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8th gradeEnglish grammar Sergey [email protected]/skr_skr_skrcnvk.com/8th_grade_skr Present Simple(+) Subject (noun/pronoun) + Verb (Verb + s/es if 3rd person singular) +…(-) Subject + do/does + not + Verb (infinite form with out to)(?) Do/Does + Subject + Verb (infinite form with out to) Present SimpleUsed when:When we want to state some facts or characteristics of an object Ex. She is kind.Water boils at 100 C.When we speak about regular actions that happen sometimes or all the timeEx. I usually do not stay up all night.He always tells only truth. Present SimpleWhen we mention schedules (time of arrival/leaving of trains, airplanes, etc.)Ex. Our train arrives in 15 minutes.When the verb can not be used in progressive aspectEx. I see you right now.In some cases we use Present Simple in the articles when we talk about some past actionsEx. Local man saves the family from fire. Markers of Present Simplealways всегда often часто usually обычно sometimes иногда regularly постоянно seldom изредка from time to time время от времени rarely редко never никогда every day каждый день every week каждую неделю every month каждый месяц every year каждый год on Mondays по понедельникам at the weekend на выходных at weekends по выходным at 7 o'clock в 7 часов Present Continuous(+) Subject + be + Verb+ing +…(-) Subject + be + not + Verb-ing +…(?) Be + Subject + Verb-ing+..? Present Continuous Used when:When we speak about actions that are happening at the moment of speechEx. I am writing an essay, please, don’t bother me.When we talk about actions that are not finished yet – a doer of the action is in the middle of it: they started it in the past, they are still doing it, the action is not finished yet.Ex. She is cooking her favorite dish. Present ContinuousWhen we give description of the situations, that do not happen at the real timeEx. Steve is speaking on the phone. He says: Hello!When we talk about some period of our livesEx. Kate is learning Spanish, because she wants to move there (it does not mean that she is learning it at the moment of our speech)Usually I live alone, but now I am living with my brother. Present ContinuousWe use Present Continuous when we talk about changes, especially with this verbs:get, change, become, increase, rise, drop, fall, grow, improve, begin, startEx. She is getting better every day.When we want to emphasize or exaggerate some things (usually about habits that annoy us)Ex. You are always talking on the phone!When we talk about future actions that we know aboutEx. We are painting the walls next week. Markers of Present Continuousnow сейчас still всё ещё at the moment в данный моментalways всегдаconstantly постоянно Difference between Present Simple and Present Continuous Present Simple is used when we want to talk about things that happen regularly, they are permanentEx. He is always calm. We go to work 5 days a week. Our neighbor smokes 10 cigarettes a day.We use Present Continuous when we talk about things that are undergoing some changes of the state, such actions are temporalEx. He is being noisy (but usually he is calm) We are going to work now. Our neighbor is smoking, I can smell it from here (he is doing it now)always + Present Simplealways + Present ContinuousWhen we mean that we do something every timeEx. I always take bus to school.When we are not happy/too happy about actionEx. I am always losing my pen! (I do not like it) Stative VerbsVerbs that we normally do not use in progressive aspect:denoting feelings: like, love, hate, want, need, prefermental activity: know, realize, suppose, mean, understand, rememberdenoting state of object: consist, seem, contain, belong, fit We can use some verbs that we do not usually use in progressive aspect when they change their meaningThink as “to have an opinion”Ex. I think it is good idea.Think as “to consider”Ex. I am thinking about buying a new car.Be as a permanent state/characteristic Ex. You are so kind, that’s why I like you!Be as a temporal, unusual behavior Ex. You are being mean today, what is wrong?See as the ability to notice things with your eyesEx. I see a tree down there!See as “to meet somebody”Ex. She is seeing her doctor now.Smell, taste – when we talk about states of objectsEx. It smells gas here. This soup tastes too salty.Smell, taste – when we talk about our actionsEx. I am smelling gas here, get out! Are you tasting the soup to understand how much salt you need to add? Present Perfect(+) Subject + have/has + Verb (-ed or irregular form) + …(-) Subject + have/has + not + Verb (-ed or irregular form) + …(?) Have/has + Subject + Verb (-ed or irregular form) + ..? Present PerfectUsed when:When we want to say new information, that something has happened just nowEx. Oh! I’ve broken mom’s favorite cup!This road is closed. Looks like something has happened here.When the action in the past has a result nowEx. I’ve lost my keys (result: I can’t open the door) You have dropped your bottle on the floor (result: there is water on the floor now) Present PerfectWhen the verb can not be used in progressive aspectEx. We have known each other since we were 11.When action happened in the past and we don’t know when exactly Ex. Kim’s parents have divorced. Present PerfectWhen the action happened in the period of time that still is not finished (today, this week, this evening):Ex. I have written 200 letters today. When we use construction It is the first time smb has/have done smtEx. You have lost your coat again! This is the second time you have done it! Markers of Present Perfectjust только чтоalready ужеyet еще не (в отрицательной форме), уже (в вопросе)always всегда never никогда today сегодняthis day сегодняthis week на этой неделеthis summer этим летомrecently недавноhardly ever едва ли когда-либо Present Perfect Progressive(+) Subject + have/has + been + Verb-ing +…(-) Subject + have/has + not + been + Verb-ing +…(?) Have/has + Subject + been + Verb-ing +..? Present Perfect ContinuousUsed when:When we speak about actions that have recently stopped or just stoppedEx. You look exhausted. Have you been running?When the action still goes on, especially with how long…, for…, since…Ex. We have been cleaning these plates since morning! Present Perfect ContinuousWhen we want to emphasize or exaggerate some things (usually about habits that annoy us)Ex. You have been talking on the phone for hours! Markers of Present Perfect Progressiveall day long целый деньsince с… (какого-либо времени)for в течение… (какого-либо времени Difference between Present Perfect and Present Perfect Continuous Present Perfect is used when we want to talk about the result of the activityEx. He has painted the walls.He has read 200 pages.Have you tried those cupcakes?Present Perfect Continuous is used when we want to talk about activity itself and its durationEx. He has been painting the walls all morning.