Евразия-9-испр2


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Levanaku Andja
Title: Arbitral jurisdiction according European Conventionsin Albania
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Lyzogub Alina
Duties of thevictimin the criminal process of Ukraine
Mecaj Stela, Llano Ariana
eissue of air pollutionin Albania
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KhutsishviliIlia Lukitch
Branches of EconomicIntelligence and Counterintelligence
Rusishvili Nino Besiki’s daugther
e role ofintelligencein counterintelligence andintelligence activities
Vokhob Rustam Rustamovich, Rasulov Rustam Yavkachovich, EshboltaevIqboljon
Madrahimovich, Mansurova Gulchera Alijonovna, Abdullatev Muhiddin Hasanboy ogli
Four-photon absorption of lightin a semiconductor with a complex band structure
takinginto account the e²ect of coherent saturation
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Section 12. Chemistry
Tangyarikov Normurod Saidovich, Turabdjanov Sadriddin Maxammadinovich,
Aliyeva Rena Azer kizi, Rashidova Nilufar Tulkinovna, Vkkosov Sobir Sayfullayevich
Development and research of the properties of new catalytic systems forvapor-phase
hydration of acetylene
Tangyarikov Normurod Saidovich, Rashidova Nilufar Tulkinovna,
Aliyeva Rena Azer kizi, Vokkosov Sobir Sayfullayevich, Turabdjanov Sadriddin Maxammadinovich
Catalyticvapor phase hydration of acetylene
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Section 13. Economics and management
Matkarimova Dilfuza Saburovna, Matrizayev Temurmalik Jumamiratovich
Regional features of some bleeding diathesisin pre-limitary youthin Southern Aral region
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Section 1. rchitecture
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Burkhonova Norsuluv Abdug’anevna
History of urban development of the Jizzakh city
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Section. 2. Geography
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Ablaikhan Dana Armankyzy, Inkarova ZhansuluIshanovna
Current problems of greening Astana city
Ataev ZagirVagitovich, Dzhamirzoev Gadzhibek Sebekovich
Assessment of biological and landscape diversity for the creation and operationof
the biosphere reserve “Kizlyar Bay”
Section. 3. Journalism
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Barlybayeva
Saule Khatiatovna
Kazakhstan on the way toinformation society
Section. 3. History and archaeology
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Alekseenko Tatyana Romanovna, Shkribitko Elena Aleksandrovna
e formation of women³s educationin pre-revolutionary Russian andits regional
peculiaritiesin the territory of Donbas
Tashkenbaeva Diyor Abdurashidovna
Reection of the colonial history of Turkestanin the Anglo-American historiography
of the twentieth century
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Mirzaev Gulom Rizabekovich
Neutrality as a factor of cooperation between Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan
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Pugovkina Oksana Gennadevna
e politics of Soviet powerin Turkestan towards the “former people” in 1917–
ies. Source analysis
Pustovaya Elena Sergeevna
A brief description of the goods, the weight andvolume measures, commonin
bazaars of Tashkentin the 60–80years of theXIX century
Tilavova Guljahon Lapasovna, Allaberganov Ollabergan Arslanbekovich
Origin of Religiousviewsin AncientIron and stages of development
Tulebaev Turganzhan, Kurmanalina Nurgul
Nomadic Empire andIts Enemy: eViews of English-speaking Historians
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Tukhtaeva Malika Saydiakhralovna
Experience of work with ego-documentsin studying of life and creativity of art
historians of Soviet Uzbekistan
Yakubjanov Jasur Zhamshidzhonovich, Shukurov Rustam Jurakulovich
Aspects of the geopoliticalinterests of the Russian Empirein the Central Asian
khanates ofXVIII XIX centuries
Section 5. Medical science
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Abdullaev Ravshanbek Babajnovich, Matrizayev Temurmalik Jumamiratovich
e frequency of occurrence extra genital diseases at women of genital age livingin
Khorezm provincy
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Korovenkova Oksana
N., Goroschko Oleksandra M., Gerusch OlegV.,
Muzyka Nataliya Ya., Korovenkova Mariia
A.
ª²ects on tiotsetama renal functionin conditions ofincreased mineralocorticoid
activityin experiment
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e agents are dividedinto the nder-carrier-misinformer-processor-liaison-recruiter catego
ries; accordingly the agent may have the combined characteristics. ey action zone may represent the
legislative, executive (including border and customs sector), judiciary authorities, the media, private
sector; theintelligence penetration or aempted penetration features are the agents³ systematic or close
(or a combination of both) contacts with this segment³s representatives or the meeting di²erent from a
designated goal during thevisits to foreign countries.
trolled by the Ukrainian government a women the agent-terrorist
of the Russian Federal Security
Service was arrested; she tried to recruit the Border Police ocers border guard. In fact, having
recruited the guard, agent would be allowed to act as a person carrier of the terrorists through the state
border without any obstacle).
e agent- misinformer a person whointentionally delivers the wrong (false) information to
the security services or the public. (“On December 21, 1918during the hostilities between Georgia and
Armenia, in particular during the mobilization declaredin Democratic Republic of Georgia Ter-Oganes
f/n Davit Girgidyantz, a priest came to the people ready for balein Tianetivillage and disseminated the
disinformation asif the Armenian army³s military operations was supported by 1000well-armed Brit
ish soldiers, with whom even Germany had failed; he also told them asif all Tatars residingin Borchalo
province had rebelled against the government. e priest urged the crowd to refuse to participatein war”
Disinformation aimed toincite the fear and panic among the population and weaken their ghting spirit).
Agent-processor a person whois directlyinvolvedin surveillance andinspection of the subjects
of selection or surveillance managed by theintelligence service and makesinuence on them. [In 2008in
Lebanon twoIsraeli citizens were arrested who spied and collectedinformation about local political lead
ers andinuenced on them since 1980for the “Mossad” intelligence service
. Many years of experience,
the direction ofintelligence action directly demonstrates the role of processor of the spies.
Agent-liaison a person, who connects the target object with a recruiter; he/sheis used for
undercoverindirect connection of theintelligence with the operativeinformation sources operatingin
the country ofinterest. (InVolgograd Russian city there were arrested the US agents under the guise
of tourists, who represented the non-governmental organization “CivilInitiatives Center”; they met with
representatives of the regional business elite and collectedinformation on the socio-economic situation
Agent-recruiter a personintelligence, who with theinstruction of theintelligence carries
out recruiting of the new target objects. (In 2016the Nigerian security services arrested a person who
was engagedin recruitment of ghters of the “ForIslamic State”
According to the mentioned, following conclusions can be made:
e role of human resourcesisirreplaceablein theintelligence and counterintelligence operative
activities; their proper selection, surveillance, training, preparing, deployment are the best prerequisite
for a successful solution of operative goals and objectives.
e main components of theintelligence and counterintelligence activitiesin general are: opera
tive ocer, agent or persons who do not have any ocial status. ey have one common characteristic:
they are the subjects engagedin production and transmission of classiedinformation.
Organization of correct management of human resources policy has a special signicance for
successful organization of theintelligence and counterintelligence activities; thus, the focus should be
made on the reliability, objectivity, existing or prospective quality ofinformation access etc. during selec
tion- surveillance of the agent the main participants of the operative-intelligence activities.
Security Service of the Ukraine. e agent of the FSB was arrested, willing to recruit e Ukrainian military
services. 2015. www.pravda.com. ua/rus/news/2015/12/16/7092670
Kukhalashvili
D., From History of Creation and Establishment and the Activity of State Security Service of
the democratic Republic of Georgia, Tbilisi 2006. P. 110.
e agents of theIsraeliIntelligence Service were arrestedin Lebanon – Source of MassInformation.2008.
www.interfax.ru/russia/43232
“e agents of the State Department of the USA were arrestedinVolgograd”. 2016.hp://v1.ru/text/
newsline/134793442611200.html
¹IS recruiter³ arrestedin northern Nigeria: secret police.“Ola Awoniyi. AFP. February 9, 2016. www.yahoo.
com/news/recruiter-arrested-northern-nigeria-secret-police-182021634.html?ref=gs
Rusishvili Nino Besiki’s daugther,
Academy of the Ministry ofinternal A´airs of Georgia,
Master’s student, the Faculty of Police Regulation Law
E-mail: rusishvili7@gmail.com
E ROLE OF
IN COUNTERINTELLI
ENCE
ENCE ACTI
Operative andintelligence activities are carried out with the usage of human resources from the earli
est period. At current stage, in the light of technological progressin the light human resourcesis anim
portant andirreplaceable for special services. e determining factor ofits uniquenessis to remember
and perceive, narrate, specify and assess the situation. Irreplaceability of the role of human resourcesin
operative activitiesis evidenced by the fact that a humanis a creator and user of the technology. is
opinionis supported by the circumstance that theintelligence and counterintelligence services carry out
theinformation gathering process with the usage of human resources or technical means or they doitin
combination. erefore, proper selecting, training and teaching the human resources for theintelligence
and counterintelligence activitiesis the best prerequisite for a successful solution of operative goals and
objectives.
e main actors of theintelligence and counterintelligence activities process are: operative ocer,
agent or persons who do not have any ocial status. ey have one common characteristic: they are the
subjects who produce and transmit classiedinformation.
Like theintelligence activities, one of the main duties of an agent during the counterintelligence
activitiesis to obtain and supply the command unit of the operative activities theinformation, serving
the avoidance of any damaging e²ect to the state.
Organization of correct management of human resources policy has a special signicance for suc
cessful organization of theintelligence and counterintelligence activities. Accordingly, the focusis made
on the reliability, objectivity, existing or prospective quality ofinformation access etc. during selection-
surveillance of the agent the main participants of the operative-intelligence activities. e skills to be
takeninto account for theintelligence and counterintelligence activities skillsinclude personal, business
characteristics, education, creation of aitudes, transformation etc.
Foreignintelligence agentis a
tion. (In 2007, the counterintelligence service of Kirgizstan arrested the senior consultant of the Parlia
ment Press service for the espionage
at the moment of transfer of secretinformation to foreigners. If we
consider that the legislature organis animportant segment ofintelligence-agent penetration, the above
mentionedindividual had favorable conditions for his activities as an agent-nder).
e agent-carrier a person who carries out secret transfer of spies, agents and secret ocers
or secret transportation of the equipment necessary forintelligence activities. (In the territory con
Glossary of the terms ofintelligence, special training and retraining center of GeorgianIntelligence Service,
Tbilisi, 2013.
Mikhail Tishenko. “e ¹Mole” was arrestedin Kirgizia Parliament. Special Services of Kirgizia arrested the
agent of theintelligence service. 2007. hp://lenta.ru
means for organizing operative-operational cycles. Damaging of economic security of an object coun
try simplies the process of gaininginuence on the mentioned object country (political, economic)
anditincreasesits dependency and aitude towards the spying State. Necessary methods forimplemen
tation of economicintelligenceinclude, using the types of terrorist activities, such as: cyber terrorism,
agricultural terrorism, which can be executed for damaging civil as well as military orin combination
(both at the same time) sector. Main goal of economicintelligenceis to organize a depressing public
opinionin an object country, which can be connected to favorable conditions for negative aitude of
public towards government, mass destructions, and organization of removal of legal government.
panies of mobile phone frequency lters: “Avago Technologies” and “Skyworks Solutions”, exporting
secret technology back to China, set up their own company, and started producing of similar lters for
China³s military organizations. Practically, foreign country managed to capture expensive technological
materials free of charge.
In economicintelligence, one of the mostimportant branchesinclude agricultural terrorism
(combination of damagingimpacts, which aims the deterioration of a safety system of agriculture,
plants and animals and food safety and also aims the spreading of dangerous diseases)
. In this regard,
intelligence activities are signicant
: First World War (1914–1918) (Germany created a specialvirus
to disrupt the horses of allies, to paralyze the quick movement of enemies), during ½Cold War“ (1980in
Afghanistan, Soviet army used thevirus which caused destruction of jihadist³s horses, therefore, quick
movement of enemies became practicallyimpossible) andin the beginning ofXXIth century (In
2001in the farms of Belgium, France and Netherlands, in the bird food, they discovered carcinogen
dioxin, which was accompanied by the ban of chicken, meat and porkimport from Belgium. State of
Belgium su²ered losses of 1billion dollars
One of the mostimportant branches of economicintelligenceis to control the natural resources
of a foreign country. erein, aention must be paid to one of the cases, which took placeinIran and
the secret operation was carried out by the United States CentralIntelligence Agency (CIA), by the
code name ½TP-Ajax“
. For the purposes of removal of prime-minister Mohammad Mosaddegh from
the government
. With hisinitiative, in 1951Iranian parliament madeit legal to nationalize British con
trolledIranian oil company, therefore Britain set an oil embargo withIran. ese actions acquiredintel
ligence characteristic. For a successful carry out of secret service activities and for ensurence of desirable
public opinion, CentralIntelligence Agency, in a short period, managed to bribeIranian members of
parliament, publishing, editors, journalists (Financial ensurence of 80% of publications printedinIran),
creating animage of a Muhammad Mosaddegh as a communist among clergy, economical diversion, for
the purposes of creating moneyination they printed falseIranian banknotesin London and New York
and solditinIran, hired personnel for the purposes ofintelligence penetration, asif they were supporters
of Mosaddegh, blew up the mosques, shooting of Muslim population within the mosques, raid of shops,
communist party slogan movements, and organizing of mass destruction.
Intelligence activity outcomes were established:
Mosaddegh was removed from the government by arresting him, and by bringing the desirable
leader to the government, Iranian oil was under British control again. (British Petroleum Company)
erefore, conclusionis that: For execution of State³s strategic goals, important branches of secret
service activityis an economicalintelligence, and other types of economical diversionis animportant
opa/pr/chinese-professors-among-six-defendants-charged-economic-espionage-and-the´-trade-secrets
Jim Monke, Agroterrorism: reats and Preparedness, CRS Report for Congress, March 12, 2007, hps://
www.fas.org/sgp/crs/terror/RL32521.pdf
Jason Pate and Gavin Cameron, Covert Biological Weapons Aacks against Agricultural Targets: Assessing
theImpact against U.
S.
Agriculture, August 2001, pg. 7–9.
Kukhalashvili
D., Guruli-Kukhalashvili
M., Bregadze
T., ½Role of terrorismin tourism and food security“,
Tbilisi 2014, pg. 35–46.
Saeed
K.
Dehghan and Richard
N.
Taylor, e Gurdian, ½CIA admits rolein 1953Iranian coup“, (19
hp://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/aug/19/cia-admits-role-1953
iranian-coup
Torey
L.
McMurdo, e Economics of Overthrow, e United States, Britain, and the Hidden Justication of
Operation TPAJAX, hps://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/
studies/vol.-56
no.-2/pdfs/McMurdo-e%20Economics%20of%20Overthrow.pdf; pg.15–16.
New York Times Special Reoprt: e
C.
I.AInIran, hp://www.nytimes.com/library/world/
mideast/041600iran-cia-index.html
KhutsishviliIlia Lukitch,
Academy of the Ministry ofinternal A´airs of Georgia,
Master’s student, the Faculty of Police Regulation Law
E-mail: ilia_khutsishvili@yahoo.com
OF
ENCE
AND
Strengthening of one of the principal segments of State security system, economic security, asin
organization ofitsintelligence and counterintelligence activities, requires not only timely, complete and
trust worthyinformational support, but also an analysis of theinformation andits successfulimplemen
tation.
Generally, as well as for the purposes of economicalintelligence, obtaining ofinformationis carried
out both from an open and closed sources, aiming to properly gain entering-inuencing privileges on
public and private sectors. Goals andissues of economicalintelligence are determined according to the
State³s political, social-economic, geostrategic and many other factors, among which signicant Stateis
the one that carries out secret services and has economicinterestsin the object country. Prerequisite
forits realizationis the nancial possibilities of the State.
Economic and corporate espionage (ese are the actions between private companies, stealing of
trade secrets or other criminal organizations, to disrupt the commercialinterests of a particular company
or State
) cycle can be dividedinto two parts
. During an organization of such processes, obtaining ofin
formation, evaluation-analysis ofinformationisveryimportant, this means the processing ofinformation
to create an action plan for damaging a specic object. Prerequisite of success, in this case, is the process
management and continuation of coordination.
Practically economicintelligence has compatibility with the military, strategic, scientic-technical
and politicalintelligence, the mostvulnerable areas are agriculture and nancial, customs, energy and
other sectors.
In support of the opinions expressed, let us discuss some facts:
In 2013, Iranian hackers, in United States, performed a penetrationinto the protected computer
system of New York hydroelectric power plant and carried out a cyber-aack
. Favorable condition for
organizing a sabotage of a hydroelectric dams andits paralysis was created. Designated operation did
not aim the damage of an object, butits goal was to check the system protection. Publishing of thisin
formationin open sources portrayed the secret service missionin a way thatit caused depressing public
opinion (State ofIran could have cause damage on American hydroelectric power plant), with regards
ofinuence, for secret service penetration purposes, negative aitude of public towards governmentis
always linked to the creation of favorable conditions for secret services.
In terms of corporate espionage, veryinteresting caseis of a Chinese Professor Hao Zhang and his
ve Chinese students (Chinese citizens), carrying out continuous spying for ten years (until 2015) in
favor of the People³s Republic of Chinain United States
. While workingin American production com
Oce of e National Counterintelligence Executive, Foreign Spies Stealing US Economic Secretsin
Cyberspace, report to congress on foreign economic collection andindustrial espionage, 2009–2011, hps://www.
ncsc.gov/publications/reports/fecie_all/Foreign_Economic_Collection_2011.pdf
Strategic Dossier 162B Economicintelligencein a global world, SpanishInstitute for Strategic Studies,
Ministry Of Defence, ocial web hp://publicacionesociales.boe.es/; pg. 22.
BBC News, Iranian hackers ¹targeted³ New York dam, hp://www.bbc.com/news/technology-35151492
Department of Justice Oce of Public A²airs, Chinese Professors Among Six Defendants Charged with
Economic Espionage and e´ of Trade Secrets for Benet of People³s Republic of China, hps://www.justice.gov/
JRC, 2013, Final report ENNAH-European Network on Noise and Health, Scientic and Policy
Report by the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission.
Manual pìr Menaxhimin e Problemeve Mjedisore nì NivelVendor, fq. 16.
hp://www.mjedisi.gov.al/les/userles/Monitorim_Mjedisor/Monitorimi-i
Ajrit.pdf.
hp://rea.crcd.org.al/news-item/tirana-vazhdon-te-jetembi
me-e
ndotur-se-normat-e
be-se
hps://shendetidhejeta.wordpress.com/2011/07/10/ndotja-e
ajrit-vendi-yne-me-problematiku-
ne-europe
Pìrpjekjet e Shqipìrisì pìr tì arritur kriteret mjedisore tì BE-sì dhe perceptimi publik, Institutii
Politikave Mjedisore, Tiranì, 2010, fq. 11–13.
hp://www.conserve-energy-future.com/causes-e²ects-solutions-of-air-pollution.php
Conclusions
Albania has a higher coecient of environmental pollution andit comes as the cause of a comprehen
sive total chaos, that clearlyidenties us from many other countries of the world. Consequencesin relation
to air pollution a²ect all and to nd a more ecient solutionis necessary a strong cooperation at the level
of health, civil and government structure. Itisimportant to educate the public on health and the quality of
the air we breathe every day to consciousness on our rolein nature and also can ask a higherinterventionin
reducing factors that cause pollution air. e problems mainly related to roadinfrastructure, with construc
tion activities unchecked, the rapidincreasein the number ofvehiclesin recent years, with diesel generators
and, above all, lack of green spaces and destroying day a´er day to the existing ones.
Possible measures that will helpimprove the standards of air quality are: reducing the number of
cars by promoting the use of public transport as opposed to private, improving public transport, the
management of road network, promoting clean technologies tovehicles, promoting cycling, increasing
green spaces, improving the quality of fuels.
References:
hp://www.mjedisi.gov.al/les/userles/Monitorim_Mjedisor/íPORTI_I_GJENDJES_NE_
MJEDIS_2011.pdf
WHO, 2006, Air quality guidelines for particulate maer, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide.
Global update 2005. Summary of risk assessment, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
WHO, 2013b, Review of evidence on health aspects of air pollution-REVIHAAP project technical
report, World Health Organization, Regional Oce for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark. IARC,
2012, Diesel Engine Exhaust Carcinogenic, Press release, 213, International Agency for Research
on Cancer, Lyon, France.
IARC, 2013, Outdoor air pollution a leading environmental cause of cancer deaths, Press Release
No 221, 17October 2013, International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organiza
tion, Lyon, France.
Mjedisii Evropìs: Gjendja dhe Perspektiva 2015, EEA, Copenhagen, 2015, fq. 124–128.
EEA, 2013b, A closer look at urban transport TERM 2013: transportindicators tracking prog
ress towards environmental targetsin Europe, EEA Report No 11/2013, European Environment
Agency, Copenhagen, Denmark. Global Road Safety Facility, e World Bank andInstitute for
Health Metrics and Evaluation, 2014, Transport for Health: e Global Burden of Disease From
Motorized Road Transport, IHME; the World Bank, Seale, WA; Washington, DC.
WHO, 2006, Air quality guidelines for particulate maer, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide.
Global update 2005. Summary of risk assessment, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
EEA, 2014a, Air qualityin Europe–2014 report, EEA Report No 5/2014, European Environment
Agency, Copenhagen, Denmark.
EU, 2013, Decision No 1386/2013/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20No
vember 2013on a General Union Environment Action Programme to 2020Living well, within the
limits of our planet, OJ L 354, 20.12.2013. P. 171–200.
WHO, 2009a, Guidelines onindoor air quality: dampness and mould, World Health Organization,
Regional Oce for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark.
WHO, 2009c, WHO Handbook onindoor radon. Public health perspectives, World Health Orga
nization, Geneva, Switzerland.
WHO, 2010c, WHO guidelines forindoor air quality: selected pollutants, World Health Organiza
tion, Regional Oce for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark.
EU, 2013, Decision No 1386/2013/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20No
vember 2013on a General Union Environment Action Programme to 2020Living well, within the
limits of our planet, OJ L 354, 20.12.2013. P. 171–200.
Albanian municipalities have begun planting trees to mitigate air pollution, but the results are lim
ited due to the restricted area for planting and bad urban planning (or lack). e main cause of pollution
remains oil quality, which allowed to enterin the Albanian market and the quality of cars that circulatein
the streets of Albania. A fairly heavy pollutionis caused by toxic gases emied from the oilindustryin
Ballsh, where the airis toxic to the lungs
3.1\rSome of the causes of air pollution\rin Albania
Air pollution causes are many, but experts list the main causes:
Plastic burns. Plastic garbage want thousands of years to decompose, while bringing their burn
ing carcinogenic disease within a few years. And environmentalists say the problem of plastic waste,
which recommend that the best solutionis recycling. According to specialists, the burning of plastic
waste every dayis threatening more people. is phenomenonis observed especiallyin the big city as
Tirana, Durres and Fieri.
Outdatedvehicles
Car tracis a major cause of air pollution.
e Construction, which do not apply the criteria to avoid pollution or wasteincineration over
the place.
Burning of Fossil Fuels: Sulfur dioxide emied from the combustion of fossil fuels like coal,
petroleum and other factory combustiblesis one the major cause of air pollution. Pollution emiing
fromvehiclesincluding trucks, jeeps, cars, trains, airplanes causeimmense amount of pollution. Car
bon Monooxide caused byimproper orincomplete combustion and generally emied fromvehiclesis
another major pollutant along with Nitrogen Oxides, thatis produced from both natural and man
made processes
Agricultural activities: Ammoniais avery common by product from agriculture related activities
andis one of the most hazardous gasesin the atmosphere. Use ofinsecticides, pesticides and fertilizersin
agricultural activities has grown quite a lot.
Exhaust from factories andindustries: Manufacturingindustries release large amount of carbon
monoxide, hydrocarbons, organic compounds, and chemicalsinto the air thereby depleting the quality
of air. Manufacturingindustries can be found at every corner of the earth and thereis no area that has
not been a²ected byit.
Mining operations: Miningis a process wherein minerals below the earth are extracted using large
equipments. During the process dust and chemicals are releasedin the air causing massive air pollution.
Indoor air pollution: Household cleaning products, painting supplies emit toxic chemicalsin
the air and cause air pollution.
3.2\r‚e solutions o›ered for air pollution
Use public mode of transportation: Encourage people to use more and more public modes of
transportation to reduce pollution. Also, try to make use of car pooling. If you and your colleagues come
from the same locality and have same timings you can explore this option to save energy and money.
Several aempts are being made world wide on a personal, industrial and governmental levels to
curb theintensity at which air pollutionis rising and regain a balance as far as the proportions of the
foundation gases are concerned. isis a direct aempt at slacking global warming. Air pollutionis one
of the larger mirrors of man³s follies, and a challenge we need to overcome to see a tomorrow
Mjedisore, Tiranì, 2010, fq. 11–13.
Pìrpjekjet e Shqipìrisì pìr tì arritur kriteret mjedisore tì BE-sì dhe perceptimi publik, Institutii Politikave
Mjedisore, Tiranì, 2010, fq. 11–13.
hp://www.conserve-energy-future.com/causes-e²ects-solutions-of-air-pollution.php.
Ibid.
Ibid.
All operators that discharge pollutants are obliged to publish data on air pollution and to submit
periodically fullinformation to the Ministry of Environment, Forestry and Water Management;
e Ministry of Environment prepares aninventory of air emissions at the national, district, city
level andindividual source of pollution;
Natural and legal persons, domestic or foreign, are obliged to obtain an environmental license
by the Ministry of Environmentin collaboration with the local government for all activities with
potential pollution for air;
On air pollution operators of source pollutant pay emission taxes, according to the quantity and
type of pollutant emissions, as stipulatedin Law no. 8435, dated 28.12.1998, “On the tax systemin the
Republic of Albania”. In order for the law to become fully operationalitis necessary that he be supple
mented with a series of other laws, by means of which will be:
approval other environmentalindicators of air condition for particular areas, depending on the
nature of air emissions;
approval other sources of pollution that may occur;
approval rates air quality, deposition and specic standards for special areas;
approval quality requirements of the fuel required to beimplemented by manufacturers, import
ers, exporters, transporters and dealers;
announced areas that require special air protection, for which the Minister of Environment,
Health and the respective local government bodiesinstruct special protective measures;
approval criteria for the establishment and operation of the smog warning system;
approval rules, procedures and reporting deadlines of the airin the other smog situation.
‚e quality of the air\rin Albania
Air pollutionin our countryis above the norms set by the EU and thisis causing unrecoverable
consequences on health, and thus decreasing the life expectancy of people. e main pollutants that
a²ect air quality are: NO2, O3, SO2, CO, PM10, PM 2.5and benzene that are emied by the burning
of fossil fuel for energy and transport. Ozone (O3) is a secondary pollutant formed by the oxidation
of primary pollutantsin the presence of solar radiation, which a²ects global climate change
. Sulfur
and nitrogen oxidesin conjunction with air humidity returnsin acids and deposited back on earth as
acid rain, whichis harmful for agriculture and the environmentin general
Air qualityis one of the most serious environmental problemsin Albania. Tiranais considered as
one of the most polluted capitals of Europe and the world for the quality of air, which can be dangerous to
human health. e most recent measurements made by the National Environment Agency, which reports
asvery serious situation
. Experts have conducted research on air pollutionin Tirana, warning that unless
urgent measures are not taken, the expected loss of lifein the capital will be 1–2years for each resident
and about hundreds of lives are lost every year. e data obtained from theInstitute of Public Health,
considered quite alarming and needsimmediateintervention toimprove the situation and the action plan
for air quality, should be given due weightin legal, institutional, programmatic and nancial terms
. So far,
they have been applied several local strategies, which can provide limited results. In the main cities of the
country, such as Shkodra, Durres, Fier, Vlora the data of monitoring centers for air pollution shows that
airis three times more polluted than the maximum level allowed by the EU.
Onlyin small towns, which
arein hilly or mountainous areas, air qualityis good, due to the lack of trac andindustry
hp://www.mjedisi.gov.al/les/userles/Monitorim_Mjedisor/Monitorimi-i-Ajrit.pdf.
Ibid.
hp://rea.crcd.org.al/news-item/tirana-vazhdon-te-jetembi-20
me-e-ndotur-se-normat-e-be-se
hps://shendetidhejeta.wordpress.com/2011/07/10/ndotja-e-ajrit-vendi-yne-me-problematiku-ne-europe
Pìrpjekjet e Shqipìrisì pìr tì arritur kriteret mjedisore tì BE-sì dhe perceptimi publik, Institutii Politikave
2) Law 8897, dated 16.05.2002, “On protection of air from pollution”;
3) e Decision of Council of Ministers no. 435, dated 12.09.2002, “On approval of the air
emission standards”;
4) e Decision of Council of Ministers no. 248, dated 24.04.2003, “On approval of theinterim
ratesin air emissions”;
5) e Decision of Council of Ministers no. 803, dated 04.12.2003, “On air quality standards”;
6) e Decision of Council of Ministers no. 103, dated 31.03.2002, “On environmental monitor
ingin the Republic of Albania”;
7) Instruction no. 6527, dated 24.12.2004, “On the permissiblevalues of air pollutantsin the en
vironment from emissions and noise caused byvehicles and ways to control them”, which enteredinto
forcein early June 2005;
8) Regulation of the Ministry of Environment, Forestry and Water Management 2006, “On the
prevention of negativeimpacts on health and the environment of the construction activities”;
9) Order of the Minister of Environment no. 37, dated 29.03.2004, ¹On the realization of self-
monitoring”.
Dra´ing and approval of this legislation has fullled a sensitive gap to environmental legislation,
not only that now have a legal framework specic to the protection of air, but also becauseit elaborated
concepts of specic categories of the eld andintroduced the necessary legal terminology; developed
and made use of emission standards and air quality, without which neither can talk about e²ective
protection of air quality, it also grouped polluting activities based on modern criteria; specify the duties
of operators whose activities generate air emissions; advanced concepts and practices for monitor
ing air quality and emissionsinit; restated the roles and responsibilities of state control authorities
toimplement the requirements of the law.
These are concreteindicators at the same time his approach to the legislation of the EU.
How
ever, design andimplement this legislationis only the beginningin a series of efforts to create a
comprehensive legal framework to protect the air environment, whichis also fully aligned with EU
directives.
In this context, itis currentlyin active process ofimprovements that appearin several directions
and dealing:
With the completion of the regulatory legal framework;
With additions or amendments binding of specic acts, identied as suchin theimplementation
of this legal framework;
With deepeningits process of alignment with the relevant EU;
By creating the necessaryinfrastructure to facilitate theimplementation of this legal framework;
In general of this legal framework for the protection of air, more directlyis undoubtedly Law no.
8897, dated 16.05.2002, “On protection of air from pollution”, which aims to guarantee the right of
citizens to livein a clean air environment, protecting human health, fauna, ora and natural and cul
turalvalues of Albanian environment from air pollution.
e law denes the sources of pollution (stationary and mobile), the basicindicators of the air,
dischargesinto the air (with theinterim emission rates), air quality standards, as well as the height of
discharging equipment. e law sets also:
e obligations to protect the air of operators of stationary sources, who are obliged to apply the
technical requirements, respect the norms of air emissions, the dra´ technical regulation for the operation
of pollution sources, to carry out monitoring of air emissions, stop activityif failure, to take measures to
normalize the situation, as well asinforming the public;
e obligations to protect the air of operators of mobile sources, who are obliged to operate
and maintain themin accordance with conditions specied by the manufacturer and comply with the
emission standards;
are more stringent than the standards of the EU air quality for most of the regulated pollutants
. Air
pollution can damage human health through direct exposure throughinhalation orindirectly through
exposure to pollutants transported through the air, depositedin plants and soil and accumulatedin
the food chain
. e health e²ects caused by air pollutants classied as physiological, biochemical
light, diculty breathing, nose, cough and respiratory and cardiac problems
thus contributing more
to lung cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory diseasesin Europe
e European Commission estimates the e²ects on health from exposure to particulate materials
may have fallen by 20% between 2000and 2010
. Indoor air qualityis a²ected by the quality of the
ambient air, combustion processes, consumer products, improving energy eciencyin buildings and
human behavior. Internal exposure to chemicals and biological agentsis associated with respiratory
symptoms, allergies, asthma, and e²ects on theimmune system
e EU hasintroduced andimplemented a range of legalinstruments toimprove air quality. Measures
to combat pollution at source, and furtherimplementation of the proposed package for Clean Air, in accor
dance with the latest, expected to resultin furtherimprovement of air quality and reducing healthimpacts
by 2030
. Although European citizens spend more than 85% of their timeindoors, thereis currently no
dedicated political framework that connects the safety, health, energy eciency and sustainability
‚e environmental legal framework for the protection of air\rin Albania
Environmental legal framework to protect the airis relatively new and, as such, its positiveimpacts
on air storage are still modest. is also for well known fact thatitis dened as highly technical and
professional legislation anditsimplementation on the other hand represents a process that contains
many concrete measures activities of the high cost
e new environmental legislation on air protection consists of:
1) Law no. 8934, dated 5.09.2002, “On Environmental Protection”;
EEA, 2014a, Air qualityin Europe-2014report, EEA Report No 5/2014, European Environment Agency,
Copenhagen, Denmark.
Mjedisii Evropìs: Gjendja dhe Perspektiva 2015, EEA, Copenhagen, 2015, fq. 124–128.
Ibid.
WHO, 2006, Air quality guidelines for particulate maer, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide. Global
update 2005. Summary of risk assessment, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. WHO, 2013b, Review
of evidence on health aspects of air pollution  REVIHAAP project technical report, World Health Organization,
Regional Oce for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark. IARC, 2012, Diesel Engine Exhaust Carcinogenic, Press release,
213, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France. IARC, 2013, Outdoor air pollution a leading
environmental cause of cancer deaths, Press Release No 221, 17October 2013, International Agency for Research
on Cancer, World Health Organization, Lyon, France.
EU, 2013, Decision No 1386/2013/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20November
2013on a General Union Environment Action Programme to 2020Living well, within the limits of our planet, OJ
L 354, 20.12.2013. P. 171–200.
WHO, 2009a, Guidelines onindoor air quality: dampness and mould, World Health Organization, Regional
Oce for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark. WHO, 2009 c, WHO Handbook onindoor radon. Public health
perspectives, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. WHO, 2010c, WHO guidelines forindoor air quality:
selected pollutants, World Health Organization, Regional Oce for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark.
EU, 2013, Decision No 1386/2013/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20November
2013on a General Union Environment Action Programme to 2020Living well, within the limits of our planet, OJ
L 354, 20.12.2013. P. 171–200.
JRC, 2013, Final report ENNAH – European Network on Noise and Health, Scientic and Policy Report by
the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission.
Manual pìr Menaxhimin e Problemeve Mjedisore nì NivelVendor, fq. 16.
Mecaj Stela,
University ofVlora £Ismail Qemali¤
PhD Candidatein Environmental Law,
the Faculty of Law
University of Tirana
E-mail: stela.mecaj@yahoo.com
Llano Ariana,
University ofVlora £Ismail Qemali¤
PhD Candidatein Constitutional Law,
the Faculty of Law
University of Tirana
E-mail: ariana
llano@live.com
UE OF AIR POLLUTION
IN
Abstract:
e environmentin which we liveis the main source of human life. Protecting the en
vironment and especially the protection of the air, as one of the mostimportant sectors of the environ
ment constitutes a major responsibility of the state structuresin the central and local level. In particular,
the development and use of carindustry has contributed to air pollution, especiallyin urban areas,
whereitis concentrated the majority of the population. is hasinuenced to the emergence of a large
number of diseases with high risk to life. Air pollutionis di²erentin di²erent environments. ere are
some work environments where air pollution levelisvery high and threatens the health of workers and
nearby residents. Ambient air quality can be signicantlyimproved by mitigating the healthimpactif
major polluters will comply with the laws and standards on air emissions. is paper aims to evidence
and reect the problems of air pollutionin Albania, using the data obtained from di²erent reports
realizedin our country, by determining the causes of air pollution and measures orinstruments that
may apply to reduce the pollution and to reect the relationship between the population exposed to
environmental pollution andincreased risk to healthimpact.
Keywords:
air pollution, global warming, acid rain, air quality standards, health e²ects etc.
Introduction
Air pollution from chemicals, dust particles or biological materials cause discomfort orinjury to hu
mans and other organisms that negatively a²ect the natural environment. Sources of air pollution may be
natural or anthropogenic origin
. Vehicles, industry, power plants, agriculture and households also con
tribute to air pollutionin Europe. Transportation remains the main contributor to the worst levels of air
qualityin cities and health-relatedimpacts. Increase thevolume of trac, together with the promotion of
dieselvehicles have played a rolein this
. A signicant proportion of Europe³s urban population remains
exposed to harmful levels of air pollution. Exposure of Europe³s population becomes even more apparent
when using exposure estimates based on air quality guidelines of the World Health Organization
, which
http://www.mjedisi.gov.al/files/userfiles/Monitorim_Mjedisor/RAPORTI_I_GJENDJES_NE_
MJEDIS_2011.pdf.
EEA, 2013b, A closer look at urban transport TERM 2013: transportindicators tracking progress towards
environmental targetsin Europe, EEA Report No11/2013, European Environment Agency, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Global Road Safety Facility, e World Bank andInstitute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, 2014, Transport for Health:
e Global Burden of Disease From Motorized Road Transport, IHME; the World Bank, Seale, WA; Washington, DC.
WHO, 2006, Air quality guidelines for particulate maer, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide. Global
update 2005. Summary of risk assessment, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
State secret.
In addition, thevictim shall not disclose any otherinformation which became known to
himin connection with participationin criminal proceedings and disclosure of which mayimpede
theimplementation of the criminal proceedings. Suchinformation may disclose thevictim with
permission of theinvestigator or the prosecutor and to the extentin which they acknowledge the possible
Unlawful disclosure ofinformation tovictims who were known to himin connection with
participationin criminal proceedings and representing secrets protected by law, shall entail responsibility
established by law. us, the disclosure ofvictiminformation on safety measures against a person under
protection may be considered an administrative o²ense, andif the aggravating circumstances a crime
under Art. 381of the Criminal Code of Ukraine. Disclosure without the permission of the prosecutor,
theinvestigator or the person who conducted theinquiry orinvestigation, data pre-trialinvestigation
orvictim, entails criminal liability under Part. 1, Art. 387of the Criminal Code of Ukraine.
References:
™\t …\f\rã €\f \r\tÙÙ\f\rÙ €\f\r€\f//ˆ\b \t€: hp://zakon4.rada.
gov.ua/laws/show/80731–10.
™\fÙ\rš €\f¦\rš \t …\f\rã. —\r-€\f\r‘ \r\f– ‹.: ¤\f\r,
– 844.
™\fÙ\rš \t …\f\rã//ˆ\b \t€: hp://zakon4.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/2341–
™\fÙ\rš €\f¦\rš \t …\f\rã: ‘ \r\t\r Ù Ù\r \r \t€
 \r \r1\f 2015\f.: (ŒÙ¦Ù  ).
– ™.: ¤\r\t\r
‡.
’., 2015.
– 328.
¤\b\r\f
’.
›.
¤\f¦\rš \r €\f€Ù \r \fÙ\rš €\f¦\rš \t
 …\f\rã: €Ù \f \r €\f\r €\f\rã \f\r\r¦Ùã/’.
›.
¤\b\r\f//˜\f\t‘
‘\r€ \r¦Ù\ršã \r\r\tÙ㠁\fÙÙ €\f\r.
– C.126–131.
™\fÙ\rš €\f¦\rš \t …\f\rã. —\r-€\f\r‘ \r\f– ‹.: ¤\f\r, 2012.
•.116–118.
Callvictim carried out on the grounds andin the manner provided by Chapter 11CPC of Ukraine
einvestigator, prosecutor, investigating judge during the preliminaryinvestigation have the right to
cause thevictim for questioning or to participatein other proceedingsif there are reasonable grounds
to believe that he can give evidence relevant to criminal proceedings or participatein the proceedingsis
required³ compulsory. evictim called theinvestigator, prosecutor, investigator, judge, court by
summons delivery, sendingit by mail, email or fax, make the call by telephone or telegram. Participation
of thevictimin the proceedingsis mandatory. evictim has to tell us call no later than three days prior
to the day when he shall come on call.
In the case where thevictim may not arrive on time on call, he mustinformit, as well as theinability
to reason. Byvalid reasons of failure of thevictiminclude:
the arrest, detention or serving the sentence;
connement as a result of the law or a court decision;
force majeure (epidemics, war events, natural disasters or other similar circumstances);
no personin the place of residence for a long time due to travel, travel etc;
seriousillness or stayin the healthinstitution due to pregnancy or treatment provided
temporaryinability to leave this place;
the death of close relatives, family members or other close persons or serious threat to their lives;
untimely receipt of summons;
other circumstances objectivelyimpossible person appearing to the challenge.
Also a²ected are obliged not to hinder the establishment of circumstances of the criminal o²ense.
is provisionisintended to prevent abuse of thevictim their rights and commiing other actions which
mayin some form to prevent the truthin criminal proceedings. Interference by thevictim to establish the
circumstances of the criminal o²ense can occur, particularlyin: 1) the false report of a crime; 2) providing
false testimony, submission ofinappropriate orinadmissible evidence; 3) preventing appearance of a
witness, expert, forcing them to refusal to testify or report. ese actions of thevictim entail legal liability
under the Criminal Code of Ukraine.
One of the main duties assigned to thevictim a duty to keep from disclosinginformation that
became known to himin connection with participationin criminal proceedings and which are protected
by law secret. is provisionis containedin pursuance of the principles of the criminal proceedings as a
secret communication, interference with privacy, publicity.
Secrets protected by law may be containedin speeches and documents to be communicated to
thevictim orally, in writing or by means of communication. To legally protected secrets containedin the
documents and things, include:
einformation owned media or journalists and provided them subject to non-disclosure of
origin or source ofinformation;
einformation that may be of medical condentiality;
einformation that may be the secret of notaries acts;
Condentialinformation, including such containing trade secrets;
Information that may be of banking secrecy;
e person personal correspondence and other personal records;
einformation thatisin the telecommunication carriers and providers of communication, the
subscriber of telecommunication services, including the services of, their duration, content, transmission
routes, etc;
Personal data of persons who arein her personal possession orin a personal data thatisin the
holder of personal data;
™\fÙ\rš €\f¦\rš \t …\f\rã: ‘ \r\t\r Ù Ù\r \r \t€ \r
\r1\f 2015\f.: (ŒÙ¦Ù  ).
– ™.: ¤\r\t\r
‡.
’., 2015.
– •.73.
Lyzogub Alina,
e student of Kyiv University of Law
of e National Academy
of Sciences of Ukraine
E-mail: koks469@mail.ru
OF T
M
IN T
E CRI
INAL PROCE
OF
e new Criminal Procedure Code of Ukraine, which enteredinto force on 20November 2012,
signicantly changed the legal status of thevictimin criminal proceedings. In particular, if earlier,
thevictim always belonged to the prosecution and usedin the trial rights of the prosecution, then the
current CPC of Ukrainevictimis away, itis a separate member of the criminal proceedings, which as a
general rule does not apply at all to any of the parties, andis the prosecution onlyin certain cases expressly
provided forin the CPC of Ukraine (in case of changesin the prosecutor charges less serious or refusal of
the prosecutor of the maintenance charges). If we analyze the new rules CPC of Ukraine, we can conclude
that thevictim of a crime a person may not acquire the status of thevictimif she did not wish to. In this
caseit caninvolve proceedings only as a witness
Article 2of the new Criminal Procedure Code of Ukraine as a priority of the criminal
proceedingsimplies the protection ofindividuals, society and the state from criminal o²enses
. us,
the legislator, formulating objectives criminal proceedings, provides them provisions designed to certify
special aention to the rights ofindividuals, includingvictims of crime: rst, the protection of thevictim,
as every person of criminal o²enses, and secondly, protection rights, freedoms and legalinterests of
thevictim as a party to the criminal proceedings. us, the new Criminal Procedure Code of Ukraine
changed prioritiesin solving the criminal process. At rst legislator was not the protection of rights and
legalinterests of participants of criminal proceedings, as statedin the CPC of Ukrainein 1960and higher
goals improving law and orderin society.
New concepts of criminal proceedings correspond to changesin the criminal procedure legislation.
us, a signicantinnovationis the legal recognition of the new CPC of Ukrainevictim not only physical
but a legal entity. In myview, thisis a positive changein the criminal process Ukraine since signicantly
expanded the range of subjects a²ected by the criminal o²ense and need protection.
Along with a wide rangevestingvictim rights lawimposes on him some responsibilities that could
be seen as far as the proper conduct of thevictimin criminal proceedings, the failure of which entailsits
responsibility by law.
For the rst timein Ukraine a separate CPC normally dened responsibilitiesvictim. us, according
to his century. 57, thevictim must:
1) come to call theinvestigator, prosecutor, investigating judge, trial, andin failing to timely
arrival advance toinform, as well asinability to reason;
2) does not prevent the establishment of the circumstances of the criminal o²ense;
3) not divulge without the permission of theinvestigator, prosecutor, courtinformation that became
known to himin connection with participationin criminal proceedings and representing secrets protected
by law
¤\b\r\f
’.
›.
¤\f¦\rš \r €\f€Ù \r \fÙ\rš €\f¦\rš \t …\f\rã:
€Ù \f \r €\f\r €\f\rã \f\r\r¦Ùã/’.
›.
¤\b\r\f//˜\f\t‘ ‘\r€ \r¦Ù\ršã \r\r\tÙã
\fÙÙ €\f\r.
– •.127.
™\fÙ\rš €\f¦\rš \t …\f\rã: ‘ \r\t\r Ù Ù\r \r \t€ \r
\r1\f 2015\f.: (ŒÙ¦Ù  ).
– ™.: ¤\r\t\r
‡.
’., 2015.
– •.3.
Ibid.
– •.38.
with the law number 8687, date 9.11.2000. e decisions of Albanian Court arein accordance with the
european law for arbitration, especially with the Convetions that are ratied by the parliament.
References:
David, Rene, L³arbitrage dans le comersinternational, Economica,1982.
Vasili, Jani, (2005) Procedura Civile e Republikìs sì Shqipìrisì, Tiranì.
Kola Tafaj, Flutura., Vokshi, Asim. (2011) Procedura Civile e Repulikìs sì Shqipìrisì, Tiranì.
Constitution of the Republic of Albania, approved by law no.8417, dated 21.10.1998and changed
by law no.9675, dated 13.01.2007; no.9904, dated 21.04.2008; no88, dated 18.09.2012.
Civil Procedure Code of the Republic of Albania, approved by law no.8116, dated 29.3.1996 and
changed by law no.8431, dated 14.12.1998;no.8491, dated 27.5.1999; no.8535, dated 18.10.1999;
no. 8812, dated 17.5.2001; no.9953, dated 14.7.2008,no.10052, dated 29.12.2008 October 2012.
e decision of the Supreme Court of Albania no.22, date 19.01.2011.
e Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards,1958.
problemsin commercial maers. In this case the disputein under arbitral jurisdiction and under other
jurisdiction
. is general principleis forseenin the Code of Civil Procedure of Albaniain the article
417: Arbitral Tribunal with or without parties demand decides about jurisdiction and thevalidity of the
arbitral agreement. A disputein under arbitral jurisdiction when the parties choose to have an agree
ment before or a´er their commercial disagreement, whenis clearly sanctioned the solution of this
disagreement by the arbitral jurisdiction. e existence of the arbitral clauseis crucial for the arbitral
jurisdiction, because a case can be judged with the arbitral procedures onlyif thereis avalid agreement
between parties through which they accept the arbitral jurisdiction for the disagreements of the present
and the future, while the object of the agreementis crucial for the subject maer jurisdiction, because
not everything may be judged by the arbitral tribunal
. Albanian legislation denes the subject maer
jurisdiction as every property claim or demand about property relations can be object of a arbitral
judgement. is means thatin other cases that are not about property relations or commercial maers
can not be under arbitral jurisdiction. Albanian legislation doesn³t allow the arbitral jurisdiction for
criminal maers, family maers or the conict based on a administrative act. In these cases the law has
forseen the administrative jurisdiction for administrative acts and judicial jurisdiction for the other
maers. isis an exlusive jurisdiction, evenif the parties through an agreement has decided to submit
their case to arbitral jurisdiction of the arbitral tribunal or to an arbitrator. In this situation the law has
restricted the autonomy of the parties, dening that the disputes that maers for the pubic order are
exclusively under judicial jurisdiction. is article of the Albanian Code of Civil Proceduresisin consis
tence with the New York Convention, also known as the “New York Arbitration Convention”, whichin
the article 1/3forsees: · the Convention will apply only for the disputes created from contractual or
non contractual legal relations, which are condidered as commercial maers under the national law of
the state making such declaration
. In other word, in order to have arbitral jurisdiction for solving a
dispute under the albanian legislationis necessary that the disagreement arising out of legal relation
ships, wether contractual or not, must bein commercial maers. From this restriction we conclude that
an arbitral tribunal can³t judge recognition lawsuit or other lawsuits that doesn³t contain obligations of
commercial maers. As a result, every agreement that gives jurisdiction to arbitral tribunal for solving
the disputes other thanin commercial maers are null. e article 36/2of the Civil Procedural Code of
the Republic of Albania forsees: Noneinstitution has the right to judge any civil dispute thatit³s being
judged by the court. Every agreement contrary of thisis null
. But what happens when both tribunals,
the arbitral jurisdiction and the court accept the jurisdiction for a certain dispute? Considering two
moments, the rst when the arbitral tribunal has begun the arbitral procedure and the second hypotheti
cal situation when the arbitral tribunal has not begun the arbitral procedure. e arbitral tribunal has
the right to decide forits jurisdiction concerning thevalidity or theinvalidity of the agreement. In the
rst hipotetic case, the court has accepted the jurisdiction and the arbitral procedure has begun, so any
other court must decline the jurisdiction. According to this article every other jurisdiction, including
judicial jurisdiction must declareincompetence of the dispute, in this way the dispute will be solved by
the arbitral tribunal. In second hypothetical situation, when the caseis submiedin the general courts
the tribunal declares the competence because the agreementis null, the tribunal begins to judge the
case, based on the article 414of the Civil Procedural Code of Albania.
As a conclusion the albanian legislationisin total accordance with european laws for the arbitration.
e Albanian parliament has ratied the European Convention ofInternational Commercial Arbitration
Dr Flutura Kola Tafaj,AsimVokshi LL.M,Procedura Civile e Republikes sì Shqipìrisì.Tiranì 2011. P. 205.
Ibid. P. 213.
e Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards,1958.
e Civil Procedure Code of the Republic of Albania. Article 36/2
Levanaku Andja,
European University of Tirana
PhD Candidatein Law, lawyer,
Municipality of Tirana
E-mail: andja.1989@yahoo.com
ITLE:
RBITRAL
DICTION ACCORDIN
UROPEAN
S
IN
Abstract:
In this articleI³ll analize the concept of arbitrationin the Republic of Albania, the ac
cordance of albanian laws and albanians judicial decisions with european laws, conventions, regulations,
rules etc.
Keywords:
arbitration, agreement, arbitrator, convention, arbitral jurisdiction, commercial dis
agreement.
Arbitrationis an alternate way for resolving the domestic andinternational disputes, whichis
condisdered a law technique aiming resolving disputes between two or more parties, by anindipendent
third party, anindividual arbitrator or a tribunal, which exercise power according to a private agreement,
without being obliged by the state for this mission
. Arbitrationis an alternate way for resolving the
domestic andinternational disputes, whichis condisdered a law technique aiming resolving disputes
between two or more parties, by anindipendent third party, anindividual arbitrator or a tribunal, which
exercise power according to a private agreement, without being obliged by the state for this mission
Judicial jurisdictionis extendedin di²erent elds, civil jurisdiction, penal jurisdiction, commercial
jurisdiction
. Jurisdictionis “the concretizations of laws”, stressing the momentin which the law from
static and passive, become concrete and ecient Arbitrationis theinstitution where the third party
solves the problems between other parties, exercising judicial power, delegated by the parties. Itis a
well-established and widely used means to end disputes. Itis one of several kinds of alternative dispute
resolution, which provide parties to a controversy with a choice other than litigation. Unlike litigation,
arbitration takes place out of court: the two sides select animpartial third party, known as an arbitrator;
agreein advance to comply with the arbitrator³s award; and then participatein a hearing at which both
sides can present evidence and testimony. According to albanian law, arbitrationis dened as an agree
ment between parties through which parties allow the resolving of their disputes to an arbitrator. is
agreement must have avalid form and content
. Arbitral jurisdictionis the entirety of the obligations
and rights of the arbitral tribunal to resolve only disagreementsin commercial maers
, and onlyif exist
avalid agreement between them for accepting the arbitral jurisdiction
. e legal limit between arbitral
jurisdiction and every other jurisdictionincluding judicial jurisdiction and administrative jurisdictionis
denedin the article 414which forsees: when a disputeis being judged by an arbitration court and this
disputeis sent to another jurisdiction, this last jurisdiction must declare theincompetence. When the
arbitral procedure for resolving this despute hasn³t begun yet, the other jurisdiction must also declare
theincompetence, except when the arbitral agreementis openly worthless. However, itis necessary
to have avalid agreement between the parties to have a functionable arbitral jurisdiction to solve the
Rene David,L arbitrage dans le comersinternational,Economica,1982.
Ibid.
JaniVasili, Procedura Civile e Republikìs sì Shqipìrisì, Tiranì 2005,page 25.
e Civil Procedure Code of the Republic of Albania. article 403.
Ibid. article 402.
Ibid. article 403.
In the same time, the United States, in coordination withits strategic partner country, the Federal
Republic of Germanyimplemented active measures against the Soviet Union andits strategic partner
the German Democratic Republic. Animportant segment of the activity was the study of open sources.
“e East German Ministry for State Security (MfS, known as the “Stasi”) analyzed 1,000Western maga
zines and 100books a month, while also summarizing more than 100newspapers and 12hours of West
German radio and TV broadcasting daily”
. In fact, on the basis of the media-organized studyit analyzed
socio-political and economic situation of theintelligence subject country; besides, the analysis of histori
cal and scientic essaysit became possible to study the subordinated population (including ethnic and
religious groups) and perfect the psychological portrait of political leaders.
On November 9, 2015, Russian television news reports broadcasted secretinformation about the
system of the weapons “•\r
. Filming process wasimplemented at the session held by the Russian
President on the defenseissues. e reportincluded footage reecting the concept and the development
period of the system of “•\r
6”. is fact conrms that the TV and the media has access to security
sensitive, secretinformation. For avoiding any leakage ofit (i.
e., creation of favorable conditions for
theintelligence services) the media should have access to the secret-mode targets and secretinformation,
which should be preceded by proper organization of their training.
In 2016, the Ukrainian media reported the disinformation conrming the propaganda useful for
Russia; the author was a British national, former sex blogger Graham Phillips
. Ukrainian media reported
theinformation onintrusion of Phillipsinto the territory of Ukraine with the support of Russian Federal
special services and the special state awards granted to him (Graham Phillips) by the Russian Federation.
It turns out that theintelligence subject state media towards theintelligence action spy statesis the
best mean for creation of the positive public opinion and managing the spy-spreading misinformation,
andin this respect the journalists are considered to be the desired objects for theintelligence penetration.
us, we can conclude that:
In theintelligence activitiesinformation security measures can beimplemented with the usage
of state secret containing closed, as well as public, open sources ofinformation;
In order to avoid any leakage ofinformation through mass media (i.
e. creation of favorable
conditions for theintelligence services) the media representatives should have access to the secret-mode
objects and the classiedinformation which should be preceded by their proper training;
Important objects of theintelligence penetration within the scopes of theintelligence and coun
terintelligence activities are the personsimmigrated from the countries subjects of the stateimple
menting such penetration, while the favorable method for the formation of the relevant public opinion
about the subject country³s order and management systemit the application of the leaders³ caricatures
and distortedinformation-disinformation.
eintelligence control of media, the analysis of the historical and scientic papers allows to
give the picture of theintelligence subject country³s socio-political and economic situation and perfect
psychological portrait of the population (including ethnic and religious groups) and political ocials,
which serves the promising damage to theintelligence penetration of this segment.
Florian Schaurer, Jan Störger, Guide to the Study ofIntelligence, e Evolution of Open SourceIntelligence
(OSINT), History of OSINT, eIntelligencer, Journal of U.
S.
Intelligence Studies, Winter/Spring 2013, Page 53,
hps://www.ao.com/publications/Schauer_Storger_Evo_of_OSINT_WINTERSPRING2013.pdf
«NTV» and «Channel One» revealed classiedinformation about Russian superweapon, November 11,
2015, 20:36, hp://www.newsru.com/russia/11nov2015/status6.html
Robert Schultz, British Citizen Exposed as a Tool of Russia³s FSB, July 14, 2015, hp://ukrainewarlog.
blogspot.com/2015/07/british-citizen-exposed-as-tool-of.html
KikishviliIrakli Firuzovich,
Academy of the Ministry ofinternal A´airs of Georgia,
Master’s student, the Faculty of Police Regulation Law
E-mail: irakli.kikishvili@gmail.com
OLE OF MA
ENCE
e state administration operation, its sovereignty, strategic policy, domestic and foreign a²airs was
andis dependent on the supply of the timely, comprehensive and objectiveinformation concerning the
di²erent types of processes developed within the state as well as abroad. atis why any decision made
by the political ocials should be based on properly collected, processed and analyzed (including those
which are supported with theintelligence and counterintelligence organization and scienticverica
tions) information results. Otherwiseitisimpossible to determine the right strategic course, accord
ingly the provision of security.
If consider that theintelligence activities means the search for theinformation about a rival or a
competitorin the spheres of military, the economy, politics, law and orderin order to ensureits own
security or the benet (or any other type of that purpose), information support should be deed as one
of the main trends of theintelligence activities.
Ease of accessibility to secretinformation (obtain), proper handling and useis directly related to
the damagingimpact on national security of theintelligence object state. It should be noted thatin
theintelligence activities theinformation provisions measures are carried out with the use of open and
public sources ofinformation.
einformationinterestingin term of state security (classied and unclassied) Human-SourceIn
telligence (HUMINT), SignalsIntelligence (SIGINT), ImageryIntelligence (IMINT), Measurement
and SignatureIntelligence (MASINT) Open-SourceIntelligence (OSINT)
may be obtainedin form
of a wrien document, sound wave, image or any other form of expression. eir analytical handling
process enables correct planning of damaging action.
Let us make a general overview of the open-sourceintelligence processing, which means the col
lection of theinformation, that at the moment ofits obtaining may not have a particularinterest, but
may become necessary to be usedin the future (for example, scientic and technical data) and represent
theinitiation of theintelligence-operational cycle orits perfection stage.
Mass media aspiration for obtaining of any type ofinformation andits coverage should be considered
as one of the serious risk factorsin terms of smooth distribution of theintelligenceinformation. Naturally,
the mediais freeinits activities, but according to theinterests of the state itis necessary to encompass
themin the legislative frames to some extent, i.
e. to conduct controlin order to avoid the leakage of data
having the devastatingimpact on the state. Let us review several examples to support this opinion:
During the “Cold War” period the United States CentralIntelligence Agency operated underits
control the radio broadcasters (“Free Europe”, “Voice of America”, “Liberty”, “German Wave” and oth
ers)
, which were sta²ed with anti-Soviet personnel (includingimmigrants). Radio broadcasters were
successfully used for the anti-Soviet propaganda appeals, while the print and TV programs were busy
with dissemination of proper caricatures. Media discussed the books and leers bannedin the socialist
countries, as well asit broadcasted the music, entertainment program unacceptable to the Soviet way
of life. In fact the actions were congruent with the US strategicinterests and belonged to the category
ofintelligence and counterintelligence actions.
Interagency OPSEC Support Sta², Intelligence reat Handbook, Intelligence Collection Disciplines,
operations securityinformation series, June 2004. P. 67–68, hp://fas.org/irp/threat/handbook/disciplines.pdf
Davit Kukhalashvili, “CIAin the Service of the USA”, Tbilisi 201. P.142–145.
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2002. •.15.
Dzhalilova Elmira,
LL.M, graduate student of constitutional
andinternational law FSBEI HPE «Russian State Social University»
E-mail: e.
e.jalilova@gmail.com
UAL CITIZEN
IP AND
TATE
NTY
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\t\b\r\b \r€ \r\f‰€ ‡ ¥™­
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E-mail: e.
e.jalilova@gmail.com
 

 

\n


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to protect theinterests of the American sects. eir cooperation with the CentralIntelligence Agency
has conrmed
: “ e published datain media regarding the use of active sectsin Georgia forintelligence
purposeis also notable. In this regard “Salvation Army” is operativelyinteresting, whichin the past, as the
former collaborator of the CentralIntelligence Agency Omlis John Perkins explains, was related to the
special servicesintelligence work. Alsointeresting: activities of Sect “Christian Zionists Church”, which
carry out theIranian citizens to win over promising them to forward to UK
A´er the actual analysis of the materials we can conclude the following: sectarian may be used: in
terms of discrediting education, health care and other state systems, to promote the formation of anti-
government sentiment;
the scale of sect criminal actsis caused by the failure of operational service, whichis accomplished:
by missing the study of psychological portrait of organized-criminal sect leader that would become a
precondition of forming an operative control within the frameworks of the Law and a precondition of
preventing the crime.
By sect members criminal relations, by absence of operational control for the purpose of
participating chemical or other types of arms trade;
ere exists a practice of using the sects forintelligence purposes by the states and the coordinating
unitis the special services operating under the embassies;
In case the sects are used forintelligence purposes the following things takes place: criminali.
e.
operational tension, fear seeding, anti-government sentiments, protests, mass riotsinspiration.
Sects andits fundings, kavkazpress.ru/archives/12349
AleksandreImedashvili, Sectsin Georgia are realizinginterests of USA and Turkey, ukraina.ru/
interview/20150108/1011731186.html
laer referred to a special, spiritual, earthly mission. While traveling to expend their sect such crimes
as fraud and the´ had been commied by them, however, itis noteworthy that they did not consider
themselves criminals, because the urgingvoice was leing themignore state laws. e basic doctrine and
fundamentalideas of the sect³s were the following: Paradise was locatedin space, from which the founders
of the sect had been sent. As they were creatures of higher-level than the humans, their mission was to
raise the consciousness of the rest of the people and to move them to a new level. For them, the human
body was thevessel, worldly clothes and they consideredit essential to release from that. ey adhered
to unusual diets toinhibit the physical body, prohibited alcohol and nicotine adoption, sexual relations
(members were castrated) and others. In 1995the appearance of Comet Hale-Bopp gave a greater push
to the sect followers, because of their beliefit was a reference to the forthcoming end of the hour, and
the last chance for the “evacuation” from Earth. On March 21in 1997, the members of the sect held the
last feast and endedin suicide (39people commied suicide)
In factin order to prevent crimes against the state operational control of the sect³s criminal conducts,
plans, meeting places and sermons were not or could not carried out at the appropriate level by operational
services which was necessary for the prevention of mass suicides.
Aum Sinrikio (“Religion of the Truth”)
 total, terrorist and extremist sect formedin Japanin
1987by Shoco Asahara and spread to other countries (including Russia Federation). According to the
sect doctrine the worldis doomed to destruction and devastation, and their leader was the savior who
would manage the masses toward salvation.
In 1990the number of members of the sectin Japan reached 10
000people. ey used chemical
weapons (Sarin uid) during the terrorist aackin the Tokyo subway. Now sectis banned throughout the
world (European Union countries, USA, Russia and Moldova). Overall, 6,600people were a²ected by the
activities of the sectin Japan, and 24,000peoplein Russia. In fact, the scale of the sect³s criminal activities
was caused by the absence of operational control, including criminal relations and communication of the
members of the sect, participationin chemical or other kinds of arms trade.
Sect “People³s Temple”
, was created by Jim Warren Jonesin 1931in the city of Kretein USA. He
became famous as a healer and evangelist. Later, he set up his own church wing, by means of the good
unions and the great reputation. e sect drawn public aention on November 18in 1978, whenits
members commied mass suicide by poison (cyanide andvalium compound), more than 900people
(including 276children) were dead. Since 1979the sect has been banned ociallyin USA.
Notably, the e²orts of mobilizing public opinion regarding the harmful activity of sec tsin
some states may be linked to the organization of the counter-intelligence. Regarding the use of sects
forintelligence purposes aninteresting poll was conducted among the Russian citizens. For the questions
“Should Russian secret services support or not to religious sectsin their hostile states”, 12.5% of the
respondents answered “yes” (ifitis protable for Russia), 5% responded ”Yes” (ifitis protable for Russia,
intelligence services can establish sectsin the hostile area), 82.5% said “No” (as a sect “Bahamas”, which
was developedin the Russian territory brings spiritual harm to the state andits population)
. In fact we
see sects³ use for reconnaissance purposes and organization of public opinion survey andin this respect
by the reconnaissance stateinits own country.
e expressedideais proved by the position of the member of the Belgian Parliament, the Head of
“the Commiee ofIllegal Activities of Sects” Serge Moro: “e US embassyin Belgium has a reference
Bonnie Lu Neles Biography, hp://www.biography.com/people/bonnie-lu-neles-236028
Shoko Asahara Biography, hp://www.biography.com/people/shoko-asahara-2090059
Jim Jones Biography, hp://www.biography.com/people/jim-jones-10367607
VasiliIvanov-ordinski – Internal political problems andinternational relations, vk.com/topic-10399251_
Gvasalia Giorgi Giglaevitch,
Academy of the Ministry ofinternal A´airs of Georgia,
Master’s student, the Faculty of Police Regulation Law
E-mail: gvasalia_gio@yahoo.com
ENCE
ARACTER OF SECT
In modern world sects are widely spreadin many countries. According to German Scholar Earnest
Telcher
, a sectis an organization that rejects and opposes thevalues of di²erent society andisin
conict withits culture and traditions. As he denes, sects derivein case when a small group of church
representativesis dissatised with the traditional rituals, which provoke to distance/disassociate from
traditional religions, to form a new religion movement or replace an existing one.
According to the denition, extreme radicalism distinctive sects may be the source of conictin
society and a state. All of thesein proper management promote to use them forintelligence purposes
with high probability. To support theideas, let us discuss several sect activities.
Amish sect livingin the United States
prefers home education for their children fearing that
the educational system
will prejudice andideologically break purity of their faith. is actionin fact
contributes to the formation of anti-state aitudesin terms of discrediting the state educational system.
e members of this sect believe that they are the members of “Christian Science”, they do not
trust the health care system, during cancer treatment refuse radiation and thus become thevictims of
the disease, for which thereis a high probability of cure. ey believe that only the deep faith of God can
heal any disease
. By so doing, they contribute to the formation of anti-state aitudes for the purpose of
discrediting the state³s health care system.
Manson sect founder Charles Manson criminal and maniac was bornin 1934
. From his early age,
family problems and mother³s unwillingness to him caused his psychological traumas, at the same time the
launch of his street life was followed by the rst pey crimes. Later, in 1967, Manson formed a group of his
followers, members of which carried criminalviews and used hallucinogenic drugs actively (“LSD” and
“Magic Mushrooms”). e number of members of the “Family” as they were called exceeded 100persons,
and the number of murders commied by them reached 35cases. In 1969under the leadership of Manson
Hollywood series of crimes earned him a name ofincarnated, embodied Satan. Among those crimes the most
horrible one was the murder of a pregnant actress Sharon Tate and her friendsin Beverly Hills. Manson had
a greatinterestin “Judgment Day”, Armageddon, and similarissues. He rmly believed that he possessed the
knowledge the apostles had been entrusted to and he himself was a publisher of a judgment day on the earth.
We can connect all of these with the failure of operational service activities as the psychological
portrait of the sect leader (family problems, his aitude to the parents, history of mental trauma, aitude
and positionin street life, Sermons) was leing them to form an operational control within the law, which
would become the precondition for preventing the above mentioned crimes.
Paradise Gate
 was formedin USA by Marshal Epluat and Bonnie Netlzin 1975. ey believed
that the existence of the sect had beenindicatedin the book of Revelation by John (the Gospel), the
Religion Freedom, Religion, hp://www.nplg.gov.ge
Amish Series & Articles, www.amishnews.com/amishseries.htm
Elizabethtown College, the Young Center for Anabaptist and Pietist Studies, www.etown.edu/centers/young-
center
National Library of Georgian Parliament, Explanatory Dictionary, Amish, www.nplg.gov.ge/gwdict/index.
php?a=term&d=5&t=222
Charles Manson Biography, www.biography.com/people/charles-manson-9397912
Marshall Her² Applewhite Biography, www.biography.com/people/marshall-her²-applewhite-236006
III.
Agent recruiter and processor
serves as a specially trainedindividual, who, by the order ofin
telligence service, personally carries out acquisition- recruitment of new operativeinformation sources,
or participatesin these activitiesin some type of form. Agent processor directly participatesinintelligence
service operative processing orin studying-inspecting of selected objects and/or has some form ofinu
ence onit.erein, signicant factis the arrest of an agent-
recruiter (citizen of Ukraine) of theintelligence
service of Russian Federation, by the secret service agency of Ukrainein 2015
. Mentionedindividual,
was trying to persuade the employees of Ukrainian law enforcement agencies to accomplice terrorist
activities. Object ofinterest for an agent persuader-processor may be the employees of law enforcement
agencies. Improvement of agent apparatus may be carried out to create favorable conditions for terrorist
and unlawful armed formations andin opposition to the State thatis being spied on.
In conclusion:
Inintelligence-operative activities, operative ensurenceis carried out by the two principal
participants, who are manager-operative employee and agent thatis being managed (or a person as a
source ofinformation, without a status). Both categories have common characteristics: During their
selection-persuasion and work process, in order to achieve success, they must be adequately selected for
their role and properly placed, which aims to solve secret problems by the management group;
Operative activitiesinclude esurence of obtaining ofinformation from open and closed sources,
its analysis, planning of operative measures-high level of conspiracy protection, and a fail of agent-
operative activitiesisin direct connection to the State³s compromentation;
Itis feasible toinuence non-governmental organizations with di²erent goals and missions, and
have them mobilize an adequate public opinion for creation of agent apparatus, by placing a diplomatic
undercoverintelligence ocer.
Illegally acting (spouses, siblings, father-son and other) intelligence ocer resides at a certain
place and their primary goalis to fullyintegrateinto the society of the country of his residence, in order
to collect secretinformation.
Intelligence ocers, who are serving for a short period of time, may be placedin a foreign country
(inter alia) for a studyvisit, mission, tourist travels, business meetings and so on. Information esurence
branchis the collection of secretinformation about strategic objects;
Intelligence seling agent gains civil and militaryinformation (also by using the technical
means);
Intelligence agent-transporter, for the purposes of secret service on criminal activities, carries
out documentary (audio, video) taping of the participants of transporting process for the ensurence of
compromentation;
For an agent persuader-processor, animportant acting sectionis persuasion of law enforcement
agency employees, for them to create favorable conditions for the formation of terrorist activities and
unlawful armed formations.
¤ \r¨ \r¡\r \f© \r  \f\r- hp://xn--80aano6ahdghc.net/pojmannyj-
na-donbasse-verbovshhik-soznalsya-vo-vsex-grexax-video
citizenship of the country of residence, also geing a job and formation as a complete member of that
society. His/her functionsinclude the collection of operative data using secret methods and delivery of
operative data to the center. intelligence ocers
who belong to these category are sointegratedinto the
society, thatitis dicult for counterintelligence service toidentify them. erein, signicant factis the
arrest ofillegalintelligence ocers (spouses) of Russian Federation by the counterintelligence agents
of Federal Republic of Germany
. Spouses had been spying since 1988. ey owned false documenta
tion about 20year life together, husband had a passport whichindicated his last namein German, and
the wife was ctionally bornin Peru and the birth place of the husband was-Argentina. isis a perfect
example of conjugated agent work.
intelligence ošcer
who works for a short-period, spends a short timein an object State as a
tourist, for a mission, business-meetings, studyvisit and so on. intelligence ocer servingin this direc
tion and his/her basic work duties mayinclude: obtaining ofinformation about strategic objects, making
appropriate photos andvideos for these purposes, detection of persons and places atinterest objects and
so on. erein, signicant factis the arrest of an American tourist-Marvin William Mc³Cinen, while he
was taking a photo of military (secret) object
. Arrest was carried out by Russian State security Com
mieein July 27th of 1961. During his search, necklace was discovered. Necklace consisted of spying
photo lm and a notebook with notes.
Important participant agent of an operative activity may be a citizen of a spying object country, for
eign citizen or a stateless person, who had been recruited to perform secret agent work. He/she servesvol
untarily with or without compensation andis not registered as an ocial employee of secret service
agency. Specic roleis given to ensurence of his/her accurate placement during the selection-recruation
process, thisis associated with conformability to his/her role.
erein, let us discuss several categories of agents:
Founding agent
, on behalf ofintelligence service, carries out operative establishment of objects
ofinterest (observation, supervision). erein, signicant factis that Founding agent was detectedIn
Chernigov region, Ukraine, by Ukraine security service agencyin 2016
. e agent was collecting thein
formation (includingvideo-taping) on block post location, types of ammunition and on composition
of border forces. erefore, itis clear that duties ofintelligence service founding agentincludeinforma
tion on civil and military activities (location of military objects, military forces and means), during this
process photo-videotaping, audio-recording methods may be used, and collective branches mayinclude
collecting theinformation on military object location andinformation onindividuals who serve there.
II.
Agent transporter
 Participatesin organizing of undercover transportationintelligence of
cers, necessary equipment to object countries, for spying activities or transportation of other agents or
other personnel linked withintelligence service. erein, signicant factis an arrest of a citizen of Ukraine
by the Ukrainian border control on October 29th of 2015th
. He was trying toillegally transport two
Georgian citizens over the Ukrainian border with his ownvehicle. Hence, it seemed that the agent was
acting as an agent-transporter. Itis possible, that agent-transporter activities that are based on nancial
prot, will be connected tointelligence recruitment, because, during the case of so calledinstillation
operation, thereis a documentary (audio, video) favorable xed condition for a transporter and his/her
criminal connections, future compromising activities. erefore compromentationis animportant
branch ofintelligence service operational activities.
ˆ  \f\r\t‘-\r¨  €\f\f¨. Š  \f\r¨ \f\t\r, \t \b ‘\r. 2011.
www.novayagazeta.ru/news/51265.html
Stu Borman, “A Chemistry Spy Story” – hp://cen.acs.org/articles/91/i7/Chemistry-Spy-Story.html
’¶\f \r \r\t\f\b\r \r Ÿ•‰ ˆ. hps://charter97.org/ru/news/2016/3/21/196067
¤\f\r‘ \r \t\r \r, \f¨ \f\r¦¨  \r¨ \f\r –
›€\f\r\b\r – hp://interfax.com.ua/news/general/299990.html
Bitsadze Giorgi Muradovitch,
Academy of the Ministry ofInternal A´airs of Georgia,
Master’s student, the Faculty of Police Regulation law
E-mail: bitsa.bitsadze@gmail.com
PERATI
E EN
URENCE OF
ENCE ACTI
One of the mostimportant segments ofintelligence activity ensurenceis an organization of operative
motion, whichimplies the secret activities carried out by theintelligence agency³s operative forces, means,
forms and methods. Success of these activities amongits executive subjects, is stipulated by the high level
secrecy and systematic acquaintance, whichimplicates obtaininginformation, processing, exchanging
and analyzing.
Operative ensurenceinintelligence-operative activitiesis accomplished by two principal partici
pator-operative employees and an agent. Operative activity entails obtaining ofinformation from open
and closed sources (including with an operational-technical equipment³s), information analysis and
planning of operative measures.
One of the mostimportant prerequisites for a successful operational activity represents the en
surence of protections of lawfulness, secrecy, planning, coordination and other principles. Violation of
above mentioned conditions will directly be linked to agent-operational activity fail, which can become
the basis of compromising operative employee, service and the state, which can also be animportant
designative circumstance of national security deterioration.
To create a general overview of basicintelligence-operative activities, we shall discuss the function
of management and managing chains, directions ofits work.
Intelligence oceris a person, who has anindividual selected, studied by the state, with an adequate
academic education, who serves at aintelligence agency as a sta² member. He has an appropriate special
rank and receives xed salary. Basic directions of his/herinterests encompassimportant secretinforma
tion for the state, document, scheme, notication placement locations. In accordance to the stated facts,
objects ofinterest are State agencies, ministries, diplomatic consulates, embassies, consulates, political
parties, non-governmental organizations, banking sector, private companies and etc.
ey di²erentiate:
Undercover\rintelligence ošcer
, who can also be presented as an employee of anintelligence
service. He/she exercises diplomaticimmunity, is granted privileges and has a guarantee ofinviolability.
Although, being an undercover hasits disadvantages: In a rst place, counterintelligence service always
studies suchindividuals, observes their work and performs constant spying on them. erein, signicant
factis the arrest of the employees of British embassy (undercover of diplomatic body) in Russian Federa
tionin January of 2006
. ey nanced almost twelve active non-governmental organizationin Russia
(“Commiee against torture”, “Center of human rights and democracy development”, “Eurasian fund”,
“International criminal law reform” and etc.), also their agent connections with members of organization
were displayed (agent connection ensurence evidence was discovered while beinginstalledin the rock
as an electronic concealing.)
intelligence ošcer
acting\rillegally
, which can possibly represent a secret agent, who residesin
a certain country with falseidentication and relevant ctitious documentation
. His/her goalis to
stay at a placement country over the long duration, including marriage for the purpose of receiving the
’ ¨¨ Œ\r¨ Œ\r\f\r \f\t\r —¤œ \f\r \f\r\t . www.fsb.ru/fsb/comment/
remark/single.htm!id%3D10310974@fsbComment.html
KapanadzeV., Surmava
G., Gegelashvili
M., Babutsidze
N., Bazgadze
D., MikhelidzeV., NarimanidzeI.,
Tsintsadze
A.
Denitionvocabulary forIntelligence terminology. Tbilisi 2013, pg. 14.
European convention of Human Rights.
Code of Civil Procedure,
Administrative Procedure Code.
Law Nr. 49/2012.
Instruction Nr. 5, dated 30. 01. 2006item 2.3.9.
Rating for Tax Liabilities notice Nr. 62548/5protocol, dated 14/09/2015.
Law 9920dt 19.05.2008 “on tax proceduresin the Republic of Albania.
Labour Code.
suggest that this taxis paid within term dened by law. Based on the reasons set out above, we believe
that the Tax Assessment Notice for liabilities Nr.62548/5protocol, dated 14.09.2015is unfoundedin
law andin the documentation submied by the entity and therefore the neimposed by Law 9920dt
“on tax proceduresin the Republic of Albania”, as amended, Article 119points 1.leer bis
not a²ecting the principle of legality therefore seekinvalidation of acts. Court accepts -e request a
claim andinvalidated DAT administrative act.
Article 12of the Labour Code. Labor contract under Article 12of the Criminal Codeis an agreement
between the employee and the employer, which governs labor relations and contains the rights and
obligations of the parties. “In the employment contract the employee undertakes to provide work orits
service for a specied period or undertakes to provide work or services themselves for a xed period
orindenite, within the organization and orders a person another called the employer, who undertakes
to pay compensation”. So that we are before a work contract must fulll certain elementidentied by law:
1.O²ered service or work. 2.Part time or not 3.In the context of the organization and orders of
another person: 4.is person pays compensation. ese are some moments of work under contract that
should stay cumulatively together to assess whether or not this legal relationship civil relationshipis
a work or not! To assess corevibrationsin relation legal civil, contract conditions evaluatedin
unison and within the context of all norms of labor code recognizes and establishes as the content of
an employment contract. e contract of employment has characterized the performance of work for a
certain time orindenite, but always seeksits extensionin time. Timein this case relates to the nature of
work whichisinsolublein the scope of activity carried on by the entity (Article 140of the Labor Code
HEAD\rIII Conclusions
Contract of servicevaries from contract work on these elements: 1.contract
of employment has an organizational hierarchy to which theinstructions or orders regarding the activityit
not existed of a service contract, a´er the party carries out the will freeindependent full autonomy
withits own means to possess andis not part of the organizational framework of the entity with which
the contract was entered service 2.if the employment contract have deadlines notication and procedure
for dismissal this does not exist service contract are dened as contract between the parties as part of the
rights and obligations arising from the Civil Code whichis based on this service contract 3. Producing
results that he thinks are worthy on the performance of the activity.All these elements above make up the
di²erence between the Service Contract (Management) and the Employment Contract.Law 9920dated
19.05.2008 “On tax proceduresin the Republic of Albania”, as amended, Article 119points 1/bis not
a²ecting the principle of legality. e Labor Code Article 140. For this delicate legal civil relationship,
animportant role has the professional ability of legal authority which made the nding andidentication
of these essential elements that lead us thevibrationsin relation to the legal denition and legal basis on
which exercised this relationship.
References:
hp://avokatia.al/revista/item/6
veprimi-juridik-probleme-te-teorise-dhe-praktikes-gjyqesore#.
VtC8mPkrLIU
Civile Code.
Court ruling French Cassation dated March 4, 1983and April 17, 1991, decision of theItalian court
of Cassation no. 4476dated 21March 2012.
Decision nr 954of Civil College of the High Court dated 07.02.2012Albania.
Decision no. 419dated 01.03.2012, the Tirana Court of Appeal Tax Assessment Notice for liabilities
Nr.62548/5protocol, dated 09/14/2015.
Constitution of the Republic of Albania.
Law 9920dt 19.05.2008 «on tax proceduresin the Republic of Albania».
Article nr 140of Labour Code.
Legal basis; Article 42of the Constitution of the Republic of Albania and Article 6of the ECHR
and Article 13, 32, 156, 324.31and following of the Code of Civil Procedure
, Articles 18b, 116c, 117,
137, 15 ° andVIJUSA Administrative Procedure Code
; Law Nr. 49/2012
. If we refer to the Law No.
8438, dated 28.12.1998 “Onincome tax, Article 33, paragraph d) and the relevantInstruction Nr. 5,
dated 30.01.2006item 2.3.9
: “is kind of professional training activity being temporary and not
repeatedly treated as a service for whichitis held and withholding tax paid on thevalue date 15% within
twenty 20of the next month (10.20.2015)”, according to the legal denition ofInstruction Nr. 5, dated
30.01.2006item 2.3.9. About the nature of service can we explain that through this service professional
training personis obliged only to produce a resultin the mannerit deems useful (realization of plan
creation and promotion of new products as well as counseling and training the relevant sta² toimplement,
promote and serve these products). Rating for Tax Liabilities notice Nr.62548/5
protocol, dated
14/09/2015Article 42of the Constitution of the Republic of Albania.Articles 6and 13of the European
Convention on Human Rights Article 32,156, 324, 31e Code of Civil Procedure Article 18b, 116c,
117,137, 15a Administrative Procedure Code Law Nr. 49/2012 “On Organization and Functioning of
the Administrative Courts and Administrative disputes. Instruction Nr. 5, dated 30.01.2006item 2. 3.
9. Ministry of FinanceIn connection with the specic responsibility of the personX explain that her
contract specied thatitis not part of the organizational framework of the subject, useits tools (not
subject) for theimplementation of this service (which will be paid separately by subject) enjoys complete
autonomy and freedomin the manner ofits delivery service, it takes specic orders or directions from
the subject andis not controlled byit. Service Contractis a contract atypical whichis not specically
regulated by the Civil Code or other laws, butit denes the general conditionsin theinterpretation of
which emerges a Service Contract (Management), the will of the parties, the cause of legitimate object
and the form of the contract, the price, the time element thatis foundin this term contracting of service.
Parties have expressed their free will. 2legitimate causeis the exercise of an activityis legitimate by the
Economic and Socialinters the parties, moreover thereis a publicinterestin the exercise of this unique
event ofits kindin this eldin Albania 3targetis legitimate, sta² training; promotion of traditional
products and other products; develop a plan forimplementation and promotion of products by season;
4Form of Contractis based on the principle of freedom of forms, personal legal action without notarial
act. 524000Pricein total twenty-four thousand Lekin total for advice and purchase materials for the
realization of products and sta² training. Deadline date to date 02/09/2015
09/25/2015service when
the contract expires. So, as we see above we are facing an atypical contract obligations, while mainly the
characteristics of the employment contract are the relationship of dependence; notication deadlines
of the employee by the employer; Following the procedure for appointment and removal of employee
consulting work; Referring to the Labour Code, Article 12, we believe thatitis these facts that make
the di²erence between an employment contract and a service contract. So we are not dealing with an
undeclared employee but a person who performs a professional activity and activities such training has
temporary. According to Law No. 8438, dated 28.12.1998 “Onincome tax, Article 33, paragraph d) and
the relevantInstruction Nr. 5, dated 30.01.2006item 2.3.9forincome earned from this type of activity
(training, training, temporary), “the payer ofincome tax to withhold 15% of the payment and pour the
tax authorities the 20th of the month following the monthin which the paymentis done. “Finally we
European convention of Human Rights.
Article 32, 156, 324, 31Code of Civil Procedure.
Article 18b, 116c,117, 137, 15a Administrative Procedure Code.
Law Nr. 49/2012.
Instruction Nr . 5, dated 30. 01. 2006item 2.3.9.
Rating for Tax Liabilities notice Nr. 62548/5 protocol, dated 14/09/2015.
well as market economy and freedom of economic activity. 2. Private and public property are equally
protected by law. 3. Limitations on the freedom of economic activity may be established only by law and
forimportant public reasons. e decision of the French Court of Cassation dated March 4, 1983and
April 17, 1991; e decision of theItalian Court of Cassation no. 4476dated March 21, 2012Nr.954i
decision Civil College of the High Court dated 07.02.2012
Albania). ereis no qualitative reasoning
behind this decision. Courtis limited by the conclusion that the Court of Appeal (which had decided
the opposite so thatit would notimplement the Labour Code but the Law on Commercial Companies)
“was taken on anincorrect application of substantive and procedural law, and as suchit should be
reversed”. is solution makes you think that the Supreme Court considers the Director General as an
employee who works within the organization of society (obviously) and were under the (questionable).
However because thisis not nowhere statedin the decision, for now remains only an assumption. is
decision therefore gives no detailed reasoning on whyit was decided theimplementation of the Labour
Code and not of the Law on Commercial Companies. On the other hand remainsits conclusion, the
directors of joint stock companies are considered employed despite they do not have a work contract! In
Decision no. 419dated 01.03.2012, the Tirana Court of Appeal had to distinguish a contract of carriage
by a contract. A company had a contract “for the transportation of employees and assets” with a natural
person. e driver paid for each kilometer that crossing, so there was a xed monthly salary. According
to the contractin questionit was his duty to transport employees and company documents according
toits needs. Once nancial relationship with the company terminated the license, he sought anindemnity
because the relationship was notinterrupted by the Labour Code. His arguments persuaded the Court
of FirstInstance but not that of Appeals. e Appeals Court beginsits reasoning by noting thatin the
seing of the type of agreement (working or not) should be considered as the “name” of the contract
asits “content”.
Head\rII
Cases;
On 08.09.2015in the subjectx (Bar- Co²ee, Museum Commiee) has conducted
an audit of the Tax Directorate ofinspectors toverify on the ground. Asit statedin the Findings Act no.
0514318dated 09/08/2015, on the subject found some declared employees tax authorities and also with
noidenticationI15407067E person. is person has made available relevantinspectors, Service Contract
(management) dt. 02/09/2015. In the notice of assessment for tax liabilities Nr.62548/5protocol, dated
14.09.2015is that personXis not declared to the tax authorities as the newly employed and therefore
subjectis penalized according to the law “On tax procedures” Nr. 9920, dated 19.05.2008, Article
119with the amount of 50,000leks. (Decision no. 419dated 01.03.2012
, the Tirana Court of Appeal
Tax Assessment Notice for liabilities Nr.62548/5protocol, dated 09/14/2015). Citing the object of the
contract, “the consultant will carry out a plan creation and promotion of new products and will advise
and train relevant sta² toimplement, promote and serve these products.” According to this contract, the
contractor undertakes to withhold and pay to the person concerned all taxes and duties under the law
arising from this contract. Meanwhile DTRT nes on the grounds that the subject we are dealing with the
contract but the contract work service. A´er consuming the way of administrative appeal which uphelds
Administrative act on a ne move, subject to the Court of First Degree Administrative Tirana with a
lawsuit seekinginvalidity act of administrative acts as follows: 1 “invalidity of administrative act, Act No.
Findings. 0514318dated 09.08.2015of Regional Tax Directorate of Tirana 2nullyti administrative act.
3invalidity of administrative act of Tax Appeals Directorate of Tirana Nr. 28185/1dated 04/11/2015,
which upheld the Notice of Assessment Act for Tax Liabilities Tirana Nr.62548
/5protocol, dated
14.09.2015, relying on nding act no. 0514318dated 09/08/2015of DRT “
Decision nr 954of Civil College of the High Court dated 07.02.2012 Albania.
Decision no. 419dated 01.03.2012 , the Tirana Court of Appeal Tax Assessment Notice for liabilities
Nr.62548/5protocol, dated 09/14/2015.
Article 42of the Constitution of the Republic of Albania.
itisimportant to determine the moment of will expression, the natural and legal persons without the
existence of which, there can be no legal action (a service contract between the parties). e will
expression of the partiesinvolvedin a transaction, we can consider, as animportant and crucial moment
of a legal relationship of the partiesintended to create. We can also say thatin a legal action apart will
expression, we would be able toidentify some other necessary elements, without which there would not
be Legal actions carried out according to the law. us, apart the element of will, itis also essential the
purpose (cause) of legal action. Without these two elements legal action can not exist. Note thatin some
other legal actionsin addition to two essential elements of the above, which determine thevery existence
of legal action (itsvalidity) we nd the following other nescesary elements like shapes, object (which
forms the subject of legal action) and the delivery of the property element. All these elements encountered
as legal unilateral actions as well as mutual legal actions. ereis a main danger (or advantage) for parties,
the contractXY (if a service contract, subcontracting, memorandum of understanding, cooperation
agreements, partnership agreements, etc ·) to be re-qualiedinto a work contract. is re-seingis
avoided (or achieved) by knowingvery well the characteristics of the employment contract and making
sure that the relationship created by an agreement of the type “other” of (not) covered by this denition!
Service Contractis a contract thatis not treated specically by the Civil Code, butitis subject to the
general conditions emanating from this source namely Article 663
ofits a´ermath, based on contractual
and economic freedom based on Article 11Constitution of the Republic of Albania. Service Contract
or managementis atypical and mostlyitis used for specialized servicesin the relationship legal civil,
such asin training of teachersin aliated businesses whereis present the lack of the experience required
for the sta² anditis o²ered by persons with abilitiesin this area (intuitive persons), and many other
economic activities trade. e Service Contract formis simple and the Civil Code does not restrict
this relationship only with a noterial act but also a note simply enough for the parties to accept the free
will of their rights and obligations between them andin accordance with the law and right. O´en this
relationship by public authoritiesis considered as contract work and not as Service Contract even though
there are similarities but also signicant di²erences becoming not only an obstacle to freedom contractual
parties and the principle of legality but also for theinitiative and economic freedom among themselves,
received administrative sanctions to the detriment of the person and the public good. Judicial practice:
For theItalian and French judgesit doesn³t maer the title of the contract orits terms. On the contrary,
labor relations deduced from conditions factual relationship of cooperation, so as aitudes of the parties
with each other (See: Court ruling French Cassation dated March 4, 1983and April 17, 1991, decision
of theItalian court of Cassation no. 4476dated 21March 2012
) Occasions rst decision applies must
be mentionedis a decision of the Civil College of the High Court dated 07.02.2012Albania. e question
that was raised before judges was whether a general director of a joint stock companyis considered
employed or not. e directorin question was appointed by the Supervisory Board of the company and
had no contract with him. Two years a´er the appointed, the same Supervisory Board dismissed from
oce. e director claimed that he was therefore had to dismiss employees under the Labour Code.
Given that the procedure was not dismissed by the Labour Code but the Law on Commercial Companies,
the Director General before the judges require modest compensation of 16salary. In these circumstances,
the High Court decided that the directors of joint stock companies, despite the lack of a proper
employment contract, considered as employed, therefore should be exempt from duty under the Labour
Code. (1. e economic system of the Republic of Albaniais based on private and public property, as
http://avokatia.al/revista/item/6
veprimi-juridik-probleme-te-teorise-dhe-praktikes-gjyqesore#.
VtC8mPkrLIU
Article 659, 660, 662,663of Civile Code.
Court ruling French Cassation dated March 4, 1983and April 17, 1991, decision of theItalian court of
Cassation no. 4476dated 21March 2012.
Section 14.
Artan Manushaqe,
European University of Tirana,
PhDin Law, the Faculty of Law
E-mail: artanslatinje@yahoo.com
E DIFFERENCE BETWEEN T
E
ICE CONTRACT
AND WORK CONTRACT, AND T
E
OLUTION
AT ARE OFFERED T
E LE
LATION
Abstract:
Service contractis a atypical contract which provides specic and special servicesinvarious
elds. Sometimes this contractis treated by the state authority as an employment contract which carries
some problems that actually conict with the provisions of the Civil Code for contractual freedom as
well as with economic freedom as a constitutional right. e service contractis di²erentin two elements
with the employment contract. e employment contract has organization hierarchy that service contract
doesn³t haveit; the person keeps responsibilities for the o²ered service, isindependent and has full
autonomy dened on the contract³s object. e employment contract has notication deadlines for
the dismissal from work while service contract doesn³t have this procedure because the rights and
responsibilities are dened on the service contract as well as on the Unied Decision of the Supreme
Court nr.1date 06.01.2009. is study tries to give solution to specic criteriain this two contracts on
which these activities are exercised and to avoid the arbitrariness of the authoritiesin the legal qualication
of this relationship.
Keywords. Service Contract,
Employment Contract
, Autonomy, Hierarchy, Orders,
Legal Action, Economic Freedom, Elements.
HEAD\rI
: e di²erence between the work contract and similar contractsis a challenge for all
European legal systems where on one hand employers sign service contracts or outsourcing to avoid
legislation on work, and on the other administrations/courts try to decide as many employees under the
shelter of the labor code; all this trying to preserveintact the economic freedom and autonomy of the
will. First of all we are creating a picture for contract and legal action. Our Civil Code denes legal action
as a legitimate expression of the will of the personit self or legal entity thatintends to create, modify or
extinguish rights or civil legal liability. Itisimportant that before we explain the determination made by
the legislator to legal action as a will expression of natural or juridical person, we have to turn briey to
the treatment of legal facts and legal act, determinations madein the Civil Code. Legal actions are one
of the types of categories of legal facts of the actions ofindividuals and legal entities. In our civil law
concepts of legal fact and legal act, are dened as one of the mostimportant categories used by the
lawgiver. us, as dened by the Civil Code, the sale contract has as a subject the transfering of ownership
of a object or the transfer of a right against payment of a price. Sales contractitself aims to create legal
relations between the partiesinvolvedin. Likewise the creation of special legal relationshipis also foundin
the legal action of the labor law and services. In the Civil Code system we can nd widely discussed
juridical actions as one of the main categories of legal facts. For legal action as denedin the Civil Code,
rough this analysisI am a´er to nd whether the expectations or experiences degreeis greater or
smaller when compared to one another. Using the theory from Chien and Tsai, In the ndings sectionI
will present which eTail Quality aribute appears to be sucient for behavioralintentions to happen.
As the last step of the processI use thev scores Eq. (3) and Eq. (4), to defuzzify the sets, and give
them the approximate linguistic term. is type of de²uzication procedure has been proved to workvery
wellin studies where triangular fuzzy numbers are used
Zimmermann, Hans-Jürgen. 2001. Fuzzy set theory andits applications.: Springer Science & Business
Media.
Conclusions
Firstly, if thevariables we are trying to measure are linguistic by nature we could use formula to
fuzzify the degrees, which are shown as
(for the expectation degree) and
(for the experience
degree). e process of fuzzifying the expectation and experience degreeis shownin Eq. (1). e same
procedureis applicable for0
, and































In order to understand the general descriptive part within the surveyed groupsI use the average
fuzzy number denoted by
ave
triangular numbers, Eq (2).



































Clarify weak and/or conditions for each etail quality aribute with regards to the two types of brand
loyalty Eq. (3); Eq. (4); Eq (5). Furthermore understanding theimplications that local brandsvs global
brand has on positioning a specic aribute as sucient for the outcome to happen.




(3)







Chien, Cheng-Ju., and Hui-Hua. Tsai. 2000. «Using fuzzy numbers to evaluate perceived service quality.»
Fuzzy Sets and Systems 116 (2): 289–300.
the outcome
. For ex. if Ais the set of expectation degree between the eTail Quality aributes and brand
loyalty types, fuzzy set

represents the set of ordered pairs



where
is the membership function ofxin

. is membership function canvaryin between the two continuums
of being a nonmember up to being a full member of the outcome thatis studied
e benet of fuzzy setsis thatit enjoys the possibility on using the same arithmetic calculations
as conventional sets such as union, intersection and negation
, which provide a good background on
nding causeêe²ect relations and paern recognitionin thevariables that are studied. It can apply
to cases where we need to collect data whichis linguisticin nature; and furthermore this data can
beinterpretedin fuzzy sets which could be analyzed through mathematical calculations. According to
Zimmerman, words as such that are usedin our everyday life language, have an uncertain descriptionin
order toinfer from them
. at being said based on fuzzy logic; thisis referred as the fuzzinessissue.
Linguistic terms as expectation and experience are not deterministic compared to a linguistic term as
height, which can be measured based on a certain set of scales such as meter, feet etc. e fuzziness
on dening the concepts makes the conditions that are being studied to be adequate for a fuzzy sets
study. Let³s suppose that the studyis trying to measure the expectations and perceptions from a certain
purchase. ese two represent the gap analysis whichis used to measure the gapin service quality
. e Expectations are scorein 5levels: Very much Not Satisfying, Not Satisfying, Fair, Satisfying,
Very Satised. ere are as well 5levels of providing scores for the measurement of Experience, being:
Very much Not Satisfying, Not Satisfying, Fair, Satisfying, Very Satised. e di²erence between the
twois that consumers are asked about expectations, prior to their purchase; and about experiences:
a´er their purchase
e fuzzy arithmeticimply that, let the universe of discourseX be the subset of real number R where


. A fuzzy set


inXis a set of ordered pairs where
is called the membership function where

rough thevarious types of fuzzy number representations, this study uses the triangular fuzzy
numbers which are proved to have wide applicationsin social sciences
. e membership degree of
expectation and experience conditions, in terms of triangular fuzzy number Fig. 1, lays between
meaning full nonmember of a set;
denoting a full member of the set and
denoting full nonmember
of the set. e triangular fuzzy numbers are denoted by



scorein Fig. 1, is the
point that divides the bounded area of a triangular fuzzy number

into two equal parts.
Zimmermann, Hans-Jürgen. 2001. Fuzzy set theory andits applications.: Springer Science & Business
Media.
Zadeh, Lot
A. 1965. «Fuzzy sets.» Information and control 8 (3): 338–353.
Rihoux, Benoît., and Charles
C.
Ragin. 2009. Congurational comparative methods: Qualitative comparative
analysis (QCA) and related techniques: Sage.
Zimmermann, Hans-Jürgen. 2001. Fuzzy set theory andits applications.: Springer Science & Business
Media.
Parasuraman, Arun., Zeithaml, Valarie
A., and Leonard
L.
Berry. 1988. «Servqual.» Journal of retailing 64:
Gustafsson, Anders, Janjaap Semeijn, Allard
C.
R. van Riel, Marcel
J.
H. van Birgelen, and Sandra Streukens.
2005. «Eêservices and oëine fullment: how eêloyaltyis created.” Managing Service.
Bojadziev, George., and Maria. Bojadziev. 2007. Fuzzy logic for business, nance, and management.: World
Scientic Publishing Co.
Shala Art, PhD Candidate
University: University of Tirana
Bojadziev, George., and Maria. Bojadziev. 2007. Fuzzy logic for business, nance, and management.: World
Scientic Publishing Co.
Jacoby, Jacob., and David. Kyner. 1973. «Brand loyaltyvs. repeat purchasing behavior.» Journal of Marketing
Research:1–9.
Rihoux, Benoît., and Charles
C.
Ragin. 2009. Congurational comparative methods: Qualitative comparative
analysis (QCA) and related techniques: Sage.
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Œ\f\r¦. (£\f¨ \f\f) URL: hp://www.cbr.ru/statistics/?PrtId=indcalendar (\t\r\r \f\r©
18.02.2016.).
Cherkasova Tatiana Pavlovna,
PhD, Associate Professor, Dean of the Faculty of Political Science
Mishurina OlgaVladimirovna,
graduate student, Russian Academy
of National Economy and Public Administration
under the President of the Russian Federation
South
RussianInstitute f Management
Rostov
Don
E-mail: olia.mishurina@yandex.ru
ENT COOPERATION WIT
IAN COUNTRIE
A FACTOR OF ECONO
IC
E CRI
Abstract:
e articleis devoted to analysis of foreign directinvestmentinto the Russian Federation
and the search for new partnersin the face of the Asian countries. In conditions of the global crisis
and the economic slowdown, were analyzed strategicindustriesin need of foreign directinvestment.
Recommendation formulated methods for theinvestment policy between Russia and Asian countriesin
the long term.
Keywords:
investments, foreign directinvestments, investment policy, investors, economic growth,
stagnation.
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.
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‡\r †\f\r\f\b\f ˆ¥ ¡‰
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E-mail: olia.mishurina@yandex.ru
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[ª\f \f\f ]/™ã, 2014. ˆ\b \t€: hp://apteka.ua/article3115522&print=1
Sokolenko Anna,
e department of Tourism and Hotel business
O.
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•¨\f\n¨ ¨¨\t\r\f ‚\r  Ù\f \r \r¨¨  Ú\tÙ\fÙÙ \n¨ÙØ
\b\r¨¨ Û\fÙ \t¨\f\r  \n\f\r\r \f\r \r\f\t\r€\r\f¨ \t¨\f\r¨ \r \r¨¨. ‰Ý
¨¨\t\r\f Ú\tÙ\fÙ à\t\fÙÙÙØ \r¨\t\r, Ù\r, \r\f\r, \b\r\f¨\r \t\r ¨ ÚÙ \fÙ\t €\r \t\r\r\r
¨ \b\r\t¨\n\r\f\t¨ \r¨€ \r Ù\t \t, \r\f\t¨ €\r \t\r\r\r\r  Ù \t €\r \t\r ¨ àÙ, \r
\n\r Ú\tÙ\fÙÙØ \t¨ \n\r\t¨\n\r\f¨¨Ø \n\f\r\r \f\r\r Û\fÙ \b Û\bÙ\t €\r \t\r \r\t¨.
âÙ ‚¨\n ¨¨\t\r\f\r ¨\r\r\f \b\r\r\t¨: \f\f\r\f\t¨ (Ù\r, \n\r\n¨ \r\f\r\t\r\f,
Ú\tÙ\fÙÙ \r\f\r\t\r\f) €\r \t\r\r ¨¨\t\r\f¨, \r\r¨ \n\f\r\r \r\r ¨\t\r\r ­Ù\f\tÙØ
\r¨\n \n¨ ¨¨\t\r\f¨  \r\f\r¦¨\n \r\t\r\f¨\t\r\f.
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Ø ¨¨\t\r\f¨, \f  Ú\r\n¨¨ Ù-\r\f\r\r\f. ™.
•.
•\r¨Ø ‚¨\n ¨¨\t\r\f\t¨
\r€\r\t¨\n \bÛ \r¨\t\r¨ ¨¨\r\f \t€ ځ €¦¨ ª.
’.
\f\r \n\t\r \t¨. œ \r¨\t\r¨
¨¨\t\r\f\t¨Ø \nÝ\f\r¨ Ù\t €\r\f\r ÚÙ€ \n\r\f\r¨\f\r\t¨:
\n\f\r\r \f\r¨ \r\r\r¨  ¨\n€\r\t¨Ø \r\n\r à\f\fÙ àÙ \f\r Ù\t \bÛ \f\r
\t\r ¨ Ú\t\f  Ù\tÙ \bÛ \fÙÙ \r\n\r\t¨\f \r\f\r\f¨  ¨\r Ú\t\f;
‚¨\n \n\rÙ€Ù \n\r\t¨\n\r\f\t¨ \n\r¨\t\r\r¨, \r\n\r\r¨ \bÛ \b \r¨ àÙ \r\n\r
Ý ¨\t\r\f\t¨Ø \n¨\f٠ځ ¨¨\t\r\f¨;
\r¨ \r\f\t¨ \r\r\f ¨¨\t\r\f¨  \r\r¨ \n\f\r \n\f¨¨Ø Ý\r  €\r \t\r\r
¨¨\t\r\f¨;
‚¨\n \n\rÙ€Ù \n\r\t¨\n\r\f\t¨ ځ ¨¨\t\r\f¨ \bÛ ¨¨\t\r\f\t¨Ø \r\n\r à\f\fÙ.
™\r€\r\t¨\n €\r\r¨ ¨¨\t\r\f\t¨Ø \nÝ\f\r¨\t\r ¨\r\r\f \r \n¨\t\r\r\t¨: \nÝ\f¨¨ ¨¨\t\r\f¨;
\r\r¨ \n\f\r Ù\tÙ\tÙ ­Ù\f\tÙ \r¨€ \r, \n\r \r \nÝ\f  \b\rØ\r\f ¨¨\t\r\f¨.
£¨\n ©¨¨\t\r\f\t¨ \r¨\t¨\n \bÛ \r€\r\t¨\n (¦¨\n) \t€ ځ \r\r¨ \n\f\r
\r\f\r\r\f¨¨Ø Ú\f €\r\r\f¨ \r¨\n\r\r Ú\tÙ. Ž\r\r¨ \n\f\r \r\f\r\r\f¨ \r\r€\n¨
\bà \r¨\f Ù\t \b\r€¨ ¨¨\t\r\f\t¨Ø Ú€ ÚÙÙ ¦¨\n (\r€\r\t¨\n) ¨¨\t\r\f\t¨
\nÝ\f\r \t¨, \r\n¨ Ú  \r¨\t\r¨ ¨¨\t\r\f \rب\t¨ Û  \r\t¨.
§.
•.
Ž\r, ‡.
‡.
¶\f\r €ÙÙ\f\fÙ, ™.
•.
•\r¨Ø \bف٠\b\r€¨ ‚\r¨\n
\r¨\n\r , \bÛ Ý \b\r\t\r \t\r \r\f\t¨ \b\r-\b\r\n¨ \r\t\r€ \f \bÚÙ \r\t¨
. œ\r \n\r\f\r\r\r,
‚¨\n ¨¨\t\r\f\t¨Ø \r\fÙ Ù \bà\fف\t ¨ €\r\r¨ Ù \n¨¨€ €\r \t\r\r
•\r
™.
•.
…‘ ‚‘ \r\f\r. – .: Ÿ\r¨ \r\r, 2005. – C.34.
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§.
•., ¶\f\r
‡.
‡. ™\rŒ\r¦ ‚‘ \r\f\r \f \r\f ‘//
’ œ›…, 2009. – ±8 (102). – •.112.
•¨, ‚¨\n \r\r ÚÙ \r¨, Û\f à\fÙ \n€\r\r\f¨, \nÝ\f\r¨\t\r \r 
\r ¨, \r\t\r \r\r¨\r ¨  \r Ù\r\r\f  \r\t¨\f\r\f \n\t\r \r\f\n¨¨ Ú\tÙ\fÙÙ
ÚÙ. Ž\r\r ‚¨\n ÚÙ Ú\tÙ\fÙÙ  \r\n¨¨\t¨Ø \f\r\r ÚÙ\f à\f \tØ ÙÙØ ÚÙ,
\r¨\n \r¨\n\r\f\t¨Ø \r\r¨\r, ÙØ ¨\r¨\r ¨\n€\r¨ \f.
Ž\r\r ‚¨\n ÚÙÙØ \r\r¨ \tÛà\fÙ Û\tÙ€ ¨\r\f¨\r ÚÙ \n\r\f\r\r\t\r, \b\r\f¨ \bÛ
¨ \r¨€ \r \n\rÙÙÙÙ \r¨\n¨Ø \r¨ \tØ Ù \n\r\rØ ہ\tÙ. ª\f \r¨ Ú, \r ÚÙ
Ý\f\r¨ Ú \tÙ.
£¨\n \r¨\r\f\r¨¨¨\t\r ÚÙ\tÙ ÚØ\tÙ\f \n\f¨\t¨¨ à ÙÙ\tÙ \tÛ\f\bÙ
\f\tÙ. •\t¨\n\r, ‚¨\n \r\r ÚÙÙØ \r\f¨¨\r– \r\r \f\r ¨, \r\n\r\f, ‚\r¨\n
\bÛ \r\n\r\r\f \t\r \b\r\f¨ ہ\tÙÙ Û.
£¨\n €\r\r¨ \r\f\r\r\f ÙÙØ \nÝ\f\r¨\r ¨\r\r\f Ù\f\tÙ:
\nÝ\b\r\r, ‚¨\n ¨¨\t\r\f\t¨Ø \r¨\t\r¨ Ù  \r\f\t¨Ø Û\bÙÙÙ \bÛ \r
\f\f\r\f\t¨Ø \r\r à\fÙ €\r \t\r\r \r \r¨¨ ÛÙ€\f¨ ¨¨\t\r\f¨ \r¨\n\r;
¨ \f\f\r\f\t¨ €\r \t\r\r  \r\f\t¨ \n\f\r\t¨ \n\r\r\r¨ , \n\f\r\r \f\r\r \fÙ Û\fÙ
\r\r  \bÛ ‚¨\n €\r\r¨ \r\f\r\r\f\r ¦\r\t\r à \n¨\r \r¨¨ \r¨\n\r.
£¨\n ¨¨\t\r\f \f\r¨ \r\n€\r\f\r¨Ø \n\r¨€\r¨ \r\n\r\f¨¨\n € \t\f\fÙÙØ
ÙÙ\t \b\r\r\r\t¨, ¨Ø \bà Ù\t ÛÙ€\f¨¨Ø \r\r¨ \n\f\r \n¨ÙÙØ ¨¨\t\r\f¨ 
¨Ø Û\bÙÙÙ Ú €\r\r \n\r\f\r¨\f¨\r\r. ¢\rÙ\fÙ \rØ\t\r Ý ¨¨\t\r\f ÚÙÙØ ÚÙ\tÙ
\nݨ\t\r \b\r¨€ \tÙ, \n\r\f\b¨¨\n € \r\r¨\n € \f\t ¨ \r\r\t\r¨ ÛÙ€\f¨¨Ø
¨¨\t\r\f¨ \f\r¨ ¨\n \r\n€\r\f\r¨Ø \r¨ Ý\t\r ÛÙ\tÙØ Û\bÙ, Ý \f \bÛ
\r\f\tØ \f\t ¨\t\r ¨¨\t\r\f\t¨ ÙÙ \r\n¨\r\t¨ \n¨\t\r\r\t¨.
‡ \r  \f, ¨¨\t\r\f\t¨Ø \r \n¨ Ù  \r\r \n\f\r \n¨ÙÙØ Û\b\fÙÙØ
\b\n¨¨ ÛÙ€\f¨\t\r\f\t¨Ø \r\f\r\t¨\n \b\r\r€\fÙÙÙ  \n\f\r\r \f\r¨ \n\f\r \r\r¨\t\r¨
\n¨¨¨¨¨ Ú\t\tÙ, \r \n\r \r\r¨ \n\f\r \r\r¨\t\r¨ ‚\r¨\n €\f\tÙØ
Ù\tÙÙÙ \n¨\t\r\r\t¨.
¢\rÙ\fÙ \rØ\t\r ¢\r\r\n\r\t\r \r\r¨ \n\f\r \r\f\r\r\f¨¨Ø Ù \f Ù \n\r\f\b¨¨\n €ÙØ
\r\f\r ¨ \r\t\r\f¨ \b\n. Ý\t\r \nÝ\b\r \r¨\n\r\f\r¨\n Û\bÙ\f\t \t \b\n, \t\r -\r\n Ý \b\r\t\r
\r\r¨ \n\f\r \n¨Ù  ¨\r \r\n€\r\f\r¨ \t\r ¨\t\r Ù\t ÙÙ Ù\f \n¨¨¨\n\r\f\t¨
¨\r\t¨. ¢\rÙ\fÙ \r\t¨\n €ÙØ \f¨  Û\bÙ\fÙ ¨\r\t\r \b\r¨¨ \b\r\t\r \r\f Û:
\b Ý\b¨\f¨\t\r\r\r\f  \r¨\n\r\r\r\f\t¨Ø \b\r€¨\r\r €\r¨ \n\r\f\r\r-\n\r ¨
àÙ\tÙ\f\f ÛÙ€ \r\t¨;
\r\r¨ Ù\tÙ €\r \t\r\r  \n\f\r\r \f\r¨ \n\f\r ¨¨\t\r\f¨¨Ø ¨¨\r
Ù\t \bفÙÙØ \r¨, ¨Ø \r\t\r\f¨\r ÙÙ \bÛ ¨\f\n¨ €\r \t\r\r¨\r\f àÙ €Ù
\r\n€\r\f\r¨Ø \nÝ\t¨¨¨¨Ø Ú\tÙ  €ÙØ \t\f\fÙ  ¨\r Ú\fÙ \r\f\r\r\f\t¨Ø
\r\t\r¨ \bà\fف àÙ\tÙÙÙØ \r¨.
‡\r\r Û\f\tÙ \n\r\f\r¨\f\r¨ \n\rÙ\fÙ \f Ù \r¨\t\r\f\t¨Ø Ø\fÙ \b\r€¨\r ¨
\f¨€, ¨\r\t\r \n\f¨¨\t¨\r  \r\t¨: €ÙØ Û\tÙÙ \t, «‚¨\n ¨¨\t\r\f»
 \r\f\t¨Ø \bف٠\t Ù\f¨Ø\r ÛÙ\t \b\n.
ª.
’.
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Û\fÙÙØ Û\bÙ\t €\r \t\r \r\t¨, Û\tÙ\t , \n\f\r\r \f\r¨ \n\f\r ¨¨\t\r\f¨ \fÙ\t,
\b\rØ\r\f¨\r¨ \f\f\r\f\t¨Ø Ý\t\r ¨ Ú\tÙ\fÙÙ \fÙ\t \bÛ \n\f\r\r \f\r\r ÙÙ \fÙ Û\fÙÙØ
Ú\r\n¨¨ \fÙ\t \r¨\n\r\r\t¨
Ž.
‡.
¡\r¨Ø €ÙÙ\fÙ, ‚¨\n ¨¨\t\r\f \tÙÙ \r\r¨ \n\f\r ¨¨\t\r\f¨,
 \r\r¨ \n\f\r \n¨Ù \r\n\r\f\r \fÙ \r\f¨\n \f\f\r\f\t¨Ø \b¨¨¨¨Ø \nÝ\t¨\n à\fÙ
\f\r
ª.
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\t\r ‘\r \r\f\r \r€\f\f\t€š\r//‰\r\f ‘. – 2008. – ±1. – •.76.
£, €\f\f\t€š\r, \f\r\r \f\b\r© \f\t¨ [Ž] : € \t ‘- \r\f.\r
©\f\r. ‘\f\b\t /¡\rŽ.
‡. – . : ‡€ ¤\f, 2000. – C.86.
\b± \b,
«€\b\f¬\t \f\f‡ ‰®\f \r\b»
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ˆ¨™„ ­\r\f\r\b\f\b¬,
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\f¨€, Û \n\rÙ٠ݨ\n \f\t\f \nÝ\f¨€, \r\r ‚¨\n Ú\tÙ\fÙ \r\r¨\t\r¨ \b\rÞ\r\t¨\n  ¨
¨ ¨¨ \f. ‰Ù\t \r\r Ù\fÙ ‚¨\n \r\r \r\r\n\r\f \r\f \bÛ ‚¨\n \r\r \r\r ÚÙ\t\fÙ
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‰Ý àÙ Ù \b\rØ\r Ý\f€\r\r¨ Ù  -\r\r \n\r\b \r\t¨» \t€ \r\r€ Ú\f \r¨
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\r\r¨Ø \b\r\f\r¨¨ Ø\fÙÙ «ÙÙ àÙ»\n¨€ \b\r¨\f.
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\r\f¨€ \tÙ. ¢\r\r\n\r \b\fÙ Ù \r\f\r¨¨¨  \r \r\f\r¨¨¨\r Ø \n\r ¨ \b\r\t\r ¨
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Ú\tÙ\f\tÙØ ÚÙÙ \b\r ¨\t\r \t\r  \r\r\f¨ \f. •\t\r \r¨ \r\f\r¨¨¨¨Ø Ú\tÙ\fÙÙ\t Û
\n\rÙÙÙÙ \r\f\r \fÙ \r\t¨. œ àÙ \b\rØ\r \r\f ÙÙ€, \bݨ\r\f¨ Û\tÙ \r
\t\r\f\r\f ÙÙ\t \bà\fÙ\t\fÙ \bÛ \b\f\tÙ Ù\tÙ €\r \t\r\r\r Ú \b\r\r ¨ \r\f¨\n \t\fÙ\f\tÙ
\b \r \tÝ\f¨. •\t¨\n\r,  Ý \r¨\r\f\t¨Ø \n\r\f\n¨\t¨ \t\r¨\t\r ‚¨\n \r\r
ÚÙ\t\f\tÙØ ¨¨\t\r\f¨ Ù\tÙ, Û\fÙ \tÝ\f¨ \r\n\r\f Ù Ý ¨\t\r¨\f ÙÙ \fš \r\n\r\f\r\t¨.
‰àÙÙ \r\f¨\n¨\n ‚\r \b\r\t\r ¨\t\r \r\r ‚¨\n ÚÙ Ú\tÙ\f \bÛ Ý¨ \b\r\f¨
ہÙ-‚\r¨\n \r¨\r\r . •¨ \b¨\t\r\f¨ \r\r\t¨\n Û\bÙ\f\t «\r\r ‚¨\n
ÚÙ» \bÛ «\r\r ‚¨\n Ú\tÙ\fÙ» ݍ¨¨ \r\f\r à\t. œ¨Ø ÙÙ\t, Ž¡ \bÛ ‡¢ƒ-\r \r\r
\r ÚÙ Ý\f\r¨ \r \r\f¨\n\r ڐ\t.
£¨\n \r\r ÚÙ ݍ¨¨\r ¨¨\f\r\n \n\r\r\n,  1924\b¨¨ ˆ.
ƒ\r \f\tÙØ
\f¨¨Ø ÙÙ\t \n\r¨€\r¨. ™ Ù\f \r¨\t\r\f ¨ \r\r ‚¨\n \t, Ù\f\fÙ
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\r\t\r \f\rÙÙ \fÙ Û\f Ù\f Ù, ÙÙ \r\r\f¨\n \bÛ \f\r\f¨\n \f\r\r Û 
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. ‡, \r\t¨\n
\r¨\t\r\f\r , \r\f\t¨Ø Ù\fÙ ˆ.
‡.
‡\r: « Ž\r\r ‚¨\n ÚÙ\t\f- Ú\tÙ\fÙÙ \r\r
\t\r  \r, à\fÙ ¨\n \n€\r\r\f, \f\r\r\f, ¨ \r\r\f \n\t\r¨\r\r  \r\r
‚¨\n Ù\r\r\f \n\t\r¨ Ú\tÙ\fÙ ÚÙ\t\f» \t€ Ú  ¨ Ù\tÙ\f\tÙ
«¢\r\r\n\r \b¨ – 2050» ¢ˆ ¤\f\tÙ
Ö. —\r\r\f\r¨Ø ¢\r\r\n\r \r\n¨\r \t\r¨. 17\n\rØ\r\f
2014\b¨.//hp://www.akorda.kz
ˆ\tšŒ ƒ\r \f, ¤\r \r/¤\f\t ¦ —.
’.
\r . – ™\r\r: «\t
€\r», 2003. – C.125.
›\r
•., ‡\rŒ\r
œ.
’.
¤\f\t ‚‘ ‘ €\f\t¦: \t \r\f\r//
\t ‘¨ . – 2011. - ±4. T.1– •.145–148hp://moluch.ru/archive/27/3010
‡\r
ˆ.
‡. «™\r\r\r \r\f \r\f\r\f \f¨: €¦\r, €\f¨  \f», ‡\r¨:
ˆ\r\f, 2010. – C.504.
Nurgaliyeva Aliya,
Candidate of Economic Sciences, associate professor,
University NARXOZ, Kazakhstan
E mail: aliya_mn@mail.ru
Lapbaeva Sanimkul,
Candidate of Economic Sciences, associate professor,
University NARXOZ, Kazakhstan
Toleugali Aigerim,
4-year student specialty £Accounting and Audit¤,
University NARXOZ, Kazakhstan
Zharylkasyn Aigerim,
4-year student specialty £Accounting and Audit¤,
University NARXOZ, Kazakhstan
Bakytuly Bagdat,
4-year student specialty £Accounting and Audit¤,
University NARXOZ, Kazakhstan
ALUE
ENTALLY
FRIENDLY
S
CLA
IFICATION
€\r\f \r“,
«€\b\f¬\t \f\f‡, \r\b ‰®\f »
\t\f¯  \f\b¬, ‹.
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PhDž ˆ¨™„ ­\r\f\r\b\f\b¬,
\b, Œ\b
E mail: aliya_mn@mail.ru
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ˆ\r\f\r\r\r \t\r \f\r‘\r \r\f\r €\f €\f \r Œ\f¨ Œ\r\f\r €\f
\t \tš \r \b\t\r\f\t¨ Œ\fŒ  €\f \f‚€\f\r (Œ\f¨
1€13) €\f\t\r \bš \r\rš € \t\rš \f\r‘\r ¨ \r\f\r
¦š \r¦ \f\r \f\r\r¦ €\f\t¦, ‘\r©  Œ\r¨ \f,
\r¨ \f, ©¨ \f,
€‘
\t\f \f.
 \f  :
Œ\r\r
œ.
•., —‘\r
‡.
•.
¤\f €\f \fš\f \f\t\b-\r
\t \r¦ \f €\f €\f \f\r\r¦ €\f\t €\f¦\r//•\f
¨ \t\r ¦\rš¨ €\f (‚\f¨ \r‘¨ \b\f\r). 2015. ±9 (53).
•.433–443.
—‘\r
‡.
•.
¤\f¦ €\f\r \f  €\f¨¨ €\f\t€\f//‡\rš¨
€\f¨ ‚‘ \r. 2009. ±5–5. •.153–158.
œ
¡.
’., ¤€\r
ª.
˜.
•\f\rš\r \r\f\r\f\r Œ\fŒ \r \t\f Œ\f Œ\r
\f\r \r¦ \tš//’ Š\f \t\r\f ‘
 \f\r. 2014. ±5 (88). •.202–206.
œ
¡.
’., ¤€\r
ª.
˜.
Ž\f‘ \r€¨ Œ\fŒ  Œ\f¨ Œ\r\f
\r//’ Š\f \t\r\f ‘ \f\r. 2014. ±11.
•.312–316.
œ
•.-£., •\rX.
Ÿ \f‚€\f ˆ//£‘ \b\f\r ¨ ¨
‚. 2007. Ž: 11. ±4. •.538–561.
›\t:
€\f\r‘\rš\r š €Œ\r\f\r\r;


\f\r\f €\f¦ \r \t \f\r\r €Œ\r\f\r\r €\f \f‚€\f \t €\f
‘ ¨\r ‘
\t .
•\r \r\f\r \r\f‚€\f €\f   €\f\t¦
\f\r‘¨\r €Œ\f




›\t:
\r \f\r  €\f\t¦ \f‚€\f\r \r\f \r;

\r \f\r€\f¨ \f\r\t €\f \f‚€\f \t \r  €\f\t¦.
ˆ\r‘\r  \f\r  €\f\t¦ \f‚€\f\r \r\f \r
€Œ\f
›\t:
š  €\f\t¦;
\f\r\f €\f¦ \r \t \f\r\r  €\f\t¦ \r\f \r ‘

\t .
§\r \f\r‘\r  \r\f\r \r‘¨ ‚€\f
€Œ\f (8):





›\t:

\r \f\r \r€\f\t \t\r  €\f\t¦ €\f ‚€\f;
\r \f\r€\f¨ \f\r\t €\f ‚€\f  €\f\t¦.
¶ \r\r ¨ \f\r \r€\f\t \t\r  €\f\t¦ €\f ‚€\f
\r \f\r‘¨\r €Œ\f (9):
›\t:
\f\r\f €\f¦ \r \t \f\r\r  €\f\t¦ €\f ‚€\f \r€
\f\t \t\r ‘
\t .
¤ ‚ \f\r‘\r  ¨€\r \r€š\r \f\t
€ Œ\f (10):
›\t:

€\f¦ \r¨ \f\t \t \f‚€\f\r;
\f\r\f €\f¦ \r \r€š\r \f\t ‘
ˆ\r‘\r  \f\r  ¨€\r ¨ €\f¦ €
€Œ\f
 (11):
›\t:
€\f¦ \f\r €\f \f\r\r  \r€\f\t \f\r \f\r©  
‘
\t .
Ž\r \f\r, \r Œ\f\r \t ¨\tš \t© \f\r (12):
§\r‘ \b\t €\f\t\r¦, ¨€\r© \f ‚€\f\f\r, \f\t¨ ‘\f\b\t
Œ\fŒ  \t\f\r €\f\f , €‘ €€\r –
§\r‘ \f‘ \t\f\r \b\t ‚€\f\f €€\r €\r ‚
€\f \r\f\r €\t.
—\r €\f\t \r\b\t €Œ\r\f\r\r € \r€\f\t \f\r©  €\f\t¦,
\r\r\b €\f \t  \t\f\r Œ\fŒ \r, \t  \f\r\r ©¨ \f
€\f\t\r¦\r \f\r €\r
•\t\r\t \t, €\f \f\r¨  \r\t \rš \r €\f\t
 ¨ \r\f\r.
ˆ\r‘ © ¨ \r\f\r €Œ\fŒ  F \t €\f\tš €Œ\f (1):








›\t:
\r \t\t\r €\f €\f\t\r\b €\f¦  ‚€\f\f Œ\fŒ \f \t\r€
 \f\r €\r  €\f\f;

\r \r\f\r \r\f‚€\f;
\r \r\f\r \r‘¨ ‚€\f;
\r ¨€\r \r€š\r \f\t;
\r \f\r  ¨€\r ¨ €\f¦ €;
\r  \r\f\r\f \t.
ˆ\r\f €‚\r€ \r\b\t \r© ‚ Œ\f¨:
ˆ\r‘\r  \t\t\r €\f €\f\t\r\b €\f¦  ‚€\f\f Œ\fŒ \f
\t\r€ \f\r €\r  €\f\f
€Œ\f (2):


›\t:
\r ;
\f\r\f €\f¦ \r €;
\f \f\r©  \t €\f\t\r\b Œ\fŒ \f.
¡\r \f\r‘\r  \r\f\r \r\f‚€\f
€Œ\f (3):





›\t:

\r \r\f\r \r\f‚€\f €\f €\f‘ ¨ €Œ\r\f\r\r;
\r \r\f\r \r\f‚€\f €\f   €\f\t¦;
\r  €\t\t €Œ\r\f\r\r \t  €\f\t¦.
’  ‘\f\tš, \r \r\f\r \r\f‚€\f €\f €\f‘ ¨ €Œ\r\f\r\r
\f\r‘¨\r €Œ\f (4):





›\t:


\r \f\r €Œ\r\f\r\r \t \f‚€\f\r \r\f €\f‘ ¨\r;

\r \f\r€\f¨ \f\r\t €\f €\f‘ ¨ €Œ\r\f\r\r \t \f‚€\f\r.
•\r \f\r €Œ\r\f\r\r \t \f‚€\f\r \r\f €\f‘ ¨\r
\f\r‘
¨\r €Œ\f (5):








Œ\r\r
œ.
•., —‘\r
‡.
•.
¤\f €\f \fš\f \f\t\b-\r \t
\r¦ \f €\f €\f \f\r\r¦ €\f\t €\f¦\r//•\f¨ \t\r
¦\rš¨ €\f (‚\f¨ \r‘¨ \b\f\r). 2015. ±9 (53). •.433–443.
\rš €\f\f, \f \r€\f  \f\r \r¨ \f\r\r €
 \r¦\rš \r ‚€\f\f\r, \f €¨ €\f¦¨ \r €‘ 
\f\r \f
Ÿ\fŒ \f (€€\rš \t\r) €\f\f\r \rš ‘ \t\r, ‘\r \f
\r \f, \f¨ \f \r Œ\fŒ \f, \f¨ €\f¨  €\f\r¨
\f\f. ¤\f ‚ \f\t¨ \f¨ \t\b¨ ¨š \r¦€\r¨ €\f\f (€€\r)
š \r\rš   \r\f\r. ™\r €\f\r, \r\f\r ¨€\r \r €\f\f\r.
’  \r€\r\b Œ\fŒ \f €‘\r €\f\r \f\rš \t €\f\f\r (\f.1). Ÿ\fŒ \f
\b \t\f\b\rš \rš  \t\f\r €\r\b\r € (\t\r  \t š \t 
¦ )  \b €\f\t\rš  \t\f \f  €\f\r\r \f\r. ¤ \r€
\t\r¨ €\r \r\t¦ \rš \f\r©\r \r, \t  €\t\b\r €\r, €‘\r
€\f‘\r©  €\r\b
ˆ\r\f \r\f \r\t  \f\r
\b\t\r\f\t Œ\fŒ \r €\f
 \f‚€\f\r Œ\f\f\r Œ\fŒ  €\r\b\r, \f.1.
§\r‘ \t\f\r \f\r \f\r\r¦ €\f\t\r  €\t\t
€Œ\r\f\r\r \t  €\f\t¦.
§\r \r‘\r \t\f \t\r ‚€\f \f\r \f\r€\f €\r , 
,  €\r\r.
—\r€\f\t \r\b\t €Œ\r\f\r\r € \r€\f\t \f\r©  €\f\t¦
\t  \f\r\r ©¨ \f €\f\t\r¦\r \f\r €\r .
’\f\r© €\f\t¦, \t\t \t , Œ\f €\f¦\t\f
\f‚€\f\r.
œ
¡.
’., ¤€\r
ª.
˜.
•\f\rš\r \r\f\r\f\r Œ\fŒ \r \t\f Œ\f Œ\r\f\r
\r¦ \tš//’ Š\f \t\r\f ‘ \f\r. 2014. ±5
(88). •.202–206.
œ
¡.
’., ¤€\r
ª.
˜.
Ž\f‘ \r€¨ Œ\fŒ  Œ\f¨ Œ\r\f\r//’
Š\f \t\r\f ‘ \f\r. 2014. ±11. •.312–316.
Mu—ahova Olga Sergeevna,
Irkutsk national research technical university,
postgraduate student,
Department ofindustrial enterprises management
E-mail: alia218@mail.ru
E CONCEPT OF FORFEITIN
E PAY
ENT CALCULATION
ED ON T
INTERNATIONAL FORFEITIN
˜\b ™€ Š\f€\f\f,
¥™­ …™\t\b\t\r  \r
\r\f\b\f\t\r \b\f\rƒ\f\t\r \r\f\r\b\f\b,
‡\r\b, \t\f ‡\f\r“ ‡\n\f\r ‡\f‡\r“\b\r“\r
E-mail: alia218@mail.ru
\t\r\t 



, \r


\n


\r 
\r
£‘\r \r¦ \f\r, \f \b \r\t\rš \r© \f, ©† š
\r © €\r\t €\f\t\r, \r‘\r  2012\t \r \r¦ 2015\t\r 5,5%.
£  \r\rš €\f\t€\f,  , \f¨ €\f\t\r\r‘¨ \t €\f\t\r
€\f\t¦, \rš  \b¨ € \t \f \f\r‘\r \r€\r\r \f\r\r \t
\f \r\t\b ¦š \t€š €\f\f¨\r €\f\t €\f¦\r.
¤š \r‚\r€ \f\r\r¦ \t \t €\f €\f\t \f\r 
\b \f €  ‘\r‘ \f\r\r¦ €\f\t¦
, €\f\t\r\r €š\rš \b\t\r\f\t
¨ Œ\fŒ  €\f \f‚€\f\r \t \t\t \r\f €\f\t¦ \t
 €\f\t¦ €\f \f\r\r¦ \r‚€\f.
ˆ‚€\f ‘\r \r\f¨, \f¨ \r‘\r\r €\f\f \f\r €\f\t\r¦\r, \f\r
\f\r, \r\r ‚€\f\f \b¨ €\f\b\t \rš \f\r, \r€\f\f,
\t\r \f¦
Ž\r \f\r, €š\rš \f‚€\f €\f\t\r\r \t š  €\f\t
\r ‘ ‚ŒŒ ‚€\f\f\r \r\f €\f\t¦, €Œ\r\f\r
  \t€š \f\r € €\t©   \f\r €\f\t\r¦\r \b
\t © ‚€\f\r €\f\t¦ €\t\f \b\t\r\f\t Œ\fŒ \r.
Ÿ\fŒ  ‚ €€\r \f\t\r \f\t¨ \rš, \r \r €\f¨ €\f\t¨
, \r\f\t¨  \t\f \t \f\r©\r© (\f¨) \f¨ ‚€\f\f\r
(\f\t\f\r)  €\f\r\r \f\r (\f\f\r) \r ‘\r €\r\b\r €\f\f\r (\t\b\r)
¡\r\r Œ\f\r Œ\r\f\r €\f\rš \t ‚€\f\f\r , ‘  \f 
Œ\fŒ \f. ™\r \f\r \b 
\f\t¨  \f \r\t\b\r© € 
—‘\r
‡.
•. ¤\f¦ €\f\r \f  €\f¨¨ €\f\t€\f//‡\rš¨ €\f¨
‚‘ \r. 2009. ±5–5. •.153–158.
œ
•.-£., •\rX.
Ÿ \f‚€\f ˆ//£‘ \b\f\r ¨ ¨
‚. 2007. Ž: 11. ±4. •.538–561.
œ
¡.
’., ¤€\r
ª.
˜.
•\f\rš\r \r\f\r\f\r Œ\fŒ \r \t\f Œ\f Œ\r\f\r
\r¦ \tš//’ Š\f \t\r\f ‘ \f\r. 2014. ±5
(88). •.202–206.
\t\r¨ ¦€¦ \tš \f\r\r¦ \f\t. —  ¨š €š\r
¨ \r‘ ¨ \t Œ\f\r ¨ € \t €€\f\r -\f\r.
\bƒ\r\t: \b\f \b.
Ž\r\b \f \r€\f©\r  ¨\r\r¨ ¦€¦ , \r\b\t\r  
©¨ \t\r, €‚ \r \f¨ \f, €¦ €\f\r \f\r
\r\r¦ Œ\r \fš\r\r, \t \t\t\rš¨ €\t\t \tš \t \r\b\t \t\r
 \f€€¨ -\f. Ž\r € €\f\r \f\r €, \t \f¨, 
\t\rš ‘š ©š, Œ\r\f¨ €š  \t\r¨ -\f \r€\f¦¨ 
 \tš \f\r\r¦, \r\r\b €\f\tš \r ‚ŒŒ¨ \f¨
\t¨ €\f\r . ‡, \t \f¨, \f\r¦\rš €š\rš © Œ\r¨
\f\t\r, ¨\t¨ \r\r¦ €\f\t\f\r© €\t \r€ -\f.
Ž\r \f\r, €\t\t €\f\r -\f\r \f \f\r\r¦, \t\b
©š €š\r   \t €\f\r \f\r, \r\r\b \tš \t
\r\b\t \t\r  \f€€¨ -\f. ‡, \t\rš, €\fš \f\r 
©© \t €\f\r -\f\r €\f €.
 \f  :
‰\r
ª.
œ€‘ €\f\r© \r¦\rš ‚: \f¨ 
\t¨: \f\rŒ/¬.
’\f\r, Ž.
›\f\t\r; €\t ©. \f\t. ª.
‰ .
– •\r\f€š:
œœœ «Š\t\rš-Œ\f\r¦¨ ¦\f «Ÿ\r\r»,
– 307.
\r
’.
’.
£‘\r ©š –\f\r/’.
’.
\r//Ÿ\t\r\rš¨
€\f\r\t¨ \t\r \f \f.
– •.43–45.
\r
’.
’.
™¦€¦ €\f\r -\f\r \f\r\r¦ ‡¤™/’.
’.
\r//£
\r €\f\t€\f\rš.
– •.879–883.
\r
’.
’.
£¨ -\f\r €\f\t€\f/’.
’.
\r//•\f Œ\f¦
—Š® •¦Œ\f\r.
– •.162–164.
(\r€\f\f, €\f\f\t-\r‘ \f). Ž\r \f\r, \t\r\r ¦€¦ €\f\t€\r\r \f
 \f\r\r¦ \t\b €\r¨, \f\r¨  \f\t €\r\r . ›\f\rŒ‘
\r \f\r\b\r \r\f 2.
\bƒ\r\t: \b\f \b.
3) ™¦€¦ «ˆ-\r». ª ©š \r‘\r , ‘ \r\f «\f» €\f
\r \f\r\r¦ \r \bš (\r) €‘ \t€¨ ‚‘ ¨\t. ¤\f
‚  ¦š \f\r\r¦ ¨€\r € \r\f\r \b\t \f\r \t €‘
€\f¨  \f€\f¨. ¤\bš \f \t\r ¦€¦  ‘ \f\r
\r¦ \f\r ©\r -\f €\f\r  \f\r\f, €\f\t
  ¦. œ\f¦\rš ‘\f  , ‘ \f\r\r¦ \t\r ‘\r \r
\r\f \b\t \bš €‘ \t€š €\f¨ \fš¨ ¨\r, €\f
‚ \b\r ¨ \r€\r\r Œ\r €\f‘. Ž\r \f\r, \t\r\r ¦€¦ €\f\t
€\r\r \f \f\r\r¦ €\f\r \f\r. ›\f\rŒ‘ \r \f\r\b\r \r\f 3.
\bƒ\r\t: \b\f \b.
™\r\b\t\r ¨\r\r¨ ¦€¦ €\r \t\b \f €\f\rš -\f\r \f
\r\r¦ \f\rš €\t  \r€. œ\t\r €\f \t \f \f\r
 ‘ €\f\t\r, \fš  ¨, \f\r ©\r
-\f, ‘\r š \f\r
. ¤‚ €š \f‘ €\fš
\r
’.
’.
£¨ –\f\r €\f\t€\f/’.
’.
\r//•\f Œ\f¦ —Š®
•¦Œ\f\r. – 2015. – ±53. – •.162–164.
MatveevVladislavVjacheslavovich,
Orel State Agrarian University,
assistant, the Faculty of Economics
E-mail: vvmatveev@list.ru
OF BU
K
˜\b\f\f …\r …“ƒ\f\rƒ,
¥™­ …™«™\t\r €\b\f € \r\f\r\b\f\b»,
\r\b\f\b, ‹\t\rƒ\f\t\r \t\b\f\b
E-mail: vvmatveev@list.ru
\t\r\t \r
 \f
™\r\f «-\f» \f\r\f¨\r \r\r ¨ \t\r ‚‘ \r.
œ\r €\r \r\rš \fš†  \r €\f¦¨ €\f\t\r, \f\r, \f\r€\f\f
 \f\r\r¦ €\f\t¦, €š \t\b \f €\f¨, \f\rš, \r \t
\r\f\r \t\r¦ ‚‘ ­\r
Ž\r \f\r, \r \tš \f €\f\rš \tŒ\r¦,
€\f\r €\f\t€\f\b\t -\f  \b¨ €\t
. Ž\r \r\t
\tš © \b \f\r‘¨ ¦€¦ €€\f\r -\f\r \f\r\r¦
(¦€¦ \f-\t\b\r)
. •\f\t \f¨ \r €€\f¨ \t© €\r\r
© ¦€¦:
1) ™¦€¦ «ˆ-\f\r». •©š \t\r ¦€¦ \r‘\r , ‘ \r\f
«\f» \b\t \f\r‘¨ \r€\f¨ €\t, Œ\f\f©
€\f¦ \tš ‚‘ ­. ¤\f ‚  ¦š \f\r\r¦ 
 \r¦ -\f  \b¨ €\t , ¨ \b¨ €\r
\t\r. ¤\bš \f \t\r ¦€¦  , ‘ \f\r\r¦, \t\r
‘\r, \r\f\r €\t\f\rš  \tšš  -\f, \t\r\r €\f ‚ €\f‘
¨ \r€\r Œ\r¨ \f\t. ‡\f¦\rš ‘\f  , ‘ \f\r\r¦ €\f\r
\r  \f \r €\f\r \f, \r\f\rš  \b\rš, €\f ‚ €\r \r €
‘ \t€š €\f¨. Ž\r \f\r, \t\r\r ¦€¦ €\f\t€\r\r \f €
 ‘ -\f \b \f\r\r¦. ›\f\rŒ‘ \r \f\r\b\r \r\f 1.
2) ™¦€¦ «ˆ-€\f\t†š». ¤\f\t\r  \t €€\f¨ \t
\f-\t\b, €\f \f \r\f «\f» \b\t €\f\t†š €
‘ \r€\r\f\r \fš\r\r,   \f\t \r‘ €\r\r. ’\t\r
‘\r,  ¦š \f\r\r¦ \t ¨€\rš \r¦ -\f\r, €\f\t\r
‘ \f €‘ €\r¨  \f\t €\r\r , \r \t\r
-\f\r. ¤\bš \f \t\r ¦€¦ ¨€ €\f \f
\r‘ \t\r\f\r €  -\f\r. ‡\f¦\rš ‘\f \t š ,
‘ \r\b\t¨ \f \b ¨š €\f\t\r \r \fš  \r- \r‘
‰\r
ª.
œ€‘ €\f\r© \r¦\rš ‚: \f¨ \t¨:
\f\rŒ/¬.
’\f\r, Ž.
›\f\t\r; €\t ©. \f\t. ª.
‰ . – •\r\f€š: œœœ «Š\t\rš-
Œ\f\r¦¨ ¦\f «Ÿ\r\r», – 2015. – 307.
\r
’.
’.
£‘\r ©š –\f\r/’.
’.
\r//Ÿ\t\r\rš¨ €\f\r\t¨
\t\r \f \f. – 2015. – ±11–2. – •.43–45.
\r
’.
’.
™¦€¦ €\f\r -\f\r \f\r\r¦ ‡¤™/’.
’.
\r//£\r
€\f\t€\f\rš. – 2015. – ±8–1 (61–1). – •.879–883.
\r 1,5\r\f\r\f\r \n\f ‚\r \r\n\r\r
. … Œ\f‘\r, \rš \r\f \f\b\r
\t\r\f\r\b\r \n\t† \r\r \r \rš \f\r€\f \r\r\f\r \r \r\r\r
 \r €\f\r\f\t \r\b\r\t\r \t\r\r \t\b \r\f\r\b\r\r\f \r \f\r\t\r  
\r  \r\f ‚\r. Տ \r \r­\f\t\r \r  €\r\r , \r \r\r\f
1,45–1,6\r\f\r\r\r, \r\r\f ‚€\r\r¦ \r\f\r\b\r\r\f 1,6–2\r\f\r\f\r \r\f ‚\r
Ÿ\f‘\r, \rš \f\r€\f \f\r\r\f \r¦ \r\f Œ\r\r
\r­\f \n‘ \r\f \f\r\f \r\f\t\r \r \r\n\r\t, \r \n\r, \f\r€\f \r
 \r\f\n \f\r\f\t\r \r¦ \r\f Œ\r \r ‚ \r \r\f \r\r\f\r
\r\r  ‘\r †\t\r\r\f\t\r  \r Œ\r\t\r Œ \t\r\r .
 :
‰š ¨ \r\fš €\f\rš \f \f‘. •¤.,«¡Š¬¥», 2006.
›\r •.
£‘ \r  \f\r €\f¨ €\f\t€\f:
\f\rŒ •¤., ‹\t\r, 2002.
Ÿ ›.
›.
… ‘š \r ¨: …‘ €.
., Ÿ\r\r \r\r\t,
¶\f¨ ‡.
’.
\r  ‘ \f\r €\f\t€\f €\f\t \r ¦
 \tš//‡\fŒ\f\r \t\f\r¦ \r\r ‘ € \r\t\t\r\r
‚‘ \r. ‰\f\t, 2006.
•‘ —.
’.
¤\f\t€\f\rš \f\f¨: Œ\r\f¨, © \r ‘ \f\r
//’ ‰\f\t \f\r €\fš €\f\r¦. 2009. ±4 (‘\rš 1).
•.229–235.
•\f¦
œ.
’.
‡š¨ \t\f \r Œ\r\f ‚‘ \f\r \f\r¨//—\r\r
\f\r€\f. Ž\f\r€\f \fš ±4, 2012.
– •.10–14.
¢\t\f Ž.
…. “‡š \f\r€\f \f\r\n\r\t: \r -\n\t \r\r\f”
Š\n\t Œ\r\r\f \t\f  \t\r\f\r\b\r  ‘ †\r \f\rŒ. – Ž.: Ž‡ÕŠ,
– ‰. 47.
ƒ\f\r
Ž.
\r\f \r¦ : …‘ €.
– ¤\r: Š\t\rš ¤›…,
2009. – 126.
•\f¦
œ.
’.
‡š¨ \t\f \r Œ\r\f ‚‘ \f\r \f\r¨//—\r\r
\f\r€\f. Ž\f\r€\f \fš ±4, 2012. – •10–14.
¢\t\f Ž.
…. “‡š \f\r€\f \f\r\n\r\t: \r -\n\t \r\r\f” Š\n\t
Œ\r\r\f \t\f  \t\r\f\r\b\r  ‘ †\r \f\rŒ. – Ž.: Ž ‡š Տ\r\f
Š, 2014. – ‰. 47.
 \r\f\t\r \t\r\r † ‚\r\f, -\f\t \r \r †\r, ¦,
‘ \r \r\n \f\r\n\r , \n\f  \n, \n \r \t\b †\r, \b Œ\r\r,
Œ\r, \r \r \r\f \f\b\r\t\r \f.
† -\n\n ; \rš \f\r€\f \r\f\n\r\f \n\r\f \r \r­\r\r,
€\r \n\r\f \n‘,  \r \t\r\r \r\r\f\fŒ\t\r \r‘\r\f Œ\r \r\f\r
‘ ­†\f\r\f.
\b -\r\t\r ; \r\r\r \r \r \r\f\t\r  ‘\n \r\f \rŒ\r\f
\r\f, \r\f\r\r \r.
 -\r \r\f; \rš \f\r€\f \t\r \r\t\f\r\f \r
\r \f \n\r \r  , \rš \f\r€\f \f\r\r\f \r\r  \r
 \f\r€\f \r\r\f \r \r­\r\r.
\r¦ \r; \rš \f\r€\f \t\r \r¦ Œ\r, 
\r \t\t \f\f\r\f \r, \r\t\f\r\f \r, \b -€ \r.
‡š \f\r€\f \f\r\r\f \r¦ \r\f Œ\r\r  \t\r
\f\r\b\r\t\r \r\f \r\t\r  ‘\n  \t\r \n \t\r‘\r ‚­\fŒ ‚\t:
\rš \f\r€\f  \t\t \f\b\r, \t\t \f\r€\f \r \f\r
\f \r\b, \t\t ‚€\f-€\f \r\b, \t\t \r \f \t\r\f\r\b\r, ­\t\r
\r\f\r\f \r \f , \f\r€\f \r­ \r \f \r Œ\r \r \b \r,
\t\t \f\r€\f \r\r\f \r \f\f\r\f \r, \r\f\n\t\r \r \r €\f\r¦
\r\n\r\r\f  \r\f\t\r Œ \t\r\r.
\f \t\r\f\r\b\r\t\r \r\f \rš \f\r€\f \r \f\t\r \f\r€\f \b\r\f\r
†\r\f\t\r \r \f\r \n†\t\r \r­\f \r\r\f , \r\f \n \t\r‘\r \r\f\t:
\rš \f\r€\f \r \f\r  ‘\r \r\f;  \r ‘ \r \r
\r \r \r\r  \r ‚\f\r, \r\r \f\r€\f \r\r\f \r \r­\r\r
\t\r\f\r\b\r, \f\r€\f \r\t\r \r-\r\f \r \f \r \r\r
\t\r\f\r\b\r,  \r\f\n\r\f.
\rš \f\r€\f \r\t\r \r \r\r\r\r\f: \f\r¦, €\f\r¦,  \r\n
 \r \r­\fŒ †\r, ¦ †\r, \r\t\f\r\f \r\r\r, \r \r €\f\r¦
\r\n\r\r\f.
\rš \f\r€\f \r\r\f \f \r \n \r\f: \r\r \r \rŒ,
\f\r\n\r\t , \f \r \r ‚\r, \f\r€\f \r \r \n\f
\r\r\r\t\r €\f\r\f\r\f, \f\r€\f \f\t\r .
\rš \f\r€\f \r\r\f \r \n \r\f: \rš \f\r€\f \f
\r \f\r€\f \r\r\f \n\t\f, \f\r€\f \r\r\f † \r \f.
˜\n\f\t\r \r\t\n\n‘ \r\f Œ\f\r\f\t\r  ‘\n \r \r¦ \r\f
Œ\r\r \r­\f \n‘ \f \t\r\f\r\b\r \r\f\r \n‘\r \n, \rš \f\r€\f 
\t\r \r¦ \r\f Œ\r\r \r\f \f \t\r\f\r\b\r\t\r \r ‘\f\r \t\r \r\f \r\t\r
\r\f\t:
\f\rŒ \r\f; \f\f\r\f \r \r \r -\n \r\f\r\f.
\t\f\rŒ \r \b \r\f; \t\f\rŒ \r\f\r\f, ­ \r\f\r\f \r
\f \t\r\f\r\b\r, \r \rŒ\r\f\r\f.
\rš \f\r€\f \r \rš  Œ\f\r\r \r \n \r\f; \r\f\r\r
\rŒ \r \r \r,  \r\f\n\r\f \r \r­\r\r, \f\r€\f \r\r
\f  \r \r­ \t\r\f\r\b\r.
‡š \f\r€\f \r \rš \r\f  \t\r\f\r\b\r €\r \r \r\r\f
 \n\f \r,  \r\r\f \r\r\f\t\r \f\r€\f \r ‚‘ \n\f
\r  \r\t. œ.
’.
•\f¦ \r\t\n\n\r\f\r \f\r \r \r   \r­\f\t\r \f
\b\r\r†\r \r\r\r\r\f\t\r \r\r\f\t\r \r \r\r\f \f\b\r\r \r\r\r\r\f\r \r
\b\f \t\b  \b Š \t \b\f
Ž\r­\f \n‘ \r\f
œ\r\f \f
›\r \f\r\n\r
 \t\r\f\r\b\r\t\r
\r\f
‹\r\n\r\f \f\r¦
‹\r\n\r\f \r\f\r
›\f\rŒ \r \r \r\f
•† -\n\t
\r\f \t\r\f\r\b\r\t\r
\r\f
•† -
Š\b -\r\t\r
Š -\r
Š\r¦ \r
Ž\r\f\n \t\t \f\b\r, \t\t ‚€\f-€\f †\r,
\t\t \f\r€\f \r \f\r\f \r\b \r \r, \t\t
\r \f \t\r\f\r\b\r, ­\t\r \r\f\r\f \r
\f , \f\r€\f \r­ \r \f \r Œ\r \r
\b \r, \t\t \f\r€\f \r\r\f \r \f\f\r\f \r.
Ž\r\f\n\t\r \r \r €\f\r¦ \r\n\r\r\f  \r\f\t\r
Œ \t\r\r \r\r\f
 \t\r\f\b\r\t\r
\r\f
Ž\f\r€\f \r \f\r  ‘\r \r\f
\f \t\r\f\r\b\r\t\r
\r\f
Ž\r \r\r\r\r\f \r \n \r\f
Ž\f\r€\f \r \f \r \n \r\f
‡š \f\r€\f \r\r\f \r \n \r\f
›\f\rŒ \r\f
‰\r\f‘\r \t\r\f\r\b\r\t\r
\r ‘\f\r \t\r
\r\f
¡\f\rŒ \r \b \r\f
‡š  Œ\f\r\r \r \n \r\f
‡š \f\r€\f \f\r\r\f \r¦ \r\f Œ\r\r \r­\f
\n‘ \r\f \f\r\f \rŒ \n\f\t\r €\r\r † €\r\t\r €\r\r \n\r\f\r \r \n
\r \r\r\t\r †\t\r  \r \n\r\t. ƒ \t\r, \rš \f\r€\f  
\r¦ \r\f Œ\r\r  \t\r\f\r\b\r\t\r \r\f \r­\f \n \t\r\r\f\t\r \f
:
\r \f\r\n\r; \r\n\r\f \f\r \r \r\f, \r\n\r\f \r\f\t\f\r\f \r \f\r€\f \r\r\f,
\r\n\r\f \f\r€\f Œ\f\r\r.
\r\n\r\f \f\r¦.
\r\n\r\f \r\f\r; \r¦.
\f\rŒ \r \r \r\f; \r\r\r \r\f\r †\t\r \b \r, \f\rŒ
\b\r\t\r \n\f\n\t\r \b \r\r \r  \f\r€\f\t\r Œ \t\r\r  \n, \r
š \f\r€\f \r\r\f \f\b\r\r \r\r\r\r\f\t\r \n,  \r\f \f Œ\r\t\r
\n \r\f \rš \f\r€\f \r \f\b\r\f  \f\r\t.
‡š \f\r€\f \f\r\r\f \r¦ \r\f Œ\r\r \r\f \t\r\f\r\b\r
\t\r \r\f\r \n \t\r\r\f \f\r\t:
† -\n\t ; \t\r\f \n\t \b\r\f\r†\r\f, ‘  \r  \r\t\f\f
\f\b\r \t\r\f\r\b\r, \rš \f\r€\f \f\r\r\f \f\b\r\f\r ‚­\f, \r
\rŒ \r\r.
\f\r\r\f \r¦ \f\b\r \r\f\r ‘ \n\r\f \r \r \r¦ \r\f
 \r \n , \r \r \r¦ \r\f Œ\r\r \r­\f \n‘ \r\f
\r\t\n\n \n \r\n\r\t\r Œ\n\t\f.
— \f\t   
 \r¦ \r \b\f\r\r\f, 
\b\r \n\r\f\r\r \r\f \r\t\f \b\r\f\r†\r\f \r\r \r \f\t\r \t\r\r\f \r\f\r\r\r
\f‘ ‘\r ‚\r \r \n.
‰\f \f \r\t\n\n‘\r\f \r¦ Œ\r\r \r­\f ‚‘ \r\f \r
\f\r \r †\t\r\r\f \r¦ \r\f Œ\r \r\f \r\t\n\n \n \r\t\r
\n\n  \r\t. …\r\f \t\r \r¦ \b\r\f\r†\r\f \r \f\r \r¦ Œ\r\r
\r­\f ‚‘ \r\f \r\f\r\f \r  ‘\n\r \f\r  \r\b\f\r ‘\n\r. ‡
\r¦ \r\f Œ\r\r \r­\f \n‘ \r\f \r\f  \r \r \r
‚\r, \r\f \r­\f \t\r\f\r\b\r\r \n\r\f\r \r\f  €\t.
   \b  \f\t   \r
 \rš
\f\r€\f \r\r\f \b \r \n \r \r\f Œ\r\r \f \r\f\r \r \t
 \r\r ‘ \t\r\r\f \r\b\t\f.
‡š \f\r€\f \f\r\r\f \r¦ \r\f Œ\r\r \r­\f \n‘
\r\f \f\r \t\r\f\r\b\r\r \r \r\f \f \t\r\f\r\b\r\t\r \r ‘\f\r\r \n\r\f\r \r\f \r\f\t,
\r\f:
\f€ ‰€\r \r
\t ‰€\r \r, \f ‰€\r \r, \r\t ‰
€\r  š \r ‰ \b\r\r ƒ\r€ \r
(1 –\b\r\t\r)
\rŒ \r\r.
“™\r\r \f \t\r \r \r\t\r” \r\f \f \b\r\f\r†\r \r­\f ‚\r \n\r\f\r \b \r
\r \r\f\r \r\t
¡  \r\r\r\r\f \n\t‘ \r\f Ž.
ƒ\f\r, ‡.
’.
¶\f¨, •.
›\r,
’.
•‘, ›.
›.
Ÿ\r\r\f \r\t\n\n\r\f\t\r \r\f‘\r \n\t \b\r\f\r†\r\f\r \r­\f \n‘
\r\f ‘ \r \r\n  \r\f\r \r\b\f\r\r
›.› Ÿ\r Œ\f‘\r \f\r Œ\r\r \r­\f \n‘ \r\f  \f\r
\r\r\f \r ‘\r\f \r, \r\f  \r\r\t\r ‘ \f\r  \f\r\r\t:
1) Ž\r \r\f \n\r\f  \r, \r¦\r\f  ‘\r \n,
‘ \n\r\f ;
2) Ž \r\f ­‘\r\f \f\r  \r \r ‘\n\r\f ‘ \r
\r \f\b\r\f‘ \r\f \n\r;
3) Š\n\t \r\f \r€\r \r\f, \r \r €\r \r\f, Œ \t\r \r
\t \f\r‘\r\f \f 
… \rŒ \r\t\n\n \r\b\r\r\f\r \f\r  \r\f \f ‘\t\r \r­\f
\n\f \r \n\t \r\f \r   .
‡.
’.
¶\f¨ \r —.
’.
•‘\r\f ‚\r, \f \r\f\t\r \f\r\r\f \r\f‘\r \f\t\r 
\r¦ Œ\r \r­\f \n‘ \r\f \n \t\r‘\r \r\f\r
\r\f\r\f\r \f\r: \n\t \r \n\t \r\r \r\f.
\r\f\r \n \r \f\r: \r\f\r \n \r\t\r \r \r\f\r \n 
\r\r \r\f.
\n\r\f \r \r\f\r \n \r \f\r: \n\r\f\r\t\r \r \n\r\f\r \t\r
\r\f.
\r\f \r­\f\r \f\r: \f \r\f\r, \r \r\f \r\f, \t \r\f.
\r­\f \t\r\f\r\b\r\r: \r\f\t\r\f\r\b\r\t\r \r \f\t\r\f\r\b\r\t\r \r\f \f\r\r.
’.
•‘  \r\t\r \r, \r¦\r\f \f\r \r \r¦ Œ\r \r
‚\t\r \f ‘\r \r­\f \n‘ \r\f \r\f \f\r\r. Š\r¦ Œ\r \f
\b\r\r \f\r \r\f\n\t \r \f\n\t \r\f,  \r \f\f\r\f \r
\r\f \r­\f \r   .
Š\r¦ Œ\r\r \r­\f \n‘ \r\f \r\f‘\r \b\r\f\r†\r\f\r \f\t \r­\f \f\r,
­, \r\f \n\t\f \r \r\f\t\r \r¦\r\f \f\r, \r¦\r\f  \r\r\f, \b\r
\f\r† \r ‚\t\r \r¦ \r \r ¦ Œ\t \r\r\f\r, \r¦
\r \f\r\r‘\r \r\t\r \r¦ \r\f Œ\r\r  \r­\f \f\r, €\f\r\f\t
\r\b\r\t\r \r\r\r \r¦ \n\t \f\b\r\r \b\t\t \r­\f \f\r\r\t (P\r 1).
ˆ\b\r\r \r\r\r\r\f \r\b\f\r\t\r \f -, \r¦ Œ\r 
\r\f \r\n\r \t\r \r\f\r\f\rŒ ‚\r ‚\r \r¦ \f\b\r\r \r\b\f\r\r \r\r\r\f
\r\r\f\r \r\fŒ\r\r  \r\t. ƒ \b\r\t\r ˆ€\r\t\r  \f\t\r \f
‰š ¨ \r\fš €\f\rš \f \f‘. •¤.,«¡Š¬¥», 2006.
›\r •.
£‘ \r  \f\r €\f¨ €\f\t€\f : \f\rŒ
•¤., ‹\t\r, 2002; Ÿ, ›.
›.
… ‘š \r ¨: …‘ €.
., Ÿ\r\r
\r\r\t, 2002; •‘, —.
’.
¤\f\t€\f\rš \f\f¨: Œ\r\f¨, © \r ‘
\f\r//’ ‰\f\t \f\r €\fš €\f\r¦. 2009. ±4 (‘\rš 1). •.229–235.;
ƒ\f\r
Ž.
\r\f \r¦ : …‘ €. – ¤\r: Š\t\rš ¤›…, 2009–126.
Ÿ ›.
›.
… ‘š \r ¨ : …‘ €.
., Ÿ\r\r \r\r\t, 2002.
¶\f¨ ‡.
’.
\r  ‘ \f\r €\f\t€\f €\f\t \r ¦
\tš//‡\fŒ\f\r \t\f\r¦ \r\r ‘ € \r\t\t\r\r ‚‘ \r.
‰\f\t,2006. 21.; •‘, —.
’.
¤\f\t€\f\rš \f\f¨: Œ\r\f¨, © \r ‘
\f\r//’ ‰\f\t \f\r €\fš €\f\r¦. 2009. ±4 (‘\rš 1). •.229–235.
Qakhorov Avaz Jamolovich,
\r\t\r ¢\f\r\n\r€ ˆ€\r ‹\b\r  \r\t\r Ž\r \r\f\t\r ‚\f \r
¦\r\f \r \f\r\t\r  \r \t\r\f  \f \r \f\r.
«‚\f» \t\r\r \r¦\t\f €\r \r \r\f\t\r \f ‘\r ¦
 \r\r\f  ‘\r 14­\t\r \n\f, \t\f\r¦\r \r \f\f¦ \r\f  \f
\r , \r\f \b\r\t\r «Ž Š\n £\f \r\f\r» œ‡, «‡\f» \r\r\f \r
‘\n\r\f  ‘\r \r\t, ¥-‡\f Š\n £\f •\r¦, ¶\r\f ›\t\f‚\f •\r
¦ \r \n\r\r\f \r\r\t. ƒ\t,  \n\r 1775\r’\r \r ‚\r\t\r
Ž, Ž\r\b, —\r Š\n\n £\f •\r¦\r\f \r Ž Š\n £\f
\r\f\r\r\f\t\r -\r \r \r \f\r \n\f\r\r\f \r\b\r \r\f  \f\n\t\r.
‰ ‚\r \r\f \r\f \f \r 360 \f †\n \n\f -\n\t
\f\r‘\r\f\t\r \b\r  \f\r\t.
œ\f  \t\r «‚\f» ¡‡™ Š¦ \t\r\f\r\f \t\f\r\t\r 
\r 1100 ‡¢ƒ \t\r\f \r ‚\r\t\r 30 \r \r\r\r \f\r ‚\f\r.
ƒ\t 2014 \t\r €\r  \r 6330 ‡¢ƒ \t\r\f \r ‚\r\t\r
28\r \f ¦  \r \r\t\r \r  \r ‘\n\r\f \r\f\n\r\f \r \r\b\t\r\f
\t\f\r¦\r, \f\f¦\r \r\f \r\r \r\r\f, \r\f \r\f \r\f\r
Œ\r\t\r. ‰  \r\r\f \t\f\r\t\r \r\b\r\f\r†\r \r\f \rŒ\r\n\r   \b \r\f \r ‚
\r \r \r\t \r­\r  \f\r\t, \t \r\r\r \n\t†
\f\r\n\r\f\t \f\f  \r \f\r\t. «‚\f» \t\r \r ‚
\r 1600  \b \r\f\r \r\r \r-\r\f \b \r œ \n \f\r\f \f‘ †\r\f
\n\r ‚\r.
‰\r\b\r\f\r†\r \r\f \rŒ\r\n\r \r\r\r\t\r, \r\n\r\f \n†\t\r \r \r\r. ˆ€
\r\t\r  \r\t\r \f ‘\r \t\r\r\r\f \r \r\f\t\r \r \r\f \r \n \r. …\r\f\t\r
\f ˆ \t\r\r \r\r\t.
¡\r\r\r\f \f\r\t\r \f ‘\r \r\t\r \r\f\t\r \r  ‘\r \t\r\f\r\f \n\r\f\r
\r\f\t\r \r \r\t\r ‘\r \f \r \r\n\r\r \f, \r\f , \r \f\b
\r\f, \r †\n-‚\f‚\f \f\f\r\f\r \r \r\r \n\t\f, \t
\r \n\r \r\r\f \r -\r\f \r\r\r\f \r\r\f \f \r\f
\f\r\t. ‰ ‚\r \n\t\r ˆ€\r\t\r †\n-‚\f\r \f\f\r\f ­ ‚ \r \r\f
\b\r \f\r\t\r \rŒ ‚\r\t\r  \t\r\f\r\f\t\r \f \r\r\t.
 :
‡\t\f\r œ\f\n. «•\r\r \n\t†» (¡\r\f).
– Ž.: Ž¡Š…, 2009.
– 320.
 ˆ€\r \n\t -\b \r\f\r\n\n† \r\n \r\f
\t\r (1990–2010 \r\f) \r \t¦ \r \f\r‘\r\f \r\t\r 2011–2015 \r\f\r
\b\r\r\r €\f\r\f: \r €\r.
– Ž.: O³zbekiston, 2011.
– 140.
Š \r «’‚\f‘ \f\rš \f 8\r\f\t \t\r\f •ƒ‡». 13\r€\f
2014, 20:58 ()/¤\r/Anons.uz
hp://promzona.uz/info/news/823/31069/– Š\r «’2014\t ¬…™œÕ¬ \f\r‘¨\r
¨  \r›\r\f \r\fš \t¨‘ 3,5\f\t. \f \r\r \t». 12.03.2012.
hp://promzona.uz/info/news/823/31168/– Š\r ««¬…™ » \r¦ \r•\f\t
‡». 16.03.2012, Š\fš \r\r «ˆ 24» \f\r\r\r ¦-€\f\t «¬…
™ \r» ¬\t Ÿ\t.
hp://promzona.uz/info/news/823/31645/– Š\r «¤\f¨¨ €\f\t€\f …
\r\r  16678\t¦ \f\t\r \f\r‘ š $1,12\f\t.». 02.05.2012
hp://uzdaily.uz/articles-id
20256.htm– Š\r «›‡™ «…‚\f»  ­ 
\t\f \r\fš ‘ ‚\f\r¦».
ˆ\r\r¦ €\f €‘ \t
¨‘ Œ \tš \f\r\f\r\r¨\r
¨ \f\b\t \f\t\r¨
 \r€\r\r (€\f ¨ \t
Œ\t\r‘)
2020.
…‘
\t¨‘ Œ
\tš
\f\r\f\r\r¨\r
¨ \f\b
\t \f\t
\r¨
\r€\r\r
Ž\f
\f\r\f\r\r ¤•¡
•„ «”\b\f\t»
\f \b\r\b\f\b
œ\f\r\r¦ €\f\t\r ‚\f¨
‘‘ \t \r\r\f\r¨ 
\f ‘\r ‚\f‚\f
2015.
¤\f\t
700¨. .
‚\f¨
‘‘
‚\f‚\f
Ž\f
\f\r\f\r\r
Ž£œ/-€\r
\r €\f\r
œ\f\r\r¦ €\f\t\r €\f¨
\f \r\f\f\f •Š§ «¡\b
\r»
2015.
œ€\f\t
Ž\f
\f\r\f\r\r
Ž£œ/-€\r
\r €\f\r
 \f \t\r €\r \r\f\t\r 53\f\r \r \r\r\f \r\b\t , \r\f\t\r 39\r
‘\n \f\t\r \r¦\t\f \b\r, 11\r \r\f \f\r\r\f, 2\r \r­ ‘\r\r \b\r
 \r «£\f» €\r Œ\r \r\b\t. £ \r ‚\f\r  
\n\r 10,6. ’ \r \r \n\n ‚\f \r¦ \r\r\t. Õ\f \r\b\t\r 5Š£•
\r \n\r 150\t\r 800’ \r ‚\r \r ‚\f \r\f \f\r\r. ™€\r ‚\f
‚\f \r \f   235.. \t\r \f\n. £\f \r \f
  Œ\f\r¦ 220–500’ \n\r\r \r  7,5 . \r ‚, ‚\f
‚\f\r  \r\f\n\r\f\f \f\r\t\r \r \r­\r \t.
Ž\r\f\n  3  ‘\t\r \f\b\r\f \f\b\r\r\f \r\n\r\t\t\r 300.
‡¢ƒ \t. ¦ \b\r ‚ ‚­\f\r \r. Ž\r\f\n\t\r \f \r\b\t\r ‚\f
‚\f \r ‘\n\r\f \r \r\n\r\t\r ¦  \r\r\f \r\r\r \f 
\f\r\t\r \t\r\r \t\r\f \r ‘\n\r. …\t\r ‚\r \f \n\r\f \r\f \r\r (1
\b\r\t\r.
Ž\r\f\b ‚\r \t\r \t\r\r \t\r\f\t\r  \f\r). Ž ‚\f \r¦\r\f
\t\f\r¦ \t\r\f \r\t\r ¥€ \r\n\r\f \r\f\t\r \r \t\r 
¦ \f\t \r\b\f\r\r.
£\f \b\r \r\t\r \f \n\r\f \n\f ­ \n\f\r ™‹ˆ «£\r» 
\t\r \r \r€\r \f\n\t\r. Ž\r\f\n \f\b\r\f\t\r \n\f \f\r¦\r \n\r\r
‚\r \r \r\r\r\f \n\f \r \t\f\r¦\r (, \r\f\r\f \f)\r \r\f\r
‘\f\r-\r\t\f\r\f \r \f ‚\r\r \t.
Ž\r\f\n \n \r\t\r €\f\r\f\t\r ‚\f ­‘\r\f \r\r
\n\n\f, ‚\f \r ‘\n\r\f \b\r\f\r†\t\r \r\fŒ-\r \r­\f \f\r\r\f
\r\r \f \r\f \r \r\r \r \r \r\f \r\f \r \f \r\f\f
\r\r\t.
\t\r 2015 \t\r ‚\f\r \r\t\r 40\t\r \f\n ¦  \r\r\f \r\r\r
\f \r\r , \r\f  \r 8\r\f\t ‡¢ƒ \t\r\f \r ‚\r\t.
Տ\r\f\r†\r \r\r\r\f \r \n \r‘ \r¦\r\f \r \r\f\r\f ‚\f \r
\r\f \n\f, †\n-‚\f \r\r\t\r \n\r\n † \r \t\f ‚\f \f\f\r\f
 €\r \f,  \r \n\f\r\r\f \r\r\t\r \n \r ‚\f ‚\f\r\f \r
‘\n\r\f‘ \r\r \r\f \b\f ‚ \r\f\r \b\r ‚ \r\r \r.
\r\f \f\r\r. ˆ€\r\t\r ‚\f ‚\f\r \r\t\r «‚\f» \t\r\r \r¦
\t\f €\r \r \f\r\r\t. …‘\n \f\t\r \r¦\t\f \b\r \r\t\r \r\r\r
,  \r\f\r \f \r\r \f\r \r \n\r\f \r\t.
—\r\r
¦\r\f €\f
¤\f\r š
€\f\r
•\f \f\r\r¦
™\f\r €\r ¦
€\f\r
• 
\f\r\r¦ €\f\r
 \t:
  ‘:
 \fš
„\f \r  \t\t, 
-\t \f,  \f,
\n \f \r \t \f
 ,  \t
 \fš
’“„ «”\b\f\n\t\b»
\f \b\r\b\f\b
œ\f\r\r¦ €\f\t\r \f\t\r
 \t \r\r\r€š¨ \r¦
€\r€\f\r \b\r¨ €\f\f\t¨ \r
2015.
œ€\f\t
Ž\f \f\r
\f\r\r ¤Ž£œ
€\f\r
œ\f\r\r¦ €\f\t\r €\f
(€\r\f\r\r, €\f\r, ‡‰•–€\r
 \t\f.) \r\r  €\f\f\r
\t\f\t
2016.
œ\f\r\r¦
€\f\t\r
70¨.
€\f
Ž\f \f\r
\f\r\r ¤Ž£œ
€\f\r
œ\f\r\r¦ €\f\t\r €\r (
\f©\r €\r) (•Š£§ «—\r»)
2015.
œ€\f\t
Ž\f \f\r\f\r
\r -€\r
\r €\f\r
œ\f\r\r¦ €\f\t\r ‚\f¨
‘‘ ‘\r \r\r
2016.
œ\f\r\r¦
€\f\t\r
500¨. .
‚\f¨
‘‘
Ž\f \f\r\f\r
\r Ž£œ/
-€\r\r
\t\f \r€\f\r
¤\f\t \f\r\t‘¨ \f\r
\r‡\t\b\r\f ¶\r  ¦
¨ \r ˆ€ …\r
2017.
¤\f\t
-\f\r
\tԬ \f\r
— \f
¤•¡
¤\f\t \f\r\t‘¨ \f\r
\r¦¨ Œ\r¨
\r (‹\f -Ž
 ¦¨ ) ˆ€
…\r
2018.
¤\f\t
-\f\r
\tԬ \f\r
— \f
¤•¡
Section 13.
Baltasheva Zukhra Adenbaevna,
Karakalpak state university,
PhD, elder teacher, the Faculty of Economy
E-mail: bmels@rambler.ru
˜š
Ž  \f\r‘ \r.
.: ‹, 1968, .795.
Ž\r\f
•., \r
‹., Ž\f\r\b\r
—.•, Š\f\r
‡., ¤\fŒš
’.
˜.
™\r\r
‘\r \t\f\r\r¦ \r¦\r  €\f\t¨.
– : ¬\r\t 2014. 160.
˜€
¡., Ž\f\b
•.
., \f\r
Ž.
. \t\f.//‹. €\f. 1998,
– ±1. •.9.
Ž\r\f
•.
™\r\r‘\r €\r\fŒ\r\r \t\f\r\r¦ \r¦\r. ‹ ‘\r
 Ž 53’¨€. 5Š\r\r 2010. •. 56–59.
Ž\r\f
•., ˜€
‰.
¡., Š\f\r
‡. \t\f. —¨ \r\r‘ ¨ \t \t\f\r
\r¦ \r¦\r.//«’¨  €\f€¨ \f\r¦ \f\r\r, \r
€\f\t\r».Ž\f\t¨ \b\t\r\f\t \r‘-‘ Œ\f¦, Ž™ŽŠ, Ž\r,
2006. •.248–250.
˜€
¡., Ž\r\f
•., Š\f
‡., ˜€
‰.
¡.
™\r \r Œ\f\f\r
\f\f¨ \r\t ¦\r¨ \r\r\r\f.//\r\r  \r†\r\f \r \r\r\f
\n\r \r \r \r\r \r\f. ˆ€. –\r Œ\f¦ \r\f
\r\r\f, 2007, Ž.1, 110–113.
˜€
¡., Š\f\r
‡., ˜€
‰.
¡. \t\f. ˆ\r\f\r\r \t\r   ¨ \r\r
\r\f \t \r \r¦\rš\t\t\r.//’ Ž\r›Ž…, 2006,
– ±3. •.217–218.
Ž\r\f
•.
Ž €\f\t\r \r\t ¦\r \r\r\r\f\r \t\f\r\r
¦ \r¦\r.//\r\r  \r†\r\f \r \r\r\f \n\r \r \r \r\r 
\r\f. •.\r‘¨ \f\t ˆ€. \r‘–.Œ., Ž., 2007. •.113–115.
—\r\r
•š,%
¤\f\tšš,
\r
‘\r
¤ \r¦\rš\t
\t
¤ \r¦
¤ \r¦\rš\t
\t
¤ \r¦
™™Ÿ, œœœ Ô
\r\r\r\f¨ \r\t
™™Ÿ Œ\f¨ «‡»
™\r \t \t\r¨ \r¦ \r\f¨ š €\r¦\rš\t\t \r¦ \f\r¦
±2
90,83%, \f\r¦ ±2
93,73%. ¤\f\tšš 43,0824,0/
\r
‘\r, \r€\f¨¨
\f\r¦\r š 83,7% 83,38%; €\f\tšš 29,9338,15/
\r
‘\r.
…‘¨\r ¨\b \r \f\r\f\r\r¨ \t\r¨  \r \f\t \t- 
€¨ \r\r\r\f¨ (\r.1).
•\r \r\r
\r\f\r, %
\r.
Ž€\f\r\f
¨ \f\r
€\f¦,°•
•\f\t
€\f
\t\f\f\r
¤\f
\tšš
\r\r\r\f\r,
/
\r
Š\f\ršš,%
™
\f
\r¦
\r,%
¤ \r¦
\rš\t\t
¤ \r¦

CdF
ZnO 5,0
CdF
ZnO 10,0
CdF
ZnO 15,0
CdF
ZnO 2,63
CdF
ZnO 7,52
™™Ÿ (‚\r)
Ž\r \f\r, \r ‘\r \f\r¦ €\r\fŒ\r\r \t\f\r\r¦ \r¦\r. ˆ\r\f\r\r¨, 
\t\r¨   ¨ \r\r\r\f. …\r, ‘ š \f\r\f\r\r¨ \r\r\r\f¨ €
 €\f\tš €\r €\f¨¨ ™™Ÿ \r\r\r\f\r.
 \f  :
›\f
‡.
‡.//œ‹, 1958, Ž– 28,6, •.1144.
›\f
˜.
‡.
›\f
™.//™\r \r\r. 1971, Ž– 12, ¨€. 4.
– •.990.
›\f
‡.
‡.
›\f
‹. II Ž\r\b, 1960, Ž
30, ¨€. 4.- •.3822.
—\r ‘\r €\f¦ \r\r‘ €\r\fŒ\r \t\f\r\r¦ \r¦\r €\f
\b¨ ©¨ €Œ¦\rš¨ \r\r\r\f
. ¡\r\r © €©\r 
\t\r €\f¦\r \t\f\r\r¦ \r¦\r €\f \r\r\r\f.
CdF
–8,43; ZnO 2,63; ¸-Al
–89% \r 
CdF
–4,0; ZnO 7,53; ¸-Al
–88,5% \r.
™\r\r\r\f¨  \t \f © \r¨ € , Œ\f
\r, €\f\r (18–24‘\r),  €\f\r\r.
œ€¨¨ €\f\t €\f‘¨  \f\r\f \f\b\r©  \r ‚\r\f
\f 500
\r¨€¨ ­ \r\r\r\f\r \r\r¨ €\f\t \t ›‹.
Ž€\f\r\f\r
\f\r¦ 315–370
Ò•(\t €\f \f\r¦\r \r\r\r\f\r,  •
œ=1:5,5, ­\r
\fš \r¦\r 150–180‘\r
€‘¨ \fš\r¨ \f\r\r €\r\r €\f¨
 \r\t \rš¦ ŒŒ\r \r\r\r\f\r (\r.1).
—\r\r €\r\r
œ\f\r¦ 1
œ\f\r¦ 2
—\r\f\r \r\f\r\f
 €\f¦\f\f© \r, \t
/‘\r
€ \r¦, \t
/‘\r
€ \t, \t
/‘\r
Ž€\f\r\f\r \f\r\f,
¤\f\t\bšš ¦\r \r\f\r
 \t\f\f\r¦, ‘\r
\f 
•š%
¤ \r¦\rš\t\t
¤ \r¦
œ­\r \fš \f¦\f\f©
\r\r, ‘\r
—\r\f\r\r €\f\t \r  ‘
\r¦\rš\t\t\r, 
\r¦\r, 
¤\f\tšš, /
\r
‘\r
€ \r¦\rš\t\t
€ \r¦
’ ‚  €\f¨¨ ™™Ÿ \r\r\r\f¨  \t© €\r\r (\r¦\r 3).
˜€
¡., Ž\r\f
•., Š\f
‡., ˜€
‰.
¡.
™\r \r Œ\f\f\r \f\f¨
\r\t ¦\r¨ \r\r\r\f.//\r\r  \r†\r\f \r \r\r\f \n\r \r \r
\r\r \r\f. ˆ€. -\r Œ\f¦ \r\f\r\r\f, 2007, Ž.1, 110–113.;
˜€
¡., Š\f\r
‡., ˜€
‰.
¡. \t\f. ˆ\r\f\r\r \t\r   ¨ \r\r\r\f \t
\r \r¦\rš\t\t\r.//’ Ž\r›Ž…, 2006, – ±3. C.217–218.; Ž\r\f
•.
Ž €\f\t\r
\r\t ¦\r \r\r\r\f\r \t\f\r\r¦ \r¦\r//\r\r  \r†\r\f \r \r\r\f \n\r \r
\r \r\r \r\f. •.\r‘¨ \f\t ˆ€. \r‘-.Œ., Ž., 2007. C.113–115.
¤\r\r, ‘ €\f\t €\f¦\r \t\f\r\r¦ €\f \r¨ \r\t ¦\r
¨ \r\r\r\f €\f\t \f\r\r  \r¦\rš\t\t\r \r¦\r. Š\f\ršš
€\f¦\r \r  \r\r \r\r\r\f\r.
Š\t\r €\f¦\r €‘ \r¦\rš\t\t\r \r\r‘ €\r\f\rŒ\r \t\f\r\r¦
\r¦\r €\f \r\t \rš¦ ŒŒ\r (™™Ÿ) \r\r\r\f\r €© \f\t \f\r
’\r© \f €\f¨ \r¦\rš\t\t  €‘\r \r¦\r €\f
 ™™Ÿ \r\r\r\f\r €\f €\f\r\f\r 360–440
Ò•.
™™Ÿ \r\r\r\f ‘š ‘
 €\f\r\f¨ ¨\f \f \r‘ €\f‘š.
‡¦ €\f¨ €\f\t \t \t\r: š¨ \t\t\f\f\r
€\f€ €\f\r €\f €\f\r\f\r 450–650
Ò•€\f \f\f \r\r\r\f\r
š¨ \t
• ¦š \f\r\f\r \f\rš¨, \rš¨ ¨‚ŒŒ¨ \r\r\r\f \t
\r \r¦\rš\t\t\r \r¦\r \t\f\r\r¦ \r¦\r \r €\f\t ¦\r€\f\r¨ 
\t\r
ˆ\r¦ \t\f\r\r¦ \r¦\r  €\f\t¨  \b¨ €\r\f\rš-€
\t\rš¨ \f\r¦, ‘\r© €\f\t Œš \f\r\r (\t¨) \f 
 (\f\r \t¨), \f\r¦, \t\r¦ (\rš\tš\r \f\r), ¦\r¦
(\f\r\r €\r\f\rš\t\t\r \t\f), \t\t\f\f\r, \t\f\f\r \t\f. •‘\r  €\f
¦ \b €\r\f Œ\r €\f \r‘ \r\r\r\f, \r\t\r© €Œ¦\rš¨
 \r.
Š\t ‚, €\f €\t\f \r\r \r\r\r\f ‘¨\r\rš \fš \r\b\t €\r
\f\r¦ \f\r\r \r¦\rš\t\t\r \r¦\r
’ \f€ \f \r\r\b €\f\t\r \r¦\r š¨ €\f €\f\f\t
 \r\r. ¤\f¨ \r œ‡œ «—\r\r» € €‘\rš \r¦\r 30¨. 
\t. ¤\f \f ›‡™ «…†\r\r» \b\r  \t¨ \r\f\r©\rš © €\f
\t\r \r¦\r \t52¨.  \t.
’ \r© \f €\r\fŒ\r \t\f\r\r¦ \r¦\r ¦ «‡¦\rš\t\t» €\f\t
\r¦\rš\t\t. ¤\f\r ©š \f 20¨.  \t. ¤\f\t\r \r¦\r ˆ€
 . ¤\fš ˆ€ \r¦ \r  5¨.  \t. ¤‚,
\t¨ ‘\r \r¦\r €\f ˆ€ \t\f \f\r \r\r.
•\f\t ©© \t €\f\t\r \r¦\r \r¨ €\f€¨ \t 
ˆ€    €\r\fŒ\r \t\f\r\r¦ \r¦\r. ¡\r \t\r
\t\r  \bš €\f\t €\f¦\r ©© \r\r €\f\t
\r \r¦\rš\t\t\r. ’€\f¦ \t\f\r\r¦ \r¦\r \r¦\rš\t\t €\f €\f¨
 \r\t \rš¦ ŒŒ\r \r\r\r\f\r \t\f\b\r \r¦\r €\f\t\r \f\r¦
€\f¨\r 2%. §\r\r \r\t \rš¦ ŒŒ\r \r\r\r\f\r \r€Œ¦\rš¨
\r\r\r\f € €‘š \r¦ \f ¨\t €\f \r‘š¨ 
.
›\f
‡.
‡.//œ‹, 1958, Ž – 28,6, •.1144.; ›\f
˜.
‡.
›\f
™.//™\r \r\r. 1971, Ž – 12,
¨€. 4. – •.990.; ›\f
‡.
‡.
›\f
‹. II Ž\r\b, 1960, Ž-30, ¨€. 4. – •.3822.
˜š
Ž  \f\r‘ \r.
.: ‹, 1968. C.795.
Ž\r\f
•., \r
‹., Ž\f\r\b\r
—.•, Š\f\r
‡., ¤\fŒš
’.
˜.
™\r\r‘\r
\t\f\r\r¦ \r¦\r  €\f\t¨. – : ¬\r\t 2014. 160.; ˜€
¡., Ž\f\b
•.
.,
\f\r
Ž.
. \t\f.//‹. €\f. 1998, – ±1. •.9.; Ž\r\f
•.
™\r\r‘\r €\r\fŒ\r\r \t\f\r\r¦
\r¦\r. ‹ ‘\r  Ž 53’¨€. 5Š\r\r 2010. C. 56–59.
Ž\r\f
•., \r
‹., Ž\f\r\b\r
—.•, Š\f\r
‡., ¤\fŒš
’.
˜.
™\r\r‘\r
\t\f\r\r¦ \r¦\r  €\f\t¨. – : ¬\r\t 2014. 160.
Tangyarikov Normurod Saidovich,
«Chemical technology» department
of Jizzakh PolytechnicInstitute
Ph.doktor of Chemistry
E-mail: normurod63@mail.ru.
Rashidova Nilufar Tulkinovna,
Senior lecturerin «Chemical Technology»
department of Jizzakh PolytechnicInstitute,
Aliyeva Rena Azer kizi,
Senior lecturerin «Chemical Technology»
department of Jizzakh PolytechnicInstitute,
Vokkosov Sobir Sayfullayevich,
Senior lecturerin «Chemical Technology»
department of Jizzakh PolytechnicInstitute
Turabdjanov Sadriddin Maxammadinovich,
Doctor of Technical Sciences,
Professor of Tashkent,
Institute of Chemical Technology
E-mail: tur_sad.@mail ru
ATALYTIC
APOR P
E
YDRATION OF ACETYLENE
€“\r\t  Š\r\b\rƒ,
 \f\b \t\f «¨\r\rƒ\f\t“ \b\f€\r“»
‰\r\t\t€ †\r\b\f\rƒ\f\t€ \r\b\r\b\b.
E-mail: normurod63@mail.ru.
ˆ\n\r \r \t\r,
\b\n\r ‡\f‡\b\f \t\f
«¨\r\rƒ\f\t“ \b\f€\r“»
‰\r\t\t€ †\r\b\f\rƒ\f\t€ \r\b\r\b\b
\r\f ˆ\f \f \t\r\r,
\b\n\r ‡\f‡\b\f \t\f «¨\r\rƒ\f\t“ \b\f€\r“»
‰\r\t\t€ †\r\b\f\rƒ\f\t€ \r\b\r\b\b.
…\t\t Š\r Š\f\rƒ,
\b\n\r ‡\f‡\b\f \t\f «¨\r\rƒ\f\t“ \b\f€\r“»
‰\r\t\t€ †\r\b\f\rƒ\f\t€ \r\b\r\b\b
‰ Š\r\r ˜\r\rƒ,
\n\t\f\b\t€
\r\r\t
\b\f€\rƒ\f\t€ \r\b\r\b\b,
\t\b \b\f\rƒ\f\t\r \t, ‡\f
E-mail: tur_sad.@mail ru.
\b
\r
\n
\t
\t
ˆ\r\f\r\r¨ \t\r¨  \r ¨ \r¨ €Œ¦\rš¨ \r\r\r\f
\t €\r\f\rŒ\r \t\f\r\r¦ \r¦\r.
…\r, ‘ ‘ ­ \f  \t¨ €\f\t \r\t\r
€\r \b \f \r¦\r  ¨\t\r \r¦\rš\t\t\r \r¦\r (\f.1).
общ
общ
™\r \t \t\r¨ \f, ‘ ­ \f \t¨ €\f\t 
\f \r¦\r €\r \b\r, ‘ \r¨\r €\f\r €\f¦\r \f \tŒŒ
 \r.
 \f  :
›\f
˜.
‡.//œ‹, 1958, Ž.28, ¨€. 6. C.1144.
›\f
˜.
‡.//‹. €\f. 1959,
– ±3. C.8.
›\f
˜.
‡., ›\f
™.//™\r \r\r. 1971, Ž.12. ’¨€. 4. C.990.
›\f
˜.
‡., •\r\f\r
’.
., ›\f
™., ™\f€¨\r
Ž.
‡.//œ‹, 1960, Ž.30. C.3817.
›\f
˜.
‡., ›\f
™.//Ž\r \b. 1960, Ž.30. ’¨€.4. C.3822.
˜
Ž  \f\r‘ \r.
– .: ‹, 1968. C.795.
‹ \r¦\r./€\t \f\t. ‡.
¡.
¤\f\r.
.: Š\t\r€, 1954, .147.
˜€
¡., Ž\f\b
•.
., \f\r
Ž.
. \t\f.//‹.€\f., 1998, ±1. C.9.
Ÿ\r \r
Š., ˜€
¡., ƒ\f
‹.
ƒ. \t\f.//‹.€\f., 2002, ±7. C.1–3.
Ž\r\f
•.
ˆ\r\f\r\r \t\r   ¨ €Œ¦\rš¨ \r\r\r
\f \t\f\r\r¦ \r¦\r. Ž 53.’¨€.6.Š\r\r 2010.
Ž\r\f
•.
™\r\r‘\r €\r\fŒ\r\r \t\f\r\r¦ \r¦\r. Ž 53’¨€. 5Š\r
(OH)F; Cd (OH)F; Al (OH)
F A1 (OH)F
. ›\t\fŒ\f\t¨ \r\t, ¦\r \r \t\r
¨ ¦\f¨ \r€\f \r\r\r\f\r. ¤\f ‚ \r \f¦ \r¦\r \t¨,
\fš\r ‘ ¨ €\t €\f €.
H + HO

C
C

H
HO F

I
H + H
O [ CH
=CH
OH] CH
CHO
H + HO

C
C

H
HO F

I
H + H
O [ CH
=CH
OH] CH
CHO
H + HO

C
C

H
HO F

I
H + H
O [ CH
=CH
OH] CH
CHO
•š \r¦\rš\t\t\r \r¦ €‘\r \t© \f\r. ‡¦ €©\r \t
€\f €\f\r\f 75–90 °
•€\f  \r¦: \t\r = (1:3) (1:5) š €\f€\r
‘\f  \r\r\r\f\r €\f €\f\r\f 360 °
•­ \fš 160–200‘
. ’¨\t©
\f\r\f\r €\r\f\r\r š \r\b\t\r \tš. ¤\f ‚ \f\r 30–35%-¨ 
\t¨ \f\r\f¨  \r¦\rš\t\t\r \r¦\r €\f \f \rš\t\t\r, €\r\f\rš\t\t\r
\t\f. ‡¦\rš\t\t \r¦ €\f\t \f\r¦ ¨\t \fŒ\r¦ .
• ¦š €\t\t\f\b\r € \f \r¦\r, \r\f \f\t 80%, ‘\f \r\b\t¨
30‘ €\f\r\f \f\r¦ €\t\r \r10 °
•.
¶\f 180–200‘.\f\r¨ \r\r\r\f\r \f
\r¦\r \b\r \t70%. Ž\t\r \f\r¦ \r\r\r,  €\f\t\r \r \f
\f\f \r\r\r\f. ˆ\f\r¦ © €\f €\f\r\f 450–500 °
•‘ 8–12‘.
‰¨ ‘  €\f\r\f¨;  \r¦\r: \t¨, ­ \f ¨
¨  \r\r\r\f\r \r¨\t ¦¨ €\f\t \f \r¦\r.
’ €\f\r\f¨ \r¨\t ¦¨ €\f\t \f \r¦\r.
™\r\r\r\f ±6, •
Ž€\f\r\f\r,
œ© ¨\t \r¦\rš\t\t\r \r¦,
\r€\f\f\r\f\r \r¦, %
™\f •
™\r \t \t\r¨ \r¦ €¨ €\f\r\f¨ 320\t380 °
•\r\t\r €\r
€¨ ¨\t ¦¨ €\f\t \f. ¡\rš  €¨ €\f\r\f¨ €\f\t
© \b ¨\t\r ¦¨ €\f\t \r‘ €‘¨ \f\r¦ (\f\r\r
\f \rš\t\t\r, €\r\f\rš\t\t\r, ¨ \t\f.).
…\r, ‘ €š \f \r¦\r © \r ¨¨  \r\r
\r\f\r. •‘ ¨¨  \r\r\r\f\r 200\t1000, €\f \t\r¨ ­¨
\f \t¨  €š \f ‘\r 30\t96
Š\t\r  ­ \f \t¨ €\f\t €\f\t \f\r\f
\f\b \r \f\r 480–200‘
, €\f €\f\r\f 360–420 °
•,  \r¦
: \t\r = 1:4.
‰¨ €\f\t¨ \f¨ \r\f\r\f \f\r¨ \r\r\r\f. ™\r\t ¦
\r¨ \r\r\r\f¨ \r\f\r\f \t© €\r\r (\f\t \r‘)
=110–210
/; \r‘\r €\f‘š 4,6–6,0¤\r; \f\t \f\r\t €\f 40–50. œ
¨ €\r\r \f\r¨ \r\r\r\f €\f\t¨ \r¦ 1.
ˆ\f\r¨  \r\tŒ\f\r\f \r\f «¡\f
2» (‘ CuAÐ – \t\r, 
\fš 2Ñ\f\r\t/.). œ¨ Œ-‘ ‚€\r\r¦¨ \r\f\r\f \f\r\f\r
\r¨ \r\r\r\f €\f\t¨ \r¦ 1.
•\r,
% \r.
…\tš\r €
\fš,
\r‘-
\r €\f‘-
š, €\r
•\t\f\b\r \r\r
\r
•\f
\b¨
\t\f
\f\r¦, ‘\r
™\f
\r¦
\r,%
‡¦\rš
\t\t
‡¦
CdF
ZnO–15,0
AlF
CdF
ZnO–10,0
CdF
ZnO–10,0
CdF
ZnO–5,0
AlF
CdF
CdF
CdF
ZnO–10,0
‰–80,0
CdF
ZnO–5,0
‰–80,0
™\r \t \t\r¨ \r¦ š €\f¦\r \f\r\r \r¦\rš\t\t\r \r¦\r
\r \t\f\b\r Œ\f\t\r \r\t \t\r ¦\r \r\r\r\r\f.
ˆ\f\f¨ \r\r \r, ‘ \f €\f \r\r\r\f\r Œ
\f\t\r ¦\r, \r\t \r ‘\r‘ \t\f \f\r\r \t\fŒ\f\t¨ Zn
ˆ\n\r \r \t\r,
\b\n\r ‡\f‡\b\f \t\f
«¨\r\rƒ\f\t“ \b\f€\r“»
‰\r\t\t€ †\r\b\f\rƒ\f\t€ \r\b\r\b\b
…\t\t Š\r Š\f\rƒ,
\b\n\r ‡\f‡\b\f \t\f
«¨\r\rƒ\f\t“ \b\f€\r“»
‰\r\t\t€ †\r\b\f\rƒ\f\t€ \r\b\r\b\b

\n


 \b
\b
 \n
 \n
\t
\t
’ \r© \f ¨ \rš\t\t  €‘\r €\r\fŒ\r \t\f\r\r¦ \r¦
\r €\f \r\t \rš¦ ŒŒ\r \r\r\r\f\r (™™Ÿ) €\f €\f\r\f\r 360–440 °
™™Ÿ \r\r\r\f € \rš \f\r\r \t\f\f\r¦ 72‘\r.
‡¦ \b ¨ €‘ €\f¨  €\f€\r, \f\r\b  ¨
€\f €\f€\r  €\r\f \r\t \t ¦\f €\f 425 °
•, ‚ €\f\r €\f \b
\f\t \r\r\r\f\r €\f 400–425 °
•, š¨ \t\t\f\f\r €\f€
€\f\r \r\r‘ \r\r\r\f (\f\f \r€  \r\t \r) €\f €\f\r
\f 450–650 °
•, š¨ € \t\f\r\r¦ \r¦\r €\f \r\r\r\f\r
•\f\t ¨ €\f¦ €\f\t\r \r¦\r \r €\f€¨   
 \f-\r\r‘ \t\f\r\r¦ \r¦\r. ™\t\r \t\r \t\r 
\bš €\f\t €\f¦\r ©© \r\r €\f\t\r  \rš\t\t\r.
§\r\r \r\t \rš¦ ŒŒ\r \r\r\r\f\r \r  \rš\t\t\r \r\r\t  ¦
¨ \r\r\r\f € €‘š   \rš\t\t\r \r¦\r \f ¨\t
  \rš\t\t\r. ¤\f¦ \t\f\r\r¦ \r¦\r \t \rš\t\t\r  \r¦\r
€\f ©¨ €Œ¦\rš¨ \r\r\r\f \t\r\r \t\r‘.
—\r €\t 10 ‘\r €\f\b¨ €\f¦ \t\f\r\r¦ \r¦\r \t\f
¨ €‘  \rš\t\t\r, \r¦\r    €\f ©¨ €Œ
¦\rš¨ \r\r\r\f. ’\r‘ \r\r\r\f\r €š\r  \t\r ¦\r, Œ\f\t
\r\t, ¦\r, \r \t\r \b\r \r¨ \r\t \r, \t\f\b\r© ,% \r
ZnO– 5,0–15,0; CdF
–5,0–15,0; Fe
–5–10; Al
™\r\r\r\f¨  \t \f  \r¨ € , Œ\f
\r,  €\f\r\r. ’\r‘  €š\r \t\f\r \t\r \r
Ž… 6–03–7-14–78, (¤¤¤
33%)  —\r \f\b\t.
’ \r‘ €€\f \r\r €š\r 3–5%-¨ \f\r\f¨ €\r , 
   Œ\f \r.
›\f
˜.
‡.//œ‹, 1958, Ž.28, ¨€. 6, C.1144.; ›\f
˜.
‡.//‹. €\f. 1959, – ±3, C.8.; ›\f
˜.
‡.,
›\f
™.//™\r \r\r. 1971, Ž.12. ’¨€. 4, C.990.; ›\f
˜.
‡., •\r\f\r
’.
., ›\f
™.,
™\f€¨\r
Ž.
‡.//œ‹, 1960, Ž.30, C.3817.; ›\f
˜.
‡., ›\f
™.//Ž\r \b. 1960, Ž.30. ’¨€.4. C.3822.
˜
Ž  \f\r‘ \r. - .: ‹, 1968, C.795.; ‹
\r¦\r./€\t \f\t. ‡.
¡.
¤\f\r.
.: Š\t\r€, 1954. C.147.
˜€
¡., Ž\f\b
•.
., \f\r
Ž.
. \t\f.//‹.€\f., 1998, ±1, .9.; Ÿ\r \r
˜€
¡., ƒ\f
‹.
ƒ. \t\f.//‹.€\f., 2002, ±7. C.1–3.; Ž\r\f
•.
ˆ\r\f\r\r \t\r
  ¨ €Œ¦\rš¨ \r\r\r\f \t\f\r\r¦ \r¦\r. Ž 53’¨€.6Š\r\r 2010.;
Ž\r\f
•.
™\r\r‘\r €\r\fŒ\r\r \t\f\r\r¦ \r¦\r. Ž 53’¨€. 5Š\r 2010.
Section 12.
hemistry
Tangyarikov Normurod Saidovich,
«Chemical technology» department
of Jizzakh PolytechnicInstitute. Ph.doktor of Chemistry
E-mail: normurod63@mail.ru.,
Turabdjanov Sadriddin Maxammadinovich,
Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor
of TashkentInstitute of Chemical Technology
E-mail: tur_sad.@mail ru.,
Aliyeva Rena Azer kizi,
Senior lecturerin £Chemical Technology¤
department of Jizzakh PolytechnicInstitute
Rashidova Nilufar Tulkinovna,
Senior lecturerin £Chemical Technology¤
department of Jizzakh PolytechnicInstitute
Vkkosov Sobir Sayfullayevich,
Senior lecturerin «Chemical Technology»
department of Jizzakh PolytechnicInstitute
ELOP
ENT AND RE
EARC
OF T
E PROPERTIE
OF NEW CATALYTIC
E
YDRATION OF ACETYLENE
€“\r\t  Š\r\b\rƒ,
 \f\b \t\f «¨\r\rƒ\f\t“ \b\f€\r“»
‰\r\t\t€ †\r\b\f\rƒ\f\t€ \r\b\r\b\b
E-mail: normurod63@mail.ru.
‰ Š\r\r ˜\r\rƒ,
\n\t\f\b\t\r
\r\r\t
\b\f€\rƒ\f\t\r \r\b\r\b\b,
\t\b \b\f\rƒ\f\t\r \t, ‡\f
E-mail: tur_sad.@mail ru.
\r\f ˆ\f \f \t\r\r,
\b\n\r ‡\f‡\b\f \t\f
«¨\r\rƒ\f\t“ \b\f€\r“»
‰\r\t\t€ †\r\b\f\rƒ\f\t€ \r\b\r\b\b











































Ž\t\r ‚ŒŒ¦  -¦\f\f \t\f\r
\t \t\r ‘\r
Ž\r \f\r, €\f\f\b \r\t\r ‚ŒŒ\r \f \r¨© €© \b
€\f \r €\f \f\r‘\r €‘   €€\f\t\r.
 \f  :
Š‘
ª.
¬.
ŸŽŽ, 14, 3489 (1972).
ˆ\r
ˆ.
¡. \r. ‘. . \t. Œ.-\r. \r.
•.-¤.
ŸŽŠ ˆ‡— .\r\r\t. ŠŒŒ, 1993.
›\r‘
•.
¡., Š‘
ª.
¬., ˆ\r
ˆ.
¥., ¥\f¦
¡., ‡\f
‰.
ŸŽŽ, 35, 198
(1993); ˆ.
ˆ\r. ŸŽŽ, 35, 1107 (1993).
¤\r\f
¡.
‡., ƒ\r\r
‡.
ˆ.
£ŽŸ, 92, 1471 (1987).
›\r‘
•.
¡., ªš
•.
‡., Š‘
ª.
¬., ¤\f
ª.
˜., Ž\fš
’., Ÿ\t\f
‡.
’.,
¥\f¦
¡.. £ŽŸ, 91, 729 (1986).
ˆ\r
ˆ.
¥., ›.
‹.
‹, ‹.
‹\t. ŸŽ¤, 30, 274, (1996).
ˆ\r
ˆ.
ŸŽ¤, 22, 2077 (1988).
ˆ\r
ˆ.
ŸŽŽ, 35, 1674 (1993).
Srini Krishnamurthi, Zhi Gang Yu, Leonel
P.
Gonzalez, and Sekhar Guha. Journal of Applied
Physics. 109, 033102 (2011).
LoÏpez Gondar
J., Cipolai
R., and. Marques
G.
E.
Brazilian Journal of Physics, 36, 960 (2006).
Kulish
N.
R., Lisitsa
M.
P., Malysh
N.
Semiconductor Physics, Quantum Electronics &
Optoelectronics, 8, 72 (2005).
Jun He, Yingli Qu, Heping Li, Jun Mi, and Wei Ji. Optical Society of America, 13, 9235 (2005).
Hurlbut
W.
C. and Yun-Shik Lee, Vodopyanov
K.
L., Kuo
P.
S., and Fejer
M.
M.
Optics Leers, 32,
Shaul Pearl, Nir Rotenberg, and Henry
M. van Driel. Applied Physics Leers, 93, 131102 (2008).
‰\f
›.
¬., ¤
›.
ª.
•\f \tŒ\f\r¦¨ ‚ŒŒ¨ €€\f\t\r.
.: —\r\r.
Š‘
ª.
¬., ˆ\r
ˆ.
•\f \f\rš\r \r \f\f\r €
€\f\t. Ž\r
. Ÿ\r. 1989.
Š‘
ª.
¬.
ŸŽŽ, 14, 3489 (1972).
Ž\r\b , ‘ €\f Œ¨ €\f\t\r €\f\b‘¨  \t¨\f 
 \f\rš¨. ¤‚ š €\f\f‘š \fŒ\f¦ \r\t \r¨ €\f
¦











\f\r‘¨ \f\rš¨ 




. £ \r‘\r, ‘ \t\r‘ €\f \f\r €
Ԭ









, \r\r‘\r €\f\f\rš €
\r\fԬ
‚ Œ¨ €\f\t









, \r\r  \r\t\f\r \tš €
‘ ¨.
Ž\r \f\r, \r\t ‚ŒŒ¦ Œ €© ‚ŒŒ\r \r¨© €\f
\t \r































¡\r \f\r\f \rš \f , \t \b €š\rš \f 
© . Ž\t\r \f\r\r\r \f\r\t\r\r (2) \f\t €




€\f N=1 \t©,
€¨ \t \t\rš  \r\r \fš\r, ¨\f\r\b


































\t €\f \r\r \t\r  ¨ , \f-\r\t\f\r‘¨ , \fš-‘ €
\r\t ‚ŒŒ¦ €©, .
.  \t\r \r\t \t, \f- ‘\f¨Œ¨ €\f¦
. Ž\t\r




















































































































¤\f\t  \f\t €\f\t \t© \r‘











€\f
€ €\t ¨\f\r\b \r






























\r\f

\f
 \n


\r
\f

















































\r\f

\f
 \n


\r
\f














Š €\t  \t, ‘ \r\b\t \r\r (3) \t\r  \r\t \r\f¨
‚ŒŒ¦ €©.
’\r\t \tŒ ‚ŒŒ\r \r¨© €© €\f\t \r
 €\f\r¦ ‘ \t\r 
. ’\f\r\r
\t\r¨ \t, \fŒ
¨ €\f¦¨ €€\f\t\r, ¨ €‘ €\f\t\r \b\t \r ¨
¨ €\f\t, \t €\f¨ ‘ \r\t ‚ŒŒ\r \r¨© €©, \f¨
‘¨ €‘ €\f\t¨, ¨ \t\f¨ €© \t Œ.
Ž\t\r Œ\f‘ €\f\b ‚ŒŒ \rš\r
\t¨\f ‚ŒŒ¦ 
Œ €© \r


‘ ‚ŒŒ\r \r¨© €© €\f
\t ¨\f\r\b





































\t










. §\tš €\f\f\r  \f Œ\r, .
. ‘\r,
‘



, \t



\r\f‘¨ ‚ €‘ €\f\t\r 


–  \f \t¨\f,




– š (\r€\t\r \f\r €¦\r\r)
\r,
‚\f‘ €\f \t¨\f €\t



– \t \b¨ () \t¨\f),

–  \f\r\r Œ¦ \f\r€\f\t €\f N
Π۩ \r,
‚Œ
Œ¦ €\f \r‘\r
. œ\rš¨ ‘¨ ©¨. §\tš ‚\f\r €\t

(\b¨e \t¨\f)   €\f¦

 \r
\r\r€\f\r
, \r‚\f\r €\t
( \t¨\f)  

Š €\t  \t, ‘ \f\r \r¨© €\f\t š 
‚ŒŒ¦\r €© \f  ‘ (
) €\r
œ \tš, ‘ \f\r
€\r\r
, ‘ €\f \r  ‘, \t\r Œ
\t¦\f\r¨  Œ¦ \f\r€\f\t \t¨\f \b €\f\f‘š, \r\f¨ \f
 \t €‘ €\f\t








\r 
€ €\f\r¦ \r. •‘ ‚ŒŒ\r \r¨©, \r \t (1), ‚ \f \b
\bš  \r















, \r‘ ‘
\r\f\r \fš © €\f\t \t \r  €\f\r¦ \r.
Š‘
ª.
¬.
ŸŽŽ, 14, 3489 (1972); ˆ\r
ˆ.
¡. \r. ‘. . \t. Œ.-\r. \r.
•.-¤.
ŸŽŠ
ˆ‡— .\r\r\t. ŠŒŒ, 1993; ›\r‘
•.
¡., Š‘
ª.
¬., ˆ\r
ˆ.
¥., ¥\f¦
¡., ‡\f
‰.
ŸŽŽ,
35, 198 (1993); ˆ.
ˆ\r. ŸŽŽ, 35, 1107 (1993); ¤\r\f
¡.
‡., ƒ\r\r
‡.
ˆ.
£ŽŸ, 92, 1471 (1987);
›\r‘
•.
¡., ªš
•.
‡., Š‘
ª.
¬., ¤\f
ª.
˜., Ž\fš
’., Ÿ\t\f
‡.
’., ¥\f¦
¡..
£ŽŸ, 91, 729 (1986); ˆ\r
ˆ.
¥.,›.
‹.
‹, ‹.
‹\t. ŸŽ¤, 30, 274, (1996); ˆ\r
ˆ.
ŸŽ¤,
22, 2077 (1988); ˆ\r
ˆ.
ŸŽŽ, 35, 1674 (1993).
Srini Krishnamurthi, Zhi Gang Yu, Leonel
P.
Gonzalez, and Sekhar Guha. Journal of Applied Physics. 109,
033102 (2011); LoÏpez Gondar
J., Cipolai
R., and. Marques
G.
E.
Brazilian Journal of Physics, 36, 960 (2006);
Kulish
N.
R., Lisitsa
M.
P., Malysh
N.
I.. Semiconductor Physics, Quantum Electronics & Optoelectronics, 8, 72
(2005); Jun He, Yingli Qu, Heping Li, Jun Mi, and Wei Ji. Optical Society of America, 13, 9235 (2005); Hurlbut
W.
C.
and Yun-Shik Lee, Vodopyanov
K.
L., Kuo
P.
S., and Fejer
M.
M.
Optics Leers, 32, 668 (2007); Shaul Pearl, Nir
Rotenberg, and Henry
M. van Driel. Applied Physics Leers, 93, 131102 (2008).
‰\f
›.
¬., ¤
›.
ª.
•\f \tŒ\f\r¦¨ ‚ŒŒ¨ €€\f\t\r.
.: —\r\r. 1973;
Š‘
ª.
¬., ˆ\r
ˆ.
•\f \f\rš\r \r \f\f\r €€\f\t. Ž\r. Ÿ\r. 1989.
Vokhob Rustam Rustamovich,
Ferghana State University, teacher, Department of Physics
E-mail: r-rasulov51@mail.ru.
Rasulov Rustam Yavkachovich,
Ferghana State University, professor, Department of Physics
E-mail: r-rasulov51@mail.ru
EshboltaevIqboljon Madrahimovich,
Kokand PedagogicalInstitute, teacher, Department of Physics
E-mail: r-rasulov51@mail.ru
Mansurova Gulchera Alijonovna,
Ferghana Medical Kollej teacher, Department of Physics
E-mail: r-rasulov51@mail.ru
Abdullatev Muhiddin Hasanboy ogli,
Ferghana State University, undergraduate, Department of Physics
E-mail: r-rasulov51@mail.ru
OTON AB
ORPTION OF LI
IN A
ICONDUCTOR
A CO
BAND
TRUCTURE TAKIN
G
INTO
ACCOUNT T
E EFFECT OF CO
ERENT
ATURATION
ˆ … ˆ\b\rƒ,
¥\f€\t\r €\r\f\r\b\f\b, ‡\f‡\b\f, \t\f ¥\r\r\t
E-mail: r-rasulov51@mail.ru
ˆ ˆ\b œ\tƒ\rƒ,
¥\f€\t\r €\r\f\r\b\f\b, ‡\f, \t\f ¥\r\r\t
E-mail: r-rasulov51@mail.ru
¦\n\b\f \t‰ ˜\r\rƒ,
Œ\t\t\r €\b\f ‡\f€€\rƒ\f\t\r \r\b\r\b\b,
‡\f‡\b\f, \t\f ¥\r\r\t
E-mail: r-rasulov51@mail.ru
˜ ƒ\f \r‰,
¥\f€\t\r\f\r \r\t\r \t\f‰, ‡\f‡\b\f, \t\f ¥\r\r\t
E-mail: r-rasulov51@mail.ru
\f ˜\r\b\r ¨ €\r,
¥\f€\t\r €\b\f \r\f\r\b\f\b,
€\r\b, \t\f ¥\r\r\t
E-mail: r-rasulov51@mail.ru
  \r 

\r\r\n\b
 
\b


\b
\b 
—  €© \r €€\f\t ¨\f\b\t \r  , 
 €\f¨ €‘ €\f\t\r \b\t €\t\r \b¨  \t¨\f \r©

Œ\t\r \f\n\r \r\n\r\r\t. ‰ \f\t\r p
\r\n\r\r\t\r \r\r\r\f ,  \t\r 3\r
 \r\t.
CsLa (WO
 Nd
\f\r \t\r
 J \r\f¦ \r\f ‘ \r 
 \r\r\r\f \n \t\r \b\r\t\r\t\r \f\r:
š€
Â,

Ék (Â)d (Â)ËN


\r\t\r\t\r \f\r \r\r\r\f \f\n\r \r\n\r\r  €\r\f\r\f
\n \r\r\f Ê
= 2,176Í10

, Ê
= 2,598Í10

, Ê
= 5,310Í10

\r  \r\t. \f\r‘\r \r
\t\f\r \r RMS=0,12Í10
\r \n\r.
¬\r\f \f\r\r\f\t\r \f\r¦ \r\f\r\f‘ \r \f  €\f€ €\r\f\r\f
  \t\r\r  \r \r\r\t. …Ÿ\r‚\f-¬\r\t\f Œ\f\r\r \r\r
\n \t\r\r  \r\t:






















\f \b \r \r ¬\f¦ ‘\n\r\f ‘ \r
\f \b \r\r ›\r ‘\n\r\f ‘. ‰ Œ\t\r\r\f\t\r n  †\f \t\f
\f\r‘, ÇÄ

 ¦¦ ‘ , Î
 ƒ\r\f ‚\f \r\r\f \f\r\t\r
¦¦ \r\f\n\r ‚ŒŒ¦.
 :
™\r\f
’.
¬¦ €\r ‚\f.
.: —\r\r, 1988.
Kaminskii
A.
A., Kurbanov
K., et.al. Crustal structure, absorption, luminescence properties and
stimulated emission of Ga-Gehlenite (Ca
). – Phis.Stat.Sol. (a), 1986, v. 97,
P.
§š
œ.
¤\f¦€¨ \r\f.
.: \f, 1990.
™\f¨
™.
Š. \t\f. œ¨ \r\f .
¬.: \r\f, 1990.
Ž\f
‡.
Ž., Ž
œ.
™\r ‚\f\r\r \f.
Ž.: \n‘, 1992.
 \f\t\r:
(10) – Œ\t\r \r\f‘\r \r‘ \r \f š€\r\f  ‘\r \t \r\n\r\r,
\n\r Œ\r  \r\r \r\t\r \r\r\f€ \n\r\t \r  š€\r\f\r\f \r\f
¦\f ‘ ‘ \n \t\r Œ\t\r \r:





























 \f\t\r:









 €\r\f\r\f \t \r\t.
\r\t€ \r\f ¦\f ‘:













\r .‰ \f\t\r:

 L+2S €\f\r\f \r\f¦\r ‚\r\f. £\f\t€
\r\f ¦\f ‘ \n \t\r‘\r †\r\t:

















‰ Œ\t\r\t\r
- ‘\n\r\f ‘










‰ \f\t\r:

\f\r\t\r U
\f \f €\f\r\f \f\r \r\f¦\r
‚\r\f. È
  €\r\f\r\f.
•€\f€\t\r
  ‘\n\r\f ‘ \r\b\f\r\r\f\t\r \r\n\r\r\t\r 
\f\r ‚ŒŒ¦ Ék (Â)d (Â) \f\n\r \n \t\r‘\r Œ\t\r\r\r\t:














‰ Œ\t\r\t\r: N
–\f \r\b\r  ‘ \r\r\f \r\f  (Ln
-\r\f ¦
\f\r¦), Å-\r \t \r­\f \r\f\r\f‘ \r\r.
– \r\f ‘\t\r  \n\r\r\t\r \r\f\t\r \f Nd
- \r\f\t\f. Nd
– \r\f
\r \r\r\f\r \f\r \f\r\r\f\t\r
- ‘\n\r\f ‘ \r\r\f \r\n\r
‘ È
–  €\r\f\r\f ‘\r\r \n \r,
– \r\f¦\r ‚
J-J
– \r\f¦ \r ¦  \n \r\r\f  \r\r \n\r\t.
– 
‘\n\r\f ‘ È
– €\r\f\r\f \r ‘\n \r\r\r\f  \f\t\r
\n\r ‚\r \r\t. ‰ \r \n \t\r‘\r \f \f\t\r † :

 \f\t\r s– q
‘\r \f ,  \r \n‘\r\f
 ‚€\f\r \n \r\r\f
 \n\r\t. q
\f\r\r†\r š€\r\f\r\f \r\f¦  \r\r\r\f .
U
-‚
\r\f \n \t\r\r  \r \r\f¦\r:




- \r
š€  \f\r\t\r \r‘ \r \f \r\r\f\t\f.
- ‘\n\r\f ‘ \r\r \r \r\b\f\r\r\f\t\r \r\n\r\r \n \r\r\f
Œ\r\f\n\r\f \r\t\f\r\r\f \t \r\f \r\f\r\f\t\r Œ \t\r\r, Ê ‘ \n \t\r
\r\r \r\t:
œ¦\f ‘ \r\r\f \r ‘ ‡\r ’\r\r\f \n Œ¦\r\f, 
\t  \r\f\r  \r €\f\r\f\r\f (‚\f\t€, \r\t€ \r \n\r\r\f) \r\f¦\r
‚\r\f  \f\r.
£\f \r\f 4f
 Œ\f\r¦\r  ‘ \r\f \r



\r\r\f ‘\n \r¦ Œ\r\t\r \n \t\r‘\r Œ\t\r\r\r\t:








 Œ\f\r¦ \n Œ¦ ‚\f  \n\r\t\r \f  \bŒ\r
‚\r \r\t. ‡,
r

r
\r \r\r\f\r \r\n\t\r \f\r \r\f\r\t (

). ƒ \r\r
(6) Œ\t\r \n Œ¦ \r\f¦\r ‚\r\f \r  \r\t.
‰\f  Œ\f\r¦\r\f \f\r\t\r e
d ‚\f-\t€ \r\f \r\r  \r\f
\r \fV
\f\r \r \t \r­\f\t\r “\bŒ”  \r  \r \r
\t, \r\b\r\t\r  \r\f\r\r \bŒ \r \r  \f\r. ‰ ‚\f \r\r\f \f\r\t\r ‚
\f-\t€ \r\f ¬\r€\f \n\t\r\r  \r \t, \r  \r\r,
D
‚\f-\t€ 
\r  \r\r \r\f¦\r ‚\r\f \r\r \r\t.
\f\r \r \t \f‘ \r\f \r\r†\r \r\r\f\r \r\r Ln
-
\r\f \f\r\r\f\t\r�� |A \r |B \r\r\f ‘ \n \t\r Œ\t\r\r\f \f \r\t:













\r















\r\t\t-œŒš \fŒ \n\r\r \r\r \t€  q
€\r
\r\f¦\r ‚ \r\t\f\r \n Œ¦\r\f \f\n\r \n \t\r‘\r †\r\t:

















































‰ \f\t\r:



\r\f  \f\r\t\r \r \r \r\r†\r\r \r\r\f ‚\f\r\f.
¥\n\f\t\r Œ\t\r \r \r‘\r \f\r\r\t\f, ‘  ‘ \rŒ\r\n\r \r\r†\r\r
\r\r\f ‚\f\r\f \r \n Œ¦\r\f , \r \n\r\f\r\r-\n\r\f \bŒ \r\r 
\f\r \r\r‘ \r \f\r \r \t €\r\r\f \r \r\n\r\r \f \r\t.
\r\t\t \r œŒš\r\f (9) Œ\t\r \t\t\r\r\f ‘ \f \n\r\f \r\r\f \r\f \f
\t\r\f. …\r\f \n \t\r\r\f\t\r \f\r:
\r) 4f
‚\f \r\r \b\r Œ\f\r¦\r\f \n “\r \r” \t\f\r \r\r\f\t\r
\r\t. ¬\r\r\t\r\f €\r  \r \r\r\f ‚\f \r \r \r\n\r\r
\r\t.
Œ\f\r¦\r\f \f\r\t\r \r\f ~60
000
‚\f\r\f\t\r \r
~100
000
‚\f\r\f\r‘\r ‘\r\t. ¡\r  \r\r\f\t\r \r\f ~40
000
\f\r\n\t\r
\r\t. (‰ Œ\r\f\r\r\f Œ\r\n\r Pr
\r\f ‘ \f ‚\r).
)


‚\f\r\f Œ\r\f\n  \t Œ\r\f\r
\n\r\t.
) ‰\r‘ š€ \r\f‘\r ƒ\r\f \r\r\f \f \t\r \t\f\r \t \r\r\t.
‰ \r\r\f \f\n\r,


\r\f J, J` \r Æ`` \r \n
\r\r \r \r\r ÇE \r \r\r\f  \r\t. (9) Œ\t\r\t\r ÇE €\r ‘
\t \t\r \r\n\r\f\r ‘\n\r\f \r Œ\t\r \n \t\r \f\r \f :
Qurbonov Komil,
candidate of physicsl and mathematics sciences,
associate professor, the head of department
«Mathematical and natural sciences¤
of Bukhara branch of TIIM.
E-mail: k.qurbanov@inbox.ru
Qadam Ro`ziqulov,
third year student of Bukhara branch of TIIM.
Qurbonov Shaydobek,
second year student
of Bukhara branch of TIIM.
EFINITION OF
3+
— ION
PARA
ETER
`INTEN
ITY
ANIC
ATERIAL
BY
DJ
FELT
ET
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E-mail: k.qurbanov@inbox.ru
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 \r\t.
Astrov Yu.
A., Lodygin
A.
N., Portsel
L.
M., Hexagonal structures of currentin a “semiconductor
gas-discharge gap” system//Technical Physics 2011, Vol 56, ±2. P. 197–203.
Lodygin
A.
N., Astrov Yu.
A., Portsel
L.
M., Beregulin
E.
V.
Dynamic of the Townsend dischargein
argon Technical Physics 2015, Vol 60, ±5. P. 660–664.
Salamov
B.
G. and Hilal Yucel KurtInstabilityin a planar gas discharge system with a large diameter
semiconductor cathode//J.
Phys.
D.
Apple Phys 38. (2005). P. 682–687.
portance
. Using a semiconducting cathode with distributed resistance considerably changes the current
distribution. evalue of the transmied current and the type of the discharge are determined by the
uniformity of the resistivity distribution of the cathode andits thickness. eionization system has stable
operation for a broad range of Townsend discharge currentvalues, and the current densityis stationary and
homogeneous over the whole planar structure when an electrically homogeneous semiconductoris used
Earlier, we experimented with a relatively highvacuum (10
Torr), when the electron mean free
pathis much larger than the thickness of the discharge gapis completely eliminated and theimpactioniza
tion of the gas
. It has been proven thatin the real conditions of the experiment has been a strong enough
eld emission from the surface of the semiconductor, which at the gas lling acts as a supplierin the gas
discharge. Field-emission currentis controlled by the resistance of the semiconductor.
e experiment was conducted at a residual gas pressure of 0,2atm. semiconductorionization
chamber. Semiconductor electrode served as silicon doped with platinum. Lightintensity maered 10
in the wavelength  = 2,4Ãm. Progress curves of the temperature dependences of the dark pho
tocurrent and repeats basically our results of previous work. However, in the low temperature T = 80÷
100K, thereis an abrupt change of the current, and the dependence of the photocurrentis normal, and
the dark current-anomalous.
e experimental results seem to be explained as follows. Field emission dark current form at equi
librium carriers. e concentration at low temperatures much lower temperature with theincreasein
their number and thus the currentincreases. However, the energy of the electrons torn auto emission
from the surface of the semiconductoris not sucient for the formation of avalanches Townsend. In our
conditions, at a temperature of 95K current abruptly drops. e bulk of electrons torn from the surface
of semiconductor eld emission absorbed by the gas molecules. Furtherincreasein temperature leads to
anincreasein the number of equilibrium carriers andincrease of a current, starts an avalanche Townsend
discharge. e photocurrent at a temperature of 85Kis jump up. At the beginning of the concentration of
non-equilibrium carriers, eld emission always torn more only theirintensityis not enough to Townsend
avalanches. As the temperatureincreases the equilibrium carriers act as additional energy supply. And
from that momentit begins with a jump Townsend discharge.
Note that the abrupt decrease of the dark current and an abruptincreasein the photocurrent
thereis a new positive e²ect, inuencing theincrease of contrast, i.
e., Sensitivity semiconductorioniza
tion chamber.
us, the presence of eld emission has a positive e²ect on the stabilization of the gas discharge
space. e ow of electrons ejected from the photocathode eld, leads to anintense neutralization of
space charge of positiveionsin the discharge gap, and thus separates the terms of such distortions of the
electric eld distributionin the gap, which corresponds to the transition from Townsend to the glow
discharge. Experimental data obtained
3at a lowvalue of discharge gapsis conrmed. Field emission
when gas lling plays the role of the electron supplier for Townsend avalanchesin the gas discharge.
Note that the observed eld-emission currentis controlled by the photoresistor semiconductor, i.
e. the
radiationintensity.
References:
Lodygin
A.
N., Portsel
L.
M., Astrov Yu.
A.
Gas dischargein thin gaps lled with argon and nitrogen
at cryogenic temperatures//Technical Physics 2008, Vol 34, ±7. P. 615–617.
Salamov
B.
G. and Hilal Yucel KurtInstabilityin a planar gas discharge system with a large diameter
semiconductor cathode//J.
Phys.
D.
Apple Phys 38. (2005). P. 682–687.
Ibid.
Lodygin
A.
N., Astrov Yu.
A., Portsel
L.
M., Beregulin
E.
V.
Dynamic of the Townsend dischargein argon
Technical Physics 2015, Vol 60, ±5. P. 660–664.
Section 11.
Yuldashev Khurshid Tolibovich,
Ferghana PolytechnicInstitute
Senior researcher, department of physics
E-mail: hurshid5704@mail.ru
Ahmedov Sherzod Sokjonovich,
Ferghana PolytechnicInstitute
Assistent, department of electronics andinstrumentation
Abdullaev Shavkat,
Ferghana PolytechnicInstitute
Student, department of electronics andinstrumentation
FEATURE
S
S
E IN
ALL INTERELECTRODE
TANCE IN
E IONIZATION
§\n\f ¨\n\r \r\rƒ,
¥\f€\t\r ‡\r\b\f\rƒ\f\t\r \r\b\r\b\b
Š\b\n\r ƒ \b\r\t, \t\f \r\r\t\r
E-mail: hurshid5704@mail.ru
\f ”\f Š\r\t‰\rƒ,
¥\f€\t\r ‡\r\b\f\rƒ\f\t\r \r\b\r\b\b
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\b\n
  
 
Anionization systems, image converters, and alsoin some types of lasers, the semiconducting cathode
plays animportant role
. erefore, to study discharge with semiconducting cathodes acquires practicalim
Lodygin A.
N., Portsel
L.
M., Astrov Yu.
A.
Gas dischargein thin gaps lled with argon and nitrogen at
cryogenic temperatures//Technical Physics 2008, Vol 34, ±7, P. 615–617; Astrov Yu.
A., Lodygin
A.
N., Portsel
L.
M.,
Hexagonal structures of currentin a “semiconductor – gas-discharge gap”; system//Technical Physics 2011, Vol 56,
±2, P.197–203; Lodygin
A.
N., Astrov Yu.
A., Portsel
L.
M., Beregulin
E.
V.
Dynamic of the Townsend dischargein
argon Technical; Physics 2015, Vol 60, ±5. P. 660–664.
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Sarapulov AlexeyValeryevich,
Ural Federal University, Bachelor of Science,
institute of Radioelectronics andInformation Technologies
E-mail: aesee@mail.ru
Umansky Alexey Borisovich,
SPA of Automatics, Sector chief
E-mail: pdwn1982@yandex.ru
FFECT OF REDI
TRIBUTION OF TA
ED BY T
E
ON-BOARD CO
PUTER FOR FAULT TOLERANCE
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E-mail: pdwn1982@yandex.ru
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Royo Jranzo.
R.
Methodos para la deteccion de frandes en los zumos citricos//Rev. agroguim. y
technolog. alim.
– 1975. – Vol. 15, ±2.
– P. 162–166.
Petrus
D.
R., Away
J.
A.
Spectral characteristics of Florida orange juice and orange pulpwash
Collaborative Study//J.
Assoc. Oc. Anal. Chem. – 1985.
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Nijaradze Eteri Shotaevna,
assoc.prof. Batumi
Shota Rustaveli State University,
Royo Jranzo.
R.
Methodos para la deteccion de frandes en los zumos citricos//Rev. agroguim . y technolog.
alim. – 1975. – Vol. 15, ±2. – P. 162–166.
Petrus
D.
R., Away
J.
A.
Spectral characteristics of Florida orange juice and orange pulpwash Collaborative
Study//J.
Assoc. Oc. Anal. Chem. – 1985. – Vol. 68, ±6. – P. 1202–1206.
‡\f¨ \f\r¨
\t  \f¨ ‘ €\r\f\r\f \r€\f\r \r
\r ‡Ž¤ˆ
100 \r\f  \r €‘\r
\r\b¨ \r , ¨ \r‚ \r
(€\f\r \r, ¨\f\r\r¨ \r\r ‡Ž
100), €\f\t ¨\t, ‘ 
\r€\f\r‘ \r\b  ¨ \r\r\r ‡Ž
100, ‡Ž¤ˆ
100   \r,
 \f  \r .
—a \r ‚€\f\rš¨ \t\r \r, ‘ \f\t ‚ŒŒ¦ \r€
 \r \t\b ¨\rš \r\b ¨ €\f¦ \f\r\r \r. ¤‘\r
‚€\f‘\r Œ\f\r \r\b ¨:
\t
– \r\b  ¨ €\f €\f\t €\b \r\r\r \r10 \f¨ \r€\f\r
€\f\t, N;
– \f\t ‘\r ‚ŒŒ¦\r \r€ \r € ;
…, ‘ \r\b  š \r‚ŒŒ¦ \r€, \r\t\f
€\r\f\r\f¨ \f \r, \r \r €\f\r €\fš, Œ\r\r \f .
\t.
¤\f ‚€\f, \t €\f \rš \r\b ¨   €\r\rš Œ\r¨
\f \f \r \r\r¦ \r ‡Ž.
¤\f  \r€\f\r‘ \r\b \t13%
€\f\r‘\rš  Œ\r¨ \f \f \r   €\r¨ \r\f\r\f. •
‘ \r€\f\r‘ \r\b ¨ \t20%  €\f\t\r Œ\r¨ \f \r \r
 €‘ \r, \r €\f ‘ \r€\f\r‘ \r\b ¨ \t13%. ‡\f ‘\r, ‘
‘ \r€\f\r‘ \r\b  ¨ €\r\rš Œ\r¨ \f \r š\r
; €©\r\tš €\f €\f, €š \f\r \r ‘¨ \r€\f\r‘
\r\b ¨.
Š, ‘ \t €\r\f\r\f, €\f\t© \f \r, 
 \t\r ‘
, €\f\b . ¡\r\r \t\r \r¨\r  \r‘ \f\r  š
‘¨, ¨.
‡\f¨ €\f\t \t ‘¨ €\f ¨\f\r \r \r\r\r €\r •Ž‰ ‡Ž¤ˆ, \r\t
\f\r \t\f €\f\tš \r\f¨ \r\r ‡Ž.
:
…, ‘ \r\f \f \r š \r\f.4744, €\f\t \f\r
 , ©  š \r\b  ¨ \r¨\r ©
 €\b \r ‘\r \r€\r. Š\t\rš \f \f \r \r
  \r\b ¨ \r. •‘ ‚  ¨\r ¨
¨ \f \r š\r, \r ‘\r.
—\rš  ¨¨   € €\f\t \r, \t \f \r\f\r\f
¨ \r\rš \r\b \r \rš ¨, \r\rš \r \rš¨
\r\b \r \r\rš¨ \r\b ¨. •©© \t¨ €\f\t €\f
 €\f \r \r\t\r \f\r\b\r \r   \r \f\r †
€\f €\f, ‘ \r\f\t €\f\f\r¨ \f  \r \r .
 \f  :
\r\f¨\r
‡.
‡.
•\f €\f\f\r \r -.: ¬\r €©\r €\f¨
š,1999. – 306.
›\f\t
’.
‡.
Š\t\r \t \r €\f   š¨ \r\f\r
\t\r‘  \tŒ\f\r¦//Žš\r €\f¨š.
– \r, 1965. – ±1.
– •.42–43.
›\f\t
’.
‡.
Š\t\r \t \r €\f   š¨ \r\f\r \t\r‘
 \tŒ\f\r¦//Žš\r €\f¨š. – \r, 1965. – ±1. – •.42–43; \r\f¨\r
‡.
‡.
•\f €\f\f\r \r – .: ¬\r €©\r €\f¨š, 1999. – 306.
¤\f \r€\f\r \r \r\r¦ \r \f\r©\r \r \r¨ \r \r 
š \f\t¦¨ (\f.1.\r).
• ‘ ‘¨ \r€\r ‘\r \r\b ¨   €\f,
\r‚  \f \r   \r. ¤\f ¨\f\r \r € €\f€ š
 €š  € \r\r\r \rš ‘ \r€\r. ’ €\f¨
 \f¨ \r ‘ ¨  ¨\f\r\r¨\r  \r€\r, \r \r €\f
€\f ‚  € \r \f €\f
\t\rš \r‘š¨  €\f
€\f© ‘  š ¨  \r‘ \r‘š ‚ŒŒ¦\r \f
 \b\t . ¤\f ¨\f\r \r \r€\r‘, €\f\r€\f¨ \r¦ \r\r \r‘
 ‘š¨ \f¨  ‘\r \r€\r \b š 0\t35.
¤\f \r€\f\r \r \r\r ‘ \r€\r  \r\r\r €¨¨ €.
¤\f \t\r €‘\r\r\b \r €‘ \t\r¨, \tš© \b
 ‘ €\f €\f \r € €\r¦ \r €\r\f\r\f \r€\f\r
\r\r ‡Ž¤ˆ, \r \r\b  ¨, €\b \r ‘\r \r€\r. …,
‘ \r\f \f \r š \r\f.4744, €\f\t \f\r , ©
 š \r\b  ¨ \r¨\r ©  €\b \r
‘\r \r€\r.
Veliyev Fazil Ali oglu,
Azerbaijan State University of Economics
Doctor of Technical Sciences
E-mail: fazil
uzbek@mail.ru
Jafarov Elman Novruz oglu,
Azerbaijan State University
of EconomicsDoctor of Technical Sciences
Candidate of Technical Sciences
N ANALY
OF
ON T
PACT ON T
E
TRUCTURE
OF T
E TI
UE FILLIN
E PARA
ETER
…\f\r\f ¥\r \r €,
\f‰\t\r \b\f
¦\t\rƒ\f\t\r­\r\f\r\b\f\b
\t\b \b\f\rƒ\f\t\r \t
E-mail: fazil
uzbek@mail.ru
‰ ¦  €,
\f‰\t\r \b\f
¦\t\rƒ\f\t\r­\r\f\r\b\f\b,
K\r\b \b\f\rƒ\f\t\r \t
 
\f \r
   
 

 
 \r
  
’ \r© \f  \r\ršš €\f\f\r €\f \f\r Œ‘
\t‘ \r, €\f\b\t ,  \t‘, \f\r \b ¨š €‘\r  \f
. Š €  €\f €\f \r \b \t‘š ‘ \f\r 
\b¨, \b\r, \r \f\r, \t€š¨ \r€\r\b .
™\r ¨ ‘ ¨, €\f\r €\fš Œ\f\f €\t \t   €\r\f\r
\f \f. §\tš  \t €\f€,  \r €š   \t\r\f,
€š \r € ,  € , Œ\r\r \f \r .
\t. œ\t\r
\f \r  €\f\r €\fš  ¨š \r¨ €\r\f\r\f Œ\f\f\r
\r ‘¨ \r€\r, €\b \r, \r\b  ¨ \r, ¨ €\f.
’‘ \r€\r \r\r\r 0\t70 \r \t\r €š\r ¨\fš
 ¨ \r, \t\r €\f€  \r, € \r € \f¨ 
 \r\r. Š \r€\f\r‘ \r\b ¨ ‘¨   
‘¨ \r€\r €\f \r€\f\r \r \r\r \b š  \r \f ¨\f\r\r \r.
¤\f \r€\f\r \r \r\r¦ \r \f\r©\r \r \r¨ \r \r 
š \f\t¦¨ (\f.1.\r).
’ \r \t\r ¨\f\r\r¨\r \r \r €\f©\r €\f\r \f
\f\t¦¨ ‚   \t \f \b ‘\r \r. ¤\f €\r \r
 ‘\r \t\r \f ‘\r \r ‡’
š\r \t\r \b ‘\r \r ‡’
(\f.1.). ¤\f €\t­ \r \f, \r\f, š\r \t\r \f ‘\r \r ‡’

‘\r \t\r \b ‘\r \r ‡’
(\f.1.).
Š \r€\f\r‘ \r\b ¨ ‘¨   ‘¨
\r€\r €\f \r€\f\r \r \r\r \b š  \r \f ¨\f\r\r \r.









 ‘ ‚€\f\rš¨ \t\r¨.
™\f , 
\b €\f\tš  \t\b \r\rš \r
‘ ‚ŒŒ¦\r €\r\f \f\f¦ €\r \r‘:













¤ \f\r ‘¨ ‚€\f\rš¨ \t\r¨  €\r-¨\f¦\r €‘¨
\r‘ €\r\f\r\f\r
§\r
\b €\f\tš ‚ŒŒ¦  .
œ\t\r €‘ Œ\f \t ¨‘
•\f  €\r-¨\f¦\r  € ¨‘ €Œ\f\r:



















































\t

 ‚ŒŒ¦¨  €\r-¨\f¦\r \r  .
œ, €\f\t\b¨ \r \t €\f\t €\r\f\r\f \f\r  \b
€š\rš €\f €\r   \t \t\f \r\b¨ \r\f\r.

¤\f\t\b ¨ €\f\b¨ \t \f\r‘\r   \r\b €\r-¨\f¦\r
€\f\t\r\r¨ ¨ \t \r. ¤\f\r\r\f\r €\f¦ \r\f\r €\r-¨\f¦\r €\r\f
 \r \r‘\rš \r\t , \t\r €\f\r\f\r \fš \t\b \t\r š
€\f \t\r‘ š \r\b €\r-¨\f¦\r. Ž\f‘ \r, ‘ \r‘\r €\f¦\r
¨š \r\t\f\b\r €\f\t \t.
 \f  :
¬
‡.
’. «¤\f¦¨ €\f\r €\r \r¨ €\f  \f\r‘¨ \r\f\r». ,
1974, 235.
¬
‡.
’. «Ž\f €€\f\t». , 1967, 599.
¬
‡.
’. «Ž€\r €\f¦\r ». , 1956, 464.
’\f 
()
’\r\bš%
£€\f
ˆ\r‘
£€\f
ˆ\r‘
¤\f \f\r \fš\r ‚€\f\r  €\r-¨\f¦\r  € €\f\t
€\r\t\r© \f  \b €š\rš € \rš \b\t \fš
 \r\bš




\t

  ©\r, \r‘\rš\r \f\r\r \r\bš,
 ‚ŒŒ¦
,
 \f\r €\r: \f\r €\f\t €‚€\f\rš¨ \t\r¨,

\f .
’  ‘\r, \t\r €\f\t € \f  \r\r \r‘š š \f
 (6)
\r \f‘ \r\bš
Š, ‘ €\r (
) \r \f\b¨ €\r\f\r\f ©¨  \r
€\f\t š Œ\f  \r \r\f\r\r. ™‚ŒŒ¦  \r \f\b\r
  \r \r\f\r\r \r‘\rš \r\b €\r-¨\f¦\r.
œ, ‘ \t €\f\t ‚ŒŒ¦\r 
€\r\r
\f 
\f  €\f\t\b¨ ‡.
’.
¬¨¨  ‘\r ‘, €š €\f \f
 \f  \r\r €\f \f\rŒ‘ \tŒŒ\f¦\f\r.
Š\f\f \f\r (6) ‘¨\r \r‘\rš¨  €‘ ‘\r











’ ‘\r

œ\t\r, \b €\f\tš €\f\t\bšš  ‘\r
















’ ‘\r






—¨ €¨
€\f\t \t \rš \r\t\f\r €š ‚
€\f\rš¨ \t\r¨
\r\b
. •\r‘\r\r €\f\t €
\f\r¦\t
 \f\r €‘¨ \f\r \fš\r ‚€\f\r:



















\t















¬
‡.
’. «Ž€\r €\f¦\r ». , 1956, 464.
’ €\f\t €\f\f\r \fš  \f\r\r ¨‘  \t\r‘ \f €\f¨
€\f\t  \b  \r. ’ ‚   \r\b €\r-¨\f¦\r
 € €\f\t €\f €\f\f\r \b \r€€\f\f\rš \f\r





\t
 ‚ŒŒ¦ €\f\f\r;
 \r‘\r\r \r\bš;
 €\r, \f\r €\f\t š Œ\f  \r \r\f\r.
Š\f \f\r (1) €‘ Œ\f \t \f\r‘\r €\f\t\bš €\f\f\r





—¨ ‚ŒŒ¦
€\f\t €\t \rš \r\t\f\r €š ‚
€\f\rš¨ \t\r¨ \r\b
; \f

œ\t\r, €\f\f\r\r  €\f €\f\t 
€
€‘:



















\t:
 ‘ €\f\t¨ ‚€\f\rš¨ €¨\r .
—
€\f\t  \t\b \r\r ‚ŒŒ¦\r €\r\f \f
\f¦ €\r  \r‘;











¡ \f\r‘\r  \r\b (2) €‘



œ\t\r












’ €\f\t\r\r  \f\r €\f •\r € ‘š \r\t \t\r
€-¨\f¦ ¦ \f\r ‡§‹
195, \f‘ \f\rII \f \r\bš
, €\f 
\f €\t\r‘\r \t\r 1,5/ €\f €\f\r\f
. ‹€-¨\f¦  ‚
€\f\rš¨  €\f ¨ \r\t 3. œ€\f\t¨  \r\b €\f\r\f¨
€\r-¨\f¦\r  €. ¤ \f\r\r¦ €\f\f\r¨ €\r \t\r \f\r‘\r 
  €\r-¨\f¦\r €\f\t €\f\f\r €‘¨ \r‘


’ \r¦ (1) €\f\t¨ ‚€\f\rš¨ \f\r‘¨ \t\r¨ €Œ\f (4), \r\b
€\r-¨\f¦\r €\f \r‘\rš \r\b 16% €\f\r\f\r \t\r 100, 130 °•.
¬
‡.
’. ¤\f¦¨ €\f\r €\r \r¨ €\f  \f\r‘¨ \r\f\r. , 1974, 235.
¬
‡.
’. Ž\f €€\f\t. , 1967, 599.
Section 10.
Veliyev Fazil Ali,
Azerbaijan State Economic University,
E-mail: fazil
uzbek@mail.ru
Nuriyev Mahammadali Nuraddin,
Azerbaijan State Economic University,
E-mail: mehman62@mail.ru
G
COTTON
Abstract:
e article shows that as the ber and seeds depends on the optimal drying regime. e
experimental and calculated data by the formula allowing to dene humidity of raw coon with aninitial
moisture content and a new approximate method for calculating the kinetics of changesin humidit.
Keywords:
raw coon, drying, seeds, rebellion, self-warming
…\r\f ¥\r \r,
\f‰\t\r €\b\f
‹\t\rƒ\f\t\r \r\f\r\b\f\b
E-mail: fazil
uzbek@mail.ru
\r\f ˜\r \r
\f‰\t\r €\b\f
‹\t\rƒ\f\t\r \r\f\r\b\f\b
E-mail: mehman62@mail.ru
C\b
 \b\r
\r\b
:
’\rš €\r ‘ \r‘ \r  \r €\rš \f\b
. ¤\f\t¨ ‚€\f\rš¨ \f\r‘¨ \t\r¨ €Œ\f €© €\f\tš,
\r\b €\r-¨\f¦\r €\f \r‘\rš \r\b €\f\t\b ¨ €\f\b¨ \t \f\r
‘\r   \r\b.
„… :
€-¨\f¦, \r, \r, , \r\f\r.
Ž‘ €\f¦ €\f\f\r ‘š ‘ \r\b €\r-¨\f¦\r. \r
   ‚ €\r\f\r\f\r €\f €\f\f\r © \f\r\b\r \r\r‘ \r
. œ\t\r \t, \rš \r\b ‘ \rš €\rš¨ \f\b . ¡ ‚
\t ¨ \r\r‘ \r, €¨\r© \r\f  €\f
¦\r .
¤\t  €\f¦\r  ¨‘ €\r  \f\t \r\t\f\b\r
\f\t €\f\r\f¨ \r ‘ \f. £ \r\f  €\f¦\r 
€ \f\r‘¨\rš ‘ €\r\f \r \r\f\r\r \f\r\t €\r \r.
Research Management Guidelines 2E.
InternationalService for National Agricultural Research,
e Hague.
Giinger, J.
P. 1982. Economic Analysis of Agricultural Projects. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins
University Press.
Horton, D., P.
Bellantyne, W.
Peterson, B.
Uribe, D.
Gapasin, and K.
Sheridan. 1993. Monitor-ing
and Evaluating Agricultural Research: ASourcebook.CABInternational, Wallingford.
Janssen, W., and A.
Kissi. 1997. Planning and Priority Seing for Regional Research.
Research Management Guidelines 4.InternationalService for National Agricultural Research, e
Hague.
Masters, W.
A., B.
Coulibaly, D.
Sanogo, M.
Sidibé, and A.
Williams. 1996. e EconomicImpact
of Agricultural Research: A Practical Guide.
Department of Agricultural Economics, Purdue University, West Lafayee, IN. [Available by e
mail:
Masters@AgEcon.Purdue.edu].
Orlando, C.
G. 1991. Financial, Economic and Social Evaluation: Manual for Analysis and Evalua
tion of Projects. Banco Centroamericana deIntegración Económica, San José, Costa Rica.
Purcell, D.
L., and J.
R.
Anderson.1997. Agricultural Extension and Research: Achievements and
Problemsin National Systems. e World Bank, Washington, DC.
USAID. 1987. A.
D.
Manual for Project Economic Analysis. Bureau for Program and Policy Co
ordination, U.
S.
Agency forInternational Development, Washington, DC.
Another proposed alternativeis the connection of the higher discount rate with the sources of
funds rather than productivity. us, discount rateis equal to the paidinterest on borrowed funds for
governments that use bond nancing.
Private capital markets are monopolized and therefore distort the real social assessments, and
thereforeit should be established a social discount rate.
Arithmetic logic of theseindicators of the feasibility measuringis the same asin the case of nancial
analysis as well asin the economic analysis.
e only di²erence between the two cases: nancial analysis or economic analysis liesin the use of
nancial price (in the case of nancial analysis), or economicvalue (in the case of economic analysis).
Restrictions on the BeneŠt/Cost method
In assessing the costs and benets, there are several elements appearing that allow to see that this
method carries several limitations:
e mostimportant basic criticis the use of market prices. If theinvestment of the projectis
relatively small, enaugh as to have marginal e²ects on the market, it would be right to be determined by
market prices, marginal costs and marginal assesments. But the assessment of major projects, can not
stand alone on a comparison of prices of used resources and produced ones.
The construction of major projects must surely have, an effect on the prices of resource, as
well as products. Also, many of the real benefits of a publicinvestment, are not as obvious andit
can not be taken from the market any corresponding price. The benefit-cost procedures, in certan
particular cases, in order to obtain desirable benefits and costs and undesirable aspects of the system,
are distorted.
2.
ereis not a clear procedure on the cost-benet calculations, which takesinto account the
budget obligations. us the choice of the project through benet-cost approachis fully justied only
when funds are unlimited. Restricting funds, if thereis a binding obligation, will determine a project
assessment, quiteindependent from the benet/cost ratio.
e benet-cost ratio, compares aggregates of benets (regardless of how they are distributed)
with aggregate of costs. is means thatitis a blind evaluation method for the distribution of benets.
However, the target of many publicinvestmentsis not just economic eciency. e distribution
ofincomeis averyimportant subject. A publicinvestment that maximizes the eciency by any means,
does not guarantee to achieve a specic high level of the size ofincome distribution.
However, it can be said that the benet/cost method based analyzesis animportant element thatis
usedin the contextviability assessment of di²erent projects operatingin the rural development eld,
but also beyond, in other areas.
References:
Alex, G. 1998. Assessing Agricultural Research: Towards Consensus on a Framework for Perfor
mance andImpact Assessment ESDAR Special Report No. 6.e World Bank, Washington, DC.
Alston, J.
M., M.
C.
Marra, P.
G.
Pardey, and T.
J.
Wya. 1999. “Research Returns Redux: A Meta-
Analysis of the Returns to Agricultural R&D.” EPTD Discussion Paper No. 38. International Food
Policy ResearchInstitute, Washington, DC.
Alston, J.
M., G.
W.
Norton, and P.
G.
Pardey. 1995Science Under Scarcity: Principles and Practice
for Agricultural Research Evaluation and Priority Seing. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Belli, P., J.
Anderson, H.
Barnum, J.
Dixon, and J.
P.
Tan. 1998. Handbook on Economic Analysis
ofInvestment Operations. Operations Core Services Network, Learning and Leadership Center,
e World Bank, Washington, DC.
Byerlee, D., and G.
Alex. 1998. “Strengthening National Agricultural Research Systems: PolicyIs
sues and Good Practice.” ESSD, e World Bank, Washington, DC.
Collion, M.
H., and A.
Kissi. 1995. Guide to Pro-gram Planning and Priority Seing.
Once again, itis advisable to use the criterion of NPV, at the appropriate rate, to resolve ambitions
between NPV andIRR. To adopt to the conicting conclusions ofIRRis the same as to adopt a di²erent
discount rate for NPV.
BCR\r‰ BeneŠt\r‰ Cost Ratio
Benet Cost Ratiois calculated using the presentvalue of the ow of net prot calculated
to the terms of the set scheme of ruralinfrastructure and the presentvalue of theinvestment cost
plus maintenance and operational costs. Benet Cost Ratio (B/C), is usually denedin terms of
discountedvalues. e formula for calculation of the B/C ratiois:













Whileit has become the most traditionally prevalent criteria, again thereis a big fault, when used
to compare two or more projects. Specically, the Benet Cost Ratio gives benets (discounted) for
every $ 1of the discounted cost. And the smallest of the two projects could have a bigger Benet Cost
Ratio, and againit produces lower total net benets.
A concrete example would clarify thisissue beer. Let us analyze two projectsx and y which are
considered adaptable, but only one can be chosen. Each has a lifespan of 1year. Let the discount rate be
d = 5%. evalues needed to compare these two projects are:
Example of comparative data between two projects for BCR
Project
NPV
Asit can be seen, projectxis judged to be superior to y, based on the criterion of Benet/Cost, while
the opposite occurs when the criterion of NPVis applied. Since the project y produces a largerincrease
of total net benets of the society. It seems clear thatin order to maximize, the benet/cost ratiois
anincorrect comparison of the two projects.
DR\r‰ Discount Rate
Itisvery clear that, the benet/cost ratioisvery sensitive to the rate of Discount adoptedin the
evaluation process. If avery high rateis used, then Y will dominate on the calculations of the discount
Rate and this would make the projectimpossible. Also we need an analysis of the right rate of the discount
to assess theimplementation of a given project.
Discount rateis the amount of time spent on theimplementation of the project, whichis converted
to money, because of the comparison. us, it should reect the opportunity cost of the capital for a
group, that has to do with the project. Only then, when the analyst tries to calculate theinterest, to be
paid on the pledge or the size of the necessary annual payments to repay a bond, the discuont rate should
be equal to the market rate of the calculatedinterest.
e size of the opportunity cost, initselfis not fully dened correctly. e author Marglin denes
ve di²erent methods that embody di²erent assumptions.
For all practical purposes, the opportunity cost of capital diverted from consumption, can be
considered directly as a long-term risk-freeinterest rate.
2.
Itis natural to assume that anyinvestor wouldinvestits funds as long as theinternal rate of return
was satisfactory.
3.
e above criteria hasits weakness of making the size of marginal productivity and discount
rate, dependent on arbitrary boundaries and politically determined funds. A suggested alternativeis to
adopt theinternal marginal rate of return from private rms engagedin comparable activities.
Internal Rate of Returnis a widespread method of John Maynard Keynes and has much aracted
the aention of analysts and project³s evaluators andin particular from major donors. To date, this
criterionis considered by many, as goodindicator as the Net PresentValue criterion; however todayitis
seen asinferior. Internal Rate of Return of a projectis dened as the discount rate of the future that
equates theinitial cost and the amount of discounted net benetsin the future. Internal Rate of Returnis
theindicator calculated by the formula:



















ereis an r rate, which makes the Net PresentValue of a project equal to zero. A project with
anInternal Rate of Return that exceeds some predetermined levels or the social discuont rate, is deemed
acceptable. ere are two problems associated with this criterion:
r that solves the above equationis not unique. Since the equationis the nth degree, it has “n” roots.
Henceif the social discount rateis 5% and the roots of 3and 7%, are derivatives of thevalue of “r” and
theinterpretation of theInternal Rate of Returnis not clear.
e criterion means a single discount rate throughout the life of the project. Suppose that under the
benet-cost analysis, a projectis deemed as appropriate toimpose a 3% rate of discount forx rst years
of the project and 7% for the remaining n
x years. AgainInternal Rate of Return calculatedis assumed
to be 5%. Itis understood thatin this case thereis no method to come to a conclusion regarding the
recommendations of a project.
Illustration of a conict betweenIRR and NPV for classifying projects
eInternal Rate of Return and Net PresentValue criterion, can lead to di²erent conclusions about
the relative desirable choice, of the two projects. is situationisillustratedin the gure shown above. For
both A and B projects, NPVis dened as a function of the discount rate. e higher the rate of discount
of a project, the loweris the NPV.
Let d be a xed rate of discount, to calculate NPV.
en, based on NPV
criterion, as we see from the gure, Ais superior with respect to B.
IRR for each project can be foundin the picture, byintersecting lines with the horizontal axis. isis
the discount rate which makes NPV = 0, for each project. While theInternal Rate of Return for each
project are rA and rB. As shown Rbis greater than rA showing thatIRR criterion suggests as superior
project Binstead of project A the opposite of NPV criteria.
is situationis reversed when thereis a rate greater than d, which equals NPV of project A with
NPV of project B, in a positive level, in the case when the lines of A and Bintersect at right of d and
above the horizontal axis.
Whichis theimplication of this anomalyin the selection of projects? is suggests that the NPV
criterion was created to give a conict of answers, for di²erent rates of discount. For example, in the
picture, NP�V A NPV Bin d, but NP�V B NPV Ain r A.
us di²erent conclusions ofIRR can be
drawn from NPV.
Self-Repayment Period\r‰ SRP
ere have been many cases of projects that the recipient has received nancingin a grant form,
meaning free, eg Projects to construct wholesale fruit and freshvegetables markets builtin 4cities of
our country (Tirana, Korca, Vlora and Lushnje), are obtained free of charge from the municipalities of
these cities, though they were fundingsin loans from the World Bank to the Government of Albania.
Despite this, before deciding to provide the funding, detailed studies have been conducted to
drawinter alia, the self-repayment period too, whichinuencedin the positive decision to fund them.
is decision was made at the timeit was quite clear that the self-repayment period has been at satisfactory
levels.
Self-repayment perioditselfis widely used as a criterion to assess the feasibility of a particular
project. According to this criterion, the project that redeemsits costsin the shortest period of timeis
considered as the best. Let³s see the comparison as follows between Project A and Project B considering
the self-repayment period that they represent:
Project
A and B have the sameinitialinvestment of 100units, and the two last two years. At the end of the
rst year Project A turns 110unit, while Project B nothing. Consequently Project project Ais deemed
superior to B.
However, if we examine the second year of repayment, the judgment of « self-repayment
period « used for the rst year, appears naturally wrong. However, the concept of self-repayment of
theinvestment has a specialimportancein the analysis of projects and justication of the problem to
keep (funding) or to reject the given project. For this reasonitis necessary for the self-repayment period
analysis to be extended over a relatively long period and when comparing two or more projects, self-
repayment period analyzed should be the same.
NARR\r‰ Net Average Return Rate
Net Average Return Rateis dened as an amount of net benets throughout the lifespan of the
project, dividedinto the number of years during which these benets occurred. Althoughit seems as
reasonable, this method has disadvantages. ese areillustrated below by the data presented:
Project
NARR
Project A lasts for one year; Project B lasts two years. Using the denition made above, the average
return rate for each projectis easily calculated. ey are shownin the last column of the table. Although
the criterion selects Project A as beer than Project B, Project Bis unquestionably superior, becauseit
generatesincome for both years.
Obviously the problem related to NARR, is thatit doesn³t takeinto account the lifespan of
the project. In other words, with NARRitis understood that each project performs n
times the net
benets and will resultin anincrease of n
times of theinitial net prots. is assumptionis completely
unwarranted, especially whenit comes toinvestmentsin the public sector.
IRR\r‰ Internal Rate of Return
e nancialInternal Rate of Return, is anotherimportantindicator whichis usedin the analysis for
measuring thevalue of the project. Financialinternal returnis the nancialindicator for which the Net
PresentValue becomes zero. Anditis calculated by evaluating the rstindicators of zerovalue.
gricultural sciences
























e formulais:
Ct is thevalue of costsin a certain time t
Bt is thevalue of benets at a certain time t
d rate of discount
n the lifespan of the projectin years
e mostimportant problem related to the use of the NPV methodis the establishment of a
xed rate of discount. However, thisis a relative error of the methoditself and o´en, consideration of a
reasonable range ofvalues, is sucientin a cost-benet analysis. Also, itis quite understandable that the
greater thevalue of NPV the beeris the project.
is concept has begun to make enough use of project analysisincluding Albania, mainly those
projects funded by powerfulinternational donors. Wider application would a²ect the right decision-
making as to support or not the nancing of certain projects. Based on data from thisindicatoris reached
a more accurate decision, at the right time justied by arguments.
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•\r‘\r, 1910,. Ž1.•. 66.
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¨ \r\f €\f€,  €\f\t\rš   \f \r,  ‘š
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¤ \t\f €\f\r\t\r ¦\r ‰.
‡.
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•.: Š\r
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¨\t \t €\f\b £.
‰.
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š, ‘  \f\r¨ €\f\t\r \t\b¨ ¨ \rš ’ \r,
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 ¨, € ‘ \r\r\r \f \f\r. \f \r \r «\f\rš
  » š \r  €\f\r\r, \r\f\r † \r€ ¨ \r \f¦\r.
¡  \t\r \r\r €\f\t\r\f\r š ©\rš¨ \r\f\r\f  €,
\t\r\r š\f-\rš¨ Œ, €© \t \t š  
\f \f\t\r, \t \t\r, , ‘ \t\f\b\r  \f  , \f­
¨ ¨ ¨.
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. Ž\r, €\f \f\r\r ˆ €\f €\f\f
 Œ\f\r €\f\r \b, ¨‘ \f €\f\r  €\f €\f\f‘ ‘
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\f \f\r\r \t\f.). œ\t\r, \r\t\r\f  ‘ \f ¨‘ €\f\r\r €\f\f
€\f† š \t  ¦\f €\f\r\r ‘\r‘ \t \f¦€¦
\f¨ \t \r  €\f\r\r, \r€\f\f, \tš‘ \r, €\f\r  
\f¨ ‘\r  €\f\r\r. ’\b \f \f\r  \t \t\f¨ \t\r
  . ª ¦\f \t \t€\f\t \t\b ¨ ©š €\f,
€«\r \r \f‘», €\r\t ¨¦ \r\t ¨ \tš €\f
¨‘\r, €«¦\r \f»
. ’ \f\r\r ™\r €\f\r \r\r\f 
™\r
.
. œ\t‘ €\f†\r €\f ‘ \f\r €\f\t\r \f ‘\f\b\t .
– .: Ž€. Š\t\f\r, 1878. •.9, 17–18.
™\r
.
.
§\r ¨‘\r \r™\r\r.- .: Ž€. ‡.
\r\r, 1890. Ž.1. •.50.
¬
‡.
•\f\r \rš \tš €\f\t. – \f\r \f\r ¦, ¤.:•\r\r
€\f\rŒ, 1916, ±7. •.244.
\r ¨‘ €\f\r\r €\f†  \r\f\t
. §\r\t\r‘ ‚\f\rŒ‘ \f€\f\t¦
¦ \r\f\r ¨, \t \f¨, Œ\r, \tš© \rš
 €\f\r\f‘\r \r\f\t\r, \r\t\f , €\f¦ €\t\f\r\b\r. ¤-\t, \tš \t
‘¨\rš Œ\f¨ \b‚‘ \r. ª \f‘š \t† ©\r, \t\r ‚¨ \r
 š \r‘¨ ‘ \t, ‚ ‘\r \b €\t\f\r\b\r,
,  ‚ \r\r ¨‘ €\f\r\r, \f\r‘¨. ’\b \f ™\r \f\r©\r
\r \r, ‘ \f\t‘ ¨‘\r \f\r¨ \r\f\t, \f\r\t†¨ €\f\f\r \f
,  \b €\t\f\r\b\rš, ‘\r \t¨. œ­ ‚  \t ©
š\f \f\r \r\f\t, €\f\b\t  \t\r¨ \r\t \f\r \t\r\f
Ž\r\r €¦ \r\t \f \f\t \f¨ ‘†¨. Ž\r, € ‡.
•.
™
\r , \r‘¨  ¨‘ €\f\r\r \f\r‘¨ \f\r €\f\r¨ š\f \f\r\t
 ©¨ ‘ , ‘ ‚ \f-š\f¨ \t¨ ­\t
. ’\b \f \t
š \r €¦, \r \f \r\f\t ¨‘¨ €\f\r €\f\r† \r‘
‹\b\rƒ\f\t€
\f\r\t¦ ¨‘ €\f\r\r \r €\f¨ Œ\f\f\r \r¦\rš \f
\r\r €\f\r\r. ¡\r¨ \t €\f\r\r ¨\f\r\b\r š\f¨     
©\r \t (‚\r)
. Ž\r, \f \r\f\t \f\r\b\r † ¨\f\r\r¨  \r
€\f¨ \f¨ \f\r\r¦  ¦\rš \b. Š \r¦ \r‘š \f
\r \f\r ¨‘-€\f\r \r. œ ‘\r -€ ¨ \f\r
-¦¨ €¨ \t \r\f\r¨ ‘ € , ¦¨ \f\r¦ ,
\r¨ ¦€ €\f\r š\f¨ («€\f\r», «€\f\r\tš», «\t\r», «€\f\r\t\r», «\f\r
»), Œ‘ ¦€,   € \r \r\f \f\r  
 ‚\r
. Ž\r \f\r, €\f\t\r \t\b Œ\f\f \f\r\r š\f-
\rš €, \f¨ ¨‘ €\f\r\r  €\f\t €\f\t \f‘\r \r\f\t\r,
\f¨ š  €, \t\r†. ‹\r\f\r\f\r €\f\r‘\rš €\f\r\r
‚\r €  \rš \f\r\f\rš © \r\t  €\f\r¨ € Œ\f.
£ \r\r \t\r \f\r©\rš \t‘ \f\r\f, €©
‘\rš, €¨\f\r\b ™\r, «‚\f €\f\r\r». ’ \f\r «œ\t‘
€\f†\r €\f ‘ \f\r €\f\t\r \f ‘\f\b\t »  ¨€\r €\f \r,
\f ¦, © š \tš \f\r\f\r¨ Œ\r\f¨ ‚¦ \r\f\t
\t, . ¤š €\f\r  ¦\rš¨ ,  \b ¨š €
š ‘\f \t\f ©¨ Œ¨  . •¦ ‘\r  \r
š, ©© \b\t €\f\r ‚‘, €‘, \f-\f\r
¨ \r\t \r¦
. ’ ‚  €\t‘†\f\r \tš €š\r \f\r‘¨
\t, €© \f ­ ‘\rš €\f\t. …‘†¨ €\f\t\r\r €š
\rš €\f¦€¨ ‚¦ €\t\t\r,  ‘ \f-\f\rš¨ \t, ‘
\f‘ Œ\f © \b. §\r ‚\f\rŒ‘ Œ\r, \r\f\r, \t¨¨
\r\f‘ \f\r€\r, ‘ \fš\r \f\rš ¨\r \t
€š\rš €\f ‘ \r‘\rš¨ Œ\f ©¨ ‘\f\b\t . ™\r 
™\r
.
.
§\r ¨‘\r \r™\r\r. – .: Ž€. ‡.
\r\r, 1890. Ž.1. •.79.
™\r
.
.
•¦. – •¤‰: Ž€. .
.
•\r‘\r, 1910. Ž.1. •.80.
™\r\r
‡.
•.
œ¨‘ €\f\r \f  €\f\r \b. ‡\fŒ/\t. \r\t. \f\t \r. – .,
1995. •.9.
¬\r\r
‰.
£‘ ¨‘ €\f\r: \f-€\f\r \r€. ‡\fŒ./\t. \t. \f\t.\r
– .: 2005. •.5.
Ž\r\b. C.27, 28.
™\r
.
.
•¦. – •¤: Ž€. .
.
•\r‘\r, 1910. Ž.1. •.61.
\t\b\r, \r\f\rš ©© €\f\r¨ , \f¨ \f\r €\f\r\r
\r ­ ‚  .
’  ‚ ¦  \f\r\r\f\r €\f¨ \t \f\rš \f‘
 \r\t \t \f€¨ ¦, \r\r©   \f ¦
€\f\r\r, \f\r, €\f\r\t\r .
.
™\r (1851–1916). •¦‘ \f €\f\r\r
‘†¨ \r ©† \t‘ \t¨, ‘\r \f\r¨ ›.
•.
‚\r ˆ. Œ Š\f\r. Š\t Š
\f\r , ‘ «€\f\r \f\r\r \r € ‘ † \f\r\b\r €š \t
© \t\r\f», €‘\r \f \f\r \f‘ ™\r
. ’€\f\t
\r ¦\r €\f\r \r\f\b\t\r  €\f¨ ­\t \t ‘\r 
\r€\f \r\t\r\fš «€\f\r ¨, \r †   \f \f€€»
. …\b \f\r\r
\f\t \f\r\r¦ \t , \r¨ \f¨ \f\t, ­\t \r \t
\r \r©¨, €‘ «© € ». ’ €\f\r\r  \r\b
 ¨\r \f‘ , \r\f€‘ , ‚\f\rŒ‘ , €‘ \r\f\r
\f \t\f ©. Š‘  \r \r€ \t\r† \bš ¨š \t¨
\f\r¨ \r\f\t ¨‘\r ‘\f\b\t, €‘š \r\f\r \t €\f \f €\f\f
 \f\r Œ\f ¦\rš \b   ¨\f\r\b €\f\r\r.
¤\f\b\t \t\f\b\r ¨‘\r \r €\f ¨‘-€\f\r¨ 
™\r \f\r\r\f\r \f\r\f \r\r\r \r \f\t\r, \r\r\b \r \f- \b
\f\t¨  . œ ‘\r  \b\t €\r¨ \r €\f\t\r\r 
\f\r\t¦ ¨‘\r \r\f\t\r, \t  \r¨‘ €\f\r ‘\b\t¨  \r ¨‘\r.
•\f\t ‘¨ \f\r ‘†  €‘†  \r\r \t\r, €©†¨
¨‘ €\f\r \r\f\t ™\r\r\r: , \r, €\r. •\t \r\rš \r \f\r¨, \r
«•\f¨ ¨‘\r \t\f \r. œ¨‘ €\f\r  \f-\f\rš 
» (1886), «¤\f¨ €\f\r» (1887), «§\r ¨‘\r \r™\r\r» (1890). Š‘
\f\r \f \r\f\t \f\r‘¨ \r\f\r‘¨ Œ\f  ¦\rš \b €
‘† \f\rš ‚\f\rŒ‘ \r\f\r, \f¨  €š\r \r \r \t ©
¨\t €\f‘¨ €\f\r¨ \r. ™\r \f €\f: \r ‚
\b \f \r\t\r? —\f¦\r \r‘ \r\f\t¨ ‚ ¨‘ €\f\r, \r€\f\f,
\t \f\t‘ ¨‘\r,  \b \f €\t\f\r \f €\f\t\r \r‘ ¨
¤¨, \f¨ \f\r\r\f\r \r\f\t¨ ¨‘\r ‘š \r‘ €\f‘\r \r
\r. …‘†¨ ‘\r, ‘ \t \t © ¨‘\r  ¨š ¨\r¨ ¨ \f\r
 \r\f\t \b, \r\t\f \r  , \r \f\r¨ ‚€ €\r¨
\r \r¨\r \r\r\f\t¨ ¨‘\r. œ ‘\r \r\r \f \r\f\t\r \f\t‘
\f , \r‘¨\r \t8\f\r\f\t¨ š\f¨  \r\r\t\r €\f\r. ™\r \r\r
\f  \r\r\f\t¨ ¨‘\r  \f\r\r¦ \f¦ \t\f  \r™\r\r
€\r €\f\r\r ‡\f ›\f,  \t\f\b\r,  ‘\f\tš, \r‘š \f €\f\t\r
 \f¦€¦ \r‘\r \f, \r  \f  \r\t\rš. ’\t  \t\f
\f\r €\f\r¨ \t ‘ ‡¨,  \r\f\r\r \r¨‘ €\f\r \r\f\t ™\r\r\r \r\b
\r\t € \r ‘†. ™\r \f , \r \r\r\r \f\r
š\f\r \rŒ\f\f\r \r\f\t¨ \f\t‘ \f . …‘†¨ ‘\r, ‘ \f\r
¨ \f\r¦¨, \r\r© \f\r\r¦ ¦\rš-€\f\r €\f\t\r, \t ‘\r, \r
\t ¨ \f ¦\rš \r\t\r€\r¦,   €\f\f‘\r  \r\t
€\f, \f \r\r \f\r , \f\r, ¨‘\r ‘\f\b\t \r\f\t\r. ’\t\f ‘\r,
¨‘ €\f\r \b \f\r\b\rš \r  š ‘\b\t  \r\r, ‘\b\t ¨‘\r.
—\r€\f\f «\r\r\f¦» ™\r €\r¨\r \b €‘ ¦ €\f\t\r‘ \r
™\r
.
.
•¦. – •¤: Ž€. .
.
•\r‘\r, 1910., Ž.1. •.61.
Ž\r\b. C.84.
Vanina ClavdiaIvanovna,
candidate of philosophical sciences, associate professor
™\r\r
‡.
•.
œ¨‘ €\f\r \f  €\f\r \b. ‡\fŒ/\t. \r\t. \f\t \r. – .,
1995. •.14.
For Post •\r€š  €\f\r [£\f¨ \f\f]: hp://ria.
ru/world/20150611/1069525397.html
ˆŠ‡ — [£\f¨ \f\f]: hp://sevastopol.su/conf_view.php?id=57258
Foreign Policy.com [£\f¨ \f\f]: hp://foreignpolicy.com/2015/06/09/its-time-to-
kill-the-feel-good-myth-of-sanctions-russia-iran
Politonline.com [£\f¨ \f\f]: hp://www.politonline.ru/comments/15557.html
ˆ\r ¤\r\r [£\f¨ \f\f]: hp://rusplt.ru/world/rossiya-smojet-vyijivat-
izolyatsii-dolgo
11737.html
\t\f»,
 € —
. • š, ‘ \r‘ \r\f \f , ‘ \r
\r¦ \f\r\r¦\rš¨ \f¨ €\t\f¨\r €\f\ršš \t€\r‘ ¦,
\r\b\t\r\f\t  ˆ \t\r  ¦ €\f\r‘ \b .
œ\t\r,  \f¨ \r (\t\r\f\r \f) © \r¨\r \r‚. ¡
ˆ ¨   \f \t\r\f\r \r‘\r, 
€\f¨, š Œ \r\f\b (
 \fš \t\t \t\b\r), , 
\f¨, \fš ¦ \r\f\b¨ \r\f. ¤\f‘¨
\r \f ‘\t¨: \b € \f\r \f  ’’¤, š \t\r \r\r
¨ \f¨ \f¨ ®\f\r\r, ‘\r \r€\r\r ˆ, ¨\r Œ¦ \f
. ’‚ ‘\r  \f\rš \r \r\b¨ € \f ‚ €\f¨. ’€\f
‘\f\tš, ˆ \b  \f\r‘†¨ \r¦\rš¨ \r\r. ¤\f\b\t  ™\r, ‰\r\fš
™\r\r\r. Ž\r\b  \r¨\rš \f\t‘ \t\r\f\r-€\r\f†\f\r \f\r\r
ƒœ•, ‰ˆŠ™•, ©© \r ‰ˆŠ™•, \f¨ ¨ \t\r \t\r\f\r, ©
\r¨ ¨\f\f\r\r© ‚ \f. ’\r\t  ˆ \t\r\f\r-‘\r
‰ˆŠ™• \b © €š \r† \t\b.
™\r¨ ¨, ˆ \r  €\rš \f\tš «\r¨» €\f .
œ€‘\r  ¨ \f¨ ¨\r, €\f\r ‚€\f\r \r\t \t­ \r¦ , ‘†
€€š \f\r¨ §\r€\r\t\r. •\r¦ \t\r €\f\t†¨ €\f €¨,
\r \r, \r €\f\rš,  €\f\rš, ‘  \r\b ¨ š €¨,
\r \b\t\rš.
•\t š, ‘ \f\r \r¦ € §\r€\r\t\r, €\r \t© €\f
€\f¨, ‚ «\r\f» €\f†¨ ¦. ¡ \b\t\r\f\t¨  \r
 \r \r¦ \t\r \b \t  ‘- ¨ €\f¨‘¨. ’†
\f \r¦ ¨ \t¨ €\f •\f, ™¨, ¶\f\f, ‰\f, Š\f\r\r, Š\f\r\r, •
\f \f\t\r \t\f \f\r. ’
\f¨, ˆ  \t\r‘ €\f‘¨   \t\f
\f\r\r, \f\t‘\r \f\r\r ‰ˆŠ™•, ƒœ• \f\t\r \t\f \f\rš¨ \b\t\r\f\t¨ \f
\r\r¦ . ’
\fš, \r \b ‘\rš \f\r, \f \r, \r ¨ 30, 40\t\r\b 50 \r\r\t.
ª \r\r ‘\f\r \r ¨  \b\t  \r\f\r \b\t\r\f\t¨  .
’ \r‘ \t š, ‘ \f¨ \f €\f\r‘ \r\b\t¨ \tš \f\r ¨
¨¨ \b\t\r\f\t ©. —\r‘\r \t © ­© \fš
¨ ¡‡Šƒ, € \f\r ª\f€ \r\r‘\r €\f\r ‚ \r\r, \fš
\f¨ \t ¨ , \r\r €€¨\r \f\rš \r-
\t\r\f \b \r\rš  ‘ \f.
—\r \r €\f\t \t\r, ‘¨\r \f‘ €¨, \b \f\b\t\rš,
‘ €€¨ ¦ ˆ \f \f \f‘¨ \r€\f\r. Š\f ‘\tš
€\t\f\b\t\r, ‘ \f \ršš \t\r\rš €‘\rš €\f\t¨, \t\r ˆ \r
‘\r\r\r \b\t\r\f\t¨ \t\r, \f \r €€¨ † \f\rš  €\f\t
\t  €\f¦¨, \f\r‘\r €\t €\r \r\r\fŒ\r \f¨  .
 \f  :
Š\f \b\t\r\f\t¨  : 15\f \r: …‘/¤\t \f\t. ‡.
’.
Ž\f\r,
Š40.  \r\f .
– .: ‡€ ¤\f, 2012.
‡\f\r ˆ.
‡., ™\f ’.
’.,  \r .
—., •\f\r Ž.
., «Š\f ˆ \t\f
 \f \t\r‘\r\rX‹\r», [£\f¨ \f\f]: hp://azbyka.ru/otechnik/Istorija_
Tserkvi/istorija-rossii-s
drevnejshih-vremen-do-nachala-xh-veka
Russia Today \r\f [£\f¨ \f\f]: hps://russian.rt.com/article/70021
Foreign Policy.com [£\f¨ \f\f]: hp://foreignpolicy.com/2015/06/09/its-time-to-kill-the-feel-
good-myth-of-sanctions-russia-iran
‘š ˆ G8, \r\fš \r¨  \f  \r, ¨   ˆŸ
\fš \fš. Ž\r\b ¨ \r\r , ‘ \f  €‘š ¨ \t €\t
•ƒ‡ ª\f€, \r\f\r\r \r\b «\f ¦». œ\t\r,  \f\r\b\t\rš \f,
 \r \f \t \b ©† , €\f\r  \f \f€ ¦¨ \r\f\r¦¨ €
\f\r\t\r ‘ \r\b , \b, \t\r\b š €. • š €\f\t\rš, š
\r‘ \f\r \r€\r \f\t\r, €\f\t¦, \rš © \t ©
\t\f \f\t‘, \r€©, š © \r¨\t¨ €\f\f\r Œ
\f \t¦¨, \f\r\r, š\f \r .
\t. —\b \f\r\f\b ‚ \t\f
€\f\f\r, \t  €‘ \f\r •ƒ‡ \f\r \r€\r\t ª\f€¨,
€\f\r\t\r ‘š \f \r \f\r?
•\r , \f\r \f\r ¡\bŒŒ\f ‹\r, \f¨  \t 
\t© ‚€\f €\f ˆ •••ˆ ª\f€, €\fŒ\f ¬\t \f\r
€‘†¨ \t\f Š\r ˆ  \f ˆ‡—, ˆ \b š 
¦. ¤ , ¤\f\t ˆŸ, ¤
’.
’.  €\f\rš \r \t\r \f
\fš, ‘  \b š \f\r, ‘  \t \b¨ \t\f \f\r\r, •ƒ‡
 ª\f€  
’  \fš, \t\r \r©-€‘ €\f\r «ˆ\r ¤\r\r» ¡\bŒ
Œ\f ‹, \r, ‘ \t\r\b €\f \t \r\f\r ¦:  , \r\f\r\b\r ‘
\f \r\f\b, \f\r‘ ‚‘  ,  , \t \f¨ ,
‘ ˆ \f   š  §\r€\r\t\r. ’\tš \r \t  €\rš, \r§\r
€\r\t \f\b\r ˆŸ \f\r\b\t¨ \r\r. ’\b \f, \f\r \f , ‘ \t\f
\f¨, ¦ ˆ \r \f\r\t \t, € ‘ \r €\f\f  \r\f.
Š¨‘¨ \f\r ‚ €\f\r, € ‘ \bš \r \f\t. —‚ \b €\f
 \f ‚ŒŒ,  ˆ \r š €\f\tš \r\r.
’ \b \f, ¡\bŒ\f ‹, , ‘ \f \f, \t\r\b €\f \t 
¦, š š \r \f\r š \r\f , ˆ \b ¨\b\rš ¦
\t\r‘ \t. •\t\r \r¦ \r, ‘ ˆ \f\r\t š, ‘ •\f\r ™\f, 
™—¡ˆ €\f\t\f\b\r\rš š 60, ˆ   \b. ¤\f ‚ ¨\f\r \r\t\b\t, ‘
‚ ‘, \tš \t ¦ \t ‘\rš \t  \f\r \f\r, \r\t ˆ
€\f \r\r\fŒ\r.
Ž\r \f\r, ª\f€ \r \f ‘\tš €\t\f\b\t\r, ‘ \f \ršš
\r \t\r\rš €‘\rš €\f\t¨, \t\r ˆ \r ‘\r\r\r \f€ 
\t\r, \f \r €€¨ \f\rš ˆ  €\f\t \t  €\f¦¨,
\f\r‘\r €\t €\r \r\r\fŒ\r \f¨  
‡\r\f \b, \b \r\rš , ‘ \t, ‚€ © \r\r¦
\f\rš \r- \t\r\f \f\t, \r \r \b\t  ­\r \b\t\r\f\t¨ 
 \r¨ €\f‘¨  \r\f\r¨ \f \f\r¨ Œ\f\r \b\tš.
Ž\r,  2015\t\r ¨ \rš €©\r \f\r\f •ƒ‡ €š
¨ \t\f\f \r\r‘ ¦\f\r «Pen American Center» •š\r —, \r€\r\r \rš
«¤\f\r \r¨š Œ €š \r¦ » \t \t\r Foreign Policy, \f , 
, \r\f¨. ‡\f ‘\r, ‘ «\f\r ª\f€ \b €\f. Š\r ›\f¦, ‘š
‚ \b €\f\r\t\r \r\f¨ \f  \f¨\r \t ª\f€¨, \r‘\r \rš
‚ŒŒ \r €. ’ \t\r\f \f\r\f •ƒ‡ ¡\b\r ™\f\f ˆ
\b \f\r\r\f\rš \t\r\rš , ‘ ’\r ‘ ¨š \f \f 
ˆ\r ¤\r\r [£\f¨ \f\f]: hp://rusplt.ru/world/rossiya-smojet-vyijivat-v-izolyatsii-
dolgo-11737.html
ˆŠ‡ — [£\f¨ \f\f]: hp://sevastopol.su/conf_view.php?id=57258
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Tsaryova Tatyana Yuryevna
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Russia Today \r\f [£\f¨ \f\f]: hps://russian.rt.com/article/7002
Russia Today \r\f [£\f¨ \f\f]: hps://russian.rt.com/article/70021
and ethicalissues areveryimportant to them, soit³simportant to show them that humanvalues for their
partners, if not above political, or at least equal to them. Among the mostimportant qualities of the
English national character areindependence, industry, thri´ andinitiative. A strong English characteris
manifestedin the negotiationsis that the British are trying to take a rm stand, skillfully and e²ectively
express and defend theirinterests. isisvery precisely andironically wrote Leo Tolstoyin “War and
Peace”, “cocky Englishman on the grounds that heis a citizen of the livability of the world³s states,
and therefore as an Englishman always knows what he wants, and he knows that all that he does as an
Englishman, of course, is good”.
Psychologists say that the British are notinclined to take risksin political agreements, try to minimize
the entire dangerous and unpredictable situation. ey, like the Americans aach greatimportance to facts
and practical experiences, rather than speculative concepts. During the talksitis shownin the expression
conjectural approach to business, in the procedural empiricism. English practicality and frugality also
appear soonin an e²ort to conclude the agreements that bring quick returns, especially economic. To a
lesser extent they pay aention to the preparations for the negotiations, treat them with a great deal of
pragmatism, believing that the best solution would be found, depending on the position of partnerin
the negotiations themselves.
us, they pose highly situational analysis of the problemsin much closer together than with
Americans. At the same time the British are able to demonstrate sucient exibility to readily respond
to the opposite side of theinitiative, but, unlike the Americans, the traditional quality for themis the
ability to avoid sharp corners.
References:
Arkhipova
Y.
B.
Specics of the negotiating process M., 2004.
Begyuli
F.
Negotiations: a master class. M., 2005.
Bellanger
L.
Negotiations. SPb., 2002.
VasilenkoI.
A.
e art ofinternational negotiationsin business and politics. 2nd ed. Moscow, 2009.
Mr. Kissinger³s diplomacy.
M., 1997.
Carpet
A.
V.
Psychological aspects of the negotiations. M., 2003.
Mamontov
S.
Y.
Negotiation Tactics. SPb., 2002.
Solovyov
E.
Y.
e art of negotiating. M., 2006.
Such abstraction from history allows cultivatingin American political culture, theimage of
universal man living according to universal laws and does not depend on the past, from geography and
otherimmutable circumstances. American style emphasizes the universality of political technologies
that do not depend on national circumstances. Undoubtedly, such an emphasisisintended to stress
the universality of American leadershipin the political negotiations andis largely demagogic character.
Howvery accurately remarked Samuel Huntington, “imperialismis aninevitable logical consequence
of universalism.”
e Americans have avery practical turn of mind, so the factsin the argumentation theory prefer.
ey tend to judge suggested by empirical data on political negotiations and believe that the way to
truthis through trial and error. erefore, the proposal addressed to them, must be real and concrete.
In political decision-makingin the negotiations Americans adhere to the principles ofinduction and,
based on the facts, moving from the particular to the generalin his evidence. ey tend to be dicult to
accept criticism, and self-condent enough to take only evidence based on fact: the moral justication
of their opponent³s positionis generally lile a²ected. Most Americans are proud of their freedom from
prejudice and claims.
In the UK, a national style of political negotiations polished for centuries the English aristocracy.
e well-known philosopher, Lord Spencer, the English aristocrat at all times remember thatitis not just
“high-born” but “born of heaven” so translates one of the meanings of the word “Lord” from the English
language. e British never forget their roots, are well aware of their own family tree “to the seventh
generation,” speak with reverence about the traditions and customs of their country. Fundamentals of
English national style date back to theVictorianvalues, among which a special placeis occupied by
national pride, devotion to family, a sense of duty and self-discipline. erefore, the negotiationsin dealing
with the Britishitisimportant to emphasizeits proximity to the British people anditsideals.
e famous English writer George Galsworthy noted that for the Englishman the mainspring of
his actions will always be a family, a home and property, “despite all the talkin which they are trying
lately to nullify.” e persistence of the pastin the minds of the English, in his opinion,
 is one of those
“tragicomic goods”, which denies any new age, when he goesinto the arena and with boundless arrogance
claims to be a complete novelty. Butin England thereis no ageis not entirely new.
Indeed, the tendency to conservatism di²erentiates the English national style, but the English
conservatism, as emphasized by Spencer, “is quiet andis social.” Conservative political styleimplies strong
control “from above” from the central politicalinstitutions and leaders who control powerful hand,
reliance on spiritual and moralvalues and materialinterests. e leader of the British neo-conservatives,
the former Prime Minister Margaret atcherin his memoirs, notes that the guarantee, which provide
theindividual custom, a strong tradition and common law, much stronger democratic principles applied
demagogue politicians.
In the English national stylein negotiations paradoxically combines a penchant for unilateral
decisions and liberalinclination to freedom, individualism and collectivism. Respect for State authority
generates the British special reverence before the law: itis known that they are supporters of the
death penalty and longer sentences. erefore the political negotiations, they aach greatimportance
to perfection of legalinstruments and the obligation of their execution, as well as sanctionsin case
ofviolation.
e tendency of the British to the rituals and traditionsin the negotiationsinvolves a sequence of
actions, which the British are trying to carefully adhere to. ey are characterized to begin negotiations
with a discussion of abstractissues, such as the weather, sports, children, animals. British love for
animalsis well known, and British diplomats are o´en the champions of animal protection societies,
not only at home but also abroad.
Unlike the Americans, who prefer the negotiations “to take the bull by the horns” with the Britishis
best to start with the negotiations do not discuss the subject, but from a purely worldly problems. Moral
• Negotiations
routine
basis:
that is
�rst
person involved,
between
representatives
of political parties and organizations.
Negotiations on a high and the highest levels are of particularimportanceininternational relations,
since they allow solving most complex and urgentinternational problems, taking principal and sometimes
fatal decisions, which allows seriously and dramatically changing the political situation. At the same time
the negotiations of the agreement countersigned by the level of senior government ocials, whichis
designed to provide additional guarantees for theimplementation of the results made arrangements.
In the most dicult situations with the possible mediation at the highest level, that sometimes
allows you to nd solutions tovery complex conict cases. For example, since 2003, regularly
renewedincremental six-party talks on North Korea³s nuclear program, which alsoinvolves Russia, China,
Japan, the United States. According toits K.
Sella and S.
S.
Jane: “e talks theinterdependence of the
situation, becauseitis one negotiator has animpact on the other, andviceversa”
American National Modern style of political negotiations distinguishes clearly expressed desire
for leadership. American politicians say that their style ndsits admirers abroad, and US leaders have
become the object of careful study andimitation.
Brezezinski stressed that today the English and
Japanese politicians arevery appropriate copy “home style, populist common touch, and public relations
tactics” of US presidents.
American National style of political negotiations stands out above all the desire to US politicians
eager to defend the universality ofitsvalues. US diplomats themselves note that no nation has not been
more pragmaticin the daily diplomatic activities and moreideologicalin their desire to follow the
historicallyit has good morals. According to Henry Kissinger, the American national style distinguishes
expressed ambivalence betweenisolationism and hegemony, between nostalgia for a patriarchal past
and the desire for anideal future. But today, America wants above all to be “a beacon” for the world and
adopt theirideals worldwide.
However, thereis a serious danger of global leadershipin the regeneration of hegemony. At this
point the risk of many modern political scientists and politicians. In his new book “e Choice: Global
Domination or Global Leadership” Brezezinski sees American style of political negotiationsin this
perspective: dominance or leadership. e need for American hegemonyin world politics, he explains
theimportance of the prevent from “geopolitical chaos”. Brezezinski frightening world of the devastating
e²ects of the population explosion, migration caused by poverty, radical urbanization, as well as ethnic
and religious strife and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, althoughin a unipolar world,
these processes are developing before our eyes spontaneously and uncontrollably.
American political scientist sees two possible stylistic alternatives to US hegemony: domination
based on force or leadership based on consensus. And although he selects the style of leadershipin world
politics, itis largely demagogic concept paradoxically combines elements of democracy with hegemony.
“Hegemonic leadership” implies that the “American global hegemony controlled American democracy.”
And Brzezinski openly demonstrates the mechanisms of such control: Of the computer processing of the
statements of President George
W.
Bush a´er the September 11, 2001, in 15monthsitis evident that he
publicly at least 99times using di²erentvariants of Manichean phrase “Whois not with usis against us”
us, the style of American global hegemony frankly based on the newinformation technology
management of public opinion, andinformation phantoms skillfully used to justify US hegemonyin the world.
In terms of features of the American mentality manifestationsin the political negotiationsit should
be emphasized that US policy generally prefer motivations rather than structural factors. ey are
moreimportant toinuence behavior than on calculations of their opponents. e reasons for this, some
American politicians perceive that the Americans are ambivalent to the lessons of history. American lms
are o´envery tiresome show any dramatic historical event and make avillain out of a sample ofvirtue
to conrm the prevailing opinion of the Americans, if the past does not play a determining role, and you
can always start over.
Section 7.
Kholdarova Fariza,
Independent scientic researcher at the Academy
of Public Administration under
the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan
E-mail: dilm79@inbox.ru
E FEATURE
OF T
E
AND
POLITICAL NE
OTIATION
S
IN
INTERNATIONAL RELATION
Abstract:
In this article we are talking about the history of political negotiations. Some opinions
of famous political scientists have been analyzed. e features of the style of the US and UK political
negotiations have been stated.
Keywords:
history, president, political negotiations, typology, style, pragmatic, nationalideology.
Political negotiations itis anintegral part of the political history, they emerged with the
development of the political sphere of society and have the same long history as the history of political
thought and diplomacy. Itisinteresting that the etymology of the word “negotiations” comes from the
Latin negotium: nec, ni «no» and otium “leisure”, indicating that the original relationship of this
concept with the trade and merchant activities. Indeed, in politics the term “negotiation” appears much
later thanin everyday life andin the economy, because each person each day forced to negotiate with
other people about their economic, social and personal problems.
Specicity of political negotiationsisinextricably linked with the concepts of political power, rights
and powers. Machiavelli and Karlvon Clausewitz sawin the political negotiationsis the same way to the
conquest of power and might, as well as war. For them, politics and diplomacy during the negotiations
were merely “a continuation of war by other means.”
J.
J.
Rousseau sawin the talks only “royal squabbles”, butin fact all the major milestonesin
political history marked by epochal political negotiations, the results of which are sometimes for
many years dened the principles of world politics: itis enough to call the Congress ofVienna and the
Treaty ofVersailles, the Yalta Conference and the Helsinki Accords. All these complexinternational
negotiations were lled with boiling political passions, weave cunningintrigue, the collision of major
political characters, allowing you to see not only strategic, but complex psychological contextin
political negotiations. us, political negotiations is the art and science of achieving political
agreementsin avariety of circumstances in terms of conict and confrontation between the
partiesin peacetime.
About typology of political negotiations.
e most common are the typology of political negotiations based on the level of political delegations
represented and the number of negotiating parties. Depending on the level of release:
• talks
at
highest
level:
Heads
State
and
Government;
• high-level
talks:
foreign
ministers
(or
ministers
other
departments);
Nirje, B.
e Normalization Principle andIts Human ManagementImplications//eInternational
Social RoleValorization Journal. 1994. Vol. 1. ±2. P. 19–23.
Oliver, M., Barnes, C.
Disabled People and Social Policy: from Exclusion toInclusion.
L.: Longman,
1994. 187p.
Pritchard, D.
G.
e Development of Schools for Handicapped Childrenin England during the
Nineteenth Century//History of Education Quarterly. 1963. Vol. 3. ±4. P. 215–222.
Shmatko
N.
D.
Joint education and training of children with disabilities and normally developing
preschool children//Education and training of children with developmental disabilities.
ZaretskyV.
K.
Ten conferences on the development of special children– ten steps from
theinnovations to the norm//Psychological Science and Education.
– P. 83–95.
creating conditions for socialization, vocational and employment training for people with
disabilities;
researchin the eld of theoretical and methodological support of the development ofinclusive
education.
e main objectives ofinclusive education:
improvement of the legal, organizational and economic principles and mechanisms for the
development ofinclusive education;
improvement of methodological and teaching basics forinclusive education development
(adaptation and modication of curricula, textbooks, teaching materials, introduction ofevaluation
criteriasystem of educational achievements);
implementation ofindividual correctional, educational and social-psychological support to
students, creating comfortable learning environment which provides students with the opportunity to
become a signicant and active participantin the school community, raising self-esteem, motivation for
learning and socialization;
creation of a²ordable “barrier-free environment” and providing students with compensatory
means;
improving the stang of educational organization, implementinginclusive education;
ensuring the conditions for continuing education of persons with special educational needs at
the technical, vocational, and higher education levels with the perspective of professional development;
conducting applied researchin the eld ofinclusive education.
We are of the same opinion withI.
G.
Eliseeva, thatin order to ensure the progressive development
ofinclusive education, and not justits declaration, the above-mentioned conditions should be specied,
xedin standards, nancially secured and provided with the results of scientic applied research.
In conclusion we would like to note
, that theissue ofinclusive education and the problem of
stang for this activity, as well as usinginnovative forms, methods and technologies of trainingininclusive
education, study and application ofinternational best practices these are the problems which solution
requires joint e²orts of all stakeholders.
erefore, inclusive educationis a long-term strategy that requires patience and tolerance, systematic
and consistent, continuous andintegrated approach forits successfulimplementationin the country.
References:
Conceptual approaches to the development ofinclusive educationin the Republic of Kazakhstan.
Astana: Altynsarin National Academy of Education, 2015.
– 13p.
Culham, A., Nind, M.
Deconstructing Normalisation: Clearing the Way forInclusion//Journal
ofIntellectual and Developmental Disability. 2003. Vol. 28. ±1. P. 65–78.
Deno, E.
N.
Special Education as Developmental Capital//Exceptional Children. 1970.
±37. P. 229–237. 6. Dunn
L.
M.
Special Education for the Mildly Retarded: Is Much ofIt
Justiable?//Exceptional Children. 1968. ±35. P. 5–22.
EliseevaI.
G. On practicalimplementation ofinclusive educationin Kazakhstan. “Open School»
±1 (132), January 2014.
FeoktistovaV.
A.
Essays on the history of foreign educational levels and practice of education of
blind andvisuallyimpaired children: tutorial.
L., 1973. 119p. ISSN 1997–292X ±12 (26) 2012,
Part 2. P. 167.
hp://egov.kz
KhazullinaI.
N.
Formation of theinclusive competence of future teachersin the course of training:
Abstract of dissertation for candidate of pedagogical sciences.
– Astrakhan, 2008.
Malofeev
N.
N.
Special Educationin Russia and abroad: in 2Parts, M.: Printing House, 1996.
Part 1. Western Europe. 182
p.
For the rst time the term “inclusion” and the principles ofinclusive education were proclaimed
at the World Conference on Education for Persons with Special Needs, heldin 1994in Spain (city of
Salamanca).
Salamanca Statement proclaims the principles of supply and promotion of legislativeinitiativesin
the eld ofinclusive education and provides not only the activeinvolvement and participation of children
with disabilitiesin regular school, butinvolves the restructuring of the education systemin order to create
conditions for realization of the educational needs of all categories of students.
e Dakar Framework for Action concept (Dakar Framework for Action) and followingit, the
Millennium Development Goals of Education (Millennium Development Goals on Education) o²er
the most comprehensive and modern approach, ensuring education for all by 2015.
us, the fundamentals of the concept ofinclusive education are the recognition of outstandingvalue
and uniqueness of eachindividual, regardless of their physical condition, and focus on the creation of
special conditions for children with disabilities to ensure their successful socialization.
In our country, according to the denition of the concept ofinclusive education, givenin the Law
“On education”, we still hold the position of narrow understanding ofinclusion, asinclusionin the general
education only to persons with disabilities, according toI.
G.
Eliseev.
Today there are 39special kindergartens and 315special groups where more than 15thousand pre-
school childrenget education and training; 106special schools and 1,219special classes at secondary
schools, where about 25thousand schoolchildrenstudy.
Currently, 17rehabilitation centers, 133psychological and special education rooms, 558logopedic
points at schools provide correctional and educational support for children with disabilities. In the
country, there live 138,513disabled children under the age of 18, whichis 2.8% of the total child
population. In particular, school-age children 93, 740, children of preschool age 44, 773.
Under special training programs, more than 62thousand students are studying, according to
special pre-school programs more than 27thousand children. In addition, in the system of technical
andvocational training,178collegestrain students with disabilities. e contingent of studentsin this
categoryis about 3thousand people.
Access to education for children with disabilitiesis provided by the system of e
learning, distance
education. Since 2011, within the framework of the state program, children who are studying at home,
receive all necessary so´ware and hardware.
Of course, theinclusive education processis complex and requires signicantinvestment, both
material andintellectual.
In their works, such researchers as FeoktistovaV.
A., Culham
A., Nind
M., Deno
E.
N., Nirje
B.,
Oliver
M., Barnes
C., Pritchard
D.
G. and others point out that teachers of secondary schools cannot
yet provide necessary and adequate conditions for education of children with special needs; models
ofinclusive education are not yet created; exible (adaptive) general education programs are not
developed; manpower, training and methodological framework forinclusive educationis not enough;
there are noindicators for criteria-based assessment of children³s knowledge and skills; employment of
persons with disabilitiesis limited, etc.
erefore, to eliminate the above-mentioned reasonsitis necessary to solve a number of
systemicissues, both at the state and at the university level. ese objectives are realizedin several ways.
Strategic directions of\rinclusive education\rin Kazakhstan
improving theinstitutional environment, providing favorable conditions for the development
ofinclusive education;
formation of scientic and pedagogical foundations, stang, training and methodological
capacity to ensure access to quality education for persons with special educational needs;
development of the system of early diagnosis, correction and pedagogical support of pre-school
children;
Nurgaliyeva Saniya,
East
Kazakhstan State University,
Candidate of Pedagogic Sciences, Professor
E-mail: sanianur@mail.ru
Kulenova Gulnara,
East
Kazakhstan State University,
Candidate of Medicine Sciences,
Dean Faculty of Psychology, Pedagogy and Culture
E-mail: kulenova_gulnara@mail.ru
Nurgaliyeva Aizhan,
Farabi Kazakh National Universityin Almaty,
ManagerInternational Cooperation Department
E-mail: n.
a.e.89@mail.ru
MS
SMS
OF I
G
QUALITY
OF INCLU
EDUCATION IN
KAZAK
TAN
Abstract:
e article describes the conditions and mechanisms toimprove the quality ofinclusive
educationin Kazakhstan. e characteristics ofinclusive education, positive strategies of Kazakhstani
system ofinclusive education, legislativeinitiativesin the eld ofinclusive education and the conditions
for theimplementation of the educational needs of all categories of studentsare analyzed. e necessity of
restructuring the education systemin order to create conditions for realization of the educational needs
of all categories of studentsis revealed. Particular aentionis paid to theimprovement of theinstitutional
environment, providing favorable conditions for the development ofinclusive education.
Keywords:
inclusive education, improving the quality, inclusion, children with disabilities,
correctional and pedagogical support.
Introduction
Currentlyin Kazakhstan, certain models of building theinclusive education systemare formulated
and the experience foritis accumulated. erefore, improving and enhancing the quality of educational
technologyis an essential part of ongoing nationalinclusive policies. In this regard, the quality ofinclusive
educationis seen as a problem, whichincludes a wide range ofissues, actions andinitiatives provided by
the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, the Salamanca
Declaration, the Dakar Framework for Action concept and the Conceptual approach to the development
ofinclusive educationin the Republic of Kazakhstan.
According to the Conceptual approach, the Kazakhstani model ofinclusive education does not
fully comply with the requirements and provisions adoptedin the world practice. Providinginclusive
education as a form of education for children with special needs, limits the ability of the organization
of educationin ensuring the availability of comprehensive programs of all categories of children with
special educational needs.
us, takinginto account all positive strategies of Kazakhstan³s system ofinclusive education,
traininginstitutions are stillin segregation; their nature and organizational structure arein contrast to
the principles of humanism, whichis the fundamental basis of acceptedinternational legal documents.
Methodology
Analysis of scientic literature shows that at the present stage, inclusionis the leading trendin
the development of the education systemin the whole world community. However, invarious
countriesinclusive education processis di²erentiated, takinginto account the specic socio-cultural
conditions (Malofeev N.
N., Shmatko
N.
D., KhazullinaI.
N., ZaretskyV.
K. et al).
¦ \b\t\r\f\t¨ ‘\r «¶‘ \r€\r ˆ» \r¤\t\r‘ Œ\f
«¤¦\r \r\t  \f\r\rš¨ ‘\f\b\t  \t\f\r¦ ˆ 
\f\r\r».
ˆ\r\r —\r‘-\t‘ ¦\f\r \t\r\f\r\r €\t\t  \r\f\r
\f €\f\r \t© €\bš¨ \fš\r\r \t\r \r‘ \tš:
ˆ\r\f \f\r¦¨ \r‘¨ \f \f\t \rŒ\t\f¨ \t €\f©
 \r‘  \f\rš \r€\r ‘ \b\f\r, \r\r\b \f¨
\r€\f\r \t\r, \r \r \t\t\b\r- SMM.
£ \r€\f\r \r €€\f
¨ €\f\f\r  š \f \r €\f€\t\r\rš , \r \t‘ \f\t.
2.
…‘\r ‘ €\r¦ ,  ‘ €\r¦ \b\f\r\r, \f\t\r
¨ ’‡™, \r\f\b¨ \f¦\f¨ \b\f\r\r, \t\r \r\f ¨ \f\rŒ
€\t \fŒ ®\f\r \r\f\r\f.
…‘\r ‘\r €\f€\t\r\r \rŒ\t\f¨ \b\t\r\f\t¨ ’\f  
Œ\f¦,  ‘ Œ\f¦ ¨\t \r\f\b.
‰\r\t\r\f \f\r\f \f\t\r¦¨   \r Œ\f¦, \f\r\t
¦ €\f\t \rŒ\t\f ŒŒ ¦\rš¨ \r¦ , \r\f \r\f€¨
—®œ ¬Ž.
Ž\r \f\r, \f\r\r¦ \r‘ ¦\f\r  \f\r\r \r\t \tš
 \t \t¨  €\f\t \r\b \r‘ \f\r¨ €\t\f\r\t
 Œ\rš\r, € ‘š €\f\tšš \r\rš¨ \t\r \f
\r, \r\f\rš \f\r \f\t \rŒ\t\f¨ \t Œ\rš\r.
…\f \f\f\r €\f\r \r‘ €\f\r \t\r,  \tš \r‘¨
\r€ \f¨ \f‘ ¦\rš¨ €\f\r, €\f\t © \t\r
‘ €\f,
  ‚ \t \r\t\r‘ \f \r\f\r \r ‘\rš
€\fŒ\rš š\f¨ \f \b\f\r\r.
; €\r¦ \r‘¨ \f\r €\f€\t\r\r \rŒ\t\f¨ \t, €\f\t© \t\r
\f\r\r €\t \r‘ €\f\r, \f \f\r¨ ¨€ \rŒ\r¦ \f\r¨;
\f\r\r¦ €\f\t Œ\rš \f\t €\r\t €\t\r \r\r \rŒ\t\f¨
ŒŒ ¦\rš¨ \r¦ ; \f\t‘ \f\rš¨ •Š .ƒ\r\t\f\r,
ƒ\r\t\f \f\r \r ™\f\r \r, ‹‡œ-˜\f\r .
\t.; \f\r\r¦ ‘\r €\f
\t €\fŒ\f\r¦ \f\r¨ š\r; \f\r \f\t\r¦¨  
\f\r\rš¨ ‘\f\b\t \r‘¨ \f\r\r¦.
Ž\f\r\t¦š \f¨ €\b €\r\r € \r\f€š \b \t¨ \rŒ
\t\f \fš\r¨ , ‘ \r \r\b, \f\r\rš \r‘ €\f\tš \f\t
\t \r‘-\t\rš \tš.
’ \f €¦ —®œ \t €\t\r \t ‘\r \f («\t
\r\t»)  \f\r \b\f\r \r\f\r («¡šŒ  \f¨», «\t\r€\f\f¨»
\t\f.), €\r\t\r €\b\f\r. Ž\r\b ®\f \f\f ¨€ ‘¨ €\f (\r¨,
\b\f\r¨, - \f\r\t¨€, \f\r\r €\f\t¦, ¨ €\f‘.). —\r\r\b \r
© \f\r¨ ®\f\r  \f\r\r¦ ‘-\r‘¨ \r‘¨ \t\r \t,
€\f\t \b\t¨ ’\f  («¬\f\r\f\r \t \r Œ\f¨ ˆ: \f\r\t¦ 
\fš», \r€\fš) \b\t\r\f\t¨ («›\rš \r\r\f €\f\f\r: €\f¨
€\f€¨», \t\r\fš) \t\b¨ Œ\f¦ , €\r¦ \f \r\f\r €\f
š\r\r ‚ Œ\f¦ .
œ \r \t \f\r\r¦ \r‘-\t‘ \f\r¨ \t\r-\b\f\r
\r \r\f \f. ¤\t \f\r\r \t ¨ \r€\f\r:
Разработка,
выпуск
и апробация
учебных
проектов
(студенческих
газет,
журналов,
радио
€\f\t\r‘, €\f\f\r, Š\f •Š).
Активизация
журналистского
творчества
(участие
и победы
в олимпиадах,
творческих
\f\r, Œ\f\r, Œ\r).
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\r€\f\r¦.
’ \r€\f\r ‘-\t‘ \f\r¨ —®œ Š¬Ž \r¨\r Œ\f\r¦,
\t‘, €\f\r‘ \f‘ €\t\t\f\b \f\t\r¦ €‘ \b\f\r\r
«—\r \t». •\f\t ‚ €\t\f\r\t \r\r \f\r\r¦ ‘\r \t 
\r \f \t¨ \b\f\r «\t\r€\f€\r», \r \f \t¨
\b\f\r «¤\t\b», \b\f\rš Œ\f «—\r \f XXI», \f\t\r
¦ \b\f\r\r «\f\rš», \r¨ «§Œ\f_free», \f\r\t «‰€\f» VIII \f¨ \f
\t\b¨ •Š.
‡€\f\r¦ \t‘ \b\f\r \f‘\r \f\r\r\r \t\r ‘¨ €\f
: ¦ \b\f\r\r («Eleganza»), ¦‘ \t\r («Š\t»), \f€\f\r
 \t\r («\f\rš, «Ÿ\ršOnline», «‰\r\rZ\r»), Œ\f\r¦ \t\r (\r¨
«’» «›\f© \f\t\f»), \t‘ \t\b Š\f-\f\r\t (\f\r\t «‰
€\f»), \f\r \r\f\r\r (\b¨ «•\t‘ ƒ›¤Š»), Œ\f\r¦ \f
\r (\b «®\f .Š.
’.
›»).
’ \f\r\r \tš \f‘ \r\f\r\f \r\r\b¨  \r\r €\fŒ\f\r
¦\r \f\r\r, €€\f\r¦ €\fŒ \b\f\r\r \f\t ‘\r©  \f\t\r \f\r \r.
¡ ‚ €\f\t ¦ «‡\rš¨ €\f¨ \b\f\r» \r‘-€\r\rš
\f «¤\t\r \r‘¨ \f¨ » \f\r\r ƒš ¡ —\r; \f š¨ \b\f
\r \f\r «\t\r€», \r\f-\r¨ \r\f¨¨ \f\r \t\b¨ •Š
«PRO\f¨» («1š: 10\f », «•¦\rš¨  •Š: \t\f, \f\r, \f»);
Œ\f ¨\r-€\f\r¦ €\f\r «¬\r\f\r\f \t  \f‘\r «Press-mobile»
\rŠ¦ Œ\f \f\r\r \f\r¨ ¤\f ¦€\rš \f\r\rš Œ\f
€\fŒ\rš¨ ¦š\f¨ \f\r, \f¨  €\f\t š \r€\f\r
. œ\t\r \rš  Œ¦\f\r  \f\r\r \r¦\r
\tšš, €©\r \r\rš \f\r\f¨ \t\r.
’ ‚ €\r \r‘¨ \t €‘ \f\r\rš¨ €\f\f\r \r \t\r \f
‘ \r‘-\t‘ ¦\f \r\f\r\f \r \t ‚ŒŒ¨ €\f\t¨
Œ\f \f\r¨ , \t\r© \bš €\f\rš \r\f\rš \r‘-\t
\rš \f\r \rŒ\t\f Œ\rš, € \f \f\rš \r\rš¨ \r€\f\r \tš
 €\fŒ\f-€\f€\t\r\rš \r\r, \r\r\b \t, ‘¨ \r‘ \f\t
\r; ¨ \f\r \r\r¨ \f\f¨ €\t\f\r\t \r ¨ \fš, €š
\r\t\r\f  \r\f \f\r\r €© Œ\t\r\rš¨ €\f\r\t¨ \t
\r , \r\r\b \r‘\r €\fŒ\rš¨ \r¨ \t \f\r¨ \r‘¨ \r, ‘
€\f\t \f\r\r¦ € €\t\t\r ‘.
’ \t\r \rš \f\r\f\r \fš Œ¦ \r‘-\t‘ ¦\f \f‘
\r\f\r\f \f\r\rš €\f¦ \r€\f\f \f\r\r¦ €\f\f\r¨ \b\f\r
\f\r\r ƒ\r\t\f \t\r\f €\t\r‘ \f.
™€ \r‘-\t‘ ¦\f \f‘ \r\f\r\f ƒ\r\t\f \f
 ‘\r  € Œ¦\f© —\r‘-\t‘ ¦\f \t\r\f\r\r
(—®œ) €\t\t  ¬\r\f\r\f \t  \f‘\r «Press-mobile» (¬Ž),
\f\f\r¨ \r\f\r ‘ \t, \r\r© \b\f\r €\fŒ,
€\f\r‘ €\fŒ\rš \tšš \r‘¨ \f.
\f\r \f\r\r \t\b š š \f‘  ¨
\t¦€, € €\f\r‘ \f\r  \r\f\r.
Š\t ‚, ¦š Œ¦\f\r ¦\f\r \r\f\r\f \r €\fŒ\rš
 \f‘ \f\r \t© \b\f\r, Œ\f\f\r  \r‘ €\t\t\r ‘\r
¨ \t¦€\r \b\f\r \tš.
ª \t, \f\r \rš  \bš \f\r \f\t\r \r Œ\f\r¦, \t
š \b\r \f\r\rš ‚ Œ\f,  \t\r \r \t € €\fš \f\rš  €\f
Œ\rš €\r. —‘ \r\t \t\b \t\rš \r, ‘¨ «€‘\r ¦\rš»
\t© \b\f\r \r €\f\rš \f €\t \r\t\b\r© \f. Ž\r €\t\t 
€\r \t© €\fŒ\r € \fš \t\t\rš €\f\f\r¨ ‘
\t \r\b\t \t\r, .
.  \rš ¨\f\r Œ\f \t€š \r\f\r\r,
Œ¦ —®œ ¬Ž ‚ €\f¦ \r‘\r © \f, \t\r
\r€\f¨ ‘ \f‘  .
’ \f\r\r \f\r¨ ®\f\r \r€¨ \f\r \f\rš \b\f\r \f\r\r\f\r \r
š\r €\f€ \r\rš \t\rš \r€\f\r. ŠŒ\f\r¦-\f\r¨
\f€\f\r¨ \b\f\r¨, \f\t\r €\f\r ¨€\r \r\f\r \t \r‘ ¨
€¦\r \r \r-\t\r. ¥¨ \b\f\r, ¨ €¦ (\r \r‘ , \r
\f ) \f\r\r\f\r ®\f \r \t \r\rš¨ \r€\f\r \f \r
\r-\t\r. •\f¨ \b\f\r \t¦, \f\r €¦\rXX\r €\f
\f \r€\f\r \f\r¨ \t\r. Ž\r\b \t \r  \f\r
¨ PR- \b ˆ,  \r\t\r€\r¦ ˆ  \f\r, \r \f\r¨ PR-\b
€\f ¨¨\r \f¨ \f \r‘ \b\f\r \f\t. Ž\r \f\r, \r‘-
\t\rš\r \rš €\f€\t\r\r \t, ‘¨ \f\r ®\f\r, \r 
‘\r, \r \t\r \f\r\r¦\r Œ\f\r ®\f\r, \r €\f\t\r, € ‚.
’  ¨\f\r¨ \r€\f\r \f\r¨ ®\f\r Œ\f\f €\r  \tš
 \r© \t, ‘\r©  \rš €\f\t ‘\r Œ\f¦ \f\r
‘ \f š \r\f\f\f …\f\rš Œ\t\f\rš \f\r, \r €\f\t\r;
\f\r\r¦ \r‘-€\f\r‘ Œ\f¦ €\f€\t\r\r \t \r\f\t Œ\rš
Sokolova Elena Alexandrovna,
Shadrinsk State Pedagogical University
Candidate of Philological Sciences, Associate Professor
E-mail: yasok@yandex.ru
—‘\r
’.
•¦ \f\r\r. – . : Š\t- ›…, 1992. – 200.
®
›.
‡.
¤\f¨ \r‘\r  \f\r\r ˆ: ¦\rš-ŒŒ \r\r//hp://
psibook.com/philosophy/problemy-kachestva-vuzovskogo-obrazovaniya-v-rossii-sotsialno-losofskiy-analiz.html
Sovereinigt die obengenannten Forschungen der Metafächerung das humanistische Herangehen
und die wertmäßige Behandlung an das Kind, die Pege seinerIndividualität, die Notwendigkeiten
seiner Anerkennung der Subjekterfahrung, die Begründung der aktiven Position des Schülersim
Ausbildungsprozess. Ungeachtet des Unterschiedsim Herangehen, die gegebenen Forschungen leisten
den wesentlichen Beitrag zu die Entwicklung der pädagogischen Wissenscha´ und derVervollkommnung
des Systems der Bildung.
ziehen“; die Bildung des Menschen soll mit der Erkenntnis der Erstbedeutungenverbunden sein; die
Erstbedeutungen dienen zu den Quellen der Bildung des Menschen; mit der Erstbedeutungen sind die
ewigen Problemeverbunden, die Lehrer mit den Schülern entscheiden müssen.
Der Autor glaubt, dass der metadisziplinäreInhalt der Bildungin der Grundlage die folgenden
Hauptsystemelemente haben soll: die grundlegenden Ausbildungsobjekte; die grundlegenden Ausbil
dungsprobleme, die sich zu den grundlegenden Objektenverhalten; die metadisziplinären Tätigkeits
arten, die sich zum Studium der grundlegenden Objekte und der Problemeverhalten; metadisziplinäre
Kompetenzbereiche, die Forderungen zurVorbereitung der Schüler sind.
Als die metadisziplinären Ausbildungsergebnisseversteht der Gelehrte die Ergebnisse der me
tadisziplinären Tätigkeit der Schülerim Laufe des Studiums der grundlegenden Ausbildungsobjekte.
Die metadisziplinären Ausbildungsergebnisse haben, seiner Meinung nach, zwei Formen äußerlich
(dievom Schüler gescha²ene Ausbildungsproduktion) undinnere (die Persönlichkeitsqualitäten des
Schülers das Wissen, die Fähigkeit, die Begabung, das Kompetenzbereich).
Andere Forschungsherangehen bezüglich des Problems der Metafächerung sind auchinteressant. So
liegt, zum Beispiel, zugrunde desVerfasser-Programms der schöpferischeninterdisziplinären Ausbildung
½Begabtes Kind“ von N.
B.
Schumakowa das Modell der thematischeninterdisziplinärenIntegration.
Dasvorliegende Modell hat seinen Ursprungin denIdeenvon W.
P.
Wachterow, S.
Hessens, J.
Dewey,
W.
W.
Senkowskij, W.
F.
Odojewskij. Die Ausbildungimvorliegenden Modellist wie der schöpferische
Prozess der Forschung und der Entdeckung des Wissens über die Umweltvorgestellt. Aufgrund der
Betrachtungverschiedener Modelle der schöpferischen Ausbildung folgert der Autor darüber, dass für
die Entwicklung desinnerlich motivierten schöpferischen Denkens, der schöpferischenVerhaltung zur
Realität die Bildung des ausbildungs-entwickelnden Systems, das die Erkenntnis wie die Erfassung der
Welt bei dem Kind bedingt, notwendigist. In diesem Zusammenhang, nach Meinung des Gelehrten, die
Forschungsaktivität des Kindes wird wie die Haupterscheinungsform der Kreativität betrachtet, die die
Erfassung der Welt gewährleistet, und eine Grundlage der Ausbildung wird die Methode der Forschung.
Das Wesen des Herangehensvon O.
G.
Seliwanowa, derVerfasserin der Konzeption der Entwick
lung der Subjektivität des Schülersin der Lehrtätigkeit, zumVerständnis der Metafächerung bestehtin
der Absonderung der Komponenten und der Niveaus der Metafächerung.
Als Komponenten bestimmt dieVerfasserin das Metawissen wie die grundlegende philosophische
und gesamtwissenscha´liche Kategorien; die Metafähigkeiten wie die universellen Weisen der Tätigkeit;
die Werte wie die geistigen-moralischen und ethischen Orientierungspunkte für die Aneignungvom
Schüler der Persönlichkeitssinne.
Nach unserem Gedanken, wichtig sind dieIdee des Gelehrten darüber, dass sich die Errungen
scha´vom Schüler der metadisziplinären Ergebnisse miels der stufenweisen Aneignung der fol
genden Niveausverwirklicht: innendisziplinäres, interdisziplinäres und oberdisziplinäres. ½Dasin
nendisziplinäre Niveau bedeutet die Aufnahme derinnendisziplinären undinnenkursVerbindungen
beim Studium der Objekte und der Erscheinungen, die Erschließung der Dynamikihrer Entwicklung;
dasinterdisziplinäre Niveau bedeutet die Betrachtung der studierten Erscheinung und des Objek
tesvonverschiedenen Seiten miels der Aufnahme derinterdisziplinären Beziehungen und derInte
gration desInhalts des Lehrmaterials und der Methoden der Erkenntnis; das oberdisziplinäre Niveau
lässt es zu, auf das philosophische Niveau desVerständnisses der Wechselbeziehungenim System
½Mensch-Natur-Gesellscha´“ hinauszugehen
. Der Gelehrte bemerkt auch die Besonderheiten der
Realisierung der Komponenten der Metafächerunginverschiedenen Stufen der Ausbildung. Die
Komponenten und die Niveaus der Metafächerung sindinvariant für eine beliebige Stufe der Ausbil
dung, die Besonderheiten hatihre Produktivität.
Seliwanowa
O.
G.
Metadisziplinäre Ergebnisse der Ausbildungstätigkeit der Schüler und die Weisenihrer
Errungenscha´. – Schri´enreihe PetrSU. – ±4. – 2014.
Knjazeva Tatiana Gennadievna,
Wjatka Staatliche Universität,
Aspirant, die Fakultät für Pädagogik
E-mail: artemot@mail.ru
IE
NALY
E DER P
YC
OLO
EN
EN DE
ETADI
ZIPLINREN
IN DER
Eine der Besonderheiten des Standards der allgemeinen Bildungist der Einschlussin seinenInhalt
des Begri²es der Metafächerung. Es bedeutet, dassin den modernen Bedingungen jeder Lehrer geeig
netist, die Erreichung mit den Schülern der metadisziplinären Ausbildungsergebnisse zuverscha²en. In
der Konzeption des föderalen staatlichen Ausbildungsstandards
unter den metadisziplinären Ergebnis
sen werden angeeignet ausgebildet auf Grundvon einem, einiger oder aller Lehrfächer die Weisen der
Tätigkeit, anwendbar wieim Rahmen des Ausbildungsprozesses, als auch bei der Lösung der Problemein
den realen lebenswichtigen Situationenverstanden. Gerade diese Umstände hat das Problem unserer
Forschung bedingt wie den Pädagogen zur Realisierung des metadisziplinären Herangehens unter
den Bedingungen der modernen Schulevorzubereiten.
Die theoretischevon uns durchgeführte Analyse der psychologisch-pädagogischen Forschungen
hatvorgeführt, dass die Rolle derIdeologen und der Realisatoren des metadisziplinären Herangehensvor
allem zwei einheimische Schulen beanspruchen: die, von Jurij Wjatscheslawowitsch Gromyko undvon
Andrej Wiktorowitsch Chutorskoj.
Die Pädagogik des gedanklichen und wirkenden Herangehensvon Ju.
W.
Gromykoist eine Fort
setzung der eorie der entwickelnden Ausbildungvon W.
W.
Dawydow. In den Rahmen der Pädagogik
des gedanklichen und wirkenden Herangehensist eine Serie der Kurse, die auf die Bildung des theore
tischen Denkens der Schüler gezielt sind, entwickelt und approbiert. Ein zentrales Glied hier sind die
Metafächer. Der Autor bietet den Typ des gedanklichen und wirkenden Herangehens zurIntegration
des traditionellen Lehrmaterials an. Unserer Ansicht nach, esist wichtig, dass der Universalismus der
MetafächerimVerständnis des Autors bestehtin der Ausbildung der Schüler den allgemeinenVerfahren,
Techniken, Schemen, Mustern der gedanklichen Arbeit, die über den Fächer sich benden, aber die bei
der Arbeit mit einem beliebigen Aufgabenmaterial wiedergegeben werden. Daraus wird die Metafäche
rung wie das Prinzip, zugrunde der Lehrfächer des neuen Typs gelegt, betrachtet.
Die wissenscha´liche Schulevon A.
W.
Chutorskoj stellt das metadisziplinäre Herangehenvon
den Positionen der menschengerechten Bildung dar, die entwickelt wird und wirdvom Autor mehr als
20Jahre realisiert. Das Prinzip der Metafächerung der Bildung gehört als einer der Führungsprinzipen zu
der experimental entwickelten und approbierten Methodik der Ausbildung, die auf die Erkenntnis und
die Erö²nung bei dem Schüler des Wesens der grundlegenden Ausbildungsobjekte, diein das beliebigen
Lehrfach undihm entsprechenden Gebiet der Realitätvorhanden sind, ausgerichtetist.
Nach unserer Meinung, am meisten bedeutsamist dieIdeevon A.
W.
Chutorskoj darüber, dass ½die
Metafächerungist nicht nur die Tätigkeit, auf diein jetzigerVersion der Standards die Metafächerung
zurückgeführt wird, sondern auch derInhalt“
. Der Gelehrte sondert die folgende Gründungen der
Projektierung des metadisziplinärenInhalts der Bildung ab: die Existenz der einheitlichen Grundlagen-
Erstbedeutungen, die alle Erscheinungen der Umwelt zu den allgemeinen Gründungen ½zusammen
Konzeption der föderalen staatlichen Ausbildungsstandards der allgemeinen Bildung.
Chutorskoj
A.
W.
Das metadisziplinäre Herangehenin der Ausbildung: die Wissenscha´lich-methodisches
Hilfsbuch. – : Verlag «Eidos»; Verlag desInstitutes der Bildung des Menschen, 2012. – 73S. (Serie «Neue
Standards»).
Historically, the emergence of professionalvalues asinternal benchmarks, which are realized by a
teacherin his professional activity, is associated with the emergence and formation of the teaching profes
sion. However, professionalvalues are not static. In the process of their development professionalvalues
are transformed, depending on the historical period: manyvalues disappear, losing their relevance, and
newvalues appear, their hierarchy changes.
Today the structure of professionalvalues of teachers has signicant changes. e reasons ofit are
democratic reformsin our society, a new social order, informatization and humanization of modern
education.
E.
N.
Shiyanov distinguishes the following groups of pedagogicalvalues:
1) values, which are associated with the approval of the personality ofits rolein the social and
professional sphere (the social signicance of the work of a teacher, the prestige of pedagogical activity,
recognition of the profession by theimmediate surroundings, etc.);
2) values, that satisfy the need for communication and expandits dimension (communication with
children, colleagues, reference people, experiencing the children³s love and a²ection, the exchange of
spiritualvalues, etc.);
3) values, which focus on the self-development of the creative personality (the opportunities for
the development of professional and creative skills, introduction to the world culture, the favorite oc
cupation, constant learning, etc.);
4) values, that allow to carry out constant self-actualization (the creative nature of the work of the
teacher, the romance and the fascination of the profession, the opportunities to help socially disadvan
taged children, etc.);
5) values, which give you the chance to meet the pragmatic needs of (the possibility to get a guar
anteed service, salary and the duration of thevacation time, a track record, etc.).
e obtainment of professionalvalues of a specialist starts at the moment of choice and mastery of
the pedagogical profession, and continues throughout the career. e obtainment of professionalvalues
assumes the awareness of belonging to a specic professional community; the change of aitude towards
yourself as a professional; changesin theinside subjective professionalideals; the change of the criteria
of the profession³s choice; knowledge of strengths and weaknesses, ways ofimprovement, the probable
areas of success and failure.
us, theissues, relating to professionalvalues of the teacher are becoming more and moreimpor
tant now. Professionalvalues play a crucial rolein the formation of a specialist, act as the highest level of
the regulation of human behavior, express the direction of hisinterests and needs, determine theinher
entinstallation and motivationin the sphere of the professional activity.
References:
¡\f\r
ª.
’.
Ÿ\f\f\r €\fŒ\rš €\t\r‘ \f\f \t
© ‘: \t. · \r\t. €\t. \r:13.00.08/ª\r\f\r ’\r\t\f\r ¡\f\r; ‡\f\r.
. -.
– ‡\f\r\rš., 2003.
– 175.
Š\r
Ÿ.
•¨ \r\r €\fŒ\rš €\t\r‘ š\f¨: •\f\f\r, \f
\f, \f//¤\t\r‘\r \r\r \f\r\r: —\r‘¨ \t\r\t¨ \r\r\t ‘

\f\f€\t ‡\r\t €\t\r‘ ¦\rš¨ \r. .
– ‰\f\t, 1998.
•.28–46.
•\r
’.
‡., Š\r
Ÿ., ©
‡.
Š., ƒ
ª.
¤\t\r\r: ‘ € \t
\t €\t\r‘ ‘¨ \r\t .
– .: ƒ\r-¤\f, 1997.
ƒ
ª.
›\r\r¦ €\fŒ\rš \r €\t\r\r//•\r €\t\r\r.
1991. ±9. •.30–34.
Dmitrieva EkaterinaVladimirovna,
South Federal University,
Senior lecturer, theInstitute of philology,
journalism andintercultural communications
E-mail: Gleb75_2007@mail.ru
IONAL
ALUE
S
TEAC
A modern dynamic society requires signicant reconstructioninvarious spheres of human life
and activity, including the sphere of education. e change of educational paradigms, the extensive use
of newinformation technologies, the application of new forms and methods of teaching have a signi
cantimpact on the pedagogical process. ese changesincreasingly a²ect teachers, their professional
activities and also their personal qualities.
Training of future teachers, whichis based on the traditional paradigm, becomesine²ective for
geing teacher³s professionalismin the modern world. In order toimplement the successful pedagogical
activity the future teachers require not only a certain set of knowledge and skills, which are acquiredin
universities, but they also require a formed system of professionalvalues, comprehension of the nature
of their professional activities and willingness toimplement the professional activity.
Professionalvalues have become the subject of study ofvarious scientists (I.
D.
Bagaeva, G.
P.
Mikhe
eva, S.
V.
Novikov, V.
A.
Slastenin, I.
F.
Isaev, E.
N.
Shiyanov, N.
M.
Khvastunova and others).
Many researchers consider that professional and personal human developmentisinseparable from
each other. e structure of professional activity andits contentvary according to the personal growth
of a specialist, who nds new aspects and meaningsinit.
evaluable orientations express the conscious person³s aitude to the social reality and determine
the motivation of the behavior and signicantly a²ect all aspects of the professional activity. You caniden
tify which targets the professional activityis aimed to, if you nd out the structure ofvalue orientations,
their combination and preferences.
us, professionalvalues are o´en considered as anintegral componentin the training and profes
sional development of a modern teacher. e professionalvalues are objects, phenomena and properties,
which are necessary for the society and the personality as a means to meet personal and social needs.
ey are formedin the process of development of personal social experience and are reectedin goals,
beliefs, ideals andinterests.
Professionalvalues are the benchmarks and using them a person chooses, develops and carries out
his professional activity. Itis also a means for personal and social-signicant result of any professional
activity.
us, the training processin the pedagogical universitiesis aimed not only at the formation of pro
fessional competence of a specialist, but also at the formation of the teacher professionalvalues. Formed
professionalvalues become the basis of the humanistic position of a teacher and determine the nature of
the construction of the relationship between the subjects of the educational process.
3\f\r \t-€\fŒ\r‘ Œ\rš\r. Š €©\f, €‘†¨ \f\r¨, \r\t\r\f
š …€\f\r Ÿ\t\f\rš \b¨ €\r\t\f Œ\f \r©¨ €\f\r €\f \r
€‘ ‘\r €Š\f \r, \r\r\b €‘† \f\r \f\r \t\f\r\f\r
\f€ Ž¨\r (2013.). ’2011\t \r\f\r\b\t\r €\r¨ \r «Š\f
350». ¥
€\fŒ\f ˆ  ‡\r\t ª\r (ˆ‡ª).
’ \r‘ ‘ š, ‘ \rŒ\t\f\r Œ\r\f\r  ¨ \r‘¨ €¦\r
\r † \f\r\r €\r© \f, \r \r \f¨ \r\t ‘ š
\r\f Œ\t\r ’‘ •\f, Œ\r\f\r‘   \t  €\f€\r\f\r
\f\r‘¨ \f€€ \r  \f¨, \r €\r. £ €\t\f\b\t\r , ‘  
\f\t\r \rŒ\t\f¨ \r©©  20\r\t\t\r \t\f \t\f\r¦ , €\r
 700\r‘¨ \f\t, ‘ \r‘š €\r €\f\t\b \f\r Œ\r\f\r
\r \r † \t\f €\f\r‘ \t\f\r\f\r.
 \f  :
œ\t¦
‡.
¡.. Š\f \f\r‘ Œ\r\f\r¦‘ \t\r ’‘ •\f (’\r\t
¤š Œ\r\f\rXIX– XX\r): \f \r – Š\f: œœ ŸŠœ, 2012.
– •.8–9.
¬\r
‡.
Š\f‘ \r€¨ \r Œ\r\f\r ’‘ •\f: \f
 \r , €©¨ \rŒ\t\f Œ\r\f\r ›‰œ… ’¤œ Š›…– Š\f: Š\f
\t\r\f¨ \t¦ \f, 2012.
– •.3–33.
¬\r
‡.
Š. ™\f ‘  \t¦¨ \f\t\r Œ\r\f\r ›‰œ…
’¤œ Š›…//•\f \t¦ \b\f\r.
– ±1– •.103–105.
¬\r
‡.
Š., …
¬.
‡., ™\r
¬.
‰., œ\t¦
‡.
¡.
•\f\t \rŒ\t\f¨ Œ\r\f\r
\t¦ \f\r– ‘\r €\f \f  ¨. •† •\f ˆ\r
‘//•\f \t¦ \b\f\r.
– •.3.
•Œ\r\r
›.
§., \r\r
¬.
—., ¬\r
‡.
Š\f‘ ‘\f \r\t© \rŒ\t\f
Œ\r\f\r Š›…, €‘† €\fŒ\f-Œ\r\f\r,  €‚ \b€¦
¬.
‡.
…//•\f \t¦ \b\f\r.
– •.125–128.
’ \f \f 1992–1997. Š\f \t¦   † 75

\f € ‚ €‘ \r \t¦ \f\r. ¤\r\t¦\rš \t\f \t
\f\r¦ ¨ \r©©¨ €\f\t €\f\f\f\r €\r ¬.
‡.
…\r. ’‚\b €\f\t \t¦
¬.
›.
\f \r© \t\f \t\f\r¦ ¨ \f\r €\fŒ\f \rŒ\t\f¨ ‘
Œ\r\f\r.
• 1995. \rŒ\t\f \r‘\r ¨ ‚\r€ —Šˆ ‘ \f¦€\f¨ \r \t 
\r\f¨ © \r€\f\f  \f€\f\f ‚ŒŒ\r €\f  \r. ’‚ \f
\t\r \r€\f\r \f\r\r \r ¬.
\r\r, ‘\r \r©¨ ‚ŒŒ ¨
\r \r\t¨ \f¦€\f €\f €   \r
. ’‚ €\f\t \r\t
\t\r\r \r \r ›.
§.
•Œ\r\r, ¬.
§.
Ÿš, œ.
™†¦.
—\r \f ‚\r€ \r\rŒ\t\f Œ\r\f\r \f\tš:
›.
§.
•Œ\r\r, \r‘\r ‘¨ Œ\rš 1989. •1989.
 \r \rŒ\t\f¨
Œ\r\f\r Š›…. •1992.
 \r‘ \r€\f\r\f, \r\f\r \t\r\f €\t ˆŸ
\t \t¨ ‘†¨. ’1995. \t\f‘ \r©\r \r\t\t\r \t\f\r¦. •2000.
 \t¦
\rŒ\t\f¨, \f\tš \r‘ \f\r¨ \t. ’2003\t \r©\r \t\f \t\f\r
¦. •2006\t\r \t\b €\fŒ\f\r \rŒ\t\f¨ Œ\r\f\r Š›…, \r2007€2009.
\r\t©\r ‚ \rŒ\t\f . ‡\f 130€‘\r¨ \f\r, .
‘. \t \f\rŒ, \f† €\r
\r\f. ¤\t \f\t ›.
§.
•Œ\r \r©© 3\r\t\t\r \t\f\r¦.
• \f 2009€\fš 2014. \rŒ\t\f Œ\r\f\r Š›… \r\t\r ‡.
¬\r
\r\t\t\r Œ\r\f\r¦‘ \r, \t¦. ¤\f\t š \r‘ \f\r, €\r 
\r \r‘¨ \f\r (2\f\rŒ),  4€\r\r \r\f, 3\f\r¦\r\r\f €\f\t
\b. •\t¨ €\t \f\t ‡.
¬¨ \t\f\r ‘\r\r Œ\f¦
\f\r‘ \f (.Š\f, .™\f\r\f, .—\f) (\b\t\r\f\t¨ ,
…\f\r\r), € \r‘¨ \t\r ( ‘ €\f‘ ’¨ \r\r¦ 
 ˆŸ). ¤\t \f\t ‡ Š\r‘\r ¬¨ \r©©\r 1\r\t\t\r\r \t\f\r¦
(‡.
¡.
œ\t¦ «Ÿ\r\f\r‘ ‘ ‚\f\r\r \f\r ‘», \r©
\f ‡.
¡.
œ\t¦ \r \rŒ\t\f¨ Œ\r\f\r). ‡.
¬\r \r\f\r\b\t† €‘†¨ \f\r
\r \r, \f  \b\t\r\f\t \f , \t\rš ˆ\f\r ™\r ª\f€ 
‡\r\t ª¨ \r. ¤ ¨ š\r ¨\b\t ¨ \rš . ™\f\r\t\r\f
(\fš 2014.).
• \f 2014. \rŒ\t\f Œ\r\f\r Š›… \r\t ¬.
\r\r, \f\r 1986\t
‘\r \r\r\f-‘ Œ\rš Š›Š.
¤ ‘\r \f\r\r\r \f\r‘ €
 \f\t\r \r\r\f-‚€\t‘ \r¦ . ™\r ™\f\r\f \f\r, \r\r .
Š\f. •1989\t\r ¨\r €\f\r\r \r\f\r \r \rŒ\t\f¨ Œ\r\f\r Š›Š
‘\f 4\t\r \r©\r \r\t\t\r \t\f\r¦ €: «§\r‘ \f\r¨ €\t€ \r\t
¨ \f¦€\f \t \f\r  \r € » €€¦\rš
«Œ\r\f\r, ‘\r Œ\r\f\r» €\t \f\t \t.
.., €\fŒ. ™
’.
’€\f\t 2007–2011. \f\r\r\r \r\t \t\f \t\f\r¦ «Ÿ\r\f\r‘ \r¨
 \f€\f\f ‚ŒŒ\r \r \f\r¨ €\t€ \r\t¨ \f¦€\f €‘
 €\f\t¦\f\r €\f \rš   \r». œ\r  \r\f
 \r \r‘¨ \t‘ €\r¦ , \t \f\rŒ \r\t\r \t \t
\f \r\f\r¦\r\r\f €\f\t\b. ’2007\t €‘\r ‘† \r \t¦\r €\r
Œ\t\f Œ\r\f\r. ¥ \f\t \t€¨ \t\rš \f\r \t
\r‘ \f\b.  \t \r © \f\r, ¨\r ©¨ \t\r
¬\r
‡.
Š\f‘ \r€¨ \r Œ\r\f\r ’‘ •\f: \f \r ,
€©¨ \rŒ\t\f Œ\r\f\r ›‰œ… ’¤œ Š›… – Š\f: Š\f \t\r\f¨ \t¦
\f, 2012. – •.9.
‡\r\r \r\f\t‘ \t , \r\r\b  €\f†‘ \t  (¬.
‰.
™\r,
1973.)
¡\rš  \t\r ¨ \r€\f\r¨ \r‘  \t  \r\r
¨ €\f€\r\f\r \r \f \r  ‚€\f\rš €\r.
’\r‘ \t ¨ \f\r ¨ \f \r\f\t\r €\t© \r\f\t¨ 
(¬.
›.
\f, 1974.). ‰¨ \r, ‘ €\f \r\f\t  €\f \r€\f\f¨
€\f€\r\f\r \r‚ŒŒ, \f\t ‘\r €\r \t \f\r\r (›.
›.
ˆ\r\t\r), \r\f\t‘
\f\t\r \t €\fš ‘\r \t\f\r\f©, \r\r\b , ‘ \t ‚
Œ\r €\fŒ\r‘ ¦š š\r €\fŒ\f  €\f† 15

 \r \b¨. £ \t\r† \fš† \r \t €\f\t\r¦ š¨ €\f\t €\f\r
¦ \r\r\f\rš¨ \t\r \r. Š‘\rš \t  ‚Œ\r, €\r€\r\f\r \r\r
 ‚€\f\rš \f‘\f€ \f\f\r, \rš \r\f \f¦
\t \r  \r \f\rš \r\t\f\f‘ \f \r \t\r.
™ 1983. \r\rŒ\t\f \f\tš: €\fŒ\f ¬.
‡.
…, \t¦¨ .
›.
\f, ›.
›.
ˆ\r\t\r,
¡.
\r, \r¨ ¬.
‰.
™\r, ˆ.
’.
Žš\r, ª.
ª, ‡.
•.
›©, œ.
˜.
¡©
, \r€\f\r —.
’.
’\f\r. ’1981. . ’\r\t \r© \r\t\t\r \t\f\r¦ \f\r
\t\r \r\r¬.
‰.
™\r ‡.
•.
›©, \r1983. ¨\r \r©©\r \t\f\r \t\f\r¦
\t¦\r ¬.
›.
\f\r. ¬.
‰.
™\r \t\r\r  \f\r\r ‚Œ\r \r\rš¨
\f \r \r, \r‡.
•.
›©  \r\r \r\rš¨ \rš¨ \f
  €\f \r\f\r\t\rš \f\f\r. ’1985. ¶ \r€‘ €\f\r
€\f\r\r \r‘\r\r \f\r\rš \r \rŒ\t\f¨ œ.
™†¦. ’1989. \r ¨\r \r‘\r \r€
\f\r\f €\f \rŒ\t\f € \r©\r \r\t\t\r \t\f\r¦ €\t  \r\f
\rš¦ €\f ‚€\f\rš €\r  \f\f\r©.
’ 1985. \r\r \rŒ\t\f¨ Œ\r\f\r ¨\t\rš \rŒ\t\f\r ‘ Œ\r\f\r
 \r: €\fŒ\f\r ¬.
›.
\f\r, \t¦\r ›.
›.
ˆ\r\t\r\r, \r\r —.
’.
’\f\r, \f\r
1986. \r©\r \r\t\t\r \t\f\r¦ ™\r\r, \r© \f \r\t \rŒ\t\f
‘ Œ\r\f\r ›Š¡…’. ›\t €\t \rŒ\t\f¨ Œ\r\f\r \t¦ ¡.
\r
¨\r €\f\t\r \r\rŒ\t\f ‘ Œ\r\f\r Š\f ›Š¡…’\r. ™‚ \f
\r\t© ‚ \rŒ\t\f¨ \b \f\r\r ‡.
•.
›©
’ 1992–1993. \r \f\r€\r \rŒ\t\f¨ ‘\r 7,5\t¦,  ‘ \r
œ.
™†¦, ›.
§.
•Œ\r ¬.
\r. ¬.
‰.
™\r €‘\r \t\bš \r\f €\f
€\t\r\r 1983\t \r ‘ \f\r \rŒ\t\f¨, \f\r\f\r\r¨\r \t‘ € \t
€\f€\t\r\r \t. ¡¦ €\f\t† ª.
ª. §\r\t© \rŒ\t\f Œ\r\f\r
 €\fŒ\f ¬.
‡.
… 1992€1997\t¨ ¨ €\f\f\f Š›Š (Š›…) €—Šˆ
• 1985€1991\t¨ \r ›.
§.
•Œ\r\r ‘\r\r €\f¨  \r\f¨
\f\t \rš¨ \r \r ‘\f  ¨\r €¦Œ‘ \f¦€\f\r
\r\r ‘ €\f ‚ Œ¦ \f\r\r  . ’‚\b \f \r
¬.
§.
‰¨\r \r\r\rš \t\r Œ\r\f\r‘ \t  \r \f
\r\f \rš¦¨ \r\r \f\r\r \r\f €\f  ‘\r €\f 
€\r \r. §\r20 (1972€1992.) \r\rŒ\t\f Œ\r\f\r \r\f\f\f\r 
\t \f , €©†¨ Œ\r\f\r\f\f¦ \r\f  \f\r, 
€\f\r\r\t , \r\r\b Œ\r\f\r €\r\t.
¬\r
‡.
Š. Š\f‘ \r€¨ \r Œ\r\f\r ’‘ •\f: \f \r ,
€©¨ \rŒ\t\f Œ\r\f\r ›‰œ… ’¤œ Š›… – Š\f: Š\f \t\r\f¨ \t¦
\f, 2012. – •.6.
Ž\r \b. – •.7–8.
Ž\r \b. – •.8.
\r‘\r\r \t \r\r\fŒ¨. ’‚€\f \r\b¨ ¨ \r\b \f¨ «Œ 
\r», \t\r €\f\t\b\r©\r \fŒ \r\t\r\r\f €\f\r\r\r \r¨\rš ‚ŒŒ.
‰¨ \r\b \r ‘ ‚\f‘ \r\r \r  ¨\f \r
  Œ¦ €\f\r \f\r¨ ‘.
¬.
‡.
… €\f\r\t\b  \t \r‘¨ €\r¦ ,   \r\t\r
‘¨\f† \r\f \tš, š €\r \r\f š \tš \f\r
¦\r\r\f €\f\t\b. •1962.
 \t¦ \rŒ\t\f¨ Œ\r\f\r ŽŠ. ’1972.
\f\r \r\t\bš \r\t© \rŒ\t\f Œ\r\f\r Š›Š, \f \r\t\r 35.
’1974\t ¬ ‡‘ ¨ \f\b\t† € \t\f\r \t¦ \r \r €\fŒ
\f. ¤\t  \f\t €\t \tš \r\t\t\r \t¦ \r \t\r \t\f\r
\t¦ \r,  €Œ\r\f\r\f\f¦  \f\f\r© ¦\f\f
€\f\f ‚ŒŒ \r\f. ¬.
‡.
… ¨ €\f\t\t\r ›£™ Š›… ¨\t .
Ž,  ‘ \f\t «•\f \t¦ \b\f\r\r» \b\f\r\r «£
€\f\rš\r ‘\r Œ\r\f\r», \t \r €\f . ¬ ‡
‘ \r \f\r\r \r …‘† •\r Š›…. œ \r\f \t\r\t¦\r €‚‘
\f, \f š €‚, \r\r\b \r Œ\r\f\r¦‘ Œ\rš\r
Š›…. Š €\f€¦\r \r\r \f\rŒ —.
ƒ\r\f\r, \f¨ Œ\r¨ \f\rŒ
‡.
’.
™‘\r\r, €€\f\r \f 1918\t ¨ \r Š\f …\f. •2005.
¬.
‡.
… €‘†¨ €\fŒ\f Š›….
’ 1972. ¦ \r€\f\r\f¨ \f, \r© \r\t\t\r \t\f\r¦, ›.
›.
ˆ\r\t\r,
\r\t\bš \r\r ¨ €\f \f\r‘-\r\f ª.
ª, ‘\f \t ¦ \r€\f\r
\f¨ \fš, \r\f \r© \r\t\t\r \t\f\r¦ ¡.
\r ’.
•.
›\f\r.
’‚\b \t €\f \r\t\bš \r\r \f\r .
.. ¬.
›.
\f, \f\r\r \f\r
•€\r\r \t¦  (1975.  €\f \f\r \r\t\bš
\t¦\r \rŒ\t\f¨), 1973. ˆ.
’.
Žš \r©©\r \t\f\r¦ \r «\r\f\r¨ 
‘ € \t\r \t  ‘¦\r ».
’ 70
¨ \t¨ \t\r \rŒ\t\f¨ ¨ €©¨ ‘  \fŒ\r\r, 
\r¦ \r\t\f, \r\r, €\f\t \r\t\r €\f ‚€\f\rš
\r\f\t  (›.
›.
ˆ\r\t\r, 1972.), €\f€ € \r \t 
\r\rš (¡.
\r, 1973.),   \f\f€¨ \f\t \r\f¨ \r¨
\f¦ \t \r (’.
•.
›\f\r, 1973.) \r\r\f\fŒ\f \f¦
\f\f\r©  \t\f\r  \f €\f (ª.
ª, 1978.)
Ž\r \f\r, \f\t¨ 20
¨ \t70
¨ \t \r‘\r \f\r\r \r\rŒ\t\f \rš: \r) €€\f
 \r\f\r; ) €\r\f¨ \f\r ’‘ •\f. ™\rŒ\t\f Œ\r\f\r 
\t\rš Œ\r\f\r‘  \r \r \r , \t \f\r¦ , ‘¦\r
, €, \f\t\t\t\f  \t\r\f, \f€\r, \f‘¦¨, \f¦\r
\f, \r€\f, \r\t¨\r \r , \f†, š\r ‡\r\r  \t\f. ‰š\r
‘\rš ‚ \f\r \t\f\r \t¦ €\f\r.
• 1972\t\r \r‘\r \f\r\r \rŒ\t\f¨ ¦\f\f\r\r \r€\f Œ\r\f\r‘
\f¦  \f\f\r© \r \t \r. £ €©\r \t\f\r \t
\f\r¦, ¨€\r ¬.
›.
\f, \r\t\t\r \t\f\r¦ \r ¬.
‰.
™
\r€\f\r\r ‡.
•.
›©\r, \r\r\b €\r¨ \f\r¨  \r. Š‘ \r\r¨
\r\f\t\f€¨ €\f€\r\f\r \r   \r‘¨ \f\r, €\f\t¨ \rŒ\t\f . ™\f
, €\f\t\b\rš \t\r \f \f\r . ‰¨ ‘ \t  Œ\r\t š\r
¬\r
‡.
Š\f‘ \r€¨ \r Œ\r\f\r ’‘ •\f: \f \r ,
€©¨ \rŒ\t\f Œ\r\f\r ›‰œ… ’¤œ Š›… – Š\f: Š\f \t\r\f¨ \t¦
\f, 2012. – •.6.
1966.), «\r\f\r¨ Œ\r\f\r ‘\r \r\r» (ˆ.
’.
Žš\r, 1972.), •.
¡.
Ž\f
¦ •.
ˆ.
•† \t\r \f\t \f\t \r\t\r\f\r¦ š\f¨ \f\r (€\f€\f\r
\r€\f\r \t\f.).
’ 1967. € \f €\fŒ\f\r •.
ˆ.
•†\r \rŒ\t\f €\f‘ \r\t\rš ’.
™.
¬
\b.
’.
™.
¬\b , \t ¨\t\r© \r‘¨ \t \r Œ\r\f\r, .
..,
\t¦, \f ‘ Š›Š \f\r\r \r\f €© ’‘ •\f
€\f\r \f\r\b\t\r \r\r¦ (1939.). ¤ ‘\r Š›Š ¨ €\f \r\t\bš
\r‘\rš\r \t-\r\r\f \b¨ ’‘ •\f €\f\r \f\r\b\t\r \r\r¦
(1942.), €\f\t  \r‘¨ \f €\f† \r\rŒ\t\f Œ\r\f\r Š›Š \r‘
\r\r, \t  \r\r \f\t \r‘ \f\r¨ \r €\fŒ\f •†
•.
ˆ.
ª
‘ €\f\r \r\f¨ \f\r •\f   \r\t\t\r \t\f\r¦
«™€\f Œ\r\f\r‘ \t  \t \f\r¦ », \r©©†  1958, \f\r
\r €\f€\t\r\r \r\rŒ\t\f Œ\r\f\r Š›Š \t\b \t¦\r, €\f\r ‘\r
\r‘¨ Œ\f¦ Œ, , Œ\r\f\r •\f ’ Œ\f
¦ €Œ\r\f\r . ’\f\r\t. •1967€1972. \r\t\r \rŒ\t\f Œ\r\f\r Š›Š.
§\r  \t\b \f\t \r‘ \tš ¨ \r\f\r\b\t† \t\rš «§\r\t
¨ \f\t» \r‘ «œ‘ \t\f\r\f\r», €‘ \r\t\r\fš \f\r \t\f\r
\f\r •••ˆ.
Ž\r \f\r, €\f €XX\r \f\t \rŒ\t\f¨ Š›Š \f\r \r
\r\r¨š \t\t\ršš  \t¦¨, \r\tš † ‘, \r\r\b
€\f \f \f\r €\r\r¦ \f\t \t ‘ \rŒ\r‘ \r\f\r
( ‘ \f\r ’‘ •\f).
’ 1972\t \r\rŒ\t\f \f\r €\f š \r\t\f¨ : \r€ €\f\t
.
.. —.
ª.
¡\r,  \b •.
¡.
Ž\f¦, .
. \r. \rŒ\t\f \t¦ ’.
™.
¬\b .
™‚ \f €\f \r\r\t\r \rŒ\t\f Œ\r\f\r ¨ \f\r \t\f \t¦
 \r ¬.
‡.
…, ‘ ‘ ‘¨ Œ\rš Ž \t¦ Š\r,
¨ €\f \r€\f\r\f €\f \rŒ\t\f Œ\r\f\r 1954. ’1957. \r© \r\t\t\r
\t\f\r¦, \t \f\r\f¨\rš € \t  \r \rš \r. ’€¨\r \r
\r\r ¨ €\r\r, ‘ \t\r \r€\f \t   \r  
Œ\r\t\r.
• 1958\t\r ¬.
‡.
… ‘\r Œ\r\f\r‘  \r \r\f¨ \f\r •\f,
\r\r Œ\r\f\r  \f\f\r©. Š ¨ \t\r¨ ‚ŒŒ¨ -€¨,
\r\t\f\r, ‚Œ\r, €\r€\r\f\r, \rŒ\f¨, \f\r¦\r \r €\f ¨ 
\t, ‚\f‘ \r \r  \r  \f¨, \r \r\t \f\r‘
  €\fŒ (‚ \t, \f¨ €\r, €‘ \f\r‘
\f\r). \r\f\r¨ ‚ \t\r  \t\f \t\f\r¦ «’ \f¨
\t\f\r\f© © \r\f\r\b \r \r», € \r©©†
1971\t
. ¬.
‡.
… €\f\t\b €\f¦€  Œ\r\f\r\f\r€, \r¨ \r\f\r
\fŒ \r\r¨ €\f€\r\f\r \t¨ \r €\f ‘\f€- \f\r (
€\fŒ. ˜.
’.
¬\r¦\r) €\f ‘ š\r (\r\f €\fŒ. ª.
.
‰\f¦¨).
’€ €\f€\r\f\r, \t¨ \t \fŒ, ¨ ‘¨ \r\t\r\r\f¨
-€\r, \r\t\f, ‚Œ ‘\r €\r\f. ‰¨\r \t\r\r\r ¨\r ‚ŒŒš ‚
\t  ,  €\f \f\r \r\r‘ €\f¦\t\f¨ €\f¨ ‘\r¨ 
•Œ\r\r
›.
§., \r\r
¬.
—., ¬\r
‡.
Š\f‘ ‘\f \r\t© \rŒ\t\f
Œ\r\f\r Š›…, €‘† €\fŒ\f-Œ\r\f\r,  €‚ \b€¦ ¬.
‡.
…//
•\f \t¦ \b\f\r. – 2010. – ±5. – •.125–126.
\t¦¨», «Ÿ\r\f\r¦ \f¦€\f\r  \t¦¨», «™\f\r ‘\f \f 
\t¦¨», «¶\r\r €\r \f\r€  \t¦¨») \r\f¨ \f\r
’‘ §\r\r \rš. ¤\t  \f\t € \t\r ¦ \r\f¨ \f\r ,
\f¨ \r \r \r‘¨.
¤ ­\t\r —.
ƒ\r\f\r .
’\r\f\r\r . —\f \rŒ\t\f €\f\t\bš
\r\t\r —.
•.
•€\r (1930.).
’ €\f\t 1931€1933\t¨ \r€\f\r •.
’.
œ€\r\f¨ ‘\r ŒŒ\f-\rš¦¨
 \f š¨, \r\r€\f\r ‡.
‡.
Ž\f \t\rš €\f\b\t \r\f‘
© ‘\f €\r¦. œ\r \r€\f\r\r \r© \r\t\t\r \t\f\r¦ 19391941\t\r
 (€ ’ œ‘  ¨ •.
’.
œ€\r\f \f\r \r\t© \rŒ\t\f
Œ\r\f\r ™\f\r\f \t¦ \r, \r‡.
‡.
Ž\f\r \r\t© \t†
 \rŒ\t\f ™\f \t¦ \r).
§\r \r\rŒ\t\f €\f\t\b\r  Š.
‡.
—\f •.
ˆ.
•†. ¤\t €\f
\f €\f\r \r\f\t. •‘\r \r‘ \f\r \r\rŒ\t\f,  \f\r\r \f\r\f\r
‘ \t\r\f \f\r. ’1935\t •\f ˆ\r‘ ¨ \f\b\t† \t\b
\t¦\r, 1940\t\r •.
ˆ.
•† \r\t© \rŒ\t\f Œ\r\f\r, 1941.
 €\f¨
\t\r Œ\r\f\r¦‘ Œ\rš\r. §\r\f\r\r¦ ‘ €\f¦\r \rŒ\r\f\r¦‘
Œ\rš 1946–1949\t\r ¨ \r\f\r\b\t† €\f\t© ™\f\r¨ §\r. ˆ\t Œ\r
š ‘ 26.
’ 1938\t € \r© \r\t\t\r \t\f\r¦ € «™\f\r \t
 \t\t\t\r \f\r\t\f\r\r». ¤\t \f\t •.
ˆ.
•†\r ‘\rš Œ\r\f\r‘
 \r š Œ\f¨, Œ\r¨ ‰\r \rš •\f: © \t  ‘š \t\r
©\f\t\r, \r\t € ; \f ,  \t\rš \f\rš \r, €¨š
¨\r, š ‡\r\r, \f\r  \r \f¨: \f\t\t\t\f¨ \t\r\f 
¨ , \r\t\f\t\r \r, \r\r\t\f\r \r, \rš ¨
. ’€\f¨, €\t¨
•†¨, \r¨ €\f€ €š\r \t\f\r© \r\f Œ\f¨ ’
‘ •\f ¤\f\r \rš ¦š \t\r ¨‚ŒŒ¨ ‘¨ €\f€\r\f\r
\r\rš¨  ‘\r.
’ 1959\t •.
ˆ.
•† \r© \t\f \t\f\r¦ «¡  \f\r\t\f\r\r 
\r\r €\f \r\f Œ¦ \f¨ ‚\t\f¨ \b†», \r\f 1963\t  ¨
€\f \r €\fŒ\f\r, \r1966\t \r © ¨ \t\r 
\f\r¨ \rŒ\t\f Œ\r\f\r Š›Š \t\r¨ \r\f\t , \r   \t¦ 
¨\r ¨€©\r \t\r €\f¨ \f\rŒ \r\f¨ \f\r ’‘ •\f. ’‚
 •.
ˆ.
•†¨ ¨\t\r \tš\r \r\r €\t \r\r «œ© \t \t¨ \f\r
», \t €\f\t €\r \t¨ \f\r , \b¨ €¨ \f\r , \r\r
\b \f¨ \r\r €\f €© © €\f¦€¨ ‘ \f¨ \f\r . ’\r€\r
\t\r \f\t\r €\f\r ‘\r ¨ Œ\r\f\r ’.
’.
Žš, \f¨ \t\rš 
€\f\f\r\r \t€  ¨ \t.
‰š \r\t •.
ˆ.
•†\r \r \t\r \r\f ¨\fš ’‘ •\f
‘ ¨\t \f\rŒ ’.
›.
\r «¬\r\f¨ \f\r •\f».
’ €\f\t \r\t\r •.
ˆ.
•†\r \r\rŒ\t\f Œ\r\f\r ¨ €\f\t¨ \t©
\t\r: «™\rŒ\f¨   €\r» (—.
ª.
¡\r\r), «\r\f\r¨ Œ\r\f\r
\t \f\r¦ » (’.
™.
¬\b , 1958.), «\r\f\r¨ Œ\r\f\r ‘\r»
(’.
—\r, 1962.), «\r\f\r¨ Œ\r\f\r \rš\r » (•.
¡.
Ž\f¦,
¬\r
‡.
Š., …
¬.
‡., ™\r
¬.
‰., œ\t¦
‡.
¡.. •\f\t \rŒ\t\f¨ Œ\r\f\r \t¦
\f\r – ‘\r €\f \f  ¨. •† •\f ˆ\r‘//•\f \t¦
\b\f\r. – 2014. – ±6. – •.3.
—¨ €\f\f —.
ƒ\r\f\r \f …‘† \r Š›… \r\t \r \r
\r\r \r, \r\rŒ\t\f\r Œ\r\f\r   —.
ƒ\r\f\r.
Ž\r\b \t \r \rŒ\t\f¨, \r\r Œ\r\f\r Œ\r\f Š›… 
‡.
œ\f\r\f\t. ¤\f€\t\r\r 1918\t\r Š\f \f, \t\r \r€\f\r Œ\r\f
Œ\r\f, €\f \t \f\r\r ‚ \t¦€¨. ™\f , Š.
‡.
œ\f\r\f\t
\r\r \t\r \f\r , €\f\f\r\r Š\f \r €‘ \f
 €\f  \r\f\t \t¦. ’\t\rš   \tšš €\f\t\b
\r  . ¬\f\r\t, \f\r\r €\fŒ\f \r\rŒ\t\f ¬\f\r\t -
Œ\r\f\r¦‘ . ’‚ \t¨ €\fŒ\f Š.
‡.
œ\f\r\f\t \r\f\r €\f¨
•••ˆ ‘ €Œ\r\f\r¦‘ \r\r  \r\f¨ Œ\f. ’1931\t
Š\t\f ‡\r\t\f‘ ¨ €\f¨ \r\f\r €\b  €\t\f¨ \tš
€\f • ’\r. ’\rš \f¨ ‘ €\f\rš\r ‡.
.
›\fš €\r
‘† 
’ 1932\t Š.
‡.
œ\f\r\f\t ¨€ \r‘ ‚€\f\r €€\f ‘  
\t¦¨ •••ˆ.
‰\r\t\r\f ¨\t  \r‘ \f\r\r¨ ‚€\t¦ Ž
\t §\r\r \rš ¦š \t\r \f\t  \t¦¨, \f\t \f¨
¨ €\f‘ ‘ —.
ƒ\r\f\r.
’\r\f\r.
’ 1936. €\fŒ\f Š.
‡.
œ\f\r\f\t \r \rŒ\t\f Œ\r\f\r¦‘  
Œ\r\f\r¦‘ \r. ’1937. ¨ š \r\f\r, 1938\t ¨ \t €\f\f
 \f \r. ’1959. Š.
‡.
œ\f\r\f\t \f\r\f\r -\r  \r\r €\f
€,  \t\f  ¨ \r.
’ 1920. \rŒ\t\f\r Œ\r\f\r Œ\r\f \r\r\r \t \r¨  \f¨ \f
‚\r\b\r \r \f€\r Šˆ›œ•…—\r, \r \r- \r\f¨ €\f€\r\f\r, \t\r‘
 ‘ \f\t\r \r€\r \f\r, ‘ € €\t© \t¨ \f\r\fš
‘ Œ\r\f\r‘ \t\r \r\f¨ \f\r ’‘ •\f.
•1925€1927\t¨ \r\rŒ\t\f \f\r\r\r \r ‡.
’.
§\r, \r©\r 1944\t \r\t
\t\r \t\f\r¦ «Š ‚\f‘ \t \fš \r\r\r\f\r €\f
\t  \r\r  \r\r\r\f\r» 1945\t \r\r ¬\f\r\t. —\r\rŒ\t\f
1926€1930. ¨ \r\b €\f¨ \r€\f\r\f Š.
‡.
—\f •.
ˆ.
•†. œ\r \r€
\f\r\r  \r \t\r  \r€\f\r .
’\r\f\r¨.
.
’\r\f\r, \f\r\r \f\r‘ \r§\r\r \rš \b \t\f, \f\r \r \r
\t¨ \f\t\r  \t¦¨; 1931\t\r \r\t\r Œ\r\f\r‘ \r\f\r\f
—\f Œ\r \r‘-\t\rš -Œ\r\f\r¦‘ \r.
’€\f¨ ‚€\f\rš ‘ Œ\r\f\r‘  \r \f€\r €\f\t\b 
 ‘ €\f\r
. \r —\r‘ €\r  \r‘¨ \r , €©†
¨  \t¦ \r\f¨ \f\r, ‘¨  \f ‚€\t¦ §\r
\r \rš, ‡ €š, Ž \t. œ ‚€\f\rš \t\r Œ\r\f\r
‘  \r \b© \f\r\r\r© \f\t, \r\r\b \f€\r, \t\rš 
 €\f\t\b   ‘ €\f\r \r‘ \r €\r\r¨ €
\r \f š \r‘¨ \r \f\r‘¨ \b\f\r\r, €©†¨ \f€ («™€\f
\r €\f €\r\r¨», «ermopsis lanceolata R. B»), \r\r\b  \t¦
(«œ‘\f \f  \t¦¨ €š¨ † ‘», «¤ ‘ 
œ\t¦
‡.
¡.
Š\f \f\r‘ Œ\r\f\r¦‘ \t\r ’‘ •\f (’\r\t ¤š
Œ\r\f\rXIX – XX\r): \f \r – Š\f: œœ ŸŠœ, 2012. – •.8–9.
¬\r
‡.
Š\f‘ \r€¨ \r Œ\r\f\r ’‘ •\f: \f \r ,
€©¨ \rŒ\t\f Œ\r\f\r ›‰œ… ’¤œ Š›… – Š\f: Š\f \t\r\f¨ \t¦
\f, 2012. – •.16.
\f\r\r \r  € . —¨ €\f\f ‘ 
\t¦¨ €\f\r\t\b \f  ‘†¨ \t\r. œ  \bš š
€\f\t ©\rš  \f\r\t¦ \r\f\f\f ˆ, \t€ Œ\r
‘ \r\f\r (\t¦ €\f\r\r \r\f\r). ’\b \f, \f€  ‘†¨
¨ ¨ \r \b, \t \f\rŒ‘ €\f\f\t-\r‘  ,
\f\t \t\b Ž\r, \r\r\b €  \r , \r€\f\r \r\f\r‘
\t€\r \f\r¦
œ\t \f‘ Œ\r ‘  \t¦¨ š €\f¨ Š\f\r
™\r €š\r ‡.
Ÿ.
›\r  \f\r‘ œ.
œ.
ˆ\r, \f¨ š €\f\f†
 \r€‘, €€¨\r † €\t\f ‘š €\rš. ’1811\t •\r-¤\f\f
 \t\r † €\r € €\f\t†¨ \f\t \r¦ ¨ €\t \r\r «œ€
\r  \r€‘». £ ¨ \t €\f¨ \t\r \f€  ‘†¨ \f\t
 \t¦¨  \f¦€\f¨
’ ’‘ •\f \r ‘ Œ\r\f\r‘ €\f€\r\f\r  \t\f \t
¦ €\f\r ‘\r \f\t¨ \f \r\f€€\r —\r —\r Ÿ†\t\f‘\r Š\r\r‘\r
«’\f\r‘  \r\r \rš \r» (1857.) «œ\t\t» (1858.), €©†¨ \f
‘ \r  \t¦¨. Ÿ\r\f\r‘ ¨\r €\f\f\r ¨ €š
\r 1919\t \t¦ \t €\f Š\f \t\r\f \f,
‘\f\b\t† €€\f\r \r\t\f\r\r ‡.
’.
™‘\r\r 1918\t. œ\f \fš ‚ ¨\f\r 
\f\t \rŒ\t\f¨ Œ\r\f\r, © š \r‘ \t, \r€  \r96.
Š\r‘\rš \rŒ\t\f\r Œ\r\f\r \r‘\rš \r \rŒ\t\f\r Œ\r\f\r Œ\r\f €\f
\t¦ Œ\rš Š›… (\f\r\r\r 1922.). ¤\f\r‘\rš \t¦ Œ\rš
\t \t \t \r Œ-\r\r‘ Œ\rš\r, ¨\t  1920.
¤\f¨ \f\r\r\f\r \rŒ\t\f¨ ¨ \r\f €\f€\t\r\rš, €\t €\fŒ\f, —.
ƒ\r
\f, \r¨ •.
’\f Š.
‡.
œ\f\r\f\t.
ƒ\r\f, \f\r‘ \t© \rš \rŒ\t\f¨ Œ\r\f\r, ‘\r\r ¨
\t  1914\t\r, \t \b \r‘\r \f\r‘ 17
 \r, \r 17
 \r\f €,
\t\r \f\r‘ 1
 \r\f\t  \r\rš\r. ’\t¨ ›\f\r\b\t\r  ¨ \f\r‘ ‰\r\f\r
€\r \r\f \r\t\f\r\r ‡.
’.
™‘\r\r. ’1919\t € € \f\r\r \f\t\r\f €\r
. —\r (¨ .—\f). ’1925\t —\r ¤\r‘ \r© \t\f
\t\f\r¦ \r «™\r\r\r\r €\f\r\r \f €\f €\r\f\f\rš \t \f\r\t\f\r\r»
€‘ \r \t\f\r \t¦ \r \t\bš €\fŒ\f\r Œ\r\f\r Š›œ…—\r.
’1933. ¨ \r\f\r \b\t†  «\r\f\t  \r\f» \f\r\r¦ «œ©
 ». —\r ¤\r‘, ¨\r \r‘ Ž \r\f \t\b \f\r‘\r,
1934. €\f€\t\r\r Ž €‘  . ’\f ƒ\r\f ¨ š
† \r\f, ¨\r \r\r\r ™\f \r, €\f …—™’¡ 1937. €\f
\f† \f\r\f. 13\r\f 1938\t\r €\f\f ¨ €\f\t† €, \f\r\f\r
€\f 1957.
—\r‘ \r\t —.
ƒ\r\f\r 30\r € «’\f\r‘ ¨€¨\r \f¦€
», «…‘ Œ\r\f\r», \r\r\b «¡ŒŒ\f¦\rš\r \t\r\r \f\r€ \r\b 
\f¨ \f\r »
¬\r
‡.
Š. ™\f ‘  \t¦¨ \f\t\r Œ\r\f\r ›‰œ… ’¤œ
Š›…//•\f \t¦ \b\f\r. – 2008. – ±1 – C. 103.
Ž\r \b.
¬\r
‡.
Š\f‘ \r€¨ \r Œ\r\f\r ’‘ •\f: \f \r ,
€©¨ \rŒ\t\f Œ\r\f\r ›‰œ… ’¤œ Š›… – Š\f: Š\f \t\r\f¨ \t¦
\f, 2012. – •.10–12.
Suchilina MariaIgorevna,
Student ofIrkutsk State Medical University,
E-mail: Rouge552059@list.ru
Kuklina Ludmila Borisovna,
Candidate of Medical Science,
Senior Teacher of Pharmacology
departmentIrkutsk State Medical University
Ž\r \f\r, \fš\r €\f\t