called the composition pyramid (Figure 10.1).*
*We thank
T
Situation Issues Thesis
Organization
Effective use of sources
support thesis
Style and
288
CH
APTER 10

|

F
R
OM R
E
VISING
T
O EDI
T
ING: WO
R
KING
W
I
T
H P
EER

GR
OU
P
S
pyramid represents elements of writing that can help you decide what to
pay attention to at different stages of writing.

1.
T
he top of this inverted pyramid corresponds to the early stages of
writing. At this point, members of the writing group should identify
the situation the writer is responding to (for example, homelessness,
inequality, or air pollution), the issue the writer has dened (for exam
-
ple, the economic versus the social
costs of homelessness), the thesis
or argument the writer advances, and the extent to which the writer
addresses a given audience appropriately.

2.
T
he middle portion of the pyramid corresponds to a later stage of
the writing process, the point at which members of the group should
move on to discuss the extent to which the writer has organized the
argument logically and used sources ef
fectively to support the thesis.
Has the writer integrated quotations smoothly into the paper? Is the
evidence relevant, recent, and credible?

3.

Finally, the bottom of the pyramid corresponds to the nal stages of
drafting. As the writers focus shifts to grammar and style, so should
the groups. Questions to ask: Is this specic language appropriate to
the intended audience? Has the writer presented the argument in ways
that will compel

readers



even those who

disagree



to listen?
Steps in the Peer Editing Process

1

T
he writer distributes copies of the draft to each member of
the writing group. (Ideally, the group should not exceed four

students.)

2

T
member of the group.

3

T

4

T
he writer then reads the draft aloud, while members follow
along, underlining passages and making notes to prepare them
-
selves to discuss the draft.

5

Members ask questions that help the writer identify concepts that
need further elaboration or clarication.

6

D
iscussion focuses on the strengths and weaknesses of the draft
appropriate to the stage of writing and the writers concerns.
(
E
ven in the early stage, readers and the writer should sustain
discussion for at least ten minutes before the next student takes a
turn as writer.)
10_GRE_60141_Ch10_286_312.indd 288
11/3/14 8:13 AM
TATE
a paper about the purpose
of education and the extent to which school
he explained to her
to sharpen her argument.

torically.

people for a job, but we also read that article, you know,
haven’t decided what that means.

agree that schools don’t really prepare us to be very creative
or innovative. I guess that’s the issue.
Rebecca restated her understanding of the assignment before giving
his is a valuable starting
the task,
Here we reprint the main part of Rebecca’s draft, with annotations on
290
CH
APTER 10

|

F
R
OM R
E
VISING
T
O EDI
T
ING: WO
R
KING
W
I
T
H P
EER

GR
OU
P
S

Jegier 1
Rebecca Jegier
Stu
dent-Centered Learning: Catering to Students Impatience
Americans have gotten used to receiving instant gratication and
immediate results. If a Web site takes four seconds or longer to
waiting and abandon the page (Loading time, 2013). In a survey
conducted by the Associated Press, the majority of Americans report
losing patience after being kept waiting on the telephone for more
than ve minutes, and half of those surveyed reported that they
2006). This paper is about two hundred times as long as the aver
-



how many teenag
e students would be willing to read it
until the end? With the growing culture of impatience, it comes as
no surprise that Americans today are frustrated with recent reforms
in education and their lack of immediate results. It is also not a sur
-
prising issue that American children have trouble staying focused
and engaged in todays standardized and factory-based education

to the interactive, personalized, and relevant world in which

students spend m
ost of their lives.
According to Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. (1947), Intel
-
ligence plus character



that is the goal of true edu
cation. The
but worthy objectives upon which to concentrate. In order
potential of empowering students to concentrate and reach
their goals, educators and school reformers might very well
explore the issue of impatience. In some cases, such as invest
-
ing in stocks, the unwillingness to be patient can cause people
-
usually comes with time. In other circumstances, however,
impatience can be largely benecial if it is handled correctly;

successful businesses will improve as they m
ake efforts to become
1
2
Rebeccas group
member, Kevin, says
he likes the introduc
-
tion and agrees with
the point that we are
all becoming impa
-
tient. But he worries
that the introduction
should state the
purpose of educa
-
tion more directly
since this is the
assignment. Jasmine
agrees.
Kevin and Michaela
both tell Rebecca
that they like this
phrase, the culture
of impatience.
They all discuss
is the argument and
if Rebecca could
restate her key claim.
She also anticipates
readers dierent
of impatience and
seen in positive
terms.
Rebecca provides
one important way
that Americans
can think about the
purpose of education
and tries to connect
this perspective to
her own ideas about
impatience.
10_GRE_60141_Ch10_286_312.indd 290
11/3/14 8:13 AM
291
J
E
GI
ER

|


ST
UD
E
N
T
-C
E
N
TERE
D L
EAR
NING
Jegier 2
do not want to wait.
School reformers impatience belongs in the rst

d unproductive. Making quality
reforms that will be both effective and enduring is a long-term
investment that must be carefully planned instead of hastily
implemented. The expectation that coming out with new legis
-
lation will immediately chang
put it gently, ludicrous. And it is almost as ridiculous to think
that small reforms will be effective when they dont change the
underlying problem and allow the system to become relevant
Take movies, for example. The rst Blockbuster store
opened in the 1980s, boasting convenience and the ability to
customize movie selection to location. By September 2012,
however, Blockbuster had led for bankruptcy and had closed
How did such a successful idea turn into a disaster? The prob
-
lem with Blockbuster was that it made small improvements to
its traditional, formerly successful model and disregarded con
-
came out with its own movie-by-mail service. Albert Einstein
once dened insanity as doing the same thing over and over
again and expecting different results. Although schools
monopolize the education business, it is still vital for them
to adapt and conform to that which is relevant in todays
world. Instead of continuing to take a Blockbuster attitude
towards education



an arguably insane r
oute



the U.S.
educati
on system needs to examine reforms that have hap
-
pened in the past as well as reevaluate what its goals are for
the children of tomorrow.
Ever since education began in America with one-room

constantly
been adapting to m

of the country depending on the time period (Tyack, 2007).
3
4
5
She goes on to
explain that school
reformers have
been impatient, but
their approach has

learning.
Rebeccas peer group
is intrigued by this
analogy and even its
relevance. However,
Jasmine thinks
Rebecca is beginning
to lose the focus of
her argument.
In the following three
paragraphs, Rebecca
shifts the focus from
the present to the
past, which is part of
10_GRE_60141_Ch10_286_312.indd 291
11/3/14 8:13 AM
292
CH
APTER 10

|

F
R
OM R
E
VISING
T
O EDI
T
ING: WO
R
KING
W
I
T
H P
EER

GR
OU
P
S
Jegier 3
As the goals of the country have changed, so have the schools.
Initially, Thomas Jefferson and Noah Webster wanted children
to emerge from school as functioning, self-governing citizens
who could contribute to the democracy in a new fragile republic.
Later, goals were revised due to changes or events in the world
such as immigration, the space race, and the
Brown v. Board of

Education
decision. Wh
en immigrants began to come to America
in the late 1800s, the school system had to adapt to nd a way
to assimilate immigrants into the established education system.
In the 1950s when the Supreme Court delivered its
Brown v.
Board of Education
decision, schools had to adapt to desegrega
-
tion and address the effects of opening their doors to those who
launched the rst satellite and effectively won the space race,
the United States immediately shifted its focus to math and
science classes. These reforms were specic to the time, as well
eventually effective even though they were not seen in this
wayat rst.
In 1983, the National Commission on Excellence in
Education published A Nation at Risk, a report that pointed
out aws in the U.S. education system



aws that the nation
is still ad
dressing today. It recommended that we should raise
the standards of high school graduation requirements and
college admissions requirements, as well as increase teacher
salaries and raise standards for those who wish to teach, in
addition to many other suggestions for reform (National Com
-
mission on Excellence in Education, 1983). Since this landmark
report was produced, school reformers have repeatedly tried to
confront the system head-on.
President George W. Bushs No Child Left Behind Act of
2001 (NCLB) is a commonly cited and criticized reform that
requires states to assess all students at select grade levels
in order for schools to receive federal funding. Intended to
increase the quality of education for everyone by requiring
schools to improve their performance, NCLB is limited in that it
does not address the root of the problem and places the focus
6
7
the assignment, to
oer some historical
context for contem
-
porary eorts to
dene the purpose of
education.
10_GRE_60141_Ch10_286_312.indd 292
11/3/14 8:13 AM
D L
Jegier 4
on achievement instead of the teaching and learning process.
Although some improvement in test scores has been reported
since its implementation (Dee & Jacob, 2011), frustration with
this act has been growing because the tests and the standards
Rebecca helps readers
think of impatience
as a
positive trait
she believes
educators overlook.
Michaela and Kevin
also think Rebecca
needs to
connect this
point
to what she says
about the “culture of
impatience.
Although they agree
with this point,
Rebecca’s group is
not sure how this
connects with her
argument about
impatience.
Rebecca’s group
wonders about the
oint Rebecca makes
here, one that implicitly
connects to her idea
that impatience can
294
CH
APTER 10

|

F
R
OM R
E
VISING
T
O EDI
T
ING: WO
R
KING
W
I
T
H P
EER

GR
OU
P
S
Jegier 5
people can be intelligent in other distinct ways. He came up
musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist. Besides
having different intelligences, students are unique because of
their different learning styles (for example, one student might
material (Christensen, Horn & Johnson, 2008). This leads us
to the question: if all students have different intelligences and
learn in different ways, what reasoning do we have to support
that standardizing their education would be an effective teach
-
-
teaching only caters to those who are intelligent in the lin
-
guistic and logical-mathematical sense? If the goal is to educate
every student, standardization is not an effective way to do it.
Rebeccas group begins with a brief discussion of her introduction
and then turn to Rebeccas argument.
T
hey ask questions and offer some
reections that they hoped would guide Rebecca
toward making a more
explicit claim about school reform.

Kevin:



I really like your introduction and agree with the idea that
we live in a world where we expect instant gratication. I

Michaela:



And you use a great phrase, a culture of impatience,

to describe the problem.

Jasmine:



Yes. But isnt the paper supposed to be about the purpose of
education? You eventually connect the idea of impatience to
the purpose of education, you know, to respond to a genera
-
tion of students like us who have been brought up on tech
-
nology.
S
chool isnt very responsive to the way we learn. Isnt
that what you are arguing?

Rebecca:



Okay, I see what you are saying. But I wanted to write an
introduction that would capture your attention with some
-
thing relevant. Ill have to think about that.
10_GRE_60141_Ch10_286_312.indd 294
11/3/14 8:13 AM
TATE
S
they learn. Iknow you are not saying it that way, but is that
culture of impatience.” However, Jasmine asks a pointed question that
ment and the role that an introduction should play. In particular, every
one seems to agree that Rebecca’s key claim centers on school’s lack of
he way that Rebecca states this is different from the way Jasmine and
connect the different ideas that she introduces in her paper: school
Jasmi
ne:
S
he last
sentence of your paragraph is good, but it takes you
awhile to make this point. In the paragraph above it,
he rst
venience and the ability to customize movie selection
two points earlier. Otherwise, I think you are losing
focus by introducing the example of Blockbuster.
Micha
ela:

I think the same thing happens when you start to talk
o Child Left Behind. Your last sentence talks
about “patience.” But you start by summarizing, not

Yeah, I think you keep summarizing different ideas
thing happens again when you introduce the idea of
Wow, okay.
hat’s a lot. I am going to have to think
explained in a questioning sort of way: “You are arguing that schools need
know you are not saying it that way, but is that what you are saying?”
nderstand the Writer’s Responsibilities

thesis, and audience. You should explain this and any other concerns you
uring the session, it’s important to be open to suggestions. Although
you don’t have to incorporate every suggestion your group makes when
Finally, if you decide not to take someone’s suggestion, have a good
reason for doing so. If a suggested change means you won’t be addressing
the issue, it’s ne to say no.
LY
2.
3.
writing?
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
T
nderstand the Reader’s Responsibilities
Your task as a reader is to follow along as the early draft is read, paying
ake notes directly on the draft copy, circling or underlining sec
When it’s your turn to talk, have a conversation about your reactions

example.
on’t just jump in and start telling the writer what he or she
should be doing in the paper
. Your role as a reader is to give the writer a
live audience: Your responses can help the writer decide what parts of the
however, when you should play the role of
certain comments. You don’t want to overwhelm the writer with problems
Offer both positive and negative remarks.
is working well in the paper, so the writer knows where he or she is on the
But don’t shy away from telling the writer what should
student’s early draft. After reading a number of scholarly articles on the

298
CH
APTER 10

|

F
R
OM R
E
VISING
T
O EDI
T
ING: WO
R
KING
W
I
T
H P
EER

GR
OU
P
S
1.

Are the questions and issues that motivate the writer clear?
2.

Has the writer effectively realted the conversation that published

writers are engaged in?
3.

What is at issue?
4.

What is the writers thesis?
5.

Is the writer addressing the audiences concerns effectively?
6.

What passages of the draft are most effective?
7.

What passages of the draft are least effective?
FIGURE 10.3

A Readers Questions:
E
arly
D
rafts
more popular treatments in textbooks and photographs.
S
he also tries to
tie in the larger question of historical memory to her analysis of southern
blacks struggle for

equality



what people remember about the past and
summarizes what she wants to argue (
T
he struggle of man against power
As you read
T
that concern you.
T
hen write a paragraph or two explaining what she
could do to strengthen the draft. Keep in mind that this is an early draft,
so focus on the top
level of the pyramid: the situation or assignment, the
issue, the thesis, and the audience.
Taylor 1
Tasha Taylor
Professor Winters
English 111
October 23, 20
Memory through Photography
The struggle of man against power is the struggle of
Milan Kundera
Ask the average American what the key components of the
civil rights movement are, and most people will probably recall Martin
Luther King Jr. speaking of a dream in front of the Lincoln Memorial,
1
10_GRE_60141_Ch10_286_312.indd 298
11/3/14 8:13 AM
299
TA
YLO
R

|


M
E
MO
R
Y
T
H
R
OUGH
P
HO
T
OG
RAP
HY
Taylor 2
Rosa Parks riding a bus, a few court decisions, and perhaps a
front of Central High School in Little Rock. Few people are aware
A. Philip Randolph planned the march on Washington. Few could
describe Rosa Parkss connection to the civil rights movement
(for example, the fact that she had been a member of the NAACP
since 1943) before her legendary refusal to give up her seat
in December 1955, which led to the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
Brown

v. Board of

Education
decision and th
e actual desegregation of
schools. Few

consider the f
were sent to protect her and the other members of the Little Rock Nine

had left Central High or the months of abuse (physical and emotional)
that they endured in the name of integration. What most people know
is limited to textbooks they read in school or the

captions under


photographs that describe wh
ere a particular event occurred.
Why is it that textbooks exclusively feature the stories of
larger than life gures like Martin Luther King? Why is it that we
remember things the way we do? Historical events have little
them within the contexts of our lives and our culture, without giving
them names and meanings (Kolker xix). Each person experiencing
the exact same event will carry a different memory from that event.
Trying to decipher what memories reveal about each person is a
and each additional memory alters existing ones.
The story that photographs and textbooks tell us does not
even begin to describe the depth of the movement or the thousands
who risked their lives and the lives of their families to make equality
a reality. Embracing this selective memory as a nation prevents
understanding and acknowledgment of the harsh reality of other
images from the civil rights movement (demonstrators being plowed
down by re hoses, beatings, and the charred bodies of bombing

victims) which are k
ey aspects of understanding who we are as a

erefore is why. Why is it that textbook writers
and publishers have allowed so much of this history to be skewed
and forgotten? How can it be that barely 50 years after these events
so many have been forgotten or diluted?
2
3
10_GRE_60141_Ch10_286_312.indd 299
11/3/14 8:13 AM
T
2.
3.
4.
ing other’s ideas, or trying to correct readers’ misunderstandings?
T
mation you quote, summarize, or paraphrase from the sources you
haveread?
T
readers follow the logic of your argument?
7.
T
your thesis?
8.
9.
Reading as a Writer
aylor’s draft?
aylor’s thesis or argument?
T
and historical memory?
need to know?)
nderstand the Writer’s Responsibilities
more denitively than you did in your earlier draft. You also should be
arguments. Ideally, your readers will still provide constructive criticism,
offering their support, as in the rst draft, but they will also question and
level

organization and the effective use of sources. Use the list
LATER
T
How effectively does the writer establish the conversation
gap in people’s knowledge, attempt to modify an existing argument, or
T
o what extent are you persuaded by the writer’s argument?
T
T
to respond?
passages in the writer’s draft.
What specic aspect of the draft is least effective?
to a specic passage in the writer’s draft.
FIGURE 10.5
A Reader’s Questions: Later
nderstand the Reader’s Responsibilities
In a later draft, your focus as a reader should be on midlevel concerns in
the composition pyramid: places in the writer’s text that are confusing, that
he naive reader’s
comments tend to take
o you mean to suggest that everyone who learns
to write well succeeds in life? What kind of success are you talking about?”
s advocate reader.
his reader’s
comments also challenge the writer, often taking the form of a question like
this: “But why couldn’t this be attributed to the effects of socialization rather
than heredity?” Figure 10.5 offers questions for reading later drafts.
ow read the following excerpt from
aylor’s second draft. Y
ou will see that
she begins with her discussion of historical memory.
he also has included
oni
ake notes as you read the draft and write a paragraph
aylor
has written and what she can do to make other elements stronger. In par
ticular, focus on the middle level of the composition

tion and the effective use of sources and evidence to support her thesis.
302
CH
APTER 10

|

F
R
OM R
E
VISING
T
O EDI
T
ING: WO
R
KING
W
I
T
H P
EER

GR
OU
P
S
Taylor 1
Tasha Taylor
Professor Winters
English 111
November 14, 20
Memory through Photography
The struggle of man against power is the struggle of

Milan Kundera
memories are accurate to protect themselves from the harsh realities
of the atrocities committed by ordinary people. Even the pictures
used to represent the

much-

celebrated civil rights movem
ent give
us a false sense of security and innocence. For example, the Ku Klux
Klan is most often depicted by covered faces and burning crosses; the
masks allow us to remove ourselves from responsibility. Few could
describe Rosa Parkss connection to the civil rights movement (for
example, the fact that she had been a member of the NAACP since
1943) before her legendary refusal to give up her seat in December
1955, which led to the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Few recognize
Brown v. Board of
Education
decision and the actual desegregation of schools. Few
to protect her and the other members of the Little Rock Nine had left
Central High or the months of abuse (physical and emotional) that
they endured in the name of integration. What most people know
is limitedto textbooks they read in school or the captions under
photographs that describe where a particular event occurred.
It is important, therefore, to analyze what is remembered and
even more importantly to recognize what is forgotten: to question
how far it has come and how much it has unwittingly fallen back into
old patterns such as prejudice and ignorance. The discrepancies in
in the best light and protect itself from the reality of its brutality
and responsibility. Such selective memory only temporarily heals the
1
2
10_GRE_60141_Ch10_286_312.indd 302
11/3/14 8:13 AM
303
TA
YLO
R

|


M
E
MO
R
Y
T
H
R
OUGH
P
HO
T
OG
RAP
HY
Taylor 2
Although there have been many recent moves to increase awareness,
they are tainted by unavoidable biases and therefore continue to

Im
ages play a central role in the formation of cultural memory
evidence: Images entrance us because they provide a powerful
illusion of owning reality. If we can photograph reality or paint or
copy it, we have exercised an important kind of power (Kolker 3).
used to reinforce the cultural perception that the problems of racism
are over, that it has all been xed.
In her book
Remember
, Toni Morrison strives to revitalize
the memory of school integration through photographs. The book is
dedicated to Denise McNair, Carole Robertson, Addie Mae Collins, and
72). The pictures are of black and white children happily eating
The photographs of the four murdered girls show them peacefully and
according to the United States Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and
or bombing in African American houses of worship. There are a few
images of people protesting integration, but they are also consistent
with the cultural memory (protesters are shown simply holding signs
and yelling, not beating and killing innocent children). Finally, the
a distorted cultural memory.
The photographs used to suggest how things are much, much
a black girl and a white girl holding hands through a bus window,
which was transporting them to an integrated school. The caption
reads: Anything can happen. Anything at all. See? (71). It is a very
powerful image of how the evil of Jim Crow and segregation exists in
3
4
5
10_GRE_60141_Ch10_286_312.indd 303
11/3/14 8:13 AM
304
CH
APTER 10

|

F
R
OM R
E
VISING
T
O EDI
T
ING: WO
R
KING
W
I
T
H P
EER

GR
OU
P
S
Taylor 3
However, Morrison neglects to point out that the picture was taken
Children holding hands in Boston is much less signicant than if they
how far we as a nation have come.
Morrison also glories Martin Luther King Jr. and Rosa Parks,
pointing to them as epitomizing the movement. Unfortunately, she
than life to affect change. Paul Rogat Loeb writes in
Soul of a Citizen
:
Once we enshrine our heroes, it becomes hard for mere mortals
to measure upin our eyes . . . in our collective amnesia we lose
the mechanisms through which grassroots social movements of
the past successfully shifted public

sentiment and challen
ged
entrenched institutional power. Equally lost are themeans by
which their participants managed to keep on, sustaining their
hope and eventually prevailing in circumstances at least as
difcult as those we facetoday. (Loeb 36, 38)
Placing a select few on pedestals and claiming them as next to divine
realize that ordinary people can serve as agents of change.
Morrisons book ignores the thousands of ordinary people
who risked their lives for the cause to bring about equality. The cap
-
tion besides the picture of Rosa Parks in
Remember
reads because
if I ever feel helpless or lonely I just have to remember that all it
takes is one person (Morrison 62). Ironically, Morrison gives credit
for the Montgomery Bus Boycott to one person, ignoring the months
of planning and dozens of planners involved. Even the photograph
presents Rosa Parks in a position of power. It is a

low-

angle shot up
at Parks that mak
es her appear larger than life and authoritative.
The

photo

graphs of Martin Luth
er King Jr. also further the impression
of power with a close up shot of his face as he stands above thou
-
sands of participants in the March on Washington. Although these
photographs were se

on, it is more
inspiring to remember the ordinary people who took a stand and were
able to accomplish extraordinary feats because of their dedication
and persistence rather than glorify extraordinary people who were
destined for greatness.
6
7
8
10_GRE_60141_Ch10_286_312.indd 304
11/3/14 8:13 AM
Reading as a Writer
aylor’s thesis or argument?
transitions?
T
nderstand the Writer’s Responsibilities
Your nal draft should require editing, not revising. At this stage, read
nderstand the Reader’s Responsibilities
Once a writer’s ideas are developed and in place, readers should turn their
attention to the bottom level of the composition pyramid, to matters of

citations handled consistently?
low the quotation mark?
makes judgments
about the writer’s work.
his reader may simply indicate
with a mark of some sort that there’s a problem in a sentence or para
2.
T
believe your readers are?
3.
D
writing?
4.
5.
time?
T
306
CH
APTER 10

|

F
R
OM R
E
VISING
T
O EDI
T
ING: WO
R
KING
W
I
T
H P
EER

GR
OU
P
S
Tasha Taylor

Taylor 1
Professor Winters
En
glish 111
December 5, 20
Memory through Photography
Memory is such an integral part of what it is to be human,
their memories are accurate to protect themselves from the harsh
realities of the atrocities committed by ordinary people. Even the
pictures used to represent the

much-

celebrated civil rights move
-
ment give us a false sense of security and innocence. For example,
the Ku Klux Klan is most often depicted by covered faces and burn
-
ing crosses; the masks allow us to remove ourselves from responsi
-
bility. Few could describe Rosa Parkss connection to the civil
1.

How does the writer go about contributing a unique perspective on
theissue?
2.
T
o what extent does the writer use words and phrases that are

appropriate for the intended audience?
3.
T
o what extent does the style of citation reect accepted conventions
foracademic writing?
4.

What do you think is working best?
5.

What specic aspect of the essay are you least satised with at this
time?
FIGURE 10.7

A Readers Questions: Final
D
rafts

Analyze a
N
ear-Final
D
raft
N
ow read
T
aylors

near-

she can do to strengthen it. Again, you will see that
T
aylor has made
substantial changes.
S
he compares Morrisons book of photographs to a
S
pike Lee documentary that she watched with her class. As you read the
essay, focus on the bottom level of the composition pyramid:
D
oes the
writer use appropriate language?
D
oes she adhere to appropriate con
-
ventions for using and citing sources? (
S
ee the Appendix for information
on MLA and APA formats.)
1
10_GRE_60141_Ch10_286_312.indd 306
11/3/14 8:13 AM
307
TA
YLO
R

|


M
E
MO
R
Y
T
H
R
OUGH
P
HO
T
OG
RAP
HY
Taylor 2
rights movement before her legendary refusal to give up her seat
in December 1955, which led to the Montgomery Bus Boycott (for
example, the fact that she had been a member of the NAACP since
1954
Brown v. Board of Education
decision and the actual desegrega
-
federal troops sent to protect her and the other members of the Little
Rock Nine had left Central High or the months of abuse (physical and
emotional) that they endured in the name of integration. What most
people know is limited to the textbooks they read in school or the
captions under photographs that describe where a particular event
occurred.
It is important, then, to analyze what is remembered, and
even more important to recognize what is forgotten: to question
how far it has come and how much it has unwittingly fallen back
into old patterns of prejudice and ignorance. The discrepancies in
in the best light and protect itself from the reality of its brutality
and responsibility. Such selective memory only temporarily heals
Although there have been many recent moves to increase awareness,
they are tainted by unavoidable biases and therefore continue to
Images play a central role in the formation of cultural memory
evidence: Images entrance us because they provide a powerful
illusion of owning reality. If we can photograph reality or paint or
copy it, we have exercised an important kind of power (Kolker 3).

used to reinforce the cultural perception that the problems of racism
are over, that they have all been xed.
In her book
Remember
, Toni Morrison strives to revitalize
the memory of school integration through photographs. The book is
dedicated to Denise McNair, Carole Robertson, Addie Mae Collins, and
2
3
4
10_GRE_60141_Ch10_286_312.indd 307
11/3/14 8:13 AM
308
CH
APTER 10

|

F
R
OM R
E
VISING
T
O EDI
T
ING: WO
R
KING
W
I
T
H P
EER

GR
OU
P
S
Taylor 3
-
tographs of the four murdered girls show them peacefully and
according tothe United States Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and
or bombing in African American houses of worship. There are a few
images of people protesting integration, but they are also consistent
with the cultural memory (protesters are shown simply holding signs
and yelling, not beating and killing innocent children). Finally, the
all; it is merely a

top-

down view of childr
a distorted cultural memory.
The photographs used to suggest how things are much, much
through a bus window, is of a black girl and a white girl holding
hands; the bus was transporting them to an integrated school.
The caption reads: Anything can happen. Anything at all. See?
(Morrison 71). It is a very powerful image of how the evil of Jim Crow
and segregation exists in a distant past and the nation has come
the picture was taken in Boston, not in the Deep South, the heart
of racism. Children holding hands in Boston is much less signicant
than if they were in Birmingham, where that action would be con
-
Morrison also glories Martin Luther King Jr. and Rosa Parks,
pointing to them as epitomizing the movement. Unfortunately, she
than life to effect change. Paul Rogat Loeb writes in
Soul of a Citizen
:
Once we enshrine our heroes, it becomes hard for mere mortals
to measure upin our eyes. . . . In our collective amnesia we lose
the mechanisms through which grassroots social movements of
5
6
10_GRE_60141_Ch10_286_312.indd 308
11/3/14 8:13 AM
TA
Taylor 4
the past successfully shifted public
sentiment and challen
ged
entrenched institutional power. Equally lost are themeans by
which their participants managed to keep on, sustaining their
hope and eventually prevailing in circumstances at least as
difcult as those we face today. (36, 38)
Placing a select few on pedestals and claiming them as next-
divine heroes of th
Mont
gomery Bus Boycott to one person, ign
oring the months
of planning that involved dozens of planners. Even the photograph
presents Rosa Parks in a position of power. It is a
angle shot up
at Parks that mak
es her appear larger than life and authoritative. The
photographs of Martin Luther King Jr. also further the impression
of power with a
up shot of his face as he stan
ds above thou
sands of participants in the March on Washington. Although these
6
8
310
CH
APTER 10

|

F
R
OM R
E
VISING
T
O EDI
T
ING: WO
R
KING
W
I
T
H P
EER

GR
OU
P
S
Taylor 5
These disturbing images underscore the reality of their deaths

without appearing sensation
alist. The lm does an exceptional job
of reminding the viewer of the suffering and mindless hate that were
prevalent during the civil rights movement.
However, the documentary is also biased. For instance,
the girls were not little; they were fourteen, not really little girls.
Lee chose to describe them as little to elicit emotion and sym
-
pathy for their tragic deaths. They were victims. They had not
McNair, Carole Robertson, Addie Mae Collins, and Cynthia Wesley
were simply attending Sunday school and were ruthlessly mur
-
dered. Victimizing Denise, Carole, Addie Mae, and Cynthia is not
that the victimization of the four girls is expanded to encompass
the entire black community, undermining the power and achieve
-
ment of the average black citizen. We need to remember the
people who struggled to gain employment for blacks in the labor
movement of the 1940s and 1950s that initiated the civil rights
movement.
One can argue that despite the presence of misleading
images in Spike Lees lm and Toni Morrisons book, at least some
of the story is preserved. Still, it is easy to fall victim to the

clich:

Those wh
o do not remember history are doomed to repeat it. Just
because a portion of the story is remembered, it does not mean

ates the injustices of the time
but leaves open the possibility that these atrocities can occur
again. If people believe the government can simply grant black
equality, then they may believe that it can also take it away. In
essence memory is about power: The struggle of man against
Those who are remembered hold power over the forgotten. Their
legacy is lost and so is their ability to inspire future generations
through their memory.
9
10
10_GRE_60141_Ch10_286_312.indd 310
11/3/14 8:13 AM
311
TA
YLO
R

|


M
E
MO
R
Y
T
H
R
OUGH
P
HO
T
OG
RAP
HY
Reading as a Writer

1.

What would you say is
T
aylors argument?

2.
T
o what extent does she provide transitions to help you understand how
her analysis supports her argument?

3.
T
o what extent does she integrate quotations appropriately into the text of
her argument?

4.
T
o what extent does the style of citation reect accepted conventions for
academic writing?

5.

If
T
aylor had more time to revise, what would you suggest she do?
FU
R
THE
R

S
UGGESTIONS
F
O
R
PEE
R

E
DITING
GR
OU
P
S
Monitoring your own writing group can help ensure that the group is both
providing and receiving the kinds of responses the members need. Here is
a list of questions you might ask of one another after a session:
�t�

What topics were discussed?
�t�

Were most questions and comments directed at the level of ideas?
S
tructure? Language?
Taylor 6
Works Cited
4 Little Girls
. Dir. Spike Lee. 40 Acres & A Mule Filmworks, 1997. Film.
Kolker, Robert.
Film, Form, and Culture.
New York: McGraw Hill, 1998.
Print.
Kundera, Milan.
QuotationsBook
. QuotationsBook, 2007. Web. 22 Nov.
20.
Loeb, Paul Rogat.
Soul of a Citizen: Living with Conviction in a Cynical
Time
. New York: St. Martins/Grifn, 1999. Print.
Morrison, Toni.
Remember.
Boston: Houghton Mifin, 2004. Print.
United States. Dept. of the Treasury. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and
Firearms. Arson and Explosives: Incidents Report 1994.
ATF.
gov.
US Dept. of Justice, 1995. Web. 15 Nov. 20.
10_GRE_60141_Ch10_286_312.indd 311
11/3/14 8:13 AM
Were topics always brought up with a question or a comment?

What roles did different group members play?
D
D
After answering these questions,
identify two things that are working well
hen identify two things that you could improve. How
When we asked our students what they thought contributed to effec
members’ willingness to take responsibility for the group’s effectiveness
for example, gender
The type of
original research we discuss in this chapter relies on
of information. To inquire into gender dynamics in college science class
stand their perceptions of how gender affects teaching. Or you might
Y: IN
of information so that they can make their own judgments about what
We can think of four reasons (all of which overlap to some extent) why you
To increase your ability to read critically.
a researched argument come into being. You’re on the ground oor of
As a critical reader, you know it’s important to ask questions like these:
What is the source of the author’s authority? What are the possible coun
tion of that author, with a real stake in establishing your own authority.
By coming to understand what it takes to establish your own authority,
G STARTE
know what they know. The discovery of DNA, for example, was the result of
an arduous process that involved much risk, collaboration, chance, error,
Doing original research may also
broaden the scope of your inquiry. First, it is
useful to use different
Finally, doing
original research af
fords you the opportunity to make a unique contribu
ers have written as evidence for your claims, you can offer your own data
ically analyzes the ways in which teachers in different classrooms treat
Y: IN
We encourage our students to jot down some ideas about the topic
they are interested in, why they nd the topic of interest, and why it
might be compelling to others. Moreover, we want them to answer the
kinds of questions we have addressed throughout this book: What’s at

you want to study.
Step Two:

Step Four:

Step Five:

a writer, you will need to familiarize yourself with what people are talking
and writing about. What is on people’s minds? What is at issue for people?
evant and timely.
we suggest in Chapter 4, a good question develops out of an issue, some
fundamental tension that you identify within a conversation. Your issue-
Clarify what you know about the issue and what you still need to
know.
A ST
UD
E
N
TS A
NN
OTATE
D
I
D
317
A

S
TUD
EN
T
S

ANNO
T
A
T
E
D
I
D
EA

SHEE
T
1
2
3
He explains why
he is interested in
this subject and
this provides a
rationale for what
he will study.
He casts his
interest in a
particular topic in
terms of an issue
that is perhaps
more implicit than
explicit. That is,
Dan Grace

Grace 1
Professor Green
e
English 320
March 10, 20
I would like to study the parent-child home interaction/
the students home. I would like to research different intervention
programs and interview the parents about their own programs with
their child, both home- and school-implemented, as well as observe
the parent-child interactions in both school work and natural daily
activities such as conversations and meals. I would do this by spending
at least fty hours with the student with autism in his or her home,
both individually with him or her and also observing his or her parental
interactions. I would like to see how these interactions compare with
the research performed in this eld.
The summer after my freshman year, I worked at a school for
children with autism for six weeks. I also worked at a research facility
individuals with autism. The next summer, and during several breaks
in school, I worked at the school for a total of fteen to twenty
weeks. My experiences there have spurred an interest in autism and
autism. Also, Ive heard many stories about parents and their different
working at the school. I want to interact with a student outside of the
his or her parents.
Children with autism lack the social, emotional, and cognitive
(in many cases) skills that healthy individuals possess/have the
potential to have. Early intervention is a very important thing in a
child with autisms life, since it has been shown that early intervention
can signicantly help the childs social, emotional, and cognitive
The student
explains the
purpose of his
research and
begins to explain
the information
he is interested in.
11_GRE_5344_Ch11_313_342.indd 317
11/19/14 11:02 AM
318
CHAPTER 11

|

O
THER
M
D
S

O
F INQU
IR
Y: IN
TER
V
IE
W
S

A
ND
FOC
U
S
G
RO
U
PS
W
RI
T
ING

A
P
RO
P
OSAL
A
proposal
is a formal plan that outlines your objectives for conducting
the implications of your work. In its most basic form, a proposal is an
argument that provides a rationale for conducting research and persuades
readers that the research is worth pursuing. It is also a tool that helps guide
you through various stages of the project. The most immediate benet of
writing a proposal is that through the act of writing



outline of your project



your thinking will become more focused and pre
-
Typically, a research proposal should include four sections: introduc
-
ou
may also want to include additional sections with materials that provide

Grace 2
development. Early in
tervention includes the parents as well. It is
important for parents to interact with their children early and often, and
to work with them to help them develop. Though the individual that I will
be working with is already at the end of elementary school, it will still be
useful to observe the parent-child interactions, as well as question the
parents about what measures were taken early in the childs life.
This topic is important/signicant for all those working with
children with autism, as well as parents of children with autism.
Autism is becoming ever more prevalent in this country, and the world,
with more than one in every one hundred children being diagnosed
with some form of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The parents need
How can parent-child interaction inuence the development of a
child with autism? This might be a vague question with many different
directions in which to take it, but it is still a pertinent question.
How might parental interaction in adolescence affect adolescent
development? Why should parents work hard to interact with their
children with autism? What are the benets of early intervention? What
are the long-term benets of early intervention programs? What are the
effects of good versus poor parental interaction? These questions need
to be answered to fully understand the topic and research question.
4
5
he recognizes the
importance of
early intervention,
but he is not

sure
what that means
in a childs

everyday
life.
The student
provides a broad
context for
understanding
autism and who
else might be
interested in this
topic.
Finally, he
formulates the
topic as a series
of questions
that need to be
answered.
11_GRE_5344_Ch11_313_342.indd 318
11/19/14 11:02 AM
some of the tools that
In the introduction, you should describe the purpose of your study and
establish that the issue you want to study is relevant and timely. Then,
esearch
study. The more effectively you convince readers that you know the issue,
you have read widely, that you are aware of the most important studies
More specically, you can use your review to accomplish some of the
Identify trends in what researchers are nding or, perhaps, the lack of
Y: IN
taking notes;
Since this is a proposal for research you will conduct, you should write
this section in the
future tense. “To answer the question(s) motivating
mplications
It may seem a little premature to talk about what you hope to nd in
your study, but it is important to address “So what?” to explain what
you believe is the signicance of your study. Place your argument in
the context of the conversation you want to join, and explain how
your study can contribute to that conversation. Write about how your
study will build upon, challenge, or extend the studies in your area of
research. And nally, identify what you believe will be new about your
upport
posal, you may be asked to include additional materials that reveal other
tated bibliography, (2) scripts of the questions you plan to ask in inter
views and focus groups, (3) the consent forms you will ask participants
to sign, and (4) approval from your university’s Institutional Review
Board (IRB).
Annotated bibliography.
annotated bibliography

Including a list (or lists)
of the questions you


Your school’s Institutional Review Board ensures that
Y: IN
You should contact the appropriate ofce (for example, the Ofce for
To write a proposal, you’ll need to draw up a schedule for your research
Compile an annotated bibliography.
Parent(s)
1.

how long homeless, where living, where child attends school).
2.

Do you think homelessness is affecting your child’s schooling?
3.

Tell me about enrolling your child in school. What was the process like?
Were there any problems? Conditions? Challenges?


Do you feel that your child’s right to an education has been recognized?

5.

What types of support services is your child currently being offered in
How effective are those services?

currently offered?
How do you envision your child’s future?
Transcribe the data.
You are invited to participate in a study of homelessness and education
conducted by Mary Ronan, an undergraduate at the University of Notre
1.
provide up to two interviews with the researcher,
[Telephone number]
[E-mail address]
Y: IN
Our student Laura Hartigan submitted a formal proposal for a study of
different types of writing. Hartigan’s proposal was exceptionally well pre
pared, thorough, and thoughtful, and she included a number of additional
materials: a script of questions for focus groups with students; sample
sent forms. We reprint only the main part of her proposal
the part that
includes a brief overview of the conversation about different modes of
for you to consider as a model for proposal writing. A more
Steps to Writing a Proposal


Show that you are aware of the
most important studies conducted in your area of research,
identify points of agreement and disagreement, and define



may include an annotated bibliography, a series of interview
A
N
A
NN
OTATE
D
ST
UD
E
N
T PROPOSAL
325
Laura Hartigan

Hartigan 1
Professor Gr
eene
English 385
March 28, 20
Proposal for Research: The Affordances of Multimodal,

Creative, and Academic Writing
Researchers (Hughes, 2009; Vasudevan, Schultz & Bateman,
2010) have called attention to the unique ways that writing can foster
student learning and have for some time now argued that teachers in
elementary and high schools should give students more opportunities
themselves. Within the last decade, even more alternative modes of
writing have gained prominence. Researchers (Hughes, 2009; Hull &
Katz, 2006) argue that multimodal digital storytelling provides
students with ways to help them engage more deeply with their written
work. Digital storytelling in particular enables students to examine their
experiences by writing personal narratives in which they confront key
turning points in their lives and the challenges they face. In turn, they
can use images, music, and voice-over to amplify and give meaning to
their written stories. Allowing for what researchers call new literate
spaces creates the opportunity for multiple modes of learning,
understanding, and collaboration that challenge the limited ways that
students use writing as a mode of learning in school (Hughes, 2009; Hull
& Katz, 2006). Students may learn to write persuasive essays, but they
also need opportunities to learn about themselves and use their writing
as a way to create changes in their lives. Thus researchers urge educators
to reform curricular and pedagogical practices to help students use
writing to help them develop a sense of identity and ownership of their
writing, to see the decision-making power they have as individuals.
When they argue that multimodal, digital literacy practices
have a place in the standard curriculum, researchers (Hall, 2011;
2010) provide evidence to show how youth grow and develop, become
more condent learners, and use what they learn in and out of school.
This is particularly true when youth have opportunities to reect on
their lives and use multiple literacies to give meaning to their
1
2
The student
recent, and
important,
conversation
about writing
and alternative
conceptions
that challenge
some widely held
assumptions.
She summarizes
recent studies and
evidence supporting
the value of
alternative modes
of writing. But she
also identies a gap
in the argument
writing researchers
make.
11_GRE_5344_Ch11_313_342.indd 325
11/19/14 11:02 AM
326
CHAPTER 11

|

O
THER
M
D
S

O
F INQU
IR
Y: IN
TER
V
IE
W
S

A
ND
FOC
U
S
G
RO
U
PS

Hartigan 2
experien
ce. They can use image, music, and text to confront how things
in their lives look and feel, to examine the decisions they have made,
and to consider the decisions they might make in confronting hardship,
discrimination, and loss. However, most research fails to provide a
satisfactory or compelling rationale for why new literacies
should
be used
in the classroom (Alverman, Marshall, McLean, Huddleston, Joaquin,
2012; Binder & Kotsopoulos, 2011; Hull and Katz, 2006; Ranker, 2007) or
how the seemingly unique gains could be positively integrated into the
standard curriculum. The lack of assessment focusing on how academic
and new literacies affect one another reveals a aw in the conclusions
drawn from studies that neglect the realities of teaching in K-12 schools.
Increased emphasis on standards, testing, and accountability seem to
preclude the kind of focus that new literacies seem to require. Thus, if
educators are to allow for new literate spaces, they need to know how
to do so within the standard curriculum.
Specically, few researchers explore students sense of their
literate identity in academic and creative writing or how context
matters in how students feel about themselves and their writing.
While most researchers (Binder & Kostopoulos, 2011; Hughes, 2009;
mono-literacy landscape of schools, the limits of literate experience
to print, none really compare the opportunities that academic writing
gives students versus, say, creative writing before, during, and after
the study. That is, focusing only on the value of digital storytelling,
for example, or creative writing is not sufcient to effect reform in
of writing? What are these differences? Such a gap in research seems
to necessitate an inquiry into a students emergent sense of authorship
in different forms of composing, even academic writing in and out of
school. Therefore, I propose a study that will provide an analysis of
both academic and creative writing in an after-school program that
helps children develop as learners through tutoring and enrichment.
One implication of my research would be to show why educators might
expand the types of literate experiences that students have in school.
multimodal, creative, and standardized academic writing, this proposed
study aims to explore (a) the unique opportunities afforded by the
3
4
Recognizing
this gap, she
explores what
she sees is a
common problem
in a number of
studies.
In turn, this
gap serves as
a rationale for
conducting her
own study. She
also points to
the possible
implications for
doing the study
she proposes.
Having dened
the problem,
she describes
the aims of her
study.
11_GRE_5344_Ch11_313_342.indd 326
11/19/14 11:02 AM
A
N
A
NN
OTATE
D
ST
UD
E
N
T PROPOSAL
327

Hartigan 3
multiple mean
s of expression inherent in digital storytelling, (b) how
and if these opportunities create an alternative space for the growth of
empowered literate identities and a sense of agency, (c) the extent to
which writing supports a students development of an authorial voice,
and (d) why schools should be concerned with the affordances given
to the development of a students written voice and individual identity
by including multimodal digital storytelling in the curriculum. The
study focuses on analyzing the students sense of authorship in both
their academic and creative assignments. To what extent can standard
academic and creative multimodal expression help students develop
an authorial identity and the skills they need to ourish in and out of
school? Considering the current atmosphere of accountability and federal
testing (Hull & Katz, 2006), it is important to ask what role multimodal
composing can play in the standard and narrow curriculum.
To address the aims of my study, I will conduct interviews and
focus groups to examine students attitudes about writing in and out
of school at the Crusoe Community Learning Center (CCLC) in a small
midwestern city. Interviews and focus groups will enable me to discover
student attitudes and feelings about writing across the in-school and
out-of-school contexts in order to develop some insight into how
writing can enable or disengage students. I will also take eld notes
taken by a participant-observer in the afterschool creative writing
workshop to develop a picture of the after-school classroom dynamics.
Context
The CCLC is an off-campus educational initiative of a nearby
private university in partnership with the surrounding neighborhood
residents. Serving around 600 participants in the regular programming,
the CCLC also partners with the community schools in the surrounding
area with program outreach connecting to nearly 8,000 additional youths
throughout the year. Located in a high-trafc, low-income neighborhood,
the CCLCs mission centers around promoting hospitality, education,
partnership, civic engagement, and sustainability in the surrounding

area and all the participants. Organized around operating as a learning
center and gathering space, the CCLC fosters relationships with the
students, the surrounding residents, and the citys universities in a safe,
5
6
To help orient
readers, she
explains where
her study will
take place.
She reformulates
the four aims
of her study as
questions to
guide her inquiry.
She describes
the approach
she will take
to answer her
questions.

11_GRE_5344_Ch11_313_342.indd 327
11/19/14 11:02 AM
Y: IN
Hartigan 4
collaborative atmosph
ere. Classes and programming range from English
as a New Language (ENL) to nancial literacy, entrepreneurship, basic
computing, and one-on-one tutoring for area children conducted by
college volunteers.
The creative writing class and the CCLC’s curricular
environment will provide an appropriate population and unique
parental consent in order to conduct the focus groups and subsequent
interviews, I will e-mail consent forms requesting each student’s
participation in my research. I will do so two weeks prior to the study’s
She identies the
specic class that
she will focus on in
her research and
why the context
for conducting this
study makes sense.
Importantly, she
describes who will
participate in the
study and why
she has chosen
this particular
teacher and class.
Note that at
this preliminary
stage, she oers
She explains the
OTATE
Hartigan 5
start in order to pr
ovide the necessary time for the forms to be
Having explained
her approach to
collecting data,
she now indicates
what she will be
looking for in her
analysis.
In conclusion,
she points to
some possible
implications of
her research,
but rst places
her proposed
study in the
broader context
of what other
researchers are
nding. That is,
she brings her
study full circle
to the ongoing
conversation
that framed her
introduction.
In keeping with
approaches to
studies using
focus groups and
interviews, she
acknowledges that
she will transcribe
audio recordings.
She also helps
readers understand
her decision not to
take notes during
focus groups and
interviews.
that she needs to
receive the signed
informed consent
form from each
student’s parent
in the class she is
studying. This was
stipulated by the
Institutional Review
Board (IRB).
330
CHAPTER 11

|

O
THER
M
D
S

O
F INQU
IR
Y: IN
TER
V
IE
W
S

A
ND
FOC
U
S
G
RO
U
PS

Hartigan 6
a vehicle for e
xploration and learning, rather than as a xed product
to be rehearsed and delivered as a nal event (p. 262) that works in
tandem with (not in isolation from) literacy practices. Digital media
allowed for the students to become what Hughes termed co-creators,
which helped students move beyond simply observing and analyzing
reected in classroom culture.
Sharpening the ideas drawn from the conclusions of Hughes
(2009) points to the necessity of documenting the development of
a students voice and presence in multimodal, digital, and academic
writing. In essence, research must avoid implying that one form of
literacy is somehow more advantageous to the other without also
looking at how context inuences the ways students feel about
themselves and what they write. To address this gap, my study will
analyze the differences, and perhaps similarities, in how students
develop and perceive their authorial presence and power in both kinds
of writing



multimodal and acad
emic



and the inuence of con
text.
After all, the mode of writing may not be as signicant as the extent
to which children feel they have a safe space place to write, where
they can take risks without being afraid that their peers and teacher
will criticize them. They also need to know that they have ownership
of their writing as a means of expression and performance of who
they are, who they imagine themselves to be, and what they want for
themselves in the future.
13
Moreover, after
she will address
her research
questions above,
she justies the
importance of her
proposed study.
She also reminds
readers of a
signicant gap in
current research.

Hartigan 7
Working Bibli
ography
Alvermann,D., Marshall,J., McLean,C., Huddleston,A., Joaquin,J.,
-
tion, and skill development.
Literacy Research and Instruction
,
51
(3), 179195.
11_GRE_5344_Ch11_313_342.indd 330
11/19/14 11:02 AM
I
N
TER
V
IE
W
I
N
G
331
IN
T
ER
V
IE
W
ING
An
interview
helps to answer the research question(s) motivating your
her book
, D. Soyini
Madison offers this advice: When you rst begin to formulate questions, a
useful exercise is to reread your research question or problem over several
times and then ask yourself, If this is what I am to understand, then what is
it that I need to know about it to answer the questions or address the prob
-
lem? You will then list everything of interest that comes to mind (p.31). Its
certainly possible to conduct an interview by phone, especially if the inter
-
viewee is not local, but a face-to-face conversation, in which you can note
The ways writers incorporate interviews into their writing appears almost
seamless, but keep in mind that a nished text hides the process that went into
a successful interview. You dont see the planning that occurs. Writers have to
make appointments with the people they interview, develop a script or list of
questions before the interview, and test the questions beforehand to see if theyre
likely to lead to the kind of information theyre seeking. In other words, the key
to a successful interview is preparation. The following information should help
you plan your interview and prepare you for writing down your results.
Binder,M., & Kotsopoulos,S. (2011). Multimodal literacy narratives:
Weaving the threads of young childrens identity through the arts.
Journal of Research in Childhood Education
,
25
(4), 339363.
Research in Comparative and
International Education
,
2
(1), 4355.
Hall,T. (2011). Designing from their own social worlds: The digital
story of three African American young women.
English Teaching:
Practice and Critique
,
10
(1), 720.
Hughes,J. (2009). New media, new literacies and the adolescent
learner.
E-Learning
,
6
(3), 259271.
Hull,G., & Katz,M. (2006). Crafting an agentive self: Case studies of
digital storytelling.
Research in the Teaching of English
,
41
(1), 4381.
Ranker,J. (2007). Designing meaning with multiple media sources:
A case study of an eight-year-old students writing processes.
Research in the Teaching of English
,
41
(4), 402434.
-
ing in a digital age: Authoring literate identities through multi
-
modal storytelling.
Written Communication
,
27
(4), 442468.
11_GRE_5344_Ch11_313_342.indd 331
11/19/14 11:02 AM
Y: IN
nterview
You’ll want to do some preliminary research to identify people who can
you can conduct your interview without being disturbed. Try to choose a
familiar, such as a room in a public library.
Interviewee 2:_________________
Interviewee 3:_________________
As you prepare the script of questions for your interview, keep coming back
to the question motivating your research. To what extent will the questions
tion motivating your research? That is, what is the story you want to tell in
your research? The more specic the questions you ask, the more specic
Build rapport.
In any conversation, you want to build rapport and perhaps
establish some common ground.
been teaching writing?” “When did you start teaching writing in a hybrid
classroom?” “What digital tools do you use to teach writing in a hybrid
Your questions should encourage the person
you are interviewing to
tell stories that will help you learn about your
It may be tempting to ask leading questions to keep

ducting interviews can be like conversations, you should resist providing
your own experiences and stories. Listen to answers and follow up with

After you develop a script of questions,
rehearse it with your writing group or a friend who can play the role of the
What would you point to as a good example of an effective exchange?


What would you point to as an example of an exchange that didn’t go


To what extent do you feel that you might have lost some opportuni

Y: IN
order, and pacing of your questions.
nterview
On the day before the interview, contact the individual you plan to interview
to conrm that he or she remembers the time of the interview and knows
pare for your interview, look over your questions and check your recorder
to make sure it is functioning and has sufcient recording capacity for the
interview. Be on time. Have a brief conversation to put this individual at ease
Explain use of technology.

Explain why recording the interview is necessary
(“I know what you’re saying is really important, and I want to listen to you
during your interview, not take notes as you speak. As a result, I will record

ask in the interview (“Today, I’m going to ask you questions about school

the direction that the person you interview takes in answering a question.
Listen. Don’t interrupt. That is, you might ask what you think is a pointed
question and
this person might begin to tell a story that may not seem rele

tion, be patient and don’t immediately repeat or ask another question. The
Keep track of important questions.

Toward the end of the interview, check
Follow up after the interview is over.

nterview
view, listen to it a couple of times to become really familiar with what
Transcribe the interview
. Transcribing entails listening carefully to and
Analyze the interview.
Read through the interview again. Look for answers
to the questions motivating your research, and look for recurring patterns
sis as a guide, nd one good source that relates to your interview in
some way. Maybe your subject’
s story ts into an educational debate
(for example, public versus private education). Or maybe your subject’s
story counters a common conception about education (that inner-city
schools are hopelessly inadequate). You’re looking for a source you can
link to your interview in an interesting and effective way.
Turn
nterview into an
Try to lay out in paper, in paragraphs, the material you’ve collected that
paper. In a rst draft, you might take these steps:
State your argument, or the purpose of your essay. What do you want
your reading, observations, or interviews do you want to offer your
336
CHAPTER 11

|

O
THER
M
D
S

O
F INQU
IR
Y: IN
TER
V
IE
W
S

A
ND
FOC
U
S
G
RO
U
PS

3.

Place quotations from more than one source in as many paragraphs as
you can, so that you can play the quotations off against one another.
What is signicant about the ways you see specic quotations in con
-
quotations help you build your own argument?

4.

Consider possible counterarguments to the point you want to make.

5.

Help readers understand what is at stake in adopting your position.
U
SING
F
OC
U
S

GRO
UP
S
Like interviews, focus groups can provide you with an original source of
evidence to complement (or complicate, contradict, or extend) the evidence
you nd in books and articles. According to Bruce L. Berg in

Qualitative
a
focus group
may be dened
as an interview style designed for small groups . . . addressing a partic
-
ular topic of interest or relevance to the group and the researcher. Col
-
lege administrators often speak with groups of students to understand the
nature of a problem



is as effec
-
-
ogy is used to best effect in classes across the curriculum. One advantage
of a focus group, as opposed to an interview, is that once one person starts
-
cussing an issue that people may feel less comfortable talking about in
aninterview. The conversations that emerge in focus groups may also
Steps to Interviewing

1

Plan the interview.
After youve identied the people you might
appointments if they are willing to participate.

2

Prepare your script.
Draft your questions, rehearse them with
your classmates or friends, and then make revisions based on
their responses.

3

Conduct the interview.
Be exible with your script as you go, mak
-
ing sure to take good notes even if you are recording the interview.

4

Make sense of the interview.
Review the recording and your
notes of the interview, transcribe the interview, analyze the tran
-
script, and connect the conversation to at least one good source.

5

Turn your interview into an essay.
State your argument, organize
your evidence, use quotes to make your point, consider counterar
-
guments, and help your readers understand whats at stake.
11_GRE_5344_Ch11_313_342.indd 336
11/19/14 11:02 AM
relevant or interesting until they hear others telling their stories. Finally,
elect Participants for the Focus
Focus groups should consist of ve to seven participants, in addition to
you, the moderator. Think carefully about the range of participants you’ll
need in order to gather the information you’re hoping to nd. Depending
Planning is as important for a focus group as it is for an interview. Make
specic arrangements with participants about the time and place of the
ally thirty to forty-ve minutes. You should audio-record the session and
yourself time to make more extensive notes as soon as it is over. You will
Y: IN
Many of the guidelines for designing interview questions (see pp. 332–34)
apply equally well to focus group questions. So, for example, you might start
by establishing common ground or with a couple of nonthreatening questions.
You are invited to participate in a study of academic writing at the university
over the next four years. You were selected from a random sample of all rst-
1.
attend up to four focus group sessions during a given academic year.
I agree to participate in all of the procedures above. I understand that my identity will
be protected during the study and that instructors will not have access to the statements
I make in focus group sessions. I also understand that my name will not be revealed
when data from the research are presented in publications. (Digital les will be kept for
ve years and then removed from relevant databases.) I have read the above and give
the researcher, Stuart Greene, and his coauthors permission to use excerpts from what
[Telephone number]
[E-mail address]
passages in the scholarly research you will be using and ask for the group’s
responses to these “expert” theories. Not only will this be interesting; it also
will help you organize and integrate your focus group evidence with evidence
from library sources in your essay. Ask a wider range of questions than you
Sample Consent Form for a Focus Group
Name
E-ma
il address
_________________________________________________________
_____
____________________
Class of ________
Y: IN
working order and that the room has sufcient seating for the participants.

draw out participants with follow-up questions (“Can you of
fer an exam
participants to speak; don’t allow one member to dominate the discussion.
(You may need to ask a facilitating question like “Do the rest of you agree
with X’s statement?” or “How would you extend what X has said?” or “Has
anyone had a different experience?”)

It’s a good idea to limit the session
last, remember that it will
take approximately three times longer to tran
scribe it. You must transcribe the session so that you can read through the
participants’ comments and quote them accurately.
record of what was said, but be sure to notice nonverbal interactions and
responses in your session, taking notes of body language, reluctance or
U
SI
N
G
F
OC
U
S GRO
U
PS
341
assumptions and broaden your scope of inquiry beyond secondary materials.
An effective piece of original research still relies on secondary materials, par
-
ticularly as you nd ways to locate what you discover in the context of what
other authors have observed and argued. Moreover, there is the value of using
multiple sources of information to support your claims



using your obser
-
A focus on the types of educational opportunities available to the homeless
lends itself more to close observation, interviews, and perhaps focus groups.

I
mportant
E
thical
C
onsiderations
Be fair to your sources.

Throughout this chapter, we have included a number of forms on which you
can base your own consent forms when you conduct interviews and focus
groups. When people give you their consent to use their words, it is incumbent
on you



really it is essential



that you represent as faithfully as possible what
people have said. As a researcher
, you are given a kind of power over the people
you interview and write about, using what they tell you for your own purposes.
You cannot abuse the trust they place in you when they consent to be part
of your research. It is important that they understand why youre doing the
research and how your theories and assumptions will likely gure into your
their words will be construed by those who read what you write.
Steps for Conducting a Focus Group

1

Select participants for the focus group.
Identify the range of your
ve to seven participants. Are you looking for diverse perspectives
or a more specialized group?

2

Plan the focus group.
Make sure that you have a specied time
and place and that your participants are willing to sign consent
forms.

3

Prepare your script.
consider quoting research you are interested in using in your
revise.

4

Conduct the focus group.
Record the session; ask questions that
draw people out; limit the time of the session; and notice nonver
-

5

Transcribe and analyze
the data, including nonverbal communications; draw conclusions,
but be careful not to overgeneralize from your small sample.
11_GRE_5344_Ch11_313_342.indd 341
11/19/14 11:02 AM
Citing and Documenting Sources
-
quire short citations in the
body of an essay linked to a list of sources at
the end of the essay. But it is their differences, though subtle, that are cru
cial. To a great extent, these differences reect the assumptions writers in
In particular, you should understand each style’s treatment of the source’s
author, publication date, and page numbers in in-text citations, and verb
Author.
MLA style requires that you give the author’s full name on rst
mention in your paper; APA style uses last names throughout. The human
ful as those of the present. By contrast, APA style gives the date of the study
after the author’s name, reecting a belief in the progress of research, that
paraphrases and summaries as well
as quotations (the written text is so
nal). By contrast, APA style requires attribution but not page numbers for
Verb Use.
MLA style uses the present tense of verbs (“Writer X claims”) to
consult a source
even if you don’t end up using it in your paper
a translator’s
name, for example, or a series title and editor. Ideally, you want to be able to
In-Text Citations.
In the excerpt below, the citation tells readers that
the student writer’s
argument about the evolution of Ebonics is rooted in a well-established source
phrase of her source in the text, she gives the author’s name in the citation:
The evolution of U.S. Ebonics can be traced from the year 1557 to the present day.
In times of great oppression, such as the beginning of the slave codes in 1661,
the language of the black community was at its most “ebonied” levels, whereas
in times of racial progress, for example during the abolitionist movement, the lan
guage as a source of community identity was forsaken for greater assimilation
(Smitherman 119).
B
Title and subtitle
Year of publication
Year of publication
Volume and issue
Year of publication
346
a recognized authority on Ebonics. Had the student mentioned Smither
-
mans name in her introduction to the paraphrase, she would not have had
to repeat it in the citation. Notice that there is no punctuation within the
parentheses and no
p.
before the page number. Also notice that the citation
is considered part of the sentence in which it appears, so the period ending
the sentence follows the closing parenthesis.
By contrast, in the example that follows, the student quotes directly
from Richard Rodriguezs book
Hunger of Memory: The Education of Rich
-
ard Rodriguez
(1982):
cultural bonds than to extend themselves into the larger community. People who
do not speak English may feel a similar sense of community and consequently lose
some of the individuality and cultural ties that come with speaking their native or
home language. This shared language within a home or community also adds to the
unity of the community. Richard Rodriguez attests to this fact in his essay Aria.
He then goes on to say that it is not healthy to distinguish public words from

private sounds so easily (183).
Because the student mentions Rodriguez in her text right before the quota
-
tion (Richard Rodriguez attests), she does not need to include his name
in the citation; the page number is sufcient.
Works Cited.

At the end of your researched essay, and starting on a new
page, you must provide a list of works cited, a list of all the sources you
have used (leaving out sources you consulted but did not cite). Entries
is identied. Figure A.1 is a sample works cited page in MLA style that
illustrates a few (very few) of the basic types of documentation.
Steps to Compiling an MLA List of Works Cited

1


Begin your list of works cited on a new page at the end of your
paper.

2


Put your last name and page number in the upper-right corner.

3


Double-space throughout.

4


Center the heading (Works Cited) on the page.

5


by title if no author is identied.

6


Begin the rst line of each source ush left; second and subse
-
quent lines should be indented inch.
19_GRE_60141_App_BRF_343_353.indd 346
10/31/14 4:48 PM
printed sources. MLA formats for citing online sources vary, but this is an
Author. “Document Title.”
Name of Site
. Site Sponsor, date posted/revised. Medium.
Date you accessed the site.
Invert the author’s name or the rst author’s name.
isn’t clear,
check the copyright notice at the bottom of the Web page.
-
Invert the author’s name, last name rst. In the case of multiple
authors, only the rst author’s name is inverted.
For books, list the place of publication, the name of the publisher,
10

11

Give the medium of publication, such as Print, Web, CD, DVD,
Film, Lecture, Performance, Radio, Television, PDF le, MP3 le,
348
FIGURE A.1

Sample List of Works Cited, MLA Format
Eck 10
Works Cited
Gutirrez, Kris D., Patricia Baquedano-Lpez, and Jolynn Asato.
English for the Children: The New Literacy of the Old World
Order.
Bilingual Review Journal
24.1&2 (2000): 87-112.
Print.
History of Bilingual Education.
12.3
(1998): n. pag. Web. 15 Feb. 2008.
Lanehart, Sonja L. African American Vernacular English and
Education.
Journal of English Linguistics
26.2 (1998):

122-36. Print.
Pompa, Delia. Bilingual Success: Why Two-Language Education
Is Critical for Latinos.
Hispanic
Oct. 1996: 96. Print.
Rawls, John.
Political Liberalism
. New York: Columbia UP, 1993.
Print.
---. Social Unity and Primary Goods.
Utilitarianism and Beyond
.
Ed. Amartya Sen and Bernard Williams. Cambridge, Eng.:
Cambridge UP, 1982. 159-85. Print.
Rodriguez, Richard. Aria.
Hunger of Memory: The Education of
Richard Rodriguez
. New York: Bantam, 1982. 11-40. Print.
New Republic
9 Mar. 1998:
14-15. Print.
Smitherman, Geneva.
Talkin and Testifyin: The Language of Black
America
-
alizing the Experience of a Young American Male.
Harvard
Educational Review
65.1 (1995): 30-49. Print.
Online scholarly

journal/article, no
author
Article in a scholarly
journal
Article in a magazine
A book
Essay in an edited

collection; sec
ond
source by same writer
19_GRE_60141_App_BRF_343_353.indd 348
10/31/14 4:48 PM
THE BASICS OF APA STYLE
In-Text Citations.
In APA style, in-text citations identify the author or au
-
thors of a source and the publication date. If the author or authorsaremen
-
the word
350

For a work with six or more authors, use
. from the rst mention.
These are only some of the most basic examples of APA in-text cita
-
tion. Consult the APA manual for other guidelines.
References.

APA style, like MLA style, requires a separate list of sources
at the end of a research paper. This list is called References, not Works
Cited. The list of references starts on a new page at the end of your paper
-
ed).
Figure A.2 shows a sample list of references with sources cited in
APA style.
Steps to Compiling an APA List of References

1


Begin your list of references on a new page at the end of your
paper.

2


Put a shortened version of the papers title (not your last name)
in all caps in the upper-left corner; put the page number in the
upper-right corner.

3


Double-space throughout.

4


Center the heading (References) on the page.

5


by title if no author is identied.

6


Begin the rst line of each source ush left; second and subse
-
quent lines should be indented inch.

7


Invert all authors names. If a source has more than one author,
use an ampersand (not
and
) before the last name.

8


Insert the date in parentheses after the last authors name.

9


title and subtitle and proper nouns.

10

Follow the same capitalization for the titles of book chapters and
articles. Do not use quotation marks around chapter and article
titles.

11


Italicize the titles of journals, magazines, and newspapers, capital
-
19_GRE_60141_App_BRF_343_353.indd 350
10/31/14 4:48 PM
THE BASICS OF APA STYLE
351

12

For books, list the place of publication and the name of the pub
-
lisher. For chapters, list the book editor(s), the book title, the rel
-
evant page numbers, and the place of publication and the name of
the publisher. For articles, list the journal title, the volume num
-
ber, the issue number if each issue of the volume begins on page 1,
the relevant pages, and the DOI (digital object identier) number
DOI, include the URL of the journals home page.
FIGURE A.2

Sample List of References, APA Format
G
ENDER

AND
T
EACHING

15
References
Campbell, R. J. (1969). Co-educati
on: Attitudes and self-
concepts of girls at three schools.
British Journal of Educa
-
tional Psychology, 39
, 87.
Coleman, J., Campbell, E., Hobson, C., McPartland, J., Mood,
A., Weinfeld, F., & York, R. (1966).
Equality of educational
opportunity (The Coleman report)
. Washington, DC: U.S.
Government Printing Ofce.
Feingold, A. (1992). Sex differences in variability in intellectual
abilities: A new look at an old controversy.
Review of

Educational Research, 62
, 61-84. doi:10.3102

/00346543062001061
Haag, P. (2003).
K-12 single-sex education: What does the
research say?

.org/2001-2/sex.html
Hallinan, M. T. (1994). Tracking: From theory to practice.
Sociol-
ogy of Education, 67

Hanson, S. L. (1994). Lost talent: Unrealized educational aspira
-
tions and expectations among U.S. youth.
Sociology ofEdu
-
cation, 67

/journals/soe/
Jovanovic, J., & King, S. S. (1998). Boys and girls in the

performance-based science classroom: Whos doing the per
-
forming?
American Educational Research Journal, 35
,
477-496. doi:10.3102/00028312035003477
Journal article with
no DOI
Report, seven authors
Journal article with
a DOI
Online source
Journal article
no DOI
19_GRE_60141_App_BRF_343_353.indd 351
10/31/14 4:48 PM
352
Lee, V. E., & Marks, H. M. (1990). Sustained effects of the
single-sex secondary school experience on attitudes,
behaviors, and values in college.
Journal of Educational
Psychology, 82
, 578-592.
Mickelson, R. A. (1989). Why does Jane read and write so well?
The anomaly of womens achievement.
Sociology of Educa
-
tion, 62

/journals/soe/
Rosenberg, M. (1965).
.
Schneider, F. W., & Coutts, L. M. (1982). The high school envi
-
ronment: A comparison of coeducational and single-sex
schools.
Journal of Educational Psychology, 74
, 898-906.
Spade, J. Z. (2001). Gender education in the United States. In

J. H. Ballantine & J. Z. Spade (Eds.),

A sociological approach to education
(pp. 270-278).

Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.
Streitmatter, J. L. (1999).
For girls ONLY: Making a case for
single-sex schooling
. Albany, NY: State University of New
York Press.
Winslow, M. A. (1995).
Where the boys are: The educational aspi
-
rations and future expectations of working-class girls in an
all-female high school
(Doctoral dissertation). University of
database. (AAT 9622975)
Scholarly book
Dissertation from a
database
Essay in edited

collection
The
APA Manual
is your best resource for formatting online sources,
but here is an example of a basic reference to an online source:
Author. (Date posted/revised).
Document title
�t�
�t�
Capitalize an online document title like an article title, and italicize it;
dont enclose it in quotes.
�t�
is likely to change.
�t�
Notice that there is no end punctuation after the DOI or URL.
19_GRE_60141_App_BRF_343_353.indd 352
10/31/14 4:48 PM
THE BASICS OF APA STYLE
APA style asks you to break lengthy DOIs or URLs after a slash or
before a period, being sure that your program doesn’t insert a hyphen
APA Manual
to other nonprint sources. You should know that certain nonprint sources
and focus groups, for example
group you conducted in the text of your paper. For example:
(J. Long, personal interview, April 7, 2007)
HuffPost College
, October, 8, 2013. Copyright ©2013 by Susan Blum.
William Deresiewicz. “The End of Solitude.” From
right ©2014. All rights reserved.
John Dickerson. “Don’t Fear Twitter.” From
The New York Times Magazine
1992. Copyright ©1992 by Barbara Ehrenreich. Reprinted with permission.
Gerald Graff. “Hidden Meaning, or, Disliking Books at an Early Age.” From
Culture Wars: How Teaching the Conicts Can Revitalize American Education
right ©1992 Gerald Graff. Used by permission of W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.
Steve Grove. “You Tube: The Flattening of Politics.” From
Foundation for Journalism at Harvard University. Summer 2008. Reprinted by
Kris Gutiérrez. Excerpt from “Teaching Toward Possibility: Building Cultural
PowerPlay,
2011, Volume 3(1): 22–3. Reprinted by
E.D. Hirsch, Jr. “Preface” from
Cultural Literacy.
” Copyright ©1987 by Houghton Mif
in Harcourt Publishing Company. Reprinted by permission of Houghton Mifin
Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
Myra M. Sadker and David Sadker. “Hidden Lessons.” From
. Copyright ©1994 Myra M. Sadker and David Sadker.
Schuster, Inc. All rights reserved.
Clive Thompson. “The New Literacy.” From
Wired Magazine
©WIRED Magazine/Clive Thompson. Reprinted with permission.
Sherry Turkle. “The Flight from Conversation.” From
The New York Times Magazine
April 22, 2012. ©2012 The New York Times. All rights reserved. Used by permission
The United States of (Non)Reading:
Grace, Dan (student writer)
290
Keller, Josh
minding-the-gap introduction, 262
Community-Based Research
minor claim, 38
Access Debate (student writer),
narrative, 259
Richness and Complexity in
observation, 5
Money Matters: Framing the
Access Debate, 113
On the New Literacy, 156
paradoxical introduction, 261
paraphrase, 152
A Greener Approach to Groceries:
Community-Based Agriculture in
peer review, 134
About Community, 183
premise, 226
Curriculum, 39

Приложенные файлы

  • pdf 10974828
    Размер файла: 6 MB Загрузок: 0

Добавить комментарий