КОНСТРУИРОВАНИЕ И МОДЕЛИРОВАНИЕ ДЕТСКОЙ ОДЕЖДЫ


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 ..  ..     \r\f -  \n \t\n \t\b\t ( \n) \t\n    ­­\t  .\n\t€ \t    -\r\f  \n \t\r\r \b \n .\r  : ­ ‚\t ƒ „ \t , ‚ ..  ­ ‚\t ƒ „ \t , ‚ ..  \r\f \n\t ,., \r\f \n\t \b..     \t  \f : -\t  / ..…\t†\b\t„‡\t\t, .. \t†\b\t„‡\t. – \n\t€ \t: \b-  \n \t\n\t   .\n\t€ \t, 2012. ˆ 92 .  -  \n\r \f , \r   \n \n  \r\n .   \n\r  \r   \r , \r , \r \n   \r\n   \r \n, \r\f   \n  \r\n  . © \t†\b\t„‡\t .., \t†\b\t„‡\t\t .., 2012 . © \b\t­\n­  \n \t\n\t   .\n\t€ \t, 2012 .  574  20.1  574  20.1 \r\f \n\f    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 ­ 1. €‚ ƒ  \f  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.1. ­ ‰ ­† Š. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.2. ­ ‡­ ­† Š. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1.3 \t \n‰ ­† Š. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 1.4. €\t ‰  ­† . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1.5. \t\t­ ­ \t Š \n‰ ­† ‚ \b\t­Š‡  ‚‚\t‡. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 ­ 2.    \f  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 2.1. ­Š ­  \t ‰ ­† Š. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 2.2. ­  \t  Š \n‰ ƒ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2.1. ­  ƒ­\t Š ‚‰Š„ \b\n † \n‰ ƒ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 2.3. ­  \t  Š \n‰ ‡\t\nƒ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 ­ 3.   \f  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 3.1. ­Š ‡\n \t ‰. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 3.2.  \b\t† ­† Š. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 3.3. ‹Š ­† Š. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 ­ 4.     ƒ \f . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 4.1. Œ\nŠ  €Š \n‰ ­†. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68   \f  \t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 „ƒ  \t  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 ­ \f  \t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \t\b\f\n\r\n\f €  «­  \t  ‡\n \t  ­† Š» \t\b\t€­\t  ­­­  \t€ƒ† ‚\t‡‡† \t†  Ž ‚\n Š ‚\t\b\tƒ ­ ­\t‡ ‚Ž \t\n­ 030600 ˆ «„\n ‰ ‚‚  ‡\t­\n­». ‘\n’  Ž ‚\n Š ‰\n‰­‰ ‡ \t  €„ ‡ €“‡\t \b\t †,  ‡ † ‚\t­ ƒ „ \tŠ, ­Š  €  ”‡ ‚\b\n‰­ ­ ­\t‡ Š€ \t­ ‚­ ‡\t\nŠ ­ ­ Š ‡‚\b Ž Š • ‰ \n‰ \b\t ‰ ­† Š  Š ‡ —­­ ƒ ‡  ­ \n ­\tŠ‡ †­\t‡ .  Š \b\t\tƒ  Ž ‚\n Š „‰­ \b\t‡\n  ­ ­  \t­ ‡­‡ ­† Š „ \b\t­Š„  ‚‚;  ­€\t ‰‡ , ‚“‰\n‰‡Š‡  ­† ;  ‚\t \n\t‡ ‰­ ‰ ‡ ­†,  ­ ­ Š‡ ‚ €\t\t‡ ‚ ‚ \t‡ ; ‡ \t   ‡ † ‚­ ‰ ƒ­† ­ Ž † \b\n † \n‰ ­† \t\b\n ƒŠ„ \b\t­Š„  ‚‚; \b\t‡\n   ‚Ž‡ ‡\n \t ‰ ­† Š, ‚\n\b ‰ €\t\bŠ Š. \b ƒ  ­  \t ‰ ‡\n \t ‰ ­† Š Š\t­‰ \t \b\t ‰„, ‚\n ƒŠ„ ­ ­\t‡  ‚Ž \b ƒ ‰  ­  \t ‰ ‡\n \t ‰ Š, ‡\t­ \t\n ‰, ­„\n •†Š„ \b\n †,    \t, ƒƒ ‰.  ‚\n  Š ­\t‰ \t Š„ ­ \t  \b \n   ’” „ ‡­   ­ \n† ‚‡Š•\n­ , „­‰ ” \t † ‡   \n‰\n  ‡\t .  ­‡ ‚‚ \n‰­  ­ ­† Š  €\n• €\n•  \b\t† \tƒ\t\n ‚‰”\t­ ’ \t€­  \b\t ’ \n’ƒ ­\n ­† Š, ­\n ƒ\t’”†‰   \t\n ­’ \b€­\t­\n­’, ­ ‡ \n  ’”† ­ €\t  \t’”† \b‡­  ‡ \t­    „ ‚ ‡\t  —­­  \t­Š. \b\t  ­† Š ˆ \nŠ† ­Š† ­ƒ † ‚Ž, ­Š† ­€ ­ Ž \n ‡‚\n\t ‚Ž \t\nŠ„ \b\t †  ­\n  €\n\t­ ­  \t ‰ ‡\n \t ‰  Š,   €\n\t­  \b ƒ \t\b ­ ‰ ­†, ‚ „\n , ‚\t  ,  \b \n . \b\t  † ‡\n Š ‚ „ ­  „  ‚­ \t ‰. ­ \t  Š…ˆ \b\t   €\t\bŽ\t Š  \b\t\tŠ‡ †­\t‡ , \n’ƒ\t’” \n\t , \b\t  — \b, ‡\t­, ‡\n†, \tƒ­Š ‚­  ƒ­† \b\n †, \b­\n  ‚Š­ Š„ €\t\bŽ. Ž ‚­ \t  Š \n’ƒ\t­  €‰ —­\t‚Š ­  \t ‰, ‡\n \t ‰ ­„\n \b­\n ‰. ­  \t  Š ˆ \t\b\t€­\t ­ Ž ‡\n Š, ­.. ‚­  \b\t ‡  \t‚\n ‰   \tŽ ƒ\t­† (­\t\n†) Ž\n ( \b\n ‰). „ ƒ ‡ \n \t  ˆ \t\b\t€­\t ƒ­† €\t\bŽ\t Š ‚ €\t \b† ‡\n \n  \t ƒ‡  \b €\t ’. ­\t‰ \t ‚ \b\t\t ‚€­\t­ ­­† \n‰ €\t \n’€\b\t­\n­ \t ­ ­ , ‚‡\t­  ‚Š„  Š„ •\t\t„  Ž \t\n† \t\t‚­\tŽ  ­  \b \nŠ„. ­Š­  €    \t\n­, ­     ‡‡. ‡ ­, ­ † \b\t­ ‚­\t\n‰­ €\n•  \b‡­ \n‰ ­ƒ† \t\n \b\t Ž ­ ­, ­„\n  \b\t†, \b\t’” „   \n‰ ­†. \t \t —­­ \b\t­ \n’ƒ\t­  €‰ \n —­\t‚ (­ ‡\n\tƒ­\t  ’•­\t), ­Š \b\tƒ ­\n ­\n ƒ\t ’­‰   ­  \t ‡†,  \n —­‡, ‚‡, ­\n†, ­ \n‡ Š ­.. \r 1. \n\f \r\f\f \n  \f \f\f 1.1. \b ƒ \f  ­ ‰ ­’‡\t ‚­\t\n‰­ €† ­\t  ­ ƒ\n\t ƒ\nƒ €”­\t. Ž \t\n  ­†­ €”­\t,  \n­ \t, ‡ \b\b ,   \t\b ­ ‰ ­„  , ­Š ‰\b ‡  ­\t\t‡ ˆ  —­  ­† \n † ­‚ \t„ \n Š\t   ­„ ­’‡\t„, ­ Š  \n \n’  ‚\n ’ —‚„ . \t ‚­‰ ­Š‰ƒ\n­ † ­† \t\n ­\t , \t \b\nŠ„. ­ † ­’‡ ‚­\t \n‰\n €†  ‡• ’ ‚ ’ \b\n. \t‚ ‡,  \t‚\t† ‚ ƒ \b ‰ „ ‡†  \n ­  \t \b\t­\t.  ­† €­’ €Š\n \t\n ƒ   ­’‡ ‡\t\n „ ­† ‚ \t, ­Š† \t\t\n , ƒ­€Š  ‚\tƒ\t\n ‚\n\t­. ‚\n­  XIX .   ”­\t\n\t ­\t ­\t Ž ‰ ‡\t\nƒ   ‚‰­ \n­ (\t  \n  10ˆ12 \n­) \t­  ‚\n\t­‰. \n  XVIII .  \n \b \t­ \t‰ ­\t Ž ‰ \t­ ­†  ­­­  „ \b\t­‡  €\n  € ’    ƒ ’   (ƒ ­\t\n  ­ ‚\n\t­‰ €\b ­\t \t\t\t, \t  ­† ‚\n  XVIII . ˆ  \b\tŠ•† ­\t\n †), ‚‰\n‰’­‰ ­  ‚ ƒ .  XIXˆXX . \n\tŠ\t­‰ \t\b€\t\bŠ† \t­ ‡­ ­† Š  \b\t  ‡­ ­ ‚ \t\n­  ‚\n† \b\t­†  ‚‚. , \tŽ, ­\n  ­† ‚\n  XX . ‚‰\n‰­‰ ‡\n\t‰ \t. \n ƒ\t  ‰ ­† ‡ † †Š,  1950- ., ‡  ­‰ \t‰ €\t‰ Ž \t\n\t‰  ‚‚\t ˆ ‡\n, \b\t ‡\t’”\t‰ ‚‡ ­ƒ ‚\n  ‡  ‚­\t‡ \b\nŠ‡ . Š•  €\t\b\t ­\n  ‰,  \n ƒ  ‡ , €„ ‡ \n‰  ƒ€Š ‚\n ƒ ‰ ‚ , ­  „ \b‡­  \t† \b\t  ‡­ ­  ­\n† ˆ  —­ ‚ \n   ’ ‡ \n†  \n­ Š   ‡ Ž­‰‡ ,  ‡ \t‡ ­ \n‰‡ , ­\n ƒŠ‡ ­ «\b\n†» ‡Š.   1960- . ‚‰\n‰­‰ ‚‰­  «‡\n\t‰ ‡\t», Š‡ ‚­€ ­\n‰‡ ‡Š„ ­ \t ­\t‰­‰ ‡\nŠ \n’ . \t \t ‡\n ‰\n‰­‰ \t €\n \t­ Š‡ ‚ Ž‡ ‡Š, ­ \t‡Š   \t\nŠ • ‰  \b\t†Š \t ’­ ‡ ‡\nŠ‡. \t ‚­‰ ‡ „ ­Š‰ƒ\n­ †, ­\t‰ \t €Š\n\t  ‡•† ‚ † \b\n†, ­\n  ­† ‚\n  VIII . \t Š\n \n\t  ­\nŠ†   Š „Š†  \b \n† † ‚  ‡    ƒ ‡ \tƒ­\t‡,  €­‡   „\t \b\t † – ­\t‰ \t. \t  ­\t‰ \t ­\n ƒ\t\n\t † ­\n†, \t\b‡\t‡ ,  \t• ‰‡ .     ­ (1200 – 1450) \n\tŽ ‚\n\t\n ‚\n\t‡ ­\t , ƒ\t­ € \n ‚Š­Š‡ Š• †. ­† ‚­\t• \t\n ‚€ \b\nŠ‡,  ’€  \t\t €Š\n ‡ ƒ.   Ž \t\nŠ‡ ­­Š‡ \n ƒ\t‰‡ ­† \b \t ­\t­ ƒ „ ­‰­\nŠ„ ‡† \t‰\t \n ­\t  €\t­, \t „  ­\n†. ˜‚ƒ  \t\t\n ƒ\t‡, ‡\t\nƒ \t‡,   ƒ \b-‚  €Š\n  Š \nŠ.      (1450 – 1600) \n\tŽ ‚\n\t\n  \t­, \t ­ ’   • \n ‚€ \b\n†, „­‰ ‡ ‡\t \n ‡ \t\b•\t\n \t­  „  €\t•\t„  ­ „. \t\n „ ƒ ‡\t\nƒ  \t\n  \t:  \n Š ’€ ƒ‚ƒ  \n \t‚Š.  \b\t­ ­„-ƒ­Š„ \n­ \t ‡\t\nƒ  ­\t \n\t €\n ‡ †; ƒ  \n \t‚Š  ‰­ \n­. \t‚ €  \r\n , ‚ \n     \r.     \n ­† ‚\n\t\n \t­  ‚€  \b\n† Š, \t ‡Š \n Š  ‰ƒ  „   \t\t \n  \n «‚\t‡ » \n‰ ­†,  ƒ\t” „‰ „ ­. ­‚  ‚\t­ \n   \n  Š ‚\n ‡\t­ \t\n\t ‚\n\b\t\n  ­\t  XVIII . \t\nƒ  ‚-‚‡   ƒ­Š„ \n­  \n ’€ .   \n  \n  XVIII . \t \t\n \b‡ \n‰ \b\n‰ \t ‚ ­\t  ­†,  \t ‡\t „ \t­ —­ ­\t\b \n \n •  ‚\n† ƒ­­ \t. \tŽ \b † ‚­ ­\n \r\t-\r\t    ‡ ­  «™‡ \n \n  ‚ ­\t », ‚€ \b\n  ‚­ \n\t­Š ­­\t, Š­ ‚ \n ‚ ­  ­ ­\t \t ­‰\nŠ„ ‡\b „ .  1760-‡ \t \n‰ ƒ ­\t\n\t \b\tƒ ­\n ­\n ƒ\t­‰ ­ †, \tƒ\t\n —­ \t\t\n ­\n Š \n‰ \t‡Š„ ‡\t\n „;   1780-‡ ƒ -‚­  \n ‡ \n Š ‚\n\t­‰   \b ‡ Š\b\t‡ , Š† ­\t\n † ƒ\t­  ­ ‡  \t\t‡ . €Šƒ  €Š\n €\nŠ‡  Ž­Š‡ •\t‡-‚‰‡, ’€\t ‚\t\t\n\t ‚‰‡  \nŠ \n ‚“‡\t  .  1780-„ ­’ ­\t\n €’ ,  ­Š \t\n ‡\t\nƒ  ‚\n ­, \t   ‡\t\n ­ ‚\n\t­,  ­, \t  €\n\tƒ\t\n   ’­  €  , ˆ «\b\n ’»   ˆ ‚ €\n \b ­\n  ‰­ \n­. ‹’   €Š\n ‡ Š‡  ‡ Š: ‚€Š ­’‡Š  \n ‡‰ \n 1760 .,    •\n  €” ’ ‡ , ‚\t  €Š\n ‚ ‰­Š  \tƒ­ ­† Š.  €’\t‡ ‡\t\nƒ   \n  €\t•   €ƒ\t­Š‡ ­ ‡  ­  €\b ‚\n \n \t\n, \t  •  ‡ ‚‰‡- •\t‡,  €\b  \n­\t.  1790-‡ \t‡ €’ , ­Š ­‚  \n   Š† ­\t\n †, ‚ ­ \t\n  ‚  Ž\t ‡   ­: \t —­­ €Š\n \b­ ‚ \t\b\t ‡ «\n­Š† ­’‡» ­\t\t\n‰  ‡ \n‰ ‡\t\nƒ  ­„-‡ \n­ ‚\n­  1830-„. ­ ‚€ ‡ ƒ \t‡  \n ‚\t  ‚ €\n \b ­\n  1750ˆ1760-„ ., \t ‡\t ­\t\n\t €\n ­­†,  1770-‡ ‡\t\nƒ  ­\t\n  ­ ­  \nŠ.  ƒ ƒ, •\t‚ƒ •\n‰‚ \n\t\n † ‡. \t €  ­\t ­­­\t\n \b\n† ‡,  \t ‡\n  \b  \t€\n  ;  \n† ‡­­  \n \t€ \n €\t•‡\t \t ‰† ‚•.   \n  \n  \tƒ\t\n XIX ., \t  ­ƒ  ‚Š ” „ \tŽ\t­ \n­, ­  \n  ,  Š\t ’” ’   †,   ƒ  \b\t­\t \n \t­ ‚\n\t­‰, ‚ \tŠ  \b\nŠ„ ‡\n†. \t \n‰ ƒ ‚­ ‚­‰\n\t ‡  \b\nŠ„, \n’ƒ\t‰ \t  \n Š ­ ’Š,   €\n ­ ‡ ’€\t‡ :   \n \n  ” \n­ . \t­  ˆ \b €\n ‡  \n \t, \n­ƒ\t­† \n ‚\n\t­† ‡\t­ , ƒ •\n\t \n \t­ \t €Š\n ­“‡\n‡† ƒ\t­’ \t‰\t ƒ  ­ƒ   \t, „ ­\t  \n ‡\t\n  ‡\t\nƒ  . \n Š \nŠ, \b\tƒ \tŠ \n\t \t\b\t ‚ € \n ‚‰\b , €Š\n ­ ‚ ƒ† ‚ ƒ†, \n \n\b‰ €Š\n € ­‰ \n; \t ƒ\t‡ \b\t‚\n­\t\n Š \n \t ­ ­ \n , „­‰ —­ \n ƒ\t\n . \b    ƒ „ €\t † ­Š   ­\n  ƒ€Š„ \b\t † ‚  ‡\t\n •   ­† ­  ­†,  —­\t ‚\t­ \t ­ƒ\t\n\t  \n ‚­ \n ,  Ž  1860-„ \t ‚\t­ \n\t.  ­† ‚\n  XIX . ­\t\n\t  „ ­  ‚•\n ‚\t­ \t \t­ ­†  ‚€  \b \n† Š.  1860-„  ”­\t\n €”­    ‚­  \b\t­‰ \t ‰ ƒ   ­Š, \t \b \n­\t­ €Š\n   \n • 1880-„, \t ƒ \tƒ\t\n \t­  \n  ‚\n\t­‰. €\n‡\t Š \n‰ ‡\t\nƒ   \b\t­ ­„-‡ \n­ €Š\n\t •\t  1860-„  ‚‡”’ ­’‡\t  € \t‡ , ­Š†, ‰­, €Š\n \b\t  ‡ .  ­‰\n \b •  „ € †, ƒ ­   \n, ­†  ­ €\b ­ \t, \b\t­ \t’”†‰ ­\n \t • (\t‚‡ \t’ ”†  † \t­ «\b \t»), ‚„ €\n†  €\t•  €\t‡ . \t‰   ‚‚ \n‰­’ ­’‡\t  € \t‡ \b \n\t ‡\t \t ‡  ­’‡ƒ  . \b€ \n  ­\n \t  „ ‚\n\t­‰„  \n Š ƒ  1870-„,  ‚ €\n \b ­\n  1880 .    †­ Œ —†, ­Š \tƒ\t\n ‚‰\n‰­‰  1872 .,  \n ‡  \t ‚\n\t­‰  Š † ­\t\n † ‚­Š‡ ‚‰\t‡ -\n­\t‡ , \t ­\t    \tŠ  ­ \n \t‡‚ , „­‰  ” ­‰ ”Š„ ‡Š‡ \t‚\t‡ , ­\n\tŠ‡ ‚‰‡ ,  \t•Š‡ \n­\t‡  \nŠ‡ ƒ‚ƒ \t ‡ , ‡ ­\t‡ ­. .  Ž  ‰­ \n­ ‰ ƒ\t‡ ­ ­\t\n \t\t­ ‡\t­  €\n \bŠ,  ’€ƒ\t‡  \n\t  , ­Š  \n ­\t  Ž 1890-„  ­ ­\tŠ‡ \b\n ‰‡ •­\n\t ‡ € ­\t‡ . \n\t­‰ ‚ ‡ ­  ‚‰, \b\t   ­ €Š\n\t \b‰­\t \t€ƒ\t‰ \t \t\n † „ ­‰, ­\t\n  ­ ” Š, \t‰  ­ , ƒ , \t ‚ ’ Š„ ’  . ƒ \r  \n \n \n  €\n \b ­\n  1910š1912 . ‡\t\nƒ  \t\n  ’€   „ \n­ \n \n ­,   —­\t ‚\t­ \t ƒ\b\n\t;  1914 . ‡\t\n  ‡\t\nƒ  ­\t\n  ­ ­  •­\t • ‡€ \bŠ \n ‡\t­  ­’‡ƒ   ‚‰‡Š‡ €Š‡ ‚\t\n­ ­\t‡ \b ‡† \t  \n Ž. \t ‚,  ­‚  €\n ’‡ \b\t­, ‡\t\nƒ  \tƒ \t\n  ­ ‚ \t , \t „ ­ŽŠ,  ­ ‡ €’\t‡ ,  „ • ‡  \n, \n Š •­‰Š \nŠ, ‚„‰ \t \n Š €’ ‚ €\n \b ­\n  ƒ­Š\tŽ\t­ \n­.  1930ˆ1940 . \t ƒ \n\t\n\t † ‡: ‚‰‡Š, ‚­Š ­  ‚\n\t­‰  \b\t † ­\t\n †, ƒ\t­ ‚„ ‚\t­\t\n-   ­,  ­Š ’€  \n\t ; ‚\t\n­ ‚‰‡ ‚‰, \b‡,  ‡„† ­\n† \b ‡†; €­Š \n •­\n\t  €­Š, \n\t  ­Š •\n‰‚Š  • † ­ \n†  \t\b‡\t ‚\n‰‡  ‚† \n­† \b ‡† \b ­\t \n‰† \n ‚\t\n‡† \n‡ , ­\n\tŠ Ž­\t‡ \n \t€ Š‡ •\n‡, ˆ \n­‡, ­  €\nŠ    ­ \n  • † \n ­ \n  ‡•‡.  ‚  \n ƒ \t\n \n ƒ­ •\n- ­\t­ \n‰ ƒ, €\n• ­ \b  „ ­ €\t\n •\n ’ ‡ . ­­, ‡\t  \t\bŠ„ •\n\t„ €Š\n\t \t\b†,  ‚\n\t­-\t\t\t  €\t†­Š‡ \n\t\t‡ ­  \b† ­  \t\t­Š‡ Š\b‡ ­‡- , ­‡-\b\n \n  ƒ Ž­\t €Š\n \t‡Š‡ €ŠƒŠ‡  €\n• ­ € ­\t „ •\n  —\n ­Š„ •\n\t„ \n‰ ƒ    „ ‚† „ ­\t\t„, ‡  \b ­Š„ \b\t ‚\t\n •\nŠ ‡Š  ‹ ­\t . \n\t­-\t\t\t  \n ‚„ ‡† \n €\n† €\n \b \n  €\t• , ƒ\t­  \t\n­ ‡ ­\n ƒ ­\nŠ„ Ž­ •\nŠ. \t\nƒ  ­\t \n \t\n , \t ƒ, \t ­‚ ƒ ƒ\t­ \t’­ \t ‡\t\nƒ ;  \n‰ ƒ    ”­ ­ €\n• \t \t­: ‚\n\t­‰, ’€  ­Š \n ‚\t­ ƒŠ ‚ \n\t­\nŠ \t\t\tŠ ‚„ ƒ­\t’” „‰ \n­  ­. …\tƒƒ  1. \t† ‚­ ­\n, Š­ ‚  ‚­  ­ ­\t \t ­‰\n† ‡\b† Š, \b‡ \n \b\n‰ \t ­ ’  ? \t† ­ ‚\t \nŠ† ­­: ) › ‡ ‡ †; ‹) \r\t-\r\t  ; )  ­. 2. Š€ ­ ‚\t \nŠ† ­­. ˜‡ ‰\n‰­‰ \t‚? ) \nŠ‡  €‡; ‹) € ’; ) ‚\n\t­‡. 3. \t\t : \b\t‚\n ­ ­\t€\n Ž 1 «­ ‰ ­† Š» \t \n ­\t„ 4 \n ­  \t†\nŠ \b\tƒ­† ‚\t‚ . „\r 1 \n   ­   \b€\t  ­† Š \t\t­ ­ \t 1. ™‚„\t Œ­ \t (1200-1450 .) 2. ™‚„\t \b ‰ (1450-1600 .) 3. XVII . 4. XVIII . 6. XX . 7. XXI . ‰ Š‚\n ‰: 1. \b  ƒ€Š„ ‚€ †, ­­\t \t†­ \b€\t ‰ ­†, ­Š„  „\t\t­ ’ \n‰ \t † \b ‚­\t\nŠ„  ­\t€\n Ž —‚„   (\n‰ \t ­ ƒ ‚ \t ‚€\t­ ‚ 2-4   \t).  \n ­ Š€\tŠ \b€\t ‰  ­† ­\n€Ž ­\t€\n ŽŠ. 2. \t­ \t­ ’ „\t\t­ ­   ‚­\t\nŠ„ ‡\n† Š \n‰ ­†, \n\t‰ €” † €\b ­† Š \t ‚ \t. 1.2.  \t \f  ­ ­ \t \t­ ‡­\t ­† Š ƒ \t\b€\t\b\t ‚ \t\b\tƒ ’, ‚\n\b ‡Š‡ ‡\t­ \t\n\t‡, ­„ \n \b­\n ‰,  \t‡, ‡, ‚’, Ž­Š‡ • ‰‡, ­\n ­.., ƒ­ € \n\n €­‰‡  \b ƒ, ‚ „\n ƒ  \b \n ƒ \t\b ­ ‰  ­†  \t\b\n ƒ‡ \b\t­. \t   \n‰ ­† ‚‰\n‰­‰ ‚\t.  † ‡Š  \t€\n’\t‡ ­\t „ ƒ\t­Š„ \b „ ‡ ‡,  \n —­ €“‡. ­ Ž ­† Š  €“‡Š €\n ­\t € \nŠ ‚ \t ’  \b\n†, \t \n ‰  ‡ ‡Š ” ”\t­‰  ‡  ­\t\n‰„ ­\n. …\r     ƒ­‡ €­† €\t\b\t  \b ­†  ­\t\n‰„ Š ‚\n ƒ \n \t\b ­  ‚ ‡ ” ­ ­ ­ \n‰ ˆ ‚­ Š†, ‡\t­ ƒ †, ­ \n    (\t€\n. 2). „\r 2 €‚ƒ„€ …€€€ ƒ   ­ ‚­ Š† ­ \n ‡\t­ ƒ † ­ \n ­ \n     \n —­Š ‰‡†, ­\t‚Ž   Š†,  ˆ ‚\n ‚ \n\t ’” † ‚ \n\t’” †. Š‡  \n —­‡ ‡\t­ ƒ ­ \n‰ ‰\n‰­‰ ‚ \n\t’” †, ‚ƒ \t’” †    .    \n —­\t \n , ‡‰ , ‚\n\tŠ  \n —­Š…– €Š, •  , €‡Š. ‡\t ‰‡ \n\t‰, \t\t­ \t‰, \t\n\t‰. \t ‚­  ­ \n‰ ‡ ­ €Š­ €†, ‚\n­†. ˜\t­ ­ƒ\t ­‰ ƒ­\t  \t\bŠ„ ‡ X-€\t\b\t‰. O€“e‡Š \t\b \n ƒŠ. ƒ­\t ‰ ‡\t\nŠ„ €\n• „ €“‡: ‚ ­\t\nŠ† \n …ˆ ‚Š•\t‰ ’€\t; €“‡, \b\tŠ† \t‚ †  † ƒ\t ­ \b\n ‰, ­Š­Š \n ‚­‰’”  \b €Š   Š   † ‰‡ \n\t‰, \t\t­ \t‰, \t\n\t‰.  \t\t  €\t•ƒŠ† (­\tƒ† \t• Š† „   ‚ Š‡ \t­‡), \n\t, Ž\nŠ†. \t­Š \b\t­ \t’­ ‰ \t ‚ , \n ‚ ƒ , ‡\n ­\tƒŠ,  ‚ €† ‚ \t­ , \n\t  ‚ \t­ ,   ‚ €†  \b ,  \t «\n\n», Ž\n Š†  \n† \n  †. ‡\n   † ƒ\t­  \t\t: ’•ƒ ,  \t, ‡\t ­Š ­\tƒŠ, \n\t. \t ­Š \b\t­ \t’­‰ \t ‚ , \n ‚ ƒ , ‡\n ­\n ƒ ­\nŠ €­ \t\n\tŠ ­\t\n , \b\t ­ \t’” ‰ \n\t‚\tŠ, ‚‰\t, „\n‰­  , ­ƒ (†Š, \t­  Š, \b \b\t, Ž­Š ­\t­Š), ­ , \nŠ, ‡\t­Š, ‚ Š, \t\b\n ƒŠ \n\t , •\n ŽŠ, \t­ Š ƒ\n ‰ \t‚  .  ‡ ­ \t‚\n\t\t­‰ \t   , ­ ­ ­\t\n , ‚ ‚\n . ‹Š­  ‡‡­ ƒŠ‡ \t ‡‡­ ƒŠ‡ . \t ‚  ‡ ­ ƒ­\t­ ‰  ­\n† €•’,  ­Š‡ Ž­‡ \n \t­ † ‚   Ž† \n ­ ­­  ‚ \b\t,  \t\bŠ\t’” „ \t ‚\n ’ ‚ \t\n­ „ \n\t\nŽ\t.… ‘­ Š  ‰ †.…  Š Š €Š €’ ;  €Š  €\t• ; •­Š; ‚­ Š ­ ­\t Š ‡‚\n­Š, €  ; \n ‚ ; ­\n­ ; ‡\t† ;  ­€\n ; ­‚Š, ‚\t\n­, ‚\n ‚\t\n­, ‚\n\t ” , ‚\t , ‚\n\t­‰, ’€  \n\t , \t\t\tŠ,  \n­Š,  Š   ‚\n\t­‰ €\n \b ,  ˆ \t­Š, ‚\n\t” ‚\t\n­. •   •­\tŠ, € ‡Š €\t\n\t„Š,  ­€\n , €“‡ Š  ­Š  ­ \n †   Š €\t,  ­\t\n , ‡€  \bŠ, ‚\n  ‡€ \bŠ,  Š  €\n• ‡ \t\b€\t\b ‡  \t­ Š„  Ž \t\nŠ„ —\n‡­     Ž ­† Š ‚€ \b\nŠ \t    1.  Ž ­† Š  ­ \n ­\tŠ Ž \t\n-—­­ ƒ  \b\t” ­Š  ­ \n ­\t-‚\t­ ƒ   Ž \t\nŠ „ ­-—­ ­ ƒ  \t” ­\t ­ €\n\t‚ ‰­Š„ \t­  \b ƒ†, „ ‡ ƒ†,  \b \n-‚ „\n ƒ † ‚ † Š, ­ ‚ ­  \b ‰­\n­ \t \b‡\t ƒ\n\t, ‡„\t ƒ† ‚\t­ . €‚ƒ   \b ƒ † \b‡­ \n‰ —­  Š ‚\n ‰ \n € \t\b\tƒ ‰,  \tŽ ‰ ‡\t  ­\n\t. \t\n-—­ ƒ\t‰, ‡\tŽ \t‰, ‡‡   \t­ \t‰, ‚ ­\t­\n \t‰  Ž  Ž ‰ ­ ‡ \n‰­\t ‚ „ ƒ† \t­ ­ ˜ ­-—‡Ž \t\n  \n­   „ ­ ­’ Š,  \t‡ †    \t’”† †, • ‡ €“­‡ \n ƒ­’ ƒ\n\t. †. 1.    \n  ‚ ­\t­\n \b\tƒ  Š \n‰ ­†. \t \t‰  €\t‰ \t \b\t­ „ • \t­ , \t\b \t­ „  ­Š†   €\t ” \t \t „ —­\t‚\t„  \b , ‚  ƒ\t­  \t \t­­ , ƒ ­‚\n­­ . \b\r\t   ­ ’  , ­\t  \t \b\n ’, \n\t  Ž  ’­ ‚ \t\b\n ƒŠ‡ ‚ \b\t\t‡. \n\t  \tŽ ‰ ­† Š ‚ \b\t­Š‡  ‚‚\t‡: \t \n‰ ­† ‡\n\tƒ†  ‚‚Š ˆ ­  ‰  1 \t ›\n\t‰  ‚‚\t ˆ 1-3 \n­ •\n\t‰  ‚‚\t ˆ 3-6 \n­ \n\t•\t‰ •\n\t‰  ‚‚\t ˆ 7-11 \n­ ­\t•\t‰ •\n\t‰  ‚‚\t (‚­\t‰) ˆ 12-15 \n­ œ•\t‰  ‚‚\t ˆ 16-17 \n­. †   \t\b‡Š \t ­† , \t \t  \b\nŠ„, ­‡ƒ\t’­‰ \t\b\n ƒŠ‡ €\t\b‡. \t  ‡   ­ \b\t­ €\t, ­, €„\t­   \n \t\b‡. \n ­‡ƒ \b\t­  €\t, ­ —­  ‡  €, ­\t \t    ­­  \b\t­ ­ ‡ ­ ­\n ƒ\t­‰ ‚ ­ , ­\n\n ’, ‡\t ­..  ƒ•, \t \t   \t\b\t €\n• ‚\t\t‡­. „\r 3 \b€†­   ­ \b\t­ ­, ‡ \t\b‡ €„\t­   , ‡ 0-1 ‡. 1  †. 2. \b\r\t   …\tƒƒ  1. Š€ ­ ‚\t \n ­­­ : 1. \t” ­\t‰  Ž ‰; 2. ­ \n ­\t\t‰   3. Ž \t\n\t‰   4.  ­- —­­ ƒ\t‰  Ž ‰  ˆ €‚ƒ   \b ƒ† \b‡­ \n‰ —­  Š‚\n ‰ \n  € \t\b\tƒ ‰,  \tŽ ‰ ‡\t  ­\n\t; ‹ ˆ ­ ‡ \n \t  ‚ „ ƒ† \t­ ­ ;  ˆ \b\t” ­\t ­ €\n\t‚ ‰­Š„ \t­  \b ƒ†, „ ‡ ƒ†,  \b \n- ‚ „\n ƒ† ‚ † Š, ­ ‚ ­  \b‰­\n­ \t \b ‡\t ƒ\n\t, ‡„\t ƒ† ‚\t­ ; Œ ˆ ƒ ­-—‡Ž \t\n  \n­  „ ­­’ Š,  \t‡ †   \t’”† †, • ‡ €“­‡ \n ƒ­’ ƒ\n\t;  ˆ ‡\t\n-—­ ƒ\t‰, ‡\tŽ \t‰, ‡‡  \t­ \t‰, ‚ ­\t­\n\t‰  Ž  Ž ‰ ­ ‡ \n‰­\t ‚ „ ƒ† \t­ ­ . 2. \t \t  ­ ‚Š \n ­‰ ­\t‰ \t ‚ \t\b\tƒ ’? \t† ­ ‚\t \nŠ† ­­: ) ‚\t‰, \t‰\t‰ \t, ‚­ -€Š­\t‰, ‡\t•‰‰; ‹) ‚\n\t­‰, €\n \bŠ, ƒ , ’€ , €’ ­..; ) \b\n ‰ \n­ , ‡ \bŠ, \b ‡ , \bŠ. 3. \t\t : \b\t‚\n ­ ­\t€\n Ž  «­ \n ­† Š» \t \n ­\t„ 4 \n ­  \t†\nŠ \b\tƒ­† ‚\t‚ . „\r 4 ƒ   ­ ­ \n \b€\t  \t\t­ ­ \t ‚­ Š† ­ \n 1.  \n —­ 3.  \t\t 2. ‡\t 4. ­\n ƒ ­\nŠ €­ ‡\t­ ƒ †   ‰ Š‚\n ‰: \b  \t\n, \t\b­, \t­\t\n Š\b\t­ ‚ 3 \b€\t ‰ ‡\n† ­† Š 3-„ ­ \n† (‚­ , ‡\t­ ƒ,   ).  \n ­ \b€\t ‰  ­† ­\n€Ž ­\t€\n ŽŠ. „\t\t­ \b\t­ Š€\tŠ ‡\n ‚ \n ’” ‡ ‚ ­\t‡:  \n —­, ‡\t,  \t\t, ­\n ƒ ­\nŠ €­ \b\t‚ \t­  ­­ † ­\n€Ž ­\t€\n ŽŠ. † ƒ \f  ‡Š† Š ­† Š „\t\t­ \b ­‰ ‚\n\b\t ‡ \t‡Š„ \t\b€\t\b Š„ ­\t† ‚ ­\t  ‡\n ’. ­ ’   •’­ \b \t­ \t\nŠ„ ­\t† (\n’, ‡\t„\t, \n\t­  .), \b  ­ Š„. \t €„ ‡  ƒ ­Š\t­ \n Š \b\t­ €\t. Š† \n† Š \n €Š­ ­\n \b \t­ \t\nŠ„ ­\t†.  ­‡ ­­‡ \n‰„ \b‡ ‚\n\b\t­ ‡•\t Š  ­Š ­\t .  \t­‰” ‡‰  ”­ ­ €\n• \n ƒ­ ‡Š„   ­Š„ ­\t†, „\t\t­ \b ’” „‰ „• ‡ \b „‚ Ž\t‡Š‡ , ­\b\t” ­Š‡ ,  ‚Š‡ , ­‚\n\b\t” ­Š‡ . †­\t‡ (’‚,  Ž, \t†\n,  \n€\t\n .) ‡\n  ­\t† \n‰ ­† Š ƒ \t\b€\t\b ‚ Ž­ ,    .  \t\n Š‡  \b­\n Š \n‰ ­† ‰\n‰’­‰ ­\t  ‡\n† † \n ƒ † \t‡ ­\t\n ‡­ \t. ™­ ­\t  \n\t ƒ ‡   ‡ „\t, ‚\nŠ, \n­ . \t •   ‚\n\b ­‰ \t­ ­\nŠ† \t‡­. ­‰‡ \t‰­‰ ­\t  ­‡\t­ ƒ ‡   ‡. ™­ ­\t  ‡­ Š, ­Š „• \b\t‡Š € , ‚‰­Š, \b‰­Š \b ‡ \n­ , ‚, \t\b.  ­ ‡ \n  ’­ \t­\t\b ’ €\t, €  ‰­ ­ ’ \n’€\b\t­\n­.  \t‡­ \tŠ‡ ­\t‰‡ ‚“‰\n‰’­‰ \n ’”  ­€\t ‰: ‡‚\b Ž \t‰ „‡\t \n\t €Š­ ‚­† ‚‰­†;    \n \n ‚ƒ ­Š\t­‰ \t €”‡ ; \t‡­\t\nŠ ‡Š \nŠ ‡­ ‚\t€­\tŠ† ­  ­ ’  ­ ’’ \t\b\t€­ .  \b­\n „   ­† Š, €  ­, ‚\n\b ’­‰ \n\t\t• Š ­\t , ­Š ‡ ­ ‚ ‡‰­‰ ­\t  \tƒ­ ­\nƒŠ„ ‡\t­ \t\n  ƒ­\t  \t‡­ \tŠ‡ ­\t‰‡ . ‘­ ­\t† ­† Š \t \n\t­ ­ \t ‚‡ ‚ „\t \n\t  †­\t ˆ  Ž \t\n­ , ­\t \t ­ \n’€‰­  \tƒ, ‰. —­‡ , ‚ ­\t‡ ‚ „ \n, \t \n‰ ­† \n\t €Š­ ‚ \b‡­ \t\bŽ­†. ™­ ‚€ \t­ ­ † ‡\b  \t\b ­ ’. ‹ †­ \t \t\b€\t\bŠ  \bŠ ‚€ \t­ ­, \b\t­\t\n‰­ €\t \t­  ‡Š\n ­ \n\t­  ‡\b\t\n’ƒ ‰. …\tƒƒ  1. \t  \t ‡ \t‡­‡ ‚\n\b ’­‰ \n‰ ‚• \t ­† Š? Š€ ­ ‚\t \n Š† ­­: ) ‡­ ƒ    Š, \n­ , \b \b\t ; ‹) „, ‚\nŠ, \n­ ; ) \t­\t­ ƒ    Š, \n­ , „. 2. \t  ­€\t ‰ ‚“‰\n‰’­‰  \t‡­ \tŠ‡ ­\t‰‡? Š€ ­ ‚\t \nŠ† ­­: ) ‡‚\b Ž \t‰ „‡\t \n\t €Š­ ‚­† ‚‰­†;    \n €Š­ „• \b\t‡ € ; Ž­\t‰ „‡\t \n\t €Š­ ­\t­†; ‹)    \n \n ‚ƒ ­Š\t­‰ \t €”‡ ; \t‡­\t\nŠ ‡Š \nŠ ‡­ ‚\t€­\tŠ† ­  ­ ’  ­’’ \t\b\t€­ ; Ž­\t‰ „‡\t \n\t €Š­ ­\t­†; ) ‡‚\b Ž \t‰ „‡\t \n\t €Š­ ‚­† ‚‰­†;    \n \n ‚ƒ ­Š \t­‰ \t €”‡ ; \t‡­\t\nŠ ‡Š \nŠ ‡­ ‚\t€­\tŠ† ­  ­  ’  ­’’ \t\b\t€­ . \t\t : \b\t‚\n ­ ­\t€\n Ž  «\t \n‰ ­† Š» „\r 5 € ƒ   ­ ‡\n  ­\t \b€\t  €\t\bŽ ­\t Œ„ \nŠ \n­\t \t­ ­\nŠ† \t‡­ ‡\t­ ƒ †    Œ\n\t\t•\t‰ ­\t ‰ Š‚\n ‰: \b  \t\n, \t\b­, \t­\t\n ‚€\t­ \b€\t ‰ ‡\n† ­† Š \b ­\t†  \t\b\n ƒŠ‡ \t‡­\t\nŠ‡ ‡­ ‡ („, ‚\nŠ, \n­\t, \t­ ­\nŠ† \t‡­, ­‡\t­ ƒ †   ) \b \n\t\t•† ­\t . Š\b\t­ ‚ \n ­  ­† ­\n€Ž \t‚­  ­­­ ’” ‚ ­\t \b ‚ ­\n€Ž\t. €\t­ ‚„  €\t\bŽŠ ­\t†  ­‡  ‡­ \t‡ \n\t\t• ’ ­\t, ‚ \n ­  ­­ † ­\n€Ž. 1.4. † ƒ  \f   ­†  ‚“‰\n‰­‰ ‡‚\n ­€\t †, ­Š† \n’ƒ\t­  ‚‚Š ‚­€ ­\n „ ‚ \b­Š„ ­€\t † ( .3.). \r\f \n …  ƒ ­\t\t’­ ‚ ‚ ‚\t­\n† \t ­ ’   Ž\n€\t\b \t­ ‡­\t, ­ƒ\t’” ’ \t‡ €”­ ‚ ­\t ‰ ­† Š \t’” ’   ­‚€­ \t  ­‡ •‡ Š\t„. \r  ƒ Š\t\t’­ ­€\t ‰ ­­ ­ ‰ Š ­‡  \t \b\tƒ ’ (‚ ‡‚\b Ž ‡  ­’ ‡\n , ­ Ž ‡\t­ \t\n\t‡, \b\t\t ‡ ˆ\t  ƒ \n’ƒ\t’­ ‡‚\n \t­‚‡ ­ ƒ „,    ƒ „ ‚ „ \b \n ƒ „ ­€\t †.  \t   ƒ \t\t’­‰ ­­­ ‰  Š \t\b‡ , ‡ ­\n\t, ‚ ‚Ž ‰‡, €­‰‡ ­ ‰ ­†   Š \t\bŠ„ \b\t­Š„  ‚‚, „\t\t­  Š‚\n‰ ‡Š„   †. ‹\n•  ‡\t  \n ­  \n ­ ‚’  \t  \t \t €\n ‚ Š„ ƒ\t ­† ­’‡\t.  €\t‰ \t \n •\t­ ­† \t­ ­ , ‡•\t­  \t­‰, Š\t­    ‰. Š† ­’‡ ­ Ž\t­\n †­ ­ \t ­ \t\b ­  \t \b‡\t ˆ \t •\t­‰  €\t” , ­\t‡  ­‰ Š† ‚.  Ž \tƒ­\t ­ Ž •†Š„ \b\n † \t €\n  ‚­€ ­\nŠ‡ ‰\n‰’­‰ ‚‰­ ‰ « €­» «‡­». \t  €“­ \t‰ Ž\t  €­\t \n ‡­\t ƒ\t­ \t „ ­‰  €“­ †, ­\t \t ƒ\n ‡­ ‚ ‚€ ­‰  \tŽ \t\n†,  ­ƒ \b ‰ —‡  , ­ Ž .  € ­  ‚\n ƒ ­ —‡ ƒ ’ Ž  \tƒ­\t Š  \n €\t. \n­  ƒ \t\b\t€­\t\n ‡\t­‡\t­ ƒ ’ ‡\n —‡ ƒ ­­­ ‰ ­  Ž Š.  \n‰ˆ  ƒ \t\n \b ’­‰  †­\t„ Š, ‚  ‡\t‡Š„ ƒ \n‡  ” ” ‰„. \t  \n\t Š\bŠ\t­   ­† ­ Ž\t­\n ’ \tŽ ’ ‚ ‰­ Š  ‡‚­‡Š. ­ Ž\t­\n \b†­  \t \t \b‡ ­\n € \t ‡ ­ \t\bŠ\t­ \b\n •‰‰ ‡\t\t \b\n ‰,  ­\n” \t, \n’ ƒ­ ­\t ,  €\t‰ €\t€­\t •, \b  , ­  ­‰ \t’”  ­\t\n ’, \b\t‚‰­‰ \n ”  \n­ . ‡ ­, ­\t‰ \t \n\t ­\n ƒ\t­‰ ‡­­’ \t\t ‰ ‰­ ‰, \t ­\t  €­‡ ‚\n\b\t ‰  ­\nŠ‡ —\n‡­\t‡ . ‡   ‚“‰\n‰‡Š  ­ † , ‚ \n‰’­‰ •­‡ ‡‚\b Ž  Ž­ • ‰ ‡\n , \t‡ †, \t\b ‡­’ ƒ\t­† Ž\n, ‚\n\t­ ƒ† Š\t\b ­\n ­’ ‡Š, ­ \n ­ ƒ † ‰\b’  ‚‡­Š‡ ‡ ‡,  \b† ‡\n ­ Ž , ­\tŠ‡  ‡. †. 3. \b\r\t \n    ‡  ƒ  ­†  ­\t­ƒ \t Š \t\t’­‰  ­†ƒ  ­ Š ( ‡Š, ‡\t­ \t\n\t,  ­ Ž , ­\t\n†, \t •)  ­ ’, ‡ \t ’, \t\b Š , \b € , †­ ’ ­‚Š, „ ‡ƒ ­ , ­  . \n\n \n  \b­Š ­€\t ‰, ‚“‰\n‰‡Š  ­†  , ‡ \t\b\n ­ \t  ­ ­-­„\n ƒ  — ‡ ƒ .   -\nˆ ­€\t ‰ ‚ \n‰’­ ­„\n ƒ­ ­ Ž •† \b\n ‰, \b\t­\t­Š ­ \t  \b­\n ‰ ‡\n . ‡\t  ƒ  ƒ ­Š\t’­ ‚\t\b\t­\n ‚ \b ­† —‡ ƒ­ (\b\t ­\t­Š \t \b­\n  ‡\n  Š) ‚­€ ­\n  \t„Š \t —‚\n \t­\tŽ ’ \b\n ‰ (\t „Š \t „ ‡ƒ ­ , ­   ­\t\n ). ­  \n      †† \tŽ ­\t‰ \t ‚\n ­ €‰\b\t­\n† ­  \tŽ , ­\t‰   ­  ­‡, \t\n —­ \b\n  €\b‚\t. ‹\b \t ­\t-—‚ ‡ \n ƒ \b\t\n’ƒ ‰, \t \t ­ Š\t­‰ ­  \t­ \tƒ­\t, \t ­ ­  ‚\t\t ­†  Š \b\t‚”\t.  ­† Š ‚“‰\n‰’­‰ \n ’”     ƒ  ­€\t ‰.  , ­ \t‰ \t \n\t €Š­ \n†,  € ‚‰, ­­­\t­ \b\t­  \t\b‡ , €‚ ƒ \t­ €    ‰.  ­­ \t \t \n‰ \t \b‡\t, ‚ \t ­\tŠ‡ ‡\t‡ ‚\n\b\t   „ ‡ ƒ „ ”­ ‚ \b­\n ­† Š \n €Š­ ­ \t ƒ. \n‰ Š„ ­† \t \b\t­\t €\n \n €Š­ ­\n \b \t­ \t\nŠ„ ­\t †.  ‡  „ ‡ ƒ „  ­† ‚\n\b ­‰ ­\n \n‰ • \b\n †,  ‚ \t\t’” „‰  † €\t.    ­\nŠ •\t \nŠ €Š­ Š‚\nŠ \t \n Ž ’ ­ . ‚\n \b\t  ­\n \b  ­­ ƒ „ ‡\t­ \t\n ( , \t‚‚\n \tŽ †) ‚ \t­‰ \t , ‚ \t\b\tƒ† \n‰ \t­‡†  ( €\n 2 ƒ\t). ­ €\n ‡ ­‰ \b­ \n‰­ \b ­\nŠ„, \n ƒ•  €\nŠ„ ­\t†. ­\t‰ \t  \n\t ‡­ ­\n­Š„,  €Š„ •, ­  „ \b , ‡†, ­‰’” „ ­  „ ‚‰, \n , \t\n \t’” „   ’ \n­ , Š „ ­Š„ ­ . ƒ \t, \b \t ‡\t­ \t\n\t \b­\nŠ ­  \n­ . € \n‰ ‡\t\nŠ•†  ­„ \n­.  ‚\t \n\t‡ ƒ \nƒ-ƒŠ \b\n ‰  16- \t\b‡\t \nŠ €Š­ \b \t­ \t\nŠ„ \n. \t \t „ ‰­ ­ , ­ ­ ‚\t­ ƒ ‚­‰  ‡‰ €­\t ‰  ‚ \t\t’­‰  † €\t.  €\t ­\t• ­„ \n­  ‡ ­ €Š­  €\t\n ‡  ­­  ,  ‡ ƒ \nƒ-ƒŠ \b\n ‰, \tƒ \t‰  18- \t\b‡\t, ‡ ­ \t­ \n\t\t \n   \b ,   €\n 30%.  \b\t­‡ \t   ­­  ‡­ €Š­ €\n•. …\tƒƒ  1. Š€ ­ ‚\t \n ­­­ : 1. Ž \t\nŠ ­€\t ‰ 2. ­ ­-­„\n ƒ  ­€\t ‰ 3. ™‡ ƒ  ­€\t ‰  ˆ  ƒ ­Š\t’­ ‚\t\b\t­\n ‚ \b­† —‡ ƒ­ ‚­€ ­\n  \t„Š \t —‚\n \t­\tŽ ’ \b\n ‰; ‹ ˆ ‚ \n‰’­‰ •­‡ Ž­ ‡‚\b Ž  •  ‰ ‡\n , \t‡ †;  ˆ ­\t\t’­ ‚ ‚ ‚\t­\n† \t ­ ’   Ž\n€\t\b \t­ ‡­\t, ­ƒ\t’” ’ \t‡ €”­ ‚ ­\t ‰ ­† Š \t ’” ’  ­‚€­ \t  ­‡ •‡ Š\t„; Œ ˆ ‚ \n‰’­ ­„\n ƒ­ ­ Ž •† \b\n ‰, \b\t­\t­Š ­ \t  \b­\n ‰ ‡\n . 2. \t  ­€\t ‰ ­\t\t’­ ‚ ‚ ‚\t­\n† \t ­ ’   Ž\n€\t\b \t ­ ‡­\t, ­ƒ\t’” ’ \t‡ €”­ ‚ ­\t ‰ ­† Š \t’” ’  ­ ‚€­ \t  ­‡ •‡ Š\t„? ) Ž \t\nŠ; ‹)    ƒ ; ) \t­‚‡­ ƒ . 1.5. Š    ƒ \f   \t ˆ \t ƒ \r  \r   \t\t­ ­ \t ­\n\n ‰ €\t: Š­\t \nŠ ­ ­‰  \n   ­\n\t \t 1:4, •‰ ­\t‰,  ƒ ­   ­Š  €\t\b ­ ‚‰‡  ­,   ­ ­\n \n Š.  ‚ ‰\n‰­‰ Ž­‡   Š. €„\t­ \nŠ ‡\n\tŽ\t ‚ €\n \b ­\n \t €„\t ­   † \n­ , •  \t ‚\nƒ \t\t ‚\n €„\t­  €. Œ\t€ ‡\n\tŽ\t ­\t\n‰’­ \t‚\t• ,  €\t•ƒ , ƒ‚ƒ  , ‚\n\b  , € , ­Š ­ \n ƒ\t’­‰ ‚­Š‡ ‡, €† ‡†, ‡  ‡\t\n Š‡ \n ƒ­‡ •, \n† ­\n † \n† \t\b“‡­’. ‡€ \bŠ ‚\n\b  ‡ ­ \t­ \t­‰ ‡  \t‡ \n‰  €† ‡Š ‚ \b \t.  \tƒ­ „† Š ‡\n\tŽ ƒ\t” ‚\n\b ’­ ‡€ \bŠ-­\t‡Š, ­ Š„ \tƒ\t\n\t ‚­ \t’­  ­, \t \t ‡\t\nŠ• ‚\t­­, ‚\t”\t’­  ‚\nŽŠ† ‡ € \b. \t ‡ €\t\b‡,   ‡€ \b ‡­ ‚\n  ­   ‰  ‚\n ­\t \n­. €† \n  † ‰\n‰­‰ \t \n‰ Š„ \t Š‚  . ™­  Š ­Š \n ‡‰  \n’Š ‡€ \bƒ  .  ­\t\t­Š† \t€ \n‰ Š‚  „‰­: ­ \t ‡\n ˆ 1 •­., ­‚\n\t‰ ‚\n\t ˆ 2 •­., \n\t‰ ‚\n\t ˆ 2 •­., \t‚\t•\t ˆ 2 •­., ƒ‚ƒ  ˆ 2 •­., \t­ Š†  \n ˆ 1 •­., ‰\n – 1 •­. ƒ \r  \r\f   (1-3 \r)  —­‡ \b\t­ ­ \t­  \t­ ­. ‚Ž ­\n\n ‰ ‡‰’­‰: Š­\t \nŠ ­  ­‰  \n   ­\n\t \t 1 : 4 \n 4,5,  \n ‰­‰ •‰, ­ƒ ‚\nƒ ­\t ‰­‰   • ; ­ ” €\n•†, \n ‚\t­ Š‚ \nŠ. \b ƒ  ‚ €­\t­ \b €, \t \t\t ˆ  ­ ­\n  \t\b\t. ­ \tƒ \t’­ „ ­.   ‰ „ ”  ­\t­ƒ    \tŠ,   2ˆ3 \t    ‡  \t ’­‰. ­    ­ ­ \b ‚\n\t­‰, \t\t\t\t,  ­€\n , ‡\t† , ­  , \n­, ’€, •­, €’,  ­‡ ƒ \n  Š„, ‡€ \b\t \n ‚\n € \b\t,  ­ , ‚\t\n­, ­Š, \n\t\b . † ‡† Š \n‰ ƒ ‰\n‰­‰ ­\t ‚Ž  \t‰, \t• \t‰ ­ ‚\nƒ ‚‰\t,  ­ † \n €\b , ­\t‰ \tŠ\t­ Š‚ \n­  ­\t. ‚\n\b\t  ­ ‚€­ ­ ‚ ‰ ­ ’   Š, \t €\n ‚‚Ž \t\n†. \t•  ’  \b  ‡  ‡  ”­ ­ \t\b\n ƒŠ‡ ‚‡: ˆ Ž\nŠ ‚\nƒ\t ‚ \t  •Š‡ €Š‡ •\t‡ ; ˆ ‚\nƒ\t ‚ \t, ­‰”  \b \n „ \nŠ„ ƒ\t­†, \t• Š„  \b ; ˆ ‡ \t  ­\t ­ \n  ­ €\t‡ , \n\t\t‡ \b\t” ‚\t‡ . ˆ   \t „‰­ €’ ,  €\t•ƒ , ‡\t† , •­Š, ­ Š, \n­ , ‚\n  ‡€ \b \n ‡€ \b,  ­\t, ‚\t\n­. \t \n‰ ‡\t\nƒ  „\t\t­ \b ­‰ ‚‰‡† ‡†.  ‚­ ‡Š Š \n‰ ­† ‰\n \b\t­\t €„ ‡ ­‡ ­‰  ‚ ­­ \n\t ƒ­ . \t ‚ ­ ‡ ­ \t\b€\t\b   • ­\nŠ„ ƒ\t ­† ‡Š. \t‚ ‡,  \t\t \n­ „ ‚\n\t­ ‡ ­ •\t­‰    «\t \t», «Š\nŠ •», \t Š\b \n Š ‡ ‡ ­ ­\nŠ‡ ­ \t‡  \t\b€\t\b •\t‡† \n  † ­\n­\t.  ‡\n \t „† Š \n ­ •  ‚\n\b\t­ •    \t‚’•\t‡ .  \t ‚ ‡\t­ \t­‰ \b \t\b\n ƒ   „\t\t ­ Š ƒ ‡\t\nƒ  ‰\n  \b\t­\t, ­\t \t „   Š „\t\t­ ‰­\n­ ‚ƒ­  \t Š†: ­    ‰­ €’ ,  ­€\n , ‡€ \bŠ ‚\n ‡€ \bŠ. ƒ \r  \r\f  \n (3-6 \r) ­ Š†  \b \n  ƒ † ­ €\t ‚\n\t­‰.  ƒ­Š„\n­‡  \b\t­   ­\t  ­‰ ­†:   \n ‰’­‰,   \t‰ \n­\t ­\t ­‰ €\n ‚\n† •  †, Š‚  \n­   ­\t  ‡•\t­‰.  ‚Ž ­‚ Š: ­•  Š­Š \nŠ  ­  ­\t \n‰­ 1:5 \n 1:5,5. ­ ‡­ Š ‡ ­\t­‰ ‚ ‡,  „\t\t­ ƒ\n ‰ \b\n † ‡ ‡‰­‰.  ‚\n\t­‰„  €\n• ‡ ­\t‡ ‚  \b  ‡ \t\t­ ‚ \n  € , ‚\n  \n \n\t . Š ‡Š ( \n —­Š) Š ˆ ­\t‚Ž  \t‰ ‚‰ ‡\t‰. \t‚Ž  \t‰ ‡\t ‚ €­\t­ ­  \n —­ Š\t  ˆ -€\t\b -€\t\b.  ­ ­  —­ •\t ­‰ \b\tŠ• ‡ \n  ­\t\n  ‚† ‡ \b\t  ‡  ­†.  Ž\n‰„ ‚” ‰ \t‡­‰­\n­ ­†  ‚\n \b\t † † \n ­ ‚ ‡ ­­  € •  \b\t­ . \t \n\t \t‚\n\t\t­‰ ‚ ,  Š ­  ‚\t\n ƒ  \nŠ \n \t„ ­ ‚  ŽŠ  €† \n ƒ Š. „ \n €Š­  \b\n ‡. \n \b\n   ‡­ \b\t­ , \n ­ €\b\tƒ\t­ ‚ \tƒŠ‡   ‡, \t‚‚\n \tŽ †, Š • † ‚. ­  €”   ­ \t‡ \t † ‚\n ”\t \n  ­‡ \t , Š Š, \t ­\t  \t \nŠ \t„, \t‰„, \t„ ­€ ’­ ‚‚\n ‰ \t€\t •\n \t ‚­ Š‡  ­ \t‡ , €’\t‡ . \t  —­­ ‚  ‚  ƒ\t­ €\t  ƒ ­­ ‚‰­­ . ™­‡  \n \t­ €\nŠ ­  , \t‰Š €\nŠ ­\nŠ \t­  .   ­\t\n ‡ \t ­† •\n \b\t­\t ‰\t‰, \t ­ \t‰, ‡‰ „ €Š„ ‡. ƒ \r  \r  \r\f  \n (7-11 \r)  \b\t­ 8ˆ10 \n­ ‚ „ ­ ­\t‰ ­\t€ \n \b\tŽ ‰   Š \n­   ‡• ‰ ­ ­ ­\t, € «‡ \t­»; \t\b \t­‰ ­\t‰ \t,  ‚\n‰­‰ ‡  \n\t­  \t,   \t ­\t ­‰ ­† \b\t ƒ­  \n  ‰ , Š‚ \n­  ­\t ƒ\b\t­, \t‡ƒ\t ­‰ ­\t\n ‰. ‚Ž   Š  10 \t‡  \b ‡‰’­‰: Š­\t \nŠ ­ ­‰  \n   ­\n\t \t 1 : 6 \n 1 : 6,5. Œ\t€ •\n \t  ”­ ‡‰­‰, ‚  „ ­ ƒ­ ‚\n  \b\n † ‚ \t \b\tƒ ’: ‡ •\n† ‡Š ‚‰\n‰’­‰ ‚­ Š ­’ ‡Š \n‰ \b\t‰­ † \t ­\t   ‚­\b\t\n, \t€ƒ  \t­  \n „\t\n\t­Š \n‰ ­ Š„ \b\t‰­ †, \t \n‰ \b\t‰­ †  ‡\t, \t‰\t‰ \t. Š  \n —­Š  ƒ  7‹8  ˆ ‚‰‡† \t• Š† ­ \n  ­\t\n . \n\t­‰ (‡\t• , ‚Š, ‚\t\b ƒŠ) \t\t\tŠ \n‰ ƒ 7ˆ8 \n­ \n ƒ• •\t­  \b\tŠ•† \n  † ­\t\n ,  €\n \b   ­­‡  ‚\n ’, ­..    „ ”  ­\t­ƒ ‚\nŠ ­ Š ­\t\n . \t ­‚ \b\tŠ• ‰ \n ‡•, ƒ‡   ­†  •\n†  ‚‚Š. †  \n —­  ƒ  9‹10  ˆ ‚\n ‚ \n\t’” †. \n\t­‰ ‚\n ‚ \n\t ’”  \n —­\t \t• ‰’­‰  \b  \t\b\n ƒŠ‡  ­\t‡ . \n\t­ ‡­ €Š­ ­\bŠ‡ ‚ \n  ­\t\n ,  \t \t­‡ ‡­ €Š­ •  ‚\n\t­‰ Ž\n ‚ ­\b ‚ \n  ­\t\n \b\t € .  ‚‰‡‡  \n —­  \b ‡‚\t \n €\n \b ‚ \t­‰ \n    \n  ­\t\n .  ‚\n\t­‰„ \t —­† \n  \t‚\n\t \t’­ \n\t‚\tŠ, \t‡\tŠ, ‚\n\t , „\n‰­  . Š  \n —­Š  ƒ \t 7‹8  ˆ €Š† ‚\n ‚ \n\t’” †; \t  9‹11  „\t\t­ ­\t ‚‰‡†  \n —­ Š,   ” ‡ ­\t ­‰ ‚\n ‚ \n\t’” †.  —­‡  \n —­ •\t’­  ­ , ‚\t\n­, \t ‚‰‡†  \n —­ ‚ €\n \t’­  ‚\n ‚ \n\t’ ”‡ , \t‚\n\t\t‰ ‚  \b   ­  €\t•ƒ ‚ ­\tƒŠ ‚‰\t, \b\t” ‚Š, Š­\tƒ ‚. ­  —­‡ \b\t­   \n­ ‡ ‚‰­  € ‡‰  ‚­ Š„ \t„   , \t­\t’­‰ \t \t„, \t\t„, \nŠ\t„ ­. ‚., ‚—­‡  €” † ­ \n Š ˆ ‚­ Š† (  \n’ƒ  ‡ ­ ­\t \n‰­ \t‰Š ­’‡Š, ‡\t•‰‰ \t). ™­ ‚ \n‰­ \b‡­ •  ‚\n\b\t ‰ ­, ‚ƒ , \t\n\tŠ„ \t‡\t, \n\t‚\t, „\n‰­ , Š\t \b ­\n†   ­ Š. ƒ \r    \r\f  \n (\n) (12-15 \r)   \t €\t ‚\n\t­ \b‡‰­‰. \t­ ‚\t­ Š† —­\t‚ €Š­ ­\t:   ƒ  12ˆ13 \n­,   ‡\t\nƒ   13ˆ14 \n­. Š­\t \nŠ ­ ­‰  \n  ­\n\t \t 1:7 \n 1:7,5.   ƒ ‚‰\n‰­‰  \n­   , ­\t‰­‰ •  €\t Š, Š‰\n‰­‰ ­\t\n ‰.  ‡\t\nƒ  \t• ‰’­‰ ‚\nƒ , ­ƒ ­\t\b \b ­\n ­\t ­‰  , ­\t\n ‰ Š‰\n‰­‰ €\n ƒ­.   €   \n ‰’­‰, ‚‚ Ž †   Š ‚ €\n \t’­‰  ‚‚Ž ‰‡    \b € ƒ  ‡­ €Š­ Š‚\n\t  ƒ­Š„  \n —­\t„.  ” ‡ ‰\n‰­‰ ‚\n ‚ \n\t’” † (\n \t \n \n†), \b\t­‡ ‚‰‡†  \n —­ ( \b\n ‰„ ‚ ­  „\t\t­\t); ‚ ­\t \nŠ† ­\t‚Ž  Š†  \n —­Š   ‡Š‡ \t•  ‡  \b   ‡ „\t\t­Š \n‰ \b\n † „† ‡ \b† Š. €­ ‡  ’”†‰   Š ƒ ‚\b \n‰’­ ‡‚\b Ž Š† Ž­ \b\n ‰ \t‚\n\t\t­  „† ƒ\t­ ,  ­ \t\b€\t\b† ‡Š ­  ‚‡”’ € \n \n  ‡ €\t\b\t­  €„ ‡Š† €“‡. Š\b \n Š ‡\t ­  \t\b€\t\bŠ. ‚• ‚\n\b ’­‰ ­   ­†\t‡ ‚­ ­† . ‡\t \t­  \t  \b\t  ‡­ ­ \t\b\tƒ ‰ \b\n ‰ ­\t \t\b€ \t\b\t. ‡‚\b Ž Š† Ž­ ‡­ \t‚\n\t\t­‰  €\n\t­ ‡\n‰’”†‰ ­\t\n , ­\t‰ ‡ ­ ‚ƒ  \t­‰ ‚‰‡, €\n• ‡ \t‚ ‡ € \n \t ( \b\n ‰„ ‚‰‡  \n —­\t), \t•  ‡ ’€ ­ \n  ­\t\n , ­\t‰  —­‡ \n ƒ\t ‡­ €Š­ ƒ ­ \b\t \t.  \t€ ƒ „‰­ ‚\n\t­, •\n\t‰ ‡\t, €’ , ’€\t, €\n \b\t, \t\t\t, ‚­ \t‰  ­\t, ‚\n\t”, ‚\t\n­, ‚\n\t­, ­   , €  , \n Š .. € ƒ \t ‡­ €Š­ Š‚\n\t  ‚‰ ‡‡  \n —­ €Š„ ‡‰ „ \n  † ‚\n ‚ \n\t’ ”‡ ˆ ­†‡, €\n• „ €“‡. \t €\t\b ‚ \b‡Š ‚­ Š •  ‰  ‚\n\b\t ‡ \t \n\tŠ„ \t‡\t ­\t\n†. \t ‡\t\nƒ  † ‰† ‚­ ­’ ‚‚Ž ‰‡ ‚ €\n \t­‰  ‡\n†  \b\nŠ„. † ­ ‚ ‚‰ š   \t\t‡ \n\t ­\tƒŠ‡  \t\t‡ . ž   ‚\n\b ­‰ \t ­ -­ ­ \t‰ ­ƒ\t ­\t\n†. Œ\t€ ‡\t\nƒ \t ­ ­ \b •\n† ‡Š, €’, ‚\n ‡€ \b\t, •­, ‡‚\t, „† ƒ , ‚­ †  ­ , ‚\t\n­ \n ‚\n ‚\t\n­. ƒ \r    (16-17 \r)  —­­ ‚  ‚„ ­ ­  ‡ \t    Š.  ƒ ( 14 \n­) \t\b \t­ ‰  , Š‰ \n‰’­‰ €\t.  ‡\t\nƒ  ( 15 \n­) \t\b \t­‰ ‡  \n\t­ \t, ƒ­ €\b\tƒ\t­‰ ­\t\n ‰. ‚Ž ‚­  ‚€Š \b\nŠ‡, Š­\t \nŠ ­ ­‰  \n  ­\n\t \t 1:7,5 \n 1:8.     ” ­ , \t ­ \n ” ‚ \t ’  \b\n†   † ­. ™­ \n\t­     ­†† \n†. Š  \n —­Š • ‰ Š \n‰  • ‚\n ‚ \n\t’” †, ‚ ­\t\nŠ† ‚‰‡† ( \b\n ‰„ ‚­  „\t\t ­\t). \t‚Ž  Š†  \n —­  \t ‚\n\b ­‰,   ƒ Š ‚ƒ \t­  \t‡ \b‡   ‰  • . ‡ •\t‰‰   \t ‚\b\n‰­ ‚\n\b\t­ \t‡Š \t\b€\t\bŠ (  ‚­ ƒ\t”  \b\t­ )  ­ ­ Š \n  \nŠ† †.  ­\t\nŠ†  \n —­ ‡­ ƒ ƒ­  ­\t­Š ƒ­\t ‰ ‚\n­‚ \n\t’” \n \t \t• † ’€ . ‡  ‚\n\t­‰ —­  \n —­\t ‡  ”­ ­ \n ’” ‡ ‚€\t‡ : 1) ­\b† ‚ ­­† \n  ­\t\n \n  ‡  ’­ Š­\tƒ\t‡ ; 2) \n  ’ ­\b\t ‚ ‡\t’­ ‚  ,  ƒŠ† \n  ‡\n‰’­ Š­\tƒ\t‡ , \b\t” ‚\t‡ \n €\t‡ , \t ’€  ˆ \n\t\t‡ , Š­\tƒ\t‡ , ‡\n ‡ \b\t” ‚\t‡ , \t„‰” ‡ ‰ ­ ­­ † \n  ­\t\n ; 3)  ƒŠ† \n  ’€   ‰’­ •  ‡ ­\tƒŠ‡ ‚‰‡; 4) ‚ ‚‡” ‚\nŠ„ \n  †, ‡ ‡\n‰’” „ ‚ \n\t  \n \t ‚    \t•   ’€ . Œ\t€  •  Ž\n‡ ‚\n‰­‰  \t­ †  \b‰­\n­’, \t ‚—­‡  €” † ­ \n ,  ‡, ‚­ Š†.  ‡ ‡    Ž \tŠ„ \b\n †.  ‚‰\n‰’­‰  Š ­ ‚Š \t‰Š„ ‚\n\t­, €\n \b, ’€,  \n­, \t\b\n ƒŠ„ ‚\n †    •\t, Š , \b­  ‚. ­\t€ \n\t‰ ƒ\t­ \t€\t: ‚\t\n­, ‚\n\t” ,  ­ , ‡‚\n­Š ‚†, ‚ ­ †, ‡\t•† Š, \t \n‰ \n­ ­Š„\t, ‚\n‰Š ‡‚\n­Š. Š  \n —­Š Š \n‰ ’•† ˆ ‚‰‡†, €† ‡Š ‚\n ‚ \n\t’” †.  ­\t  \n —­, \t• Š†  €\n\t­ ‚\nƒ  Š†  \b , ‚ \t\t• †    ‡ ­ ­. €” † ­ \n \t€\t ’•† ‚­ Š†,   „‰­ ‚\n\t” ,  ­ , ‚\n ‚\t\n­, ‡ ‚\n­Š ‚†, \t‰†, ‡\t•† ‚­ †  Š, ‡‚\n­Š \n‰ \n­ „   ‚­\t ­Š„\t.  \t­ ‡­ Š ’•† •  \t‚­\t ­’‡ ‚ \tƒ† ‡Š ‚\n  ‚\t\n­. ‡‚\b Ž  •  ‚€Š„ ­’‡ ( \n —­, ‚‚Ž , ‡\t ­ \t, \n\tŽ\t, \t‡\t, \b\t­, ­\n\t) ‡­ ­\n ƒ  ­ ‡‚\b Ž ‡  ­’‡\t:  \n —­ ƒ ƒ­ †  ­­† \n  † ‚\nƒ\t, \b\t­\t \tƒ \t­‰ Š, ­  \n\tŽ\tŠ  €\n• , \t‚\n  ‡\n  \t‡\t \t‡ \t\b€\t\b.  —­‡ \b\t­  ‡­ ‚\n\b\t   ­’‡ ‰ „ \n ‚­Š„ „ „ ƒ, ­\t †  \n­ , ‚\n , ­\nŠ ­\t. …\tƒƒ : 1. \t\t‰ ‡\t Š ‰\n‰­‰ † \n‰ ƒ ‰\n \b\t­\t? ) ­\t‚Ž  \t‰, \t\n•\t‰ ­ ‚\nƒ ‚‰\t; ‹) ‚‰‡\t‰  ­†; ) ‚\n ‚ \n\t’”\t‰, \t\n•\t‰ ­ \n  ­\t\n . 2. \t  ‡Š  \n —­Š ‚€\n\t\t’­   \n‰ ­† •\n \b\t­\t? ) ‚‰‡\t‰ ‡\t  -€\t\bŠ‡  \n —­‡; ‹) ­\t‚Ž  \t‰ ‡\t  -€\t\bŠ‡ -€\t\bŠ‡  \n —­\t‡ ; ) ‚ \n\t’”\t‰  -€\t\bŠ‡ -€\t\bŠ‡  \n —­\t‡ . 3. \t\t : ‚\t\t\n \b \t­ ­ ’   \t\b\n ƒŠ„ \b\t­Š„  ‚‚ (\n\t€\t­\t‰ \t€­\t Ÿ1) \r 2.  \b\n\b\r \n\f \f \f‡ 2.1.    ƒ \f  † \b\t\tƒ† ­  \t ‰ Š ‰\n‰­‰ ‚\n ƒ  \b ‚\n† ‚„­ ‚­\t­ ’ ‡  , \t€­, ‚\n ƒ  \b €“‡Š„ ‡ \t\b­ \t ‚\n­ . \n‰ ­ ƒ­€Š \t\b ­ \n’€ ’ €“‡ ’ ‚„­ \t ‚\n­ , €„ ‡ \b\t­ ‡  ‚„­ „Š  \n ‰ \t\b­Š\t ‰.   \n ‰‡ \t\b­Š\t ‰ ­‰­‰: \t) ‚\n  „Š„ \n  † \t\b­Š\t ‰ \t \t† ­\t\n ; €) ‚ Ž ‚ \t\n\t‰ „‡\t ƒ\n  ‰; ) ­ ‚ ƒ\n ‰. \n‰ ‚\n ƒ ‰ \t\b­ ­\t\n† Š  \t\b\t€­\tŠ, \b ƒŠ ‚ ‰­Š  ‚\t­  ­  \t ‰ •†Š„ ­ ­\tŠ„ \b\n † \t\b\n ƒŠ ‡­Š ­  \t ‰ (\t€\n. 6).  \b\t  ‡­ ­ „\t\t­\t „† ‡\tŽ  \b­Š ‡­Š ­  \t ‰  Š ‡ \t\b\n ­ \t \t \n\t\t (­\t€\n Ž\t): ˆ ‚ €\n Š ‡­Š, ˆ Š ‡­Š  €Š‡ \t\n ­‡‡, ‚ \t’” ‡ Š€ \b ‡­\t \t \t ­ • † ‚­ ‡\t\n. „\r 6 ˆ­ ‰‚€ €†‚ €ƒ  ­ \b  €\n Š ‡­Š Š ‡­Š  \n‰Š† ­ ‚ ‡ \tƒ­-\t\t\n ­ ƒ  ‡­Š  ” „ ‚\n­† \t\n ­ ƒ † Œ\t ƒ † \r­ „ €\nƒ \t‡­ ‡ ­Š ‡­Š.    \t  \n‰Š† ‡­ ‰\n‰­‰  ‡ \b ‚Š„ ‡­ ­  \t ‰, ­ Š† ‚‰ \n‰ ‡  \t\b\t   „ ‚   ­\t­ \n † \t­ \t\n­ .  ­ ‡­\t \b\t\n’ƒ\t­‰  ­‡, ƒ­ ‡\n Š \b\t’­‰ \t\b­  ­\t \n† ‚\n ƒ\t’­‰ ‚ ­‡ ‡ \n‰ \t ‰ (‡\t­ \t ‰) \b\n ‰ \t    ƒ\n \t \n \t ‡\t. ™­ \t­ \b‡ ­ ‡\t ‡\t\n  ƒ ­Š\t­ \t­‚ ‡Š €­   Š ƒ\n\t, \t ­\t ­­ ’ ‚€­ ­\t  ‡€\t\b\t ’.  ‡­‰ \t ‚ ‡ ”­\t \t ‡­\t,  €\n\t\t­ €\n• ‡ ­\t­‡ ˆ \b\t­\t­­’. -‚Š„, ‚ „ ­‰ \t€­\t­ €\n • ‡  ‡ ­\t , ‚ „  \t€­Š ­ \b\t‰  \n •; -­Š„, ‚ „‰­ €\n•  \b\t­\t­Š ‡ . - \t   ƒ , ‚­‚ ‚­ •  ‡ \n‰Š† ‡­, \tƒ\t\n †. 4. ‡\r  ‡ \t­‰  Ž XYIII ˆ \tƒ\t\n XIX . „ \t­Š, Š\t\n  Ž \tŠ \b\t†”  , €€”  † ‚Š­, Š‰ \n \t €\n ­ ‚ ƒŠ ­ Ž Š \t\b\t€­\t\n  ­‡  \tƒ­ \t ƒ „ ‚­ † \n‰ \t\b\t€­ ƒ­† Š.  \t­‰” ‡‰ \b­ \n ‰­ \t\b ­† \tƒ­-\t ƒ „ ‡­. ‡ ˆ\r\f  -\r\n\r\f   \n \r (ˆ‰ŠŠ‹)  1959   ‘­\t\nŠ‡ \t ƒ- \n\t­\n ‡ ­ ­ ­‡ •†† ‚‡Š•\n ­ €Š\n\t‰ \t\b\t€­\t\t ‡­ \t ­  \t ‰ ‡ †, † ­† Š. ˜­ ­ Ž † ‚ \t† ‡­  ­‰­‰ ‚ ­‡ ‡­ ƒ „ \t\b­ \n\t ­ \t ­ ‚†   Š ƒ\n\t  ‚ ‚ \t‡ \t € €\n\t  \t­  ‡\n .    \t\b‡Š„ „\t\t­ ­    Š ‚\nŠ ­\t€\n ŽŠ \b‡ †, ‚\n ƒŠ„ \t €\t\b \t ­‚\n ƒ „ \b‡ †  ­ † \t ­\n”   €\n‰.  ­  \t ‡ †, † ­† Š ­ ­ \t Š„ \tƒ­Š„ ‡ \n ­\t­‰  \t†, ‚ —­‡ \b‡‰’­‰ \n • — Ž ­Š ‚ ‚‡Š„ \n ƒ \t„ \t€\n’­Š \n ƒ Š ‚  €Š„ ƒ\n\t„,  \b\t  ‡­ ­ ‚\n\b\t­Š„ €­†   Š  \t \b\n ‰. ­  \t  ‡ †, † ­† Š ‚ \t† ‡­  ‚ \b ­‰ ‚  \tŠ‡ \tƒ­Š‡ ‡ \n\t‡, \b‡‰’­‰ \n • — Ž ­Š ‚ ‚‡Š„ \n ƒ \t„ \t€\n’­Š \n ƒ Š ‚ €Š„ ƒ\n\t„,  \b\t  ‡­ ­ ‚\n\b\t­Š„ €­†   Š  \t \b\n ‰. ­\t­‡ ‡­  ‘ž ‰\n‰­‰ ­, ƒ­, ‡­‰ \t ‡\b­ \t ƒ „ ‚­ † \tƒ­Š„ ‡ \n, \t ‚  \tƒ‡ \t ‚Š† \b\n‰ Š€ ‚ ‚  ( \b 325 \t ‡\t † ‚ ‚ ), ‡­,  ,  €‚ƒ \t­ €„ ‡† ­ƒ­ ‚­ ‰  Š ­ Ž Š ­€ ­   ­ƒ ‰  ‚Ž \b­\n ‰ ‚Š­Š„ €\t\bŽ.   \n  -\r\n …\n Œ ‚ (‡\bƒ …Œ) \t\b\t€­\t  † ‡­  ­  \t ‰ Š ­\t-ƒ\n ™  ‚\tƒ\t\n‡ \t \t­ €Š\n\t  ”­\n\t  1962 .  1980 .  ™, ‚\b\n •\t‰ \t­‡\t­ \b \t­ \t\b\t €­  ƒ­ ­ Ž ‚\n\t‰    ‡­\t ‡Š„ , \t\b\t€­\t\t  ƒ\t­\n‡ \t \t­. ­ \t ‡­ ’  ­‡  €\b\tƒ ‰ \t\b‡Š„ ‚ \b\t, \n  † €\t\b † ­ ­ ­ Š„ ­ƒ,   ’  ­‡   Š† ‚€ \tƒ­\t Š„ ­ ­ Š„ ­ \b \n‰ \t\b\n ƒŠ„ ‚\n\b\t­Š„  ‚‚ \t\n ‰. \t† \tƒ­† ‡ \n   ­‡ ­ \b ‚  † ‚‰Š† ‡ \t\b\t€­\t\t  \t‰ ‚\n\t­\n­ ­   \t ‰ \n‰ „   Š.   ˆ\r\f - \n \r (ˆƒ„‹Ž)  1966-67 . ‘­\t\n† ‚Š­-­„ ƒ† •†† \n\t€\t­ †  €Š­\t  €Š\n \t\b\t€­\t  Š† ‡­ ­  \t ‰. ­ ‚\b\n‰­  ‚­ ­ ­Š ‚ ‡Š  ­  \t ‰ \b\t ƒ­ ‚\n\b\t ‰ ‚\n ­\nŠ„ ‡, ­Š   \t\b\tŠ  \t­‚‡ ­ ƒ „ ­\t\t­\t„  ‡\t’­‰ \t    \b\t\t\bƒ \t. ™­ ­\t  ‡ , \t \n \t ­\t\n ‚\t ­\t‰ (­‚II=­‚I), \n \t ­\t\n ‚  ­\t‰ (­II=­cI), Š­\t   ­\t‰ . ‡ «‡\r\r  » \n‰ ‡­  ’\n\n\t, \t\b\t€­\t†  Œ‡\t , „\t\t­ ‚\n\b\t  \b‡ †   Š,  ‚ ‡‰’” „‰    „ ‡­\t„. \t\b‡Š† ‚ \b\t «€„\t­   » ‚ ‡­  ’\n\n\t ­­­ ­ €„\t­    ­‡  \n\t ­\t\t­\t‡, ‚ ‰­Š‡   .  ‡­   «’\n\n Š» ‚\n\b ’­‰ \n ’”  \t\b‡Š ‚ \b\t ,  ‚\n\b ‡Š    „ \tƒ­-\t\t\n ­ ƒ „ ‡­\t„: Š­\t € (€), \n \t \n Š ‚  (). \b  \t ‡ ‚ \r  1954 . .. \t\t ‚\n\t\t­ Š† ‡­ ­  \t ‰, \tŠ† \t ‚\n ƒ \t\b­ ­\t\n† Š ‚€\t‡ \tƒ­\t­\n† ‡­ ƒƒ ‰.     \n‰­ \t  ƒ\t­ ,  \n ‚ \t \t’­  \t\b­Š\t’”†‰ ‡­ ƒ† ‚„­ ‚\n\t ­\n \t\b­Š\t’­  \n\tŠ\t’­ \t ‚\n­ . \t ­ ‡­ \n­ \b\t ‡ ‰\b  ­\nŠ„  ƒ\t­ \t\b­ ­\t\n ‡  €†  ‚\b\n‰­ ‚\n\b\t­ —­­ ‡­ \t ‚\t­ . †.5. ‡ ‚ \r …\tƒƒ  1. ­\t ­ ‚\t \n ­­­ : 1. Š ‡­Š  ˆ Œ\t ƒ † 2.  €\n Š ‡­Š ‹ ˆ  \n‰Š†  ˆ ­ ‚ ‡ Œ ˆ  ” „ ‚\n­†  ˆ \t\n ­ ƒ † 2. \t† \b ‚ƒ \nŠ„ ‡­ ­  \t ‰ Š ‚‰ \n‰  ‡ \b ‚Š„? Š € ­ ‚\t \nŠ† \t \t­ ­­\t: )  \n‰Š†; ‹) \t\n ­ ƒ †; )  ” „ ‚\n­†. 2.2.     ƒ  ­  \t  ­† Š,  ƒ\t­­ , Š \n‰ ƒ, Š‚\n‰­‰, ‚\n\b ‰ ­   „‡ , ƒ­ \n‰ ­  \t ‰ † Š: ˆ Š€ \t’­‰ „Š \tŠ, ˆ Š‚\n‰’­‰ \tƒ­Š, ˆ ­‰­‰ €\t\b \t‰ ­\t ƒ­\t, ‚­‡ ƒ­ Š„ ­\t\n†. ­  ­ , ’€ \n‰ ƒ ‚\n­’ ­­­ ­ „‡ ‚­ ‰ ƒ­ † ­  ’€ \n‰ ” . ­  \t  ­† Š ­\n ƒ\t­‰ ­‡, ƒ­ \n\tŠ‡  \n ‡ \b\t ‰ ­  Ž Š ‰\n‰­‰  ƒ­ €­† ­\n\n ‰ ‚‚Ž †    ­† \t\b\n ƒŠ„ \b \t­Š„  ‚‚.  ­  \t ­† Š ‡ ‚\n\b\t­ \n ƒ Š \b‡ †     ­ €\t \n ‚\n\b\t­ \tŠ \t\b‡Š„ ‚ \b\t ƒ,  \t\b\tŠ   17- 66-77 «\b\n ‰ •†Š, ­ ­\tŠ, ‡„Š.  ‚Š   Š ƒ. \t\b‡Š ‚ \b\t \n‰ ‚­ \t ‰ ». ‡ ­,  ”­ ’­ ­\t€\n ŽŠ ‚ €\t \t € €\n\t , \b ­Š„ ‡ Š €\t­ ‚ €\t  \b\t  ‡­ ­  \t \b\n ‰,  ‡Š  \n —­\t, †­ ‡\t­ \t\n\t, \b ­ Š„ \b­\t\n \t­‰ \t.  ‚­ ƒ­†  ‚\nƒ† Š ’€ \n‰ ƒ ‚\n\b ­‰  Š† ‡­ ­  \t ‰ ‘ž, ƒ­† €’ \n‰ ƒ ˆ ‡­ \t ‘ž. 2.1.       ƒ\n \f ƒ   ‚‰Š‡ \b\n ‰‡ \n‰ ƒ ­‰­‰ ’€ €’ . œ€ ‰\n‰’­‰ \t‡† €\n•† \t\b€\t\b†  ‚‚† ‚‰Š„ \b\n † \n‰ ƒ.  ’€  \b\t  ‡­ ­ ‚‰ ‡ \t\b\n ­ \t 2  ‚‚Š: ‚‰‡Š  ƒ , ­Š ­‰­‰ \t\t‰ ‚ † „‡. 2.1.1.   \n   „\r 7 \n†, …­ ƒ   € ‚­  Š ƒ ‚ €\b\tƒ  \b‡ ‰ \t ‡\t  \b‡ ‰ \n ƒ \t \b‡ ‰, ‡ (\n‰ ‚ ‡\t ‚ Š \b‡ ‰ \n‰ \t\b‡\t 134-68) ‹ II ­ \n €„\t­ ­\t\n \n €„\t­ € \t­‰  ­ \n  ­\t\n  ‚\n\t €  \t­‰  ­ \n  ­\t\n \b\t  Š•† ­ƒ ‚­  ‡ ‚\nƒ •\t   \t • \n \t \b\n ‰ ˆ \t­‰  ­ \n  ­\t\n   \b\t ’€ \b\t  €\t \t € €\n\t : ˆ ‚ \n  €  ˆ 2,0 ‡ (\n‰ \t\b‡\t 134-68); ˆ ‚ \n  ­\t\n  ˆ 1,0 ‡ (\n‰ \t\b‡\t 134-68). „\r 8 \b€ ƒ   € ‚­  Š ƒ ‚ †­  ­\b \t‚\t\n  ‚‡ ” ‰ \tƒ­\t‰ ‡ \n\t \n \t ­ \b\t, ‡ ­  €\t\b † ­ ‚\n   ‰ \n   \b\t ’€  \b ‚ ­ \t\n ‚\n   ‰ \n  € ’€  \b ‚ ­ \t\n ‚\n  •  Š ’€ ‚ \n  € ‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n ‚\n  •  Š \b\t ‚ \n­ ”\t ’€ ‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n   ‰ ‹‹ ˆ \n  ‰ € ’€ , \n  ‰  ˆ \n  ‰  \b\t, ­ \t\n ‹ ˆ ‰‰ \n  ‰ ‚ ‚ \n­ ”\t, ­ \t\n ‹ ˆ €\t‰ \n  ‰ ‚‰‡† ’€ ­  ƒ­\t Š ‚\n  \n Š ’€ ‚ „ ‚ ­ \t\n ‡   =+0,5 ‡ \n‰ ƒ •\n† ‡\n\t•† •\n†  ‚‚; = \n‰ ƒ ­\t•† •\n†  ‚‚Š; = – 0,5 ‡ \n‰ ƒ ‚­†  ‚‚Š. ‚\n  \n Š ’€ €  „ ‚ ­ \t\n ‡   +1,0 ‡ \n‰ ƒ •\n† ‡\n\t•† •\n†  ‚‚; +1,5 ‡ \n‰ ƒ ­\t•† •\n†  ‚‚Š; +2 ‡ \n‰ ƒ ‚­†  ‚‚Š. \n\t­\n   ­ ­ƒ ,  ‚\n   ‡‡Š \t­ Š ­\tƒ ‚ \n  ­\t\n ‹\t‰ Š­\tƒ\t \t‰‰ Š­\tƒ\t ‰‰ Š­\tƒ\t  ‹\t‰ Š­\tƒ\t \t‚\n\t\t­‰  €‡ • ‚\n  ‚\n ‰ \b\t† Š­\tƒ ‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n =0,4‹‹ ‚\n  ‚\n ‰ ‚† Š­\tƒ \n ‚  \b­\t\n =0,4(‹‹ – ‹‹ \b ­ƒ ‹ „ ‚‰­ ­ \t\n  ‚ƒ ‰  \n  † ­\t\n  ­ƒ\t„  . ­ ­ƒ   € ­Š ‚ \n  ­\t\n ­\n\tŠ\t’­ ‚ ‚\n  \t­\t \b\t†, €† ‚† Š ­\tƒ ­­­. •   \b\t† Š­\tƒ \t‚\n\t\t’­ \t \t­‰ 3,0¢5,0 ‡, €† 2,0¢3,0 ‡ ‚† 4,0¢6,0 ‡ ­ \n  €. ­Š \b\t† ‚† Š­\tƒ ‡\n‰’­ ‚‰‡Š‡ \n  ‰‡ , \t €† Š­\tƒ ‚\n\tŠ‡  \t•   ’€ ‚ \n   \b\t \n ‚  \b­\t\n ‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n ˜\b ‚\n ƒŠ ­ƒ  \t \n   \b\t ­ƒ ‹ ‹ \t \n  € ‚‰­ \n   Š \b\t ‚ ‚\n­ ” ’€  ‚ƒ ‰  \n  † ­\t\n  ­ƒ\t„   ‡‡  \t­ Š­\tƒ  ‡•\t’­ \t \n ƒ        ƒ\t­ €Š„ \b ‚­\t\n‰’­ €† ‚‰‡Š \n  ­   Ž\t €Š„ Š­\tƒ  ­ƒ    ’  \b\t ‡\n‰’­ ‚\n\tŠ‡  Š‡ , \n‰ \b\t ­‡, ƒ­€Š  \nŠ  ­ƒ\t„  €Š\n ‚‰‡Š‡ . ‚\n ­\n \t•  ­ ’€  ‚  \b  ‡  €\n ƒ‡ \t 5,0 ‡  \t ’ ­  ‚ €† †. 7. ‘ \n   \r \n †.6. ‘ \n   \r \n 2.1.2.   \n   \r \n  \b\t  ‡­ ­ ‡\n  ƒ  ’€ ‡ ­ €Š­ •Š‡ ,  „•Š‡ ‡ •Š‡ . ­  ’€ «\nŽ ‡ ­ €Š­ Ž\nŠ‡ , €\b •. \n‰ ‚­ ‰ ƒ­\t Š  ƒ† ’€ €„ ‡ Š‚\n ­ \tƒ­Š \t     \bŠ \n  ­\t\n \n   \b\t ’€ . \n‰ —­ ‚\n\b ’­ — Ž ­ , ­Š† „\t\t ­ \b ­ ­‚ \t\n•­ ’€ . „\r 9 ‹ŒŒŽ­  €ƒ‘ Š    ƒ† ’€ — Ž ­  \n• €\n•† \n• «\t\nŠ† \n\n» « † \n\n» «‹\n•† \n\n» «\n \nŽ» «\nŽ» „Š \tŠ ‚ €\t ‚\n\b ­‰ ­ . „\r 10 \b€ ƒ   € ‚­  Š ƒ ‚ †­  ­\b \t‚\t\n  ‚‡ ” ‰ \tƒ­\t‰ ‡ \n\t \n \t ­ \b\t, ‡ ­ ­ \t\n ’ \n  ’ ­ ­ƒ   \b ‚ ­ \t\n ‚\n  ‚\n ‰ \n  ­\t\n  \b ‚ ­ \t\n = ‚\n   ‰ \n   \b\t ’€  \b ‚ ­ \t\n ‚\n   ‰ \n  € ’€  \b ‚ ­ \t\n \b ­ƒ  \t \b Ž­\t \t  \t‡ , ‹  ‚\t ­ ­ \t\n  ‚­   . ‚\n  •  Š ’€ ‚ \n  ­\t\n ­ ­ƒ  ‚\t ‚   ˜\b ­ƒ  1 ‚­ ‚‰‡ ’. ƒ  ‚ƒ ‰   \t‡ , ‚Š‡ ƒ\b ­ƒ ‹ , €\b\tƒ\t’­ ‹1 1. ­ \t\n  ‰\n‰­‰ † \n  † \b\t ‚\n­ ”\t, \n  ‰ 11 ˆ † \n  † ‚ ‚ \n­ ”\t ’€ .  \t 1 ˆ \n  ‰  \b\t ’€ ,  \t ‹‹1 ˆ \n  ‰ €. \n     ‹‹1 ‚ ‚­ ƒ­† ’€ \n• €\n•† \n• \n ­ ‚‰­. \t \n\t \t‰­‰ \n ƒ  ‹+‹ \n €Š­ €\n• . \n \t \t­‰ ‡• —­† \n ƒ Š, €„ ‡ ‚\n ­    ‹‹1 ‚\t \t † ­\n ­ \n ƒ   ‹+‹. \n ƒ ’ ­ƒ    €\b\tƒ ­ ‹11: ‹11= ‹+‹. ˜\b ­ƒ  ‹11 ‚‰­ ‚‰‡ ’, ­\t‰ ‚\t­ \n  ’  \b\t  ­ƒ 11. ‚\n  \n Š ’€ ‚  ‡   110=1111=+0,5 ‡ ˆ \n‰ ƒ •\n† ‡\n\t•† •\n†  ‚‚Š; 110=1111= ˆ \n‰ ƒ ­\t•† •\n†  ‚‚Š; 110=1111=–0,5 ‡ ˆ \n‰ ƒ ‚­†  ‚‚Š. ƒ  10 ‚\n\t   ­.  ’€\t„ \n• €\n•† \n• \b\n • •  Š ’€ ‚ \n  ­\t\n 1011  € \t’­  Š­\tƒ : 0,71011 ˆ  € ’; 0,31011 ˆ  \b\t’’. ‚\n  ‚\n ‰ € Š„ \b ‚ \n  € =‹‹ /2 – 1,0 ‡ \n =‹‹ ˜\b ­ƒ  ‹2 ‚­ ‚‰‡ ’  ‚ƒ ‰  \n  †  \b\t  ­ƒ 2 ‚\n  \n Š ’€ €  ­ ­ƒ  „ ‡   22 = 110+1,0 ‡ ˆ \n‰ ƒ •\n† ‡\n\t•† •\n†  ‚‚; 22 = 110+1,5 ‡ ˆ \n‰ ƒ ­\t•† •\n†  ‚‚Š; 22 = 110+2,0 ‡ ˆ \n‰ ƒ ‚­†  ‚‚Š. ƒ  2  ‰’­  ­ƒ\t‡  10 \n  11 ‚\n\tŠ‡  Š‡ . ‚\n  ‚\n ‰ \b\t† Š­\tƒ ­ ­ƒ ‹ ‚\t ‚   ‹‹ =0,4‹‹ ˜\b ­ƒ   ‹3 ‚­ ‚‰‡ ’ \n  ’, ­ƒ  ‚ƒ ‰ ­†  \n  † ­\t\n €\b\tƒ ­ 3. ­ ­ƒ 2 3  € ­Š ‚ \n  ­\t\n ­\n\tŠ\t’­ ‚ ‚\n  \t­\t €† \n \b\t† Š­\tƒ ­­­. ­Š ­\tƒ ‡ ­ ­\t , \t  ‚‰‡† ’€. \n \b\n • •  Š ’€ ‚ \n  ­\t\n (­\b 1011)  ‚Š•\t­ 1,5 ‡, ­  ‡ \n’ ƒ ­  ‚\t  ‚ \n  ­\t\n \t \t­‰ ‚ 10 ‡  € ­Š ­ ­ƒ 2, \t Š­\tƒ   \n\t­. \n \b\n •  €\n 3,0 ‡, ­ ‚­  ’­   € ’ Š­\tƒ .  \b\n • €\n 3,0 ‡ ƒ \n Š­\tƒ  \n ƒ \t’­. ‚\n ­\nŠ Š­\tƒ \t\b‡”\t’­ \t ‚‡ \n \b\t‡ ‚\n­ ”\t„. 2.1.3.   \n  \r \n „\r 11 \n†, …­ ƒ   € ‚­ Š ƒ ‚ €\b\tƒ  \b‡ ‰ \t ‡\t  \b‡ ‰ \n ƒ \t \b‡ ‰, ‡ (\n‰ ‚ ‡\t ‚ Š \b‡ ‰ \n‰ \t\b‡\t 134-68) ­ \n €„\t­ ­\t\n \n €„\t­ € \t­‰  ­ \n  ­\t\n  ‚\n\t €  \n \t  ‚  ­† ‚„­ Š­\t \n† ­ƒ \n \t €’ ž  \t €’  \b  ž    €’ \t   \n†  €\t \t € €\n\t  (Š€ \t’­  \b\t  ‡­ ­ ­‚ ‚ \n\t ‰ €’): ˆ  ‚\n €„\t­  ­\t\n  ˆ  ‚\n €„\t­  €  „\r 12 \b€ ƒ   € ‚­ Š ƒ ‚ †­  ­\b \t‚\t\n  ‚‡ ” ‰ \tƒ­\t‰ ‡ \n\t \n \t ­\b\t, ­  €\t\b † ­ 1 ‚\n  ‚\n ‰ \n  Š­Š   ‰  \b ‚ ­ \t\n ‡   ›=( )+3,0 ˆ \n‰ ƒ ‰\n†  ‚‚Š; ›=( )+1,0 ˆ \n‰ ƒ •\n†  ‚‚Š; ›=( ) –2,0 ˆ \n‰ ƒ ‡\n\t•† •\n†  ‚‚Š; ›=( ) –3,0 ˆ \n‰ ƒ ­\t•† •\n†  ‚‚Š; ›=( ) –4,0 ˆ \n‰ ƒ ‚­†  ‚‚Š. 2 ‚\n  ‚\n ‰ \n  € „ ‚ ­ \t\n 3 ‚\n  ‚\n ‰ \n   \b\t  \b ‚ ­ \t\n ,  =1,0¢1,5 ‡ ˆ \t  \t€­  4 ‚\n  ‚\n ‰ \n  \n†  \b ‚ ­ \t\n ‡   )+1,5 ˆ \n‰ ƒ ‰\n†  ‚‚Š; )+2,5 ˆ \n‰ ƒ •\n†  ‚‚Š; )+3,5 ˆ \n‰ ƒ ‡\n\t•† •\n†  ‚‚Š; )+4 ˆ \n‰ ƒ ­\t•† •\n†  ‚‚Š; )+4,5 ˆ \n‰ ƒ ‚­†  ‚‚Š. 5 ˜\b ­ƒ , ‹, ›, ,  ‚­  \b­\t\n , \t ­Š„ ­\n\tŠ\t’­ ­\b , ‚\n‰’”   Š •  Š ­\t\n† €’. 6 ‚\n  •  Š ‚ † ‚\n  €’ ­ ­ƒ  \n ˆ , ‚\t ˆ  7 ‚\n  •  Š \b\t† ‚\n  €’ ­ ­ƒ  \n ˆ , ‚\t ˆ  8 ‚\n  •  Š ‚ † ‚\n  €’ \t   \n† ­ ­ƒ  \n ˆ  ‚\t ˆ  9 ‚\n  •  Š \b\t † ‚\n  €’ \t   \n† ­ ­ƒ  \n ˆ  ‚\t ˆ  10   ­ ‚‰‡Š‡ \n  ‰‡ ­ƒ  11 ‚\n  ‚\n ‰  † ‚† \n  \n ‚  \b­\t\n 12 ˜\b ­ƒ  ‹ ‚‰­ ­ \t\n, ‚\t’” ’  \b­\t\n , ‚Š ƒ\b ­ƒ › . ­\t ‚ƒ † \n  † ­‡ƒ\t’­ ­ƒ\t‡ › 13 ‚\n  „ Ž\t † ‚† \n  . „ ‚ ­ \t\n 14 ‚\n  •  Š ‚ † ‚\n  €’ ‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n  =1,0¢2,0 ‡ ˆ \n ƒ \t \t­\t ‚† Š­\tƒ . 15 ‚\n  • Š € † \n  ‚† ‚\n  €’ „ ‚ ­ \t\n =1,0 ‡ ˆ \n‰ ƒ ‰\n†, •\n† ‡\n\t•† •\n†  ‚‚; =1,2 ‡ ˆ \n‰ ƒ ­\t•† •\n†  ‚‚Š; =1,7 ‡ ˆ \n‰ ƒ ‚­†  ‚‚Š. 16 ‚\n  •  Š •\t\t \n ‚  \b­\t\n 17   ­ ­ƒ ‹ , \t ‚ƒ   \b­\t\n’ ›› ‚­\t ­ ­ƒ  › 18 ‚\n  ‚\n ‰ € † \n  ‚† ‚\n   €’ \t \n  € ‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n =‹‹ 19   ­ ­ƒ  . ƒ  \n  ‹   \b­\t\n’, ‚† \b ­ƒ ›, €\b\tƒ ­ ­ƒ† › 20 ‚\n  ­ƒ ‹ \n ‚  \b­\t\n 21 ‚\n  •  Š •\t\t \b\t† ‚\n  €’ ‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n 22 ˜\b ­ƒ  ‹ ‚­ ­ \t\n „  ‚ƒ ‰   \b­\t\n’  ­ƒ   \b  ‚ ƒ ‰   \b­\t\n’  ­ƒ › 23 ‚\n  ‚\n ‰ € † \n  \b\t† ‚\n  €’ ‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n 24   ­ ­ƒ ‹ . ƒ  ‚ƒ ‰ ‚\n ƒ† ‚‰‡†   \b­\t\n’ ›› €\b\tƒ\t’­ › 25 ‚\n  \t‚\t\n ‰ † \n  \b\t† ‚\n   €’ ‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n = 2,0 ˆ \n‰ ƒ ‰\n† •\n†  ‚‚; = 3,0 ˆ \n‰ ƒ ‡\n\t•† •\n†  ‚‚Š; = 3,5 ˆ \n‰ ƒ ­\t•† •\n†  ‚‚Š; = 4,5 ˆ \n‰ ƒ ‚­†  ‚‚Š. 26 ‚\n  \t‚\t\n ‰ † \n  \b\t† ‚\n Š €’   ­ ­ƒ ‹ 27 ‚\n ­ ‚\n  € † \n  \t  \b­\t\n  ‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n  =2,0¢3,5 ‡ ˆ  \n ƒ \t \t­\t \b\t† Š­\tƒ . 28 ƒ     ­  ­ƒ† ‹ †. ‘    \r \n ­  ƒ­\t Š 29 \tƒ­ ­ \n  ’  \b\t ‚\n † ˆ ‚‰‡\t‰  30 ‚\n  ‚“‡\t  Š  \b\t ‚† ‚\n  „ ‚ ­ \t\n 31 ƒ    ‰’­ ‚\n\t†  †  ­ƒ\t‡  ˆ \n  ‰  \b\t ‚† ‚\n   €’ 32 ƒ\t­  ‚­ ‚\n\tŠ‡  Š‡ , ‚„‰” ‡  ‚‰‡Š  ­­­ .   ‰  ˆ •\t\t‰ \n  ‰ ‚† ‚\n  €’ 33 ‚\n  \n Š •\t† \n  \b\t† ‚\n  €’ \b‡  \t ƒ­ 34 ‚\n  ‚\n ‰ ‚‡\t­\n† ­ƒ ‹ ­ \t  \n\t ‹ 35 ‚\n  ‚\n ‰ ‚‡\t­\n† ­ƒ ‹ ­ \t  \n\t ‹ \tƒ­ ­ €Š \n  ‚† \b\t† ‚\n † €’. ˜\b ­ƒ  ‚‰­ ‚‰ ‡ ’ \t  ƒ\t­ ­ ­ƒ   ­ƒ  , ‚„‰” ’ \t\n  ‚\n\t ’   ’.  ˆ €\t‰ \n  ‰ ‚† ‚\n  . ‹\t‰ \n  ‰ \b\t ‚\n  ‚­ ƒ\b ­ƒ  . \t  ƒ\t­  —­\t \n  ‰ ‚‰‡\n †\t. \t\n \t ‚„ ­  ‚\n\t ’   ’. 36 \tƒ­ ­ € ’ \n  ’ \b\t† ‚\n  \b‡  \t ƒ­ 37 ‚\n  ‚\n ‰ „† ­ƒ † \n  \b\t† ‚\n  €’ \t   \b ­ƒ  \t \t\n† ‹ 38   ­ ­ƒ  . ™­ \n  ‰ \b\t† ‚\n  €’.   ‰ › ˆ ‰‰ \n  ‰ \b\t† ‚\n  . 39 ‰‰ Š­\tƒ\t \t­ Š­\tƒ \n \t †. ‘ \n  \r \n  \t ‚† Š­\tƒ ‚\t\t­  ­ \t\n’  .  € ­Š ­ ­ƒ  ­\n ­ ‚ ‚\n   \t­\t ‚† Š­\tƒ . ­Š Š­\tƒ ‡\n‰’­‰ ‚‰‡Š‡ \n  ‰‡ 40 \t‰‰ Š­\tƒ\t \t­ Š­\tƒ \n \t \t’’ Š­\tƒ  \t\b‡”\t’­ \t   \n  ­\t\n \b\t† ‚\n  . ‰‰ \n  ‰ Š­\tƒ ‚ ‚  \n‰\t \n  ­\t\n . 2.2.       \n \f ƒ   ‚\nƒŠ‡ \b\n ‰‡ \n‰ ƒ ­‰­‰ ‚\n\t­‰, \t­Š, ‚\t\n­,  ­ , €\n \b .  ‚­ ƒ­† ‚\nƒŠ„ \b\n † \n‰ ƒ ‚\n\b ­‰  Š† ‡­  ­  \t ‰ ‘ž. „\r 13 \n†, …­ ƒ   € ‚­ ƒ‚­… †ƒ ƒ ‚ €\b\tƒ  \b‡ ‰ \t ‡\t  \b‡ ‰ \n ƒ \t \b‡ ‰, ‡ (\n‰ ‚ ‡\t ‚ Š \b‡  ‰ \n‰ \t\b‡\t 134-68)   ­ \n €„\t­   ‚Š† \n €„\t­   ­† \n €„\t­   ­­ † \n €„\t­ € \n €„\t­ ­\t\n \n €„\t­ • ž  \t ‚ Š ž  \t   ž  \t ‚\nƒ \t­\t \t­‰  ­ \n  ­\t\n \b\t  Š•† ­ƒ ‚­  ‡ ‚\nƒ •\t   \t ‰ • \t­‰  ­ Š•† ­ƒ ‚­  ‡ ‚\n ƒ •\t   \t ‰ •   ‰ \b\t „  \n ‚‡Š•ƒŠ„ ‚\t  Š­\t ‚\nƒ\t \t‰ Š­\t   \t­‰  ­ Š•† ­ƒ ‚­  ‡ ‚\nƒ  •\t   \t ‰ •  \n  ­\t\n ‚ \n \t \b\n ‰  €\t \t € €\n\t  ( \tƒ­ ‚ ‡\t Š€\tŠ ‚ €\t \n‰ ‚­ ‰ ƒ­\t ‡ \b ‚\t\n­ ‚‰‡  \n —­\t \n‰ ƒ ): ˆ ‚ \n     ˆ   ƒ\t­\t‡ ‚   ˆ   ƒ\t­\t‡ ‚\nƒ  ˆ  •   \n Š  ˆ  Š­ \n Š ‚   Œ ˆ \n  ‚  ‚ \n  ­\t\n   ˆ \t €  ‚†‡Š   €\t ‚ \n  ­\t\n  ‚ \n  €  \n‰ \b\n † € ‚ \n\t ‰   ‡\t   ‚  ‡\t’­‰. ™­ ‚ €\t \t’­ \t ’ \n ‚ ­  \t \b\n † ‚ \n\t’” ‚\n ‚ \n\t’”  \n —­. „\r 14 \b€ ƒ   € ‚­ †’ €ƒ„ ƒ ‚ †­  ­\b \t‚\t\n  ‚‡” ‰ \tƒ­\t‰ ‡ \n\t \n \t ­\b\t, ­  €\t\b † ­ ‚\n  •  Š ­ ƒ­\t ‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n +­ † \n  ‚  \t \n    + \t­ ­ \t\nŠ„ • Š­\tƒ ‚ \n    . \n ’’ \n  ’ ‚  ­‰­ ­ ­ \t\n , ­ \n‰ „\t ‰ \b\t‚­ \t† •  Š \b\n ‰ ‚ \n    ­  ƒ­\t \t• ‰’­ \t \n ƒ   ­\t † \n  ‚  \t   \n    (\n € Š ‚†‡Š). \n ’’ \n  ’ ‚  ­‰­ ­ ­ƒ  , ­  ƒ­\t \t• ‰’­ \t 0,5 , \n  ­ ‚ \b‰­ ­  ‰ \n‚\t­, ­ \t•   \t 0,6 \n‰ ‚\n ‚ \n\t’” „ ‚ \n\t’” „  \n —­ 0,3 \n‰ ‚‰‡Š„  \n —­. ­\b  ‚\n‰­ \n ƒ   ­\t † \n  ‚  \t   ­\t\n ­ † \n  ‚   \n —­ \n ƒ \t ­\t, ‡ ‚ \t \t\b\b\t‰ ( •‡)  \b\n ‰„ \n‰ ƒ ‚ \t \t\b\b\t‰ (Ž\n\t‰)  \b\n ‰„ \n‰ ƒ ‡\n\t• \b\t­\t ­\t• \b\t­\t ‡\n\t• \b\t­\t ­\t• \b \t­\t ‰‡† \n ‚ \n\t’” †  ­\t\nŠ†  \b\n ‰„ €† ‡Š   \n ƒŠ‡ €“‡‡ ‚  ‚ \n  € ’’ \n  ’ ‚   ­‰­. \n‰ €\t\b\t ‰ \n•\t ’’ \n  ’ ‚  ­‰­ \n ­ ­ \t\n \t \n ƒ  , \b\t ‰” ’ ­ ‡\n .  \b\n ‰„  €† Š­\tƒ† ­ ­ Š‡ •\t‡ , ‡’”‡ \t­Š Š­\tƒ ‚ \n    , ­  ƒ­\t \b\n ‰ \t• ‰’­ \t \n ƒ   \t­ ­ \t\nŠ„ Š­\tƒ,  ‡‡\t ­Š„  ­ ƒ \t\t: 0,5¢1,5 ‡ ‚ † €† Š­\tƒ; 1,5¢2,0 ‡ ‚  „ •\t„ \n ‡ • €† Š­\tƒ; 2,0¢2,5 ‡ ‚ ­„ ­ \t\nŠ„ •\t„ \n  „ •\t„ €† Š­\tƒ. ‚\n  •  Š ‚  ‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n ‚\n  •  Š ‚\nƒ (‚\t) \n ‚  \b­\t\n ‚\n  •  Š ‚†‡Š ž  \t ‚†‡Š, ‚\n ƒ\t‰  \b \n­\t­ ‚­ ‰ \n \tƒ ­\t\t‰,  \n\t €Š­ ‡• ‚ †  ­\t€\n Ž  .   ‡\t\n\t‰ •  \t ‚†‡Š \n‰ \b\n †  ­\tƒŠ‡  \t‡ \t ­ ‚Š   Š ƒ   ‡\t\n\t‰ •  \t ‚†‡Š, ‡,  \b\n ‰„ \n‰ ƒ   \b\n ‰ \b\t­†  ‚‚Š \t\b‡\t \n\t­ \r\t­ \t\n­ ‡ \b \t\n­ \b ‡ •\n† ‡\n\t•† •\n† ­\t•† •\n† ‚­† \n •  \t ‚†‡Š, ‚\n ƒ\t‰  \b \n­\t­ \tƒ­\t, \t\b\t\n ­\t­ƒ†, ­ \t•    ƒ\t­\t ‚†‡Š \n  ”­\n‰­‰ ‚ ­‡ \n  ‡• ‰ ‚ €\t  •   ‚   ž •   ‚\nƒ   ‡  ‡\t\n† \n ƒ Š \n  \n ƒ ‰ ‚ €\t ‚ \n     ‚\n   ‰ \n‚\t­  \b ‚ ­ \t\n ‚\n   ‰ \n  \n € Š ‚†‡Š  \b ‚ ­ \t\n   ‚\n   ‰ \n  ­\t\n  \b ‚ ­ \t\n  ‚\n   ‰ \n  €  \b ‚ ­ \t\n \b ‚\n ƒŠ„ ­ƒ Œ, , ‹ ‚\t ‚‰­  \b­\t\n . \b ­ƒ \t, \t ‚ \t’­ ­ \t\n . ƒ  ­ \t\n† \b ­ƒ \t \t  \n  †   €\b\tƒ ­ ­­­ Œ , \t ‚ƒ  ­ \t\n , ‚† \b ­ƒ \t,  \n  ‰‡   , ­\t\n € €\b\tƒ\t’­ ­­­ Œ †. 10. ‘   \r    \n \r\n   \n \n \r \n ­  ƒ­\t ‚  ‰‰ \n  ‰ ‚   \b\n ‰„  \t\b\b† (Ž\n†) ‚ † \n‰ „    (‡.  . \t)  \b\n ‰„  \t\b\b† ‚ † \n‰     ‡\t\n† \t† (‡  . €) „’’ ƒ\t­ † \n  ‚   ­‰­.  \b\n ‰„  \t\b\b† ‚ † \n‰  ­ \nŠ„   , ƒ\t­ ­ƒ\t’” „‰   ­† ­\t• \b\t­\t, ’’ \n  ’ ‚   „† ƒ\t­   ‰ \n‚\t­ ­‰­ ­ ­ \t\n (‡  . ). ­ ­ƒ  ‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n ­\n\tŠ\t’­ \n ƒ   ­\t:  \n ƒ \t ­\t † \n  ‚  \t   \n  ­\t\n \b\t  ­ ­  \n —­\t \b\n ‰. \n ƒ   ­\t ­\n\tŠ\t’­ ­ ­ƒ  ‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n ‚\n ƒ\t’­ ­ƒ    \b\n ‰„  \t\b\b† ‚ † ­ƒ    ‰’­  ­ƒ†  ‚\n\t’­    ‰  \b\t (‡.  . \t). ƒ  ‚ƒ ‰  \n  † € €\b\tƒ\t’­ ‹  \b\n ‰„  \t\b\b† ‚ † ( •‡ ‚ ) ­ƒ   \n ­ƒ   £  ‰’­  ­ƒ†  . ƒ     ‰’­  ­ƒ†  \n  ’   ‰ ‚\n\t’­   ‰  \b\t. ’’ \n  ’ ‚   „† ƒ\t­ ‡\n‰’­ ‚\n\t†  †. \n‰  \n ƒ ‰ ­‚ ‚ \n\t ‰  \b\n ‰„  \t\b\b† ‚ † \n\t’­ ‚\n ­\n ’ Š­\tƒ  \t \n   ‡ • ‚  :  \t­‰   \n‰­ ‚‚\n\t‡, ‚\n ƒ ’ ­ƒ   ‰’­  ­ƒ† ‹ \n  ’   ‰ ‚\n\t’­   ‰  \b\t. ƒ  £,  ,   ‰’­ ‚\n\t† \n  † ‚\n ƒ\t’­ ’’ \n  ’ ‚  .   ’ ­\t\n ‚‰­ ‚‚  \n‰  † ƒ\t­ † \n  ‚  . †. 11.   \r  \n \r \r \n Œ\n \t ‚  ‚\n  •  Š \n Š ‚  ‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n ‚\n  Š­Š (\n € Š) \n Š ‚   \b ‚ ­ \t\n Œ ¤=  Œ ˜\b ­ƒ   ‚‰­ ‚‰‡ ’, ‚‚  \n‰ ’ „† ƒ\t­ † \n  ‚  .  ‚ƒ   † \n  † ‚  €\b\tƒ\t’­ .  ‰’­ ‚\n\t†  † ­ƒ  . ™­\t  \t‰ ˆ \n  ‰ \n Š ‚  ‚\nƒ \b\n ‰. ‚\n  \n Š \b\n ‰  \b ‚ \t\n† =  ­ \n  ’  \b\t ƒ\b ­ƒ   ‚‚  \n‰   † ƒ\t­ † \n  ‚  . †. 12. ‘ \n \r\n  \r  \n \n \r \n \nƒ\t‰ \n  ‰ ‚  ‚\n  ‚\n ‰ ‚\nƒ† \n  \tƒ\t  † ­ ­ƒ  + \t­ Š­\tƒ + ‚\t\t ‚\n  ‚\n ‰ ‚\nƒ† \n  \tƒ\t  † ­ ­ƒ   + ­\n” \t ‚\nƒ† \t\n\t \n‰ \b\n † ‚‰‡ €  \n —­ \n    ƒ\t­\t   ‡•\t’­ \t 0,5¢1,5 ‡. \nƒ\t‰ Š­\tƒ\t. \t­ Š­\tƒ 1,5¢2,0. \n \t Š­\tƒ 5,0¢8,0 \n” \t ‚\nƒ† \t\n\t  „ „ \b\n ‰„ 0,5¢1,0 ‡. \n  ‚\nƒ† Š­\tƒ ‚\n‰­‰ ‡\n’. \n‰ ­ ‚Š„    \t­‰  ­ Š•† ­ƒ \n Š ‚   Š­\tƒ \t\t 1/4¢1/3 \n Š ‚\nƒ \b\t. \t‚\t\n  Š­\tƒ \b\t  ­ ­ ‡\n . ˜\t”  Š­\tƒ  \t‚\n\t\t’­ ‚\t\t\n\n\n   ‚  . \n \t Š­\tƒ \b\t  ­ ­ \t­\t, ƒ‡ ‡• \t­, ­‡ ‡• \n \t. \n‰ \b\t ‰ €“‡\t \t €\n\t  \n‚\t­ ‚ \n  ‚†‡Š ‚  ‚­  ­‰ Š­\tƒ\t \n  ­’ \t , \n ƒ \t ­Š„ ­\t\n‰­ 0,5¢1,5 ‡. ˜‡ €\n•  ­ \n­, ­‡ €\n•  ­’ \t  ‚ ‚†‡ ‚  . \b-\b\t ­, ƒ­ ‚ ‰­ ‡  \t­ ‡­\t‰ \n­\t  ‚„ ­ ƒ\b Ž­ \n‚\t­, ­..  ‚\n­’  ƒ ­Š\t­ Š‚ \n­ \n‚\t­, ‚\n   \n ƒ Š  ­’ \t ‰ ‚ ‚†‡ ­\n\tŠ\t’­ „ ‚ ­ \t\n ­ ­ƒ  ‚\n ƒ\t’­ ­ƒ   ™­\t ­ƒ\t ‰\n‰­‰ Ž‡ ‚\nƒ† \n  . ƒ\t­\n ‚\nƒ† ƒ\b ‡\n‰’­,    ­ƒ  £ ‚ \b\tŠ­† Š­\tƒ. †‡\t ‚  ‚ ­ ­ ‚‚  \n‰ \b ­ƒ  £ \t \tŒ \t†­ ­ƒ   ‚\n  ­ƒ \t\t ‰ „ ‚ ­ \t\n /3+1,5¢2,0  ‡• ’ \n ƒ   ­\t\n\t € ­ \n‰ ƒ ‡\n\t•, \t €\n• ’ ˆ ­\t• \b\t­\t. ‚\n  ‚\n ‰ ‚‡\t­\n† ­ƒ 1  € ­1  ‚‰‡  \n\t  • †  ­ƒ Œ ‚\n   Š ‚†‡Š ˆ ­ƒ Œ ‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n ­ \n  ’ ‚†‡Š ‚  ,  ‰‰ ‚\n\t†  † ­ƒ  £,   ‚­ \n  ‚†‡Š  ƒ ­Š\t’­, ƒ­ ‚ ­ † \n  ‚  ­ ­ \t\n \b \t’­ ‚­  •   ‚  . \n‰ „\t •  Š ‚  ‚  \b­\t\n \t   \n  \n‚\t­ ‚\t ­ \n  ‚†‡Š ­\n\tŠ\t’­ ­\b, \tŠ† \t­‰ ’ ­ ­ \t\n , ‚† \b ­ƒ  ,  † \n  ‚  , \t \n  ’ ‚†‡Š ‚‰­ ƒ\b ‚\n ƒ ’ ­ƒ . \b ­ƒ Œ ‚ \t’­ ­ \t\n  ‚ƒ ‰  \n  † ­\t\n ‚  . ­  ƒ­\t ‚\nƒ Š•\t‰ ­ƒ\t \n Š ‚\nƒ ‚\n  \t­‰ ‰ ­  Š ‚\nƒ  \t €\n Š­ ‚\t’”† ­ƒ   \n ‚  \b­\t\n ‚\n\t­‰ \t­\t; ‡ \b ‚\t\n­ /2ˆ \n‰ \b ‡ ‚\t\n­ ˜\b ­ƒ  Œ „  \b ‚­ ­ \t\n  ‚ƒ   \n  † ­\t\n €\b\tƒ ­  ‚\n  ‚ \t \n  ­\t\n ‚\nƒ  \b ‚ ­ \t\n ‡   ‚ \t \n  ­\t\n ‚\nƒ \t\b\n ƒ \n‰ ­† \t\bŠ„ \b\t­Š„  ‚‚ \b\t  ­  ‡ ­ ­‚ Š­ ‚\t ‰  ­\t. \n‰ ­† •\n† ‡\n\t•† •\n†  ‚‚ ‚  \n  ­\t\n \t 0,5¢2,5 ‡: 1,0¢1,5 ‡ \n‰ ­ ‚Š„   ; 0,5¢1,0 ‡ \n‰     €\n• ‡ Š­ ‚\t ‡  ­\t; 2,0¢2,5 ‡ \n‰     €\n• ‡ Š­ ‚\t ‡  ­\t. \n‰ ­† ­\t•† •\n†  ‚‚Š ‚  \n  ­\t\n \t 0¢1,5 ‡: 0,5 ‡ \n‰ ­ ‚Š„   ; 0 ‡ \n‰     €\n• ‡ Š­ ‚\t ‡  ­\t; 1,0¢1,5 ‡ \n‰     €\n• ‡ Š­ ‚\t ‡  ­\t. \n‰ ­† ‚­†  ‚‚Š \n  ‰ ­\t\n  ‡­ ‚ \t. ‚  \n  ­\t\n ­‡ €\n•, ƒ‡ ‡• €„\t­   . ˜\b ­ƒ   ‚\t ‚­  \b­\t\n  ‚ƒ ‰  \n  †  Š ‚\nƒ  ­ƒ ‚\n  ‚\n ‰ • Š \n Š „ ‚ ­ \t\n  + ‚ ‚  \t  \t€­ , \t\n  ­\n”   ­\t .  ‚  \t  \t€­ , \t\n  ­\n”   ­\t \t: 0,3¢,5 ‡ \n‰ \n† Š  \b\t­† ‚ ; 1,0¢1,3 ‡ \n‰ \t­\t; 1,0¢1,5 ‡ \n‰ ‡ \b ‚\t\n­; 1,5¢2,0 ‡ \n‰ \b ‡ ‚\t\n­. \n ‚\nƒ\t ‚  ‡­ \b ’ \b\t­ , ­ „’’ ­ƒ   Š ‚\nƒ  ‚‡”\t’­ \n \t 0,5 ‡: =1,0¢1,5 ‡ \n‰ ­† ‡\n\t• \b\t­\t; =0,5 ‡ \n‰ ­† ­\t• \b\t­\t. ƒ     ­  ­ƒ† Œ , ‚\n ƒ\t‰ ‚\n  † \n  ‚\nƒ (\t\b\b† ‚ )  Œ\n \t ‚\nƒ ‚\n  •  Š \n Š ‚\nƒ ‚\n  \n € Š \n Š  \b ‚ \n  ­ \n  ’ \n Š \n ’” ‡ €\t\b‡: \b ­ƒ  \t  ‡, \tŠ‡ \n €  \n Š  , ‚­     ­  ­ƒ  \b ­ƒ „ ‚ƒ ‰ —­ ‡  \t  ‡ ‚­ \n  ’ \n Š ­ ­ƒ   ­ƒ  „‰‰ Š­\tƒ\t ­  „† Š­\tƒ \t ƒ­\t„ \b\n † \n‰ ƒ ­\t• \b\t­\t \tƒ \t’­  ‚\n ‰ ‚\n ‰ Š•† ­ƒ   Œ . \b ­ƒ  \t ­ \t\n† \n  Œ \n\t’­ \b\tƒ  \t  ‡, \tŠ‡ ‡   \b\n ‰„ \n‰ ƒ ‡\n\t• \b\t­\t Š•\t‰ ­ƒ\t   ‚\t\t­  ­ƒ† Œ   ­ ­ƒ  \n  , ‚\n ƒ\t‰ ‚\t ’ ­  „† Š­\tƒ . ‚\n  \t­\t „† Š­\tƒ \b ­ƒ Œ \n \t \b Ž­\t \t  ‡ Œ \n Œ \n ‚­    ­\n ­ \t † Š€ \t­\t \b ­\t\n\t 0,2¢2,0 ‡  ”­\n‰­‰  \b\t  ‡­ ­ \t\b‡\t \b\n ‰ (‡. ­\t€\n.)  €\t \n‰ \tƒ­\t \t­\t \t † Š­\tƒ \b\t­\t‰  ‚‚\t \t\b‡ \b\n ‰ ‚ €„\t­     €\t\t, ‡ •\n\t‰ \n\t•\t‰ •\n\t‰ ­\t•\t‰ •\n\t‰ ­\t‰ ˜\b ­ƒ  \n  ‚­ \n ’ ­  „† Š­\tƒ . †‡\t ‚\nƒ ‚\n  „† ­ƒ ‚†‡Š „ ‚ ­ \t\n ,   \n € \t ‚†‡Š ‚  , \n ƒ   ­† ‚\n‰’­ \b‡ ‡ \t ƒ­ ‚†‡Š ‚  €\b ‚ €\t \t  ­’ \t . ‚\n  ­\n† ­ƒ  „ ‚ ­ \t\n \n‰ ƒ ‡\n\t• \b\t­\t; /3 \n‰ ƒ ­\t• \b\t­\t ‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n \b ­ƒ  \t  ‡  \n ­ ­ƒ  ‚­    ‚\n  ­ƒ  \tƒ\t  † ƒ    ­ ‚‰‡† ‚\n  ­ƒ 3  ‚‰‡†   ‚‰‡†  \b ­ƒ 3 ­\t ­ ‚‚  \n‰ 3-4 \n † 0,5¢1,0 ‡. ‚\n  ‚‡\t­\n† ­ƒ 2  € ­   \n\t  • †  ­ƒ Œ \n  \n  ­\t\n ‚\nƒ 48.   ‰ ­\t\n ‚\nƒ \t ƒ­ ‚„ ­ ‚  \b­\t\n  \t\n ƒ\b ­ƒ  ‚ƒ ‰ \n  ­\t\n ‚   ­ \t \n’, ‚† \b  Š ‚†‡Š š ­ƒ Œ \n‰ ­† •\n ‡\n\t• •\n \b\t­\t ‚ ‚  \n  ­\t\n €\n• ƒ‡ \t 0,5 ‡ \n‰ \n† Š €\n• ƒ‡ \t 1,0 ‡ \n‰ „† Š ‚­  ’­ Š­\tƒ  \t €\n\t   ­\t. \t­ Š­\tƒ \t \n ƒ  ‚ \t \n  ­\t\n \n ‡•  \t 0,5 ‡. \t‚\n\t\t’­ Š­\tƒ   \t 4,0...6,0 ‡ Š• \n  ­\t\n . Ž Š­\tƒ  „ ­  ­ \t\n \t 3,0...4,0 ‡.  —­‡ \n ƒ\t \n  ­\t\n ‚   ‚\nƒ  ‚\t\t’­ ‚ ­ \t\n , ‚† \b ­ƒ Œ , \t \n ƒ   \t­\t Š­\tƒ . Š­\tƒ  \t €\n\t   ­\t  \b\t  ‡­ ­ ‡\n ‚ ‡”\t’­  \n  ’ ­\t\n , \n \t ­\b\t‰,  \n  ’ ­ \n  \tŠ† \n ‚ „ \t\n ƒ .  \b\n ‰„ \b ­\t†, ‚\t’” „‰ \n\t-­‚\n† €\t €­, Š­\tƒ  ­’ \t’­, \n \n ƒ \t „ \t­\t  €\n • 1,0 ‡.  \b\n ‰„ \b ‡‰ „ ­\t† ­\t†  \n­  \t   Š   ‡ Š­ ‚\t ‡  ­\t ‚\t  \b\n ‰ €‚ƒ \t’­   \n ƒ ‡ „ €\t\n\t\t, ­..  \n ƒ ‡ ­\b\t  , \b\t ƒ­  ‡• ‰ ‚ \t \n  ­\t\n ˆ ­\b\t   ‚\n\b\t­ ‡€  \tŠ† ‚€, ‚ ­‡ Š­\tƒ  \t €\n\t   ­\t \n‰­ \t  ƒ\t­ .   ƒ\t­ ­\t \n‰’­  €‡ \b \b\t­‡  ­’ \t’­, \t ­ ’ ‚\n\b ’­ \n‰  ‡• ‰ ‚ \t \n  ­\t\n  \n ƒ ‰ „ €\t \n\t\t \b\n ‰.  \b\n ‰„ ­\t‚Ž    \n —­\t  ƒ \t•   ‚ \b‰­ \b\t ƒ­ €† Š­\tƒ \t €\n\t   ­\t. \nƒ  \t\t’­ ‚ ­ \t\n ­ • Š €† Š­\tƒ  \n   \b\t. \tŠ\t’­ € ’ Š­\tƒ .  —­‡ €\t‰ ƒ\t­ ‚\nƒ ‚‡”\t­‰ \n, \t \b\n  \t• ‰­‰ ‚ \n   \b\t. \n  \n   \b\t ‚\nƒ ‚\n  \n Š ‚\nƒ ‚   \b ‚ ­ \t\n †. 13  \n   \r  \n    \r  \b\n ‰„ \n‰ ƒ ‡\n\t• \b\t­\t  €\n• ‡ Š­ ‚\t ‡  ­\t (\t\b‡Š ‚ €„\t­    26 ˆ 36) ­\b    \n ƒ \t’­ \t 0,5... 1,0 ‡. \n‰ ‚\t\n­ —­­ ­\b  \n ƒ \t’­ \t 0,5... 1,0 ‡, ƒ­€Š  ƒ­  \t€­  ­\t . ­  ƒ­\t €­\t \n  € \t‡\t\t   \n‰ ƒ ‚‰­ ­\t , \t   \n‰ ” . €„  ‡ ­\n ­‡­ ­, ƒ­ •  \t €­\t \n‰  €­ ‚\t\n­ ƒ  ‚Š•\t­ 10,0 ‡, \t \n \t \n  \t‡\t\t \t\t 10,0... 12,0 ‡  \b\n ‰„ \n‰ ­† ‡\n\t• \b\t­\t 14,0... 16,0 ‡ \n‰ ­† ­\t• \b\t­\t. †. 14. ‘ \n   \r\f   \r  \r \n   \n  \n „\r 15 \n†, …­ ƒ   € ‚€’ ‰€‚€ €\b\tƒ  \b‡ ‰ \t ‡\t  \b‡ ‰ \n ƒ \t \b‡ ‰, ‡ (\n‰ ‚ ‡\t ‚ Š \b‡ ‰ \n‰ \t\b‡\t 134-68) . €„\t­ ‚\nƒ\t \n \t  \t\t (‚ ‡\n ) ž  \t  \t\t  \b  (‚ ‡\n ) \n \t ‚†‡Š ( \b ƒ­\t) Š­\t \t­\t  €\t\t \t € €\n\t :  \n   ‚†‡Š \b‡‰’­ ­ ­ƒ   ­ƒ  ‡­\t\n\n ƒ† \n ††, ‚­\t\n† \t €.  \b‡ \n Š ‚†‡Š ‚ ‚  \t  ­’ \t  ‚†‡Š ‚    ƒ ­Š\t’­. \n‰ ‚\n ‰ ­ \t\n  \t‡­\t \b\t‡ ­† ‚† ‡Š ‚‰‡ ’,  ‰’” ’ • Š ‚†‡Š (­ƒ  ), \n‰­ ‚‚\n\t‡: \b ­ƒ  \t \n  ’ \n € Š ‚†‡Š ‚ \t’­ ‚‚   \n‰,  ‚ƒ   \n  † \n € Š ‚†‡Š €\b\tƒ\t’­  \b  ‰\n‰­‰ ­ \t\nŠ‡  \t‡­‡ \b\t‡ ­† ‚†‡Š. Š­\t ‚†‡Š  \t\t \t\t \n  ­\b\t  =  –  ,   = 2,5...3,0 ‡. ‹\n•  \b\tƒ ‰ ­\b\t  Š€ \t’­ \n‰ \b\n † ‡• „ \t\b‡. \tƒ ­Š\t’­ •     \t\t \t   \n € Š ‚†‡Š   ‡ \b  „ ‚€. 1-\f  . ž     \t\t ‚\n‰’­  \b\t  ‡­ ­ \n Š ‚†‡Š Š­Š \t­\t:    ˆ ‚ ‚  \t ‚\t   \t\t,   ˆ ‡\t ‚\t ,  ­\t\t\n \t‡\t‰ ‚ ­\t€\n Ž. 2-\f  . ž     \t\t ‚\n‰’­  \b\t  ‡­ ­ \b‡  ‰ €„\t­\t ‚\nƒ\t ‚ €\t \t € €\n\t : )/2,   ˆ \b‡  «€„\t­ ‚\nƒ\t»;  ˆ ‚ €\t\t \t € €\n\t   €„\t­  ‚\nƒ\t.     \n  \n ‰­  \b\t ‡ ‚‚  \n‰Š \n   ‚ ƒ ‡  ­ƒ  . ­ ­ƒ  „ ­\n\tŠ\t’­ Š­  \t­\t  \t\t  ( ƒ­\t \b\n ‰) =  ˜\b ­ƒ   ‚‰­  \b­\t\n.  € ­Š ­ ­ƒ  , ­\n\t Š\t’­ ‚ ‚\n  •  Š  \t\t: \b ­ƒ  ­\t\n‰’­ ‚‚  \n‰Š, \t „ ‚ƒ    \b­\t\n’, ‚† \b ­ƒ  , ­\t‰­ ­ƒ  ­ \t\n  ‚\n\t’­  \b \t † ­ ­ƒ  ­\n\tŠ\t’­ \n    \t\t ‡   1,0... ‚\n‰’­   \n  \n­‰: \b ­ƒ   \n ‚‰­  \b­\t\n . ­ ­ƒ  \n ‚  \b­\t\n ­\n\tŠ\t’­ \n ƒ  , \t ’ •    \t\t  \b :    \b\t  \t\t •  \n ƒ Š € ­ \n‰ ‡• „ \t\b‡, €\n•  ˆ \n‰ €\n• „.   ’  \b\t ‚‰­ ƒ \b ­ƒ   ƒ   ‰’­ ‚‰‡†, \t ‚ƒ ­†  \n  † \n­‰ ­\t‰­ ­ƒ   †. 15 ‘  \r   \n \n  \n \r \n   \n \n  \n ­  ƒ­\t Š ­\tƒ  \t\t  ­‡   ‰­  ‚­ ’ \n  † \t­\t  \t\t, ‚ ‚\t­\t \b\t ‚\t­\t. \t„‰­ ‚‡\t­\nŠ ­ƒ \n‰ ‚­ ‰ „† ƒ\t­ \n  \t­\t. ­\n\t‰ \tƒ\t ˆ ­ƒ\t 1, ­­­ ’”\t‰ ­ƒ  \t ‚\nƒ: ( ƒ­\t ‚\nƒ ); 1-1£= 1 – 1» = 0,5 ‡ (‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n ). †. 16. ‘ \n \n  \n \r \n ­\n\t‰ \tƒ\t ˆ ­ƒ\t  ­­­ ­ ­ƒ  , \t ‚†‡ ‚  : ( ƒ­\t ‚  ); = 1 – 1£ = 0,5 ‡ (\n ‚  \b­\t\n ). \t­‡ \t„‰­ ‚‡\t­\nŠ ­ƒ ƒ 1£   ‰’­. \t € ­ \t„  \n 1£O ­\n\tŠ\t’­ ­\b 3, \tŠ: „’’ ƒ\t­ \t­\t  \t\t ‚‰­ ƒ\b ­ƒ 1£, 2, O \t\n \t„‰­ ‚‡\t­\nŠ ­ƒ  \n‰ ‚­ ‰  † ƒ\t­ \t­\t 1», » 1-1» = 1-1£ ˆ \n ‚  \b­\t\n ; ‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n . ­ ­ƒ  \n ‚  \b­\t\n ­ \n\tŠ\t’­ ­\b  Œ†, ( ƒ­\t ‚†‡Š) + (1 – 1£ ). \t € ­  ‚‰‡  \n\t, ‚ † \b ­ƒ  , ­\n\tŠ\t’­ ­\b  2 ( ƒ­\t Š \b ƒ »  ‰’­: 4= » ƒ 1», 8, Œ , 5, »  ‰’­ ‚\n\t†  † ‚\n ƒ\t’­  ’’ ƒ\t­ \t­\t  \t\t.  € ‚ ‚\t­\t  \t\t ‚ \n  \n­‰ = 0,5...1,5 ‡ (‚ ‡\n ). ƒ ,   ‰’­ ‚\n\tŠ‡  Š‡ .  ˆ \n  ‰ ‚ ‚\t­\t,  ˆ \n  ‰ \n­  ‚\t­\t. ­ Ž  „•  \t\t, \t €\n \t‚­\t   „† , •  \t\t, \t‚­\t  \n† , ‚\n ƒ\t’­ ‚ ­‡ \t\b­Š\t ‰  \t\t ­  ­\n ‚ \n­ ‚\t­. ƒ\n \n \t ƒ­ Š ­\tƒ  \t\t ‚\n‰’­ ‚\n  •\t.  ‡­ €Š­ \t\b\n ƒŠ‡: • ‡­ \t‚\n\t\t­‰ ‚   •  Š  \t\t  ­‡   \n ‚\t ­   ‚‡ \n ƒ\t •  \t ‚ ‚\t­\t  „† ƒ\t­ \t\t ‚\n  •  Š ‚†‡Š, \t   † ƒ\t­ ˆ ‚\n  •  Š  \t\t  \b   ­‡  .  ­‡ \n ƒ\t •  \t ‚ ‚\t­\t „   \b  \t\t 4 ‡.  ­ €Š­    \t \t­Š.  \t‚\n \n  •\t ‚  •  Š  \t\t  ­‡   ƒ ,   ‰’­ ‚\n\t†  † ‚\n ƒ\t’­ \n  ’ •\t  \t\t. †. 17. ‘ \n  \n \r \n †\n\n \n    ’’ \n  ’  \t\t ‚‰­ ƒ\b ­ƒ  ‚\n\t’­  \b \t 0,5 ‡  ­ƒ  ƒ    ‰’­. • \t ‚ \b\t  \t\t ˆ ­ƒ\t  ˆ \n ­ \t ‚ƒ ‚‚  \n‰\t, ­\t\n \b ­ƒ    „† ƒ\t­ \n  ‚ ‚\t­\t   ‚† \n  †  \t\t. ‚‡\t­\n\t‰ ­ƒ\t \n‰ ‚­ ‰ \t­\t ˆ ­ƒ\t 8’. ƒ \r    \r † ƒ 1£, 8£,   ‰’­ ‚\n\t†  †. †\n\n \n  \r\n  ˆ \t ‚‚  \n‰, ­\t\n‡ \b ­ƒ  \n‰ ‚­ ‰ \n­† Š­\tƒ \b ­ƒ   \n  ‚\t ­\t  ­\t\n‰’­ ‚‚  \n‰, ­Š† ‰\n‰­‰ ­† Š­\tƒ ˜­€Š \n  ‰ \n­ ‚\t­\t €Š\n\t ‚\n\t†, Š­\tƒ\t \n \t  „ ­  \n  ‚\t­\t \t 1,0...2,0 ‡. ­ ’ \n  ’ ‚‰­ ‚\n\t†  † ƒ\b ­ƒ  • \t \n­† \n  ­ƒ\t  , \n ­ \t ‚ƒ ‚ ‚  \n‰\t, ­\t\n \b ­ƒ   „† ƒ\t­ \n  \n­ ‚\t­\t  ,  \n­† \n  †. ƒ    ‰’­  £ , ‚\n\t†  †, ‚„‰”† ƒ \b ‚‡\t­\n ’ ­ƒ  7.  ‚\n  ‚\n‰’­ \n  ’” ‡ €\t\b‡: ƒ £  ‰’­ ‚\n\t†  †.   \n\n \t ’ \n  •‡   Š \t’­ ­  . ‡\t ­  \t\b€\t\b\t.  ‚ Ž ‚  ‚­ ‰ ƒ­†  ­  ‡ \t\b\n ­ \t ­ Š  ‚‚Š: ˆ ­\nŠ ­  ­  -­†  \b\n ‰„  \b\t­ † €­\t  „\t; ˆ ­\nŠ ­  \n‰ \b\n †  \n\tŽ\t\t‡ ; ˆ ‚\n\n\t”  (‚ Š) ­  .    ‚­ ‰ ƒ­† ­  \t†  ‚‚Š ‚ \n\t ‚\n\t‰ ­ ­ \t‰ „‡\t. ­  ‚†  ‚‚Š ­‰­ ­\n ­ \n Š, ­  ­† ­ ­†  ‚‚ ˆ \t ƒ­ \n Š \b\n ‰, ‚ ƒ‡ \n‰ ‚­  ‰ ƒ­\t ­ Ž ‡­ \b\tƒ  \n • \n  ‰ ­\tƒ \t  ‰ ­ \t. ­\t\nŠ —\n‡­Š ­ Ž , ­\t  \t \n  •  Š ­ \t, Š­Š ­† , ­\n­\t Ž ­  \t, Šƒƒ \t’­  ­­­  ‡\n’. ƒ\r \n ­\n† ­   \b\n  \b\t­† €­\t  „\t ­‰­, ‚\t ­\n \b‡  \n   ‚\nƒ ‚  \t ƒ­ Š \b\n ‰ ­ƒ†Ž ­‰­ ‚‰‡†  \n  • †  ­ƒ , ­ ­† „ ‚ ­ \t\n ­\n\tŠ\t’­ ­\b  = 1,5... 11,0 ‡. ­\b  \t ‚“‡   Š ­ \t.  \n ƒ \t \n ‰­ \t ‡  ­ \t: ƒ‡ \t ‡•, ­‡ €\n ‚\n­ ­  ‚ \n\t­  •; ƒ‡ \t €\n•, ­‡ €\n ‚\n \n ­ ­ . \b ­ƒ  \t  \b­\t\n† ­  \n\t \n\t’­ \b\tƒ  \t   ‡, \tŠ‡ \n  \n Š ‡   ‚‚\tƒŠ† — Ž ­ (0,1 \n ƒ Š ‚“‡\t  Š ­ \t):  = ­ƒ†Ž ‚\tƒŠ† — Ž ­ ‰­ \n‰ ­  \n Š \n  \n Š.  \b\t  ­ ­ ­‚   \bŠ \n  ­\tƒ \t ‰ ­ \t. ƒ    ‰’­. ­\b  ­­­ ­ \n  \n  Š ­ † \n  ‚   ‚\n \b\t\t ‚\nƒ .  ‚­ ­   €\n• ‡ ‚“‡‡  Š ( €\n ƒ‡ \t 3,0 ‡) ­\b  \n‰­ \t ­ \tŠ ƒ\t­ ( .\t):  =  = /3. ­\b \ \n‰­ ‚‚\n\t‡ \t = \t ˜\b ­ƒ  \t ‚‰­ ‚‚  \n‰Š  \n  , \t ­Š„ ­\n\tŠ\t’­ ­\b : = 0,4...0,5 ‡ „.   ’ ­\tƒ \t ‰ ­ \t ‚‰­,    ‚\n\t†  † ­ƒ ,   ‚­ ­   \b\tƒ ­\nŠ‡ ‚“‡‡   Š (€\n ƒ‡ \t 3,0 ‡) ­\b  \n‰­ ‚‚\n\t‡ ( . €):  =  = /2. \b ­ƒ  ‚‰­ ‚‚  \n‰  ‚‰‡†  ­\n\tŠ\t ’­ \t ‡ ­\b  = 1,0...4,5 ‡  \b\t  ‡­ ­ \n Š ­\b\t .   ’ ­\tƒ \t ‰ ­ \t ‚‰­,    ‚\n\t†  † ­ƒ ,  , .  ƒ\t ‚­ ‰ \n   \n  ­\tƒ \t ‰ ­ \t  \t \t’­  \n † \n Š \b\n ‰. †. 18. ƒ\r \n \r \n ­‰­ \n  ’ ­† ­ \t. \n‰ —­ \t ­ \t\n  „ ­ ­ƒ  ­\n\tŠ\t’­ ­\b  ­­­ ’” † Š ­ ­†   ’ ­† ‚‰­,    ­ƒ   ‚\n\t†  †. ž  \t ­ \t ‚   ‚\n‰­‰ ‚ ‡\n . \n‰ ‚­ ‰ \n  † ­\n­\t Ž ­ \t \b ­ƒ  ­\t\n‰’­ ‚‚  \n‰  ‚‰‡†  ­\n\tŠ\t’­ \t ‡ ­\b  ­ ­ƒ  ‚\t ‚‰­  \b­\t\n ­\n\tŠ\t’­ \t † ­\b  , \tŠ† \n  Š­ ‚\t ‚ Ž\t ­ \t: ƒ  ,  ‰’­ ‚‰‡†, \b  Š ‚\n ƒ ­ \b\t ­\t\n‰’­ ‚‚  \n‰, \t ­‡ ­\n\tŠ\t’­ ­ \b 1-2.   ’ ­\n­\t Ž\t ­ \t ‚‰­,    ­ƒ  .  ­\t ‡ ­ ­\n­ ‚\n\t†  †,     ­ƒ  , \t ŽŠ ­ \t ˆ ‚‰‡† ( \n \n \t  ­†) \n  †,    ­ƒ   \t\b€\t\b  ­  ­ \t­‰ €\n\t\t‰ \t\b\n ƒŠ‡ Š ­ ­† , •   ­ \t ‡\n ‡  Ž ­\n­\t. \b‡Š \t \t­Š ‡\n ‰ ­\n­\t Ž ­ \t ‚\t\b\tŠ \t  .18 . -  ­ \t„-­†\t„, \t  ­\nŠ„ ­ \t„, ­  ­  \b\tƒ  ‡­ \n  ‰ ­\tƒ \t ‰  \n  .  ‡\n \n  ­\tƒ \t ‰ ‚ ‚‰‡† ­†\t ‚ ‡­ ­  ‚\n  ­ ­\n • ( . \t).  ‚“‡ ‚  „ Ž ‡\n \n  ­\tƒ \t ‰ Š‚ \n†  † ­†\t ‚ ‡­ \t\n ‚\n , ‚ ƒ‡   \n ƒ ‡ ‚“‡\t „ † \t† ­† € ­ \t‚\n\t\t­‰ €\n   • ( . €).  ‚“‡  Š ­† ‡\n ‰ \n  ­\tƒ \t ‰  ­†  † ­†\t ‚ ‡­ €\t\b  ’ ‡ , ­. . „ † \t† € ­ ­­\t\t­ ­ • ( .5.).  \b\t  ‡­ ­ ‡\n ƒ­ ­ \t- ­† ‡­ €Š­ ‚­ \t \t €Šƒ† ‚ •   \n €  \n , ­\t \t \n , \t• † ‚ ‚\nƒŠ‡ \b\t‡  \n €\n†  ­Š ‚  ‚\t. †. 19. - \r \n   (. 19 ) ˜­ ‚‰‡† ­† ‚­\t\n‰­ €† ‚‰‡ \n . \n \t ­†  \t\t \n  \n Š \b\n ‰:  = l’ \r Š­\t ­† \n\n\t”  ­  \n\n\t”  \n ‚†Š ­  ‡’­ \t €\n ‚\n ’ ‡ . †Š ­  ‡ ­ €Š­ €\b ­† \n  €\n•† ­†† (Š­† 1,0...2,0 ‡). ˜­ ­‰­ \t \n  ‚  ‚\nƒ , ƒ ‚\nƒŠ \bŠ ‡”\t’­ ‚ \b\tŠ­Š„ Š­\tƒ\t„ ­\t, ƒ­€Š • Š  \n Š ‚\t\n , \t • Š ‚†‡Š \t„ \n   \t  \t \t 1,0... 3,0 ‡.  €\n•‡ \b\t„ Š­\t ­† ­ \t  \n ƒ \t­‰. †. 20. \r\r‚ \n \r \n   ‰ ­\tƒ \t ‰ ­ \t ‚­‰­ \n  ’ \n Š ‚   ‚\nƒ . ž    ­ \t, \t ­\t ‡  ­\n­\t ‚ \n‰’­ \n\t ‡\n .  \b\t  ‡­ ­ ‡\n ‰ \n Š ­\n­\t ‚\n\n\t ”  ­  ‡ ­ €Š­  \nŠ‡ ­ ‚\t ‚\n Š ( ., \t),  \n Š‡ , «‡\t­ ‡ » ( ., €). …\tƒƒ  1. \t‚\n ­  ‚\t \n† ‚\n\t­\n­ ‚‰ \t€­Š ‚ ‚­ ƒ­\t Š ’€ : ) ‚­  €\t\b † ­ ; ‹) ‚­  ƒ­\t Š ’€ ; ) Š€ „Š„ \tŠ„. 2. \t  ‚ €\t  ‚  ‡\t’­   ‡\t  ‚ ‚­ ƒ­\t ‚\nƒŠ„ \b\n † € ‚ \n\t ‰? Š€ ­ ‚\t \nŠ† ­­: ) ‚ \n  €  Š­ \n Š ‚  ; ‹) ‚ \n     •   \n Š; ) ‚ \n  ­\t\n ‚ \n  €. 3. \t\t : ‚­ ­ ƒ­  ‚‰Š„ (‚‰‡†  ƒ† ’€, €’) ‚\nƒŠ„ \b\n † \n‰ ƒ (\n\t€\t­Š \t€­Š Ÿ2 Ÿ3) 2.3.     ƒ \t ­   ­ Ž Š \n‰ ‡\t\nƒ  ‚ ‰­ ‚ ­‡  —­\t‚\t‡, ƒ­ \n‰ ­\t\n† Š: ‚\n ƒ  „Š„ \tŠ„, \tƒ­  ‚\n\t­\n­ Š€\t† ‡­ ­  \t ‰  ­ƒ­’  0,1 ‡, ‚­  €\t\b  † ­ ƒ­\t, \tƒ­ ‚­  \n  † ƒ­\t Š ­ Ž \b\n ‰, ‚\t \tƒ­\t Š‚\n ƒ­\t. 2.3.1.   \n  \r \r \r\f\n  ‚‰Š‡ \b\n ‰‡ \n‰ ‡\t\nƒ , \t \n‰ ‡ ƒ , ­ ‰­ \t\b\n ƒŠ  Š €’. Š ­\t\n ­ ­ Š \n  €’ \n‰ ‡\t\nƒ  \t\t\n ƒŠ  ‡ ‡  ‡ €’ \t‡. \n\t\t‡ ‚­   ”­\n ‚ ‡­   ‘ž. „Š \tŠ \n‰ ‚­ ‰ ƒ­\t Š \n‰ ‚­ ‰ ƒ­\t Š €’ €„ ‡ \b\t­ \b ‡ ‰   Š ‚ €\t  Š‡ \b‡ ‰‡. „\r 16 \n†, …­ ƒ   € Š €\b\tƒ  \b‡ ‰ \t ‡\t  \b‡ ‰ \n ƒ \t \b‡ ‰, ‡ (\t\b‡ 134/68) \n €„\t­ ­\t\n \n €„\t­ € \t­‰  ­ \n  ­\t\n  \n  \n† \n \t €’  €\t : „\r 17 \b€   € Š ƒ €ƒ„‚ †­  ­\b \t‚\t\n  ‚‡” ‰ \tƒ­\t‰ ‡ \n\t \n \t ­\b\t, ­  €\t\b † ­ ‚\n  ‚\n ‰ \n    ‰  \b ‚ ­ \t\n ‡   +2,0 ‡ \n‰ ‡\t\nƒ  ‰\n† •\n†  ‚‚; +1,0 ‡ \n‰ ‡\t\nƒ  ‡\n\t•† ­\t•† •\n†  ‚‚; ‡ \n‰ ‡\t\nƒ  ‚­†  ‚‚Š. ‚\n  ‚\n ‰ \n  \n†  \b ‚ ­ \t\n ‚\n  \n   \b\t  \b ‚ ­ \t\n ‚\n  \n  € „ ‚ ­ \t\n ˜\b ­ƒ  ‚‰­ €\t\b Š  \b­\t\n ‚\n  •  Š ‚† ƒ\t­ €’ ‚ \n  € ‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n ‡.   1,0 ‡ \n‰ ­† ‰\n†, •\n† ‡\n\t•† •\n†  ‚‚; 1,5 ‡ \n‰ ­† ­\t•† •\n† ‚­†  ‚‚. ˜\b ­ƒ  ‹ ‚­ ­ \t\n, ‚ƒ  ­†   \b­\t\n’  €\b\tƒ ­   \b­\t\n’ \b ­ƒ › ˆ ­ƒ† › ‚\n  •  Š •\t\t ‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n ‚\n  \n   €\t €’ ‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n ‹=‹‹ ˜\b ­ƒ  ‹ ‚­ ­ \t\n, ­ƒ ‚ƒ ‰ ­†  €\t\b ‡  \b­\t\n‰‡ €\b\tƒ ­ , ›, , . ž    €’ ‚ \n   \b\t  ­‡   ž ‚\n‰’­ „‰ \b \n\t ‰ \b\t\t\bƒ \t \n \n\t ‡‡  \t‚\t\n ’. \t  ‡  „ €’\t„, •  \t  \b\t ‚† ƒ\t­ ‡•, ƒ‡ \b\t† ƒ\t­ , \t 4,0 ‡:  ‚\n  •  Š €’ ‚ \n   \b\t \n ‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n ž    €’ ‚† ƒ\t­ ‚ \n  \n† \n ‚\n‰’­ ‚ ‡ \n , \n  ‰’­ ­ƒ \t ‚ƒ ‚\n ƒ† ‚‰‡†   \b­\t\n’  ­\t‰­ ­ƒ   . ­ —­† ­ƒ ‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n ­ \n\tŠ\t’­ ­\b \n † 1,0... 1,5 ‡ ‚\n ƒ\t’­ ­ƒ   , ‚ ƒ‡ ƒ‡ ‡• •  \t €’, ­‡ €\n• \n \t —­ ­\b\t. ž  \t ‚† ƒ\t­ \t   \n† ‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n  ‰’­ ­ƒ ‹ , \t ‚ ƒ ‚\n ƒ† ‚‰‡†    \b­\t\n’ \b ­ƒ › ‚\n ƒ\t’­ ­ƒ   › , ˆ •   •\t† \n  ‚ † ƒ\t­ €’. ­  ‚† ƒ\t­ €’ \n  • Š † \n  ‚† ƒ\t­ €’ \n‰ ­† ‰\n† •\n†  ‚‚ ( ‡’” „   Š  Š­ ‚\t’” ‡  ­‡) ‚\n‰­ ­\b  , ­Š† ­\n\tŠ\t’­ „ ‚ ­ \t\n ­ ­ƒ  (\t     ‚\t\b\t). \n‰ ­\t\nŠ„  ‚‚ ‚\n  • Š † \n  ‚† ƒ\t­ €’ ‚\n‰­ ­\b  \n  • Š † \n  \n ‚  \b­\t\n ‚\n  ‚‡\t­\n† ­ƒ 1 ‚\t „ ‚ € ­   \n\t ‹ ­ ’’ \n  ’ ƒ\b ­ƒ  ž  \t ‚† ƒ\t­ €’ ‚ \n  ­\t\n \n ‚  \b­\t\n   ˆ \t­ Š­\tƒ , \tŠ† 2,0¢2,5 ‡;  ˆ \n € \t \n\t , \t\t‰ 3,0¢5,0 ‡. ƒ\t  \t     ‚\t\b\t\t.  €’\t„ \n‰ ‡\t\nƒ   ‚­  ’­ Š­\tƒ , \n\t , €Šƒ ƒ­- €  . ƒ ƒ\t­ \n\t’­  €\n•  \n\t .  \b\n ‰„ \n‰ ­† ‰\n† •\n†  ‚‚ Š­\tƒ ‚ ­\t\n €”  ‚­  ’­. ­\b  ­\n\tŠ\t’­ ‚  \b­\t\n , ‚† \b ­ƒ .  \b\n ‰„ \n‰ ­† ‰\n† •\n†  ‚‚ ­ƒ   ‚\n ƒ\t’­ \t ‚ƒ   \b­\t\n , ‚† \b ­ƒ  ­\b\t  , ‚ —­‡  ˆ • \t €† \n  .  \b\n ‰„ \n‰ ­† ­\t\nŠ„  ‚‚ • † €† \n  € ­ ­ƒ\t  , ­ ’ ‚\n ƒ\t’­, ­\n  ­ ­ƒ  „ ‚ ­ \t\n ­\b  ƒ   )  ‰’­  ­ƒ†  ) ‚\n\t†  † ‚\n ƒ\t’­ \n  ’ ­\t\n ‚† ƒ\t­ . Š­\tƒ  €Šƒ \t‚\n\t\t’­ ‚ † \n  , ­\n  ‚\t \n ­  ‚ ‚\n  \t­\t (\t     ‚\t\b\t). \n \t Š­\tƒ \t\t 5,0¢7,5 ‡ ( \b\t  ‡­ ­ ‡\n ). Œ\n €   \n\t €Šƒ ­\n\tŠ\t’­ \n ­ † \n  .  \n ƒ\t ‚­ \t ‰  „ \n\t \n € \t ‚† \t\t 0,6 \n ƒ Š €” \t­\t , ­† ­­­ 0,4, ‚ —­‡ \t­‰  ‡  \n\t\t‡ 4,0¢6,0 ‡.   ’ € \t‰ ‡\n‰’­,    ‚\n\t†  † ­ƒ  ‚‰ ‚‰‡ ’  ­ƒ    ’ ‚ \t‰ ‡\n‰’­,    ‚\n\t†  † ­ƒ › ‚‰ ‚‰‡ ’  ­ƒ    ‰  \b\t ‚„‰­ ƒ\b ­ƒ  ­  \b\t† ƒ\t­ €’ ž  \t €’ ‚ \n   \b\t \n ‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n ž  \t €’ ‚ \n  \n† \n ‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n ž  \t \b\t† ƒ\t­ ‚ \n  € = ‡   )+1,0 ‡  \b\n ‰„ \n‰ ­† ‰\n†, •\n† ‡\n\t•† •\n†  ‚‚; )+1,5 ‡  \b\n ‰„ \n‰ ­† ­\t•† •\n† ‚­†  ‚‚. ž  \t •\t\t \b\t† ƒ\t­ ‚ \n  € ‚\n  ­ƒ ‹ \n ‚  \b­\t\n ­ ­ƒ ‹ ‚\t ­\n\tŠ\t’­ •    \b\t† ƒ\t­ ‚ \n  € ˆ ­\b ‹ ‚\n ƒ\t’­ ­ƒ  ‹ . ­ ­ƒ ‹ ­\t ‚\t ­\n\tŠ\t’­ •    •\t\t ‚ \n  € ˆ ­\b ‹ ‚\n ƒ\t’­ ­ƒ  ‹ ‚\n  \t‚\t\n ‰ † \n  \n ‚  \b­\t\n ‡   =2,0 ‡  \b\n ‰„ \n‰ ­† ‰\n† •\n†  ‚‚; =3,0 ‡  \b\n ‰„ \n‰ ­† ‡\n\t•† ­\t•† •\n†  ‚‚; =4,0 ‡  \b\n ‰„ \n‰ ­† ‚­†  ‚‚Š  €„\t­‡   84-92 ‡; =4,0 ‡  \b\n ‰„ \n‰ ­† ‚­†  ‚‚Š  €„\t­‡   96-104 ‡; ˜\b ­ƒ  ‚‰­ ‚‰‡ ’, ‚ ‚ƒ ­†   \b­\t\n’, ‚† \b ­ƒ › , ‚\n ƒ\t’­ ­ƒ  › ; ­ƒ\t › ‡­ \t„ ­‰ \t ‚\t, ­\t \n ­ ­ƒ › ž  \t ‚ \n  ­\t\n \n ‚  \b­\t\n   ˆ \t­ Š­\tƒ , \tŠ†1,5¢2,5 ‡   ’ € \t‰ ‡\n‰’­, ‚\n\t    ­ƒ  ‚‰ \b\t­‡ ‚‰‡ ’  ­ƒ  \t \t’­ €Š \n  ‚† \b\t† ƒ\t­ .  —­‡ ­ ­ƒ  \t \n   ­\n\tŠ\t’­ ­\b, \tŠ†  , ‚\n ƒ\t’­ ­ƒ   •   † \n  ˆ ­ƒ   ‚\n ƒ\t’­, \n\t \b\tƒ  \t ‚\n ‚‰‡† ‹ ­ƒ  \t  ‡  .  ‰’­ ­ƒ  ‚\n ƒ\t’­ \n  ’ ­\t\n \b\t† ƒ\t­ . Š­\tƒ  ‚ \n  ­\t\n \t‚\n\t\t’­ ‚  ­\b\t  . \n \t Š­\tƒ 6,0¢7,5 ‡.  ‰’­ ­ƒ  \t ‚\n ƒ† ‚‰‡† ­ ­ƒ  ­\n\tŠ\t’­ ­\b  ‚\n  • Š •\t† \n  › ž\t ’ \n  ’ ‡\n‰’­, ‚\n\t    ­ƒ › ‚‰ \b\t­‡ ‚‰‡ ’  ­ƒ  ‚\n  ‚‡\t­\n† ­ƒ 2 „ ‚\t ‚ € ­   \n\t ‹ ’’ \n  ’ ‡\n‰’­, ‚\n\t    ­ƒ › ‚‰ \b\t­‡ ‚‰‡ ’  ­ƒ   ‰  \b\t ‚„ ­ ƒ\b ­ƒ  ’’ \n  ’ ‡\n‰’­, ‚\n\t    ­ƒ › ‚‰ \b\t­‡ ‚‰‡ ’  ­ƒ †. 20.       \r \r\f\n †.21.        \r \r\f\n 3.2.2.   \n \r\n \r \r \r\f\n  ‚\nƒŠ‡ \b\n ‰‡ €Š­† „† Š \n‰ ‡\t\nƒ  ­‰­ ƒ ,  \n­Š, ‚ \t ,  ­ , ‚\n\t” , ‚\t\n­. ˜\t”  —­ \t‚\t•\t‰ \t. ­  ƒ­\t ‚\nƒ \b\n ‰ \tƒ \t’­  €\t\b † ­ , \t ­† ­‰­ ‚   ‚\nƒ  ( €ƒ, \n  ­); ­\n ­‰­ ƒ­  \t\t ­ \t. „\r 18 \n†, …­ ƒ   € ƒ‚’ †ƒ €\b\tƒ  \b‡ ‰ \t ‡\t  \b‡ ‰ \n ƒ \t \b‡ ‰, ‡ (\t\b‡ 134-68)    \n €„\t­ • \n €„\t­   ­­ † \n €„\t­ ­\t\n \n €„\t­ €   ƒ­‡ Š­ ‚\t ‰  ­\t ž  \t   \t­‰  ­ \n  ­\t\n \b\t  Š•† ­ƒ ‚­  ‡ ‚\nƒ •\t   \t ‰ • \t­‰  ­ Š•† ­ƒ ‚­  ‡ ‚\nƒ •\t   \t ‰ •  \n  ­\t\n ‚ \t­‰  ­ Š•† ­ƒ ‚­  ‡ •\t   \t ‰ •   ‰ \b\t  \n\t ‚‡Š•ƒ† ‚\t Š Š­\t ‚\nƒ\t \t‰ ž  \t ‚ Š \n \t \b\n ‰ ž  \t ‚\nƒ \t­\t \n \t  \t\t €„\t­ ‚\nƒ\t  €\t , ‡: = 10,0 = 1,7 ž = 1,8 = 8,5  = 1,0 =3,5 žŒ = 1,7 = 9,6 „\r 19 \b€   € †’ €ƒ„ ƒ €ƒ„‚ †­  ­\b \t‚\t\n  ‚‡” ‰ \tƒ­\t‰ ‡ \n\t \n \t ­\b\t, \t €†   €  \n  \n € Š ‚†‡Š  \b ‚ ­ \t\n     \n‚\t­  \b ‚ ­ \t\n  \n  ­\t\n  \b ‚ ­ \t\n ‡    \n‰ ‚ \n\t’” ‚\n ‚ \n\t’”  \n —­; ¥ 0,5¢1,0  \n‰ ‚‰‡  \n —­\t. — Ž ­ ‚\n‰­‰  \b\t  ‡­ ­ \t . \n‰  ­  \n†   Š  \t 0,5, \n‰ ‡\t\n† 0,7, \n‰ ‚ € ­†   Š 1,0.  \n  €  \b ‚ ­ \t\n   \b\n ‰„ \n‰ ­† ‰\n† •\n†  ‚‚ €­‰ — Ž ­ 2,0, \n‰ ­† ‡\n\t•† ­\t•† •\nŠ„  ‚‚ 3,0, \n‰ ­† ‚­†  ‚‚Š 5,0. \b ­ƒ  , Œ,  ‹ ‚‰­  \b­\t\n . ­ ­ƒ  ‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n ­\n\tŠ\t’­ \n ƒ   ­  ‰ † \n  ‚  ˆ ­\b  . ™­\t \n ƒ \t \b\t   ­ ­  \n —­\t, \t\n ƒ ‰ \n ­ ­­ ‰ •\t ‚   €­† \t (‡. ­\t€\n Ž , \tŠ ‚ Š \n‰ ­ ‚†   Š  ‡\t\n† \t†) .  ƒ  \f         \n —­ \n ƒ \t ­ ‰, ‡  \b\n ‰„  ‚ † \t\b\b† (  ‡ •‡) \n‰ ­† \t\b\b† (€\b  •\t) \n‰ ­† ‰\n†, •\n† ‡\n\t•† •\n†  ‚‚ ­\t•† •\n† ‚­†  ‚‚ ‰\n†, •\n† ‡\n\t•† •\n†  ‚‚ ­\t•† •\n† ‚­†  ‚‚ ‰‡† \n ‚ \n\t’” † ‚ \n\t’” † \n‰ ‚ € ­Š„    \n ƒ   ­ ‰, ‚  ’  ­\t€\n Ž,  ‡•\t’­, \t \n‰  ­ \nŠ„  \n ƒ \t’­ \t 0,5 ‡. †. 22.      \r\n  \r \r \r\f\n  ‰’­ ­ƒ    \n‰ \b\n †  \t\b\b† ‚ † ­ƒ  \n‰ \b\n †  \t\b\b† ‚ †. \t ‚ƒ  ­\b     \b­\t\n’, ‚† \b ­ƒ Œ, ‚\n ƒ\t’­ ­ƒ  . ž  \t €\t\b † ­ ‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n ž  \t ‚  ‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n ž  \t ‚\nƒ \n ‚  \b­\t\n ž  \t ‚†‡Š \t \t’­ \n   ­\b\t \t\t (•    ‚†‡Š)  † •  † ‚†‡Š, ‚ †  \n ’” „ ­\t€\n Ž\t„. „\r 6.5  ‘€ ­ ‚ †ƒ…  ‚€­ ‰€‚ ƒ ‚­… Œ’‰ €ƒ„‚ ƒ„, ‘ƒ„  ƒ€‘ ‘ƒ„ ’‰ \b\n  ‰‰ •  \t ‚†‡Š, ‡.  \b\n ‰„ \n‰ ­† ›\n†  ‚‚Š  €„\t­‡   , ‡ •\n†  ‚‚Š  €„\t­‡   , ‡ \n\t•† •\n†  ‚‚Š  €„\t­‡   , ‡  \t,  ­\t ‡ \b, \n­ ‚\t\n­  ‡ ‚\t\n­   ­‚\n‰’”† ‚\n\t† ­\n” † 0,4 ‡  ‡ ‚\t\n­   ­‚\n‰’”† ‚\n\t†  ‘€ ­ ‚ †ƒ…  ‚€­ ‰€‚ ƒ ‚­… Œ’‰ €ƒ„‚ €‘ ‘ƒ„  ‚ ’‰ \b\n  ‰‰ •  \t ‚†‡Š, ‡,  \b\n ‰„ \n‰ ­† ­\t•† •\n†  ‚‚Š  €„\t­‡   , ‡ ‚­†  ‚‚Š  €„\t­‡   , ‡  \t,  ­\t ‡ \b, \n­ ‚\t\n­  ‡ ‚\t\n­   ­‚\n‰’”† ‚\n\t† ­\n” † 0,4 ‡  ‡ ‚\t\n­   ­‚\n‰’”† ‚\n\t† 0,8 ‡ \n •  \t \t\t ‡­ €\n• ­\n  ­  \b\t ƒ ‰, ­  ­  ’­, \b‡   \n ’ ‚ €\t   \b ­ƒ \t, \t ‚‰­ ­ \t\n .  ‡­\t„ „ ‚ƒ ‰   \b­\t\n’, ‚† \b ­ƒ Œ, ­\t‰­ Œ .  \n  —­ ­ \t\n  ‚ƒ ‰   \b­\t\n’, ‚ † \b ­ƒ , ‚\n ƒ\t’­ ­ƒ  . \n  ­ \t\n \b ­ƒ \t  ‚ƒ ‰   \b­\t\n’ ‹, ‚\n ƒ\t’­ ­ƒ  ‹ \t ƒ ’ƒ‚­  ƒ‚ ƒ  \n ƒ  † „ ‚ ­ \t\n  \b\n ‰„  \t\b\b† ‚ † ’’ \n  ’ ‚    „† ƒ\t­ (  ‰ \n‚\t­) ­‰­ ‚\t \t 0,5 ‡:  \n   \t ƒ  ­ \n\t‰, ­ ­\b   \n ƒ \t’­  1,0 ‡. ž  \t \n Š ‚\t ‚ ‚‚  \n‰    žŒ Š­\t (\n € \t) \n Š  \b ‚ ­ \t\n ˜\b ­ƒ   ‚‰­ ‚‰‡ ’, ‚\t\t\n\n\n ’  , \t ‚ƒ   ‚‰‡†  ­\t‰­ ­ƒ  . ­  ‚\nƒ \t‰ ‚  \n  ‚\nƒ† ­ƒ ‚  (Ž ‚\nƒ† \b ­ƒ  \t  ‡  ‚‰­    \n  ‚\nƒ† ­ƒ ‚  \b ­ƒ  \t  ‡ ‡   ˆ \n‰ ‚ \n\t’” ‚\n ‚ \n\t’”  \n —­; ˆ \n‰ ‚‰‡  \n —­\t ­  ‚\nƒ \t‰ ‚\nƒ \nƒ† \t† ‚\nƒ \n ‚  \b­\t\n \nƒ† \t† ‚\nƒ „ ‚ ‚‚  \n‰  \n ƒ \t  ­’ \t ‰ „ ‚ ­ \t\n \n‰ \b\n †  ­\bŠ‡ €ƒ\t‡  ‰’­ ­ƒ Œ \b ­ƒ Œ  ‚\n ƒ† ‚‰‡† ­\t\n‰’­ ‚‚  \n‰  ‚ƒ ‰   \b­\t\n’, ‚ † ƒ\b ­ƒ   . \n ƒ ’ ­ƒ  €\b\tƒ\t’­  „’’ ƒ\t­ \n  ‚\n \b\t\t ­‰­ ­  \t \n ƒ    \n‰ ‚ € ­Š„     \t\b ­Š‡ ‚\nƒŠ‡ ‚‰‡  \n‰  ­ \nŠ„     \t\nŠ‡ ‚ ‚\nƒŠ‡ ‚‰‡  ­\b  ­\n\tŠ\t’­ ­ ­ƒ  , \n ‚  \b­\t\n . š \n  ‰ ‚\n \b\t\t  „† ƒ\t­ ‚\nƒ . ž  \t \n Š ‚\nƒ \n ‚  \b­\t\n ˜\b ­ƒ   ‚‰­ ­ \t\n, \t ‚ƒ ­†   \b­\t\n’, ‚† \b ­ƒ , ‚\n ƒ\t’­ ­ƒ   \n ƒ \t ‚ \t \n  ­\t\n  \b ‚ ­ \t\n ‡   =1,5...2,5 ‡  \b\n ‰„ \n‰ ­† ‰\n† •\n †  ‚‚ (1,5... 1,7 ‡ \n‰ ­ ‚Š„   , 2,0...2,5 ‡ \n‰     €\n• ‡ Š­ ‚\t ‡  ­\t); = 1,0... 1,5 ‡  \b\n ‰„ \n‰ ­† ‡\n\t•† ­\t•† •\nŠ„  ‚‚ (‚ —­‡ 1,0... 1,5 ‡ \n‰ ­ ‚Š„     = 1,5...2,0 ‡ \n‰     €\n• ‡ Š­ ‚\t ‡  ­\t); = 1,0 ‡  \b\n ‰„ \n‰ ­† ‚­†  ‚‚Š. ˜\b ­ƒ   ‚\t ‚‰­  \b­\t\n \t  ‚ƒ   ­ \t\n’, ‚† \b ­ƒ \t , ‚\n ƒ\t’­ ­ƒ   • \t \n Š ‚\nƒ „ ‚ ­ \t\n ‡    ,   ˆ ‚ €\t\t \t  \t€­ , ­\n”   \t\n  ­\t : = 0,3...0,7 \n‰ ‚ \t,  ­; = 1,0... 1,3 \n‰ \n­ „, ‡ \bŠ„ ‚\t\n­; = 1,5...2,0 \n‰ \b ‡ „ ‚\t\n­. Œ\n € \t \n Š ‚\nƒ  \b ‚ ­ \t\n \b ­ƒ  ‚ \t’­ ‚‚  \n‰ \t \n  ’ Œ ‚\n  ƒ\t’­ ­ƒ   ‚‡\t­\n\t‰ ­ƒ\t „ ‚ ­ \t\n  ˆ \n ƒ \t  ­’ \t ‰ \n Š­\tƒ  ‚†‡ ‚  , \t\t‰ 0,5¢1,0 ‡ ‚‡\t­\n\t‰ ­ƒ\t „ ‚ ­ \t\n \b ­ƒ  \t  ‡ \b ­ƒ  , \t  ‡  ‚‰­    \n ­ ­ƒ  \n\t’­ \t † \b\tƒ  \t  ‡ , \tŠ‡ ž  ‰’­ ­ƒ  ‚\n ƒ\t’­ ‚\nƒ ’ \n  ’ ‚\nƒ . \t  Œƒ  ’’ \n  ’ ‚  ‡\n‰’­  \b\t  ‡­ ­  \n —­\t \t\n ƒ ‰ \n ­ ­­ ‰  •\t. \t  . ‚ Š ‚ ‡Š ‡\n ‰ † \n  ‚    ‡ •‡ ( \t\b\b† ‚ †)  \b\n ‰„ ‚ \n\t’” ‚\n ‚ \n\t’”  \n —­ ( . \t), ‚‰‡  \n —­\t ( . €) €\b  •\t ( \t\b\b† ‚ †) ‚‰‡  \n —­\t ( . ). †.23.   \r   \b\n ‰„  \t\b\b† ‚ †  ‰’­ ­ƒ  ‚\n ƒ ’ \n  ’ ‚\n\t’­  \b  ‚ƒ ‰   \b ­\t\n’, ‚† \b ­ƒ ‹,  ­ƒ ‹ \n   \b\n ‰ ­\n\t Š\t’­ ‚ —­† \n  ­ ­ƒ :  ˆ ‰‰ \n  ‰ ‚  €\b •\t (\t\b\b†).  \b\n ‰„  \t\b\b† ‚ † ‚‰‡ ’   ‚\n\t’­  \b  ‚ƒ ‰   \b­\t\n’, ‚† \b ­ƒ ‹,  ­ƒ  ‹ .  \b\n ‰„ ‚ \n\t’” ‚\n ‚ \n\t’”  \n —­\t ­ ­ƒ  ‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n ­\n\tŠ\t’­ ­\b, \tŠ† \n ƒ  ‚ ­\t\n­ (Š­\tƒ\t  ‡ •) ­\b  \n‰­ ‚‚\n\t‡      ‰’­  ­ƒ † ‹ . \n ƒ ’ \n  ’ ‚\n\t’­  \b. ’’ \n  ’ ‚‰­ ƒ\b ­ƒ ,  ,  , \t\n \t —­† ‚\n† \n  ­\n\tŠ\t’­ \n   \b\n ‰   \b\n ‰„ ‚‰‡  \n —­\t ‚‰‡ ’   ‚\n\t’­  \b. ’’ \n  ’ ‚‰­ ƒ\b ­ƒ ,  ,  \t\n ‚ ‚‰‡† ­\n\tŠ\t’­ \t † \n   \b\n ‰  ˜\b ­ƒ   ‚‰­ ‚‰‡ ’, ‚‚  \n‰ ’ ­ \t \n \b ­ƒ  , ‚\n ƒ\t’­ ­ƒ  .   ‰  \b\t ‚  ‚„ ­ ƒ\b ­ƒ   ‚‚  \n‰  † ƒ\t­ † \n    ’ ­\t\n ‚‰­ ƒ\b ­ƒ   ) ‚‚  \n‰  \n  ‰‡:  \b\n ‰„   ‡ •‡;  \b\n ‰„ €\b  •\t.   ’ \n Š ‡\n‰’­,  ‰‰ ­ƒ   ‚\n\t†  †, ‚„‰”†  ‚‚  \n‰  † \n  ‚  (\t \t­‰  ‡ 2,5 ‡).  ‡\n ‡ \n  ‚†‡Š ‚  ‚\n‰’­ ‚\n   ‚\nƒ† ­ƒ ‚    ƒ­‡ ­„\n ƒ† €\t€­ . Š‚ \n­ ‚  , €„ ‡ ’ \n‰ €\n\t ‰ \n‚\t­, €‚ ƒ \t’­  ‚‡”’ ‚\t  ­’ \t ‰ ­\t ‚ ‚\nƒ‡  \t’ \n  ‚†‡Š. \t €Š\n  \t\b\t Š•, ‚­  ­ƒ ›  ƒ ­Š\t­ \t\n ƒ   ­’ \t ‰ ‚ \n  ‚†‡Š. \t   ( \n Š­\tƒ ) ‚ ‚\nƒ‡  \t’  ƒ ­Š\t’­, ­\n\tŠ\t‰ \t ‚ \n \n  ‚\nƒ\t ­\b  = 0,3... 1,2 ‡. \n \t ­\b\t  \b\t  ­ ­ ­‚ Š­ ‚\t ‰ \n‚\t­. Š­\tƒ  \n\t’­, \n ­\t ‚\n„  ­’ \t­‰ \n \n \n \t ­\b\t  \n \n \t. \n  \b\n ‚ ‡\t­ \t­‰ ‚‚\nƒ , ­ \b ­ƒ  \t  ‡, \tŠ‡  , ‚‰­ „    \t † ­\n\tŠ \t’­ ­\b , \tŠ†  \n  ’ ‚†‡Š ‚  \t ‚\nƒ  ’ \t\n\t  (‚‚\nƒ ). \t \tŠ† \t­ ‡­ ­\n” Š ‚\nƒ † \t\n\t ‚†‡\t  \n ‰­‰ \t 2,5 ‡. ,   ˆ ‚ €\t\t  \n  ‰ ‚†‡Š \t ‚\nƒ ’ \t\n\t ;  ˆ ‚\nƒ\t‰ \n  †.24.   \n     \r\f \r \r\f\n ‚\n  ‚‡\t­\n† ­ƒ  „ ‚ ­ \t\n ‚\n  ‚‡\t­\n† ­ƒ 1 „ ‚\t ‚ € ­   \n\t  ‚\n  ‚‡\t­\n† ­ƒ Œ ‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n   ’ ‚†‡Š ‚  ‚‰­,  ‰‰ ‚\n\t†  † ­ƒ   \b ­ ­ƒ Œ ‚‰­ ­ \t\n, \t ‚ƒ ­†   \b­\t\n’ \b ­ƒ  ­\t‰­ ­ƒ   , \t  \n  † ­\t\n ‚  ˆ ­ƒ   ­  ‡\n  ‚\nƒ   ’ \n Š ‚\nƒ ‚‰­ ƒ\b ­ƒ  . \n‰ —­ \b ­ƒ  \t  ‡, \tŠ‡  , ‚‰­    . \b ­ƒ „ ‚ƒ ‰ —­ ‡  \t  ‡ ‚‰­ \n  ’ \n Š ­     \b\t­ „  \n   ‚\nƒ  \n €\n‰’­: „ ‚   \t  ‡ ‚\n  ‚‡\t­\n† ­ƒ 2 „ \n ‚ € ­   \n\t  ƒ   ‰’­, \n‰­ ‚\n ƒŠ† ­\b ‚‚\n\t‡    €\b\tƒ\t’­ ­ƒ† 3. ‚\n  ‚‡\t­\n† ­ƒ 4 ‚\t ‚ ‚‚  \n‰     ‰ ‚†‡Š ‚\nƒ ‚­\t\n‰­ €† ‚\n\t ’   ’, ‚ ’ ƒ\b ­ƒ    ‰ ­\t\n ‚\nƒ ‚„ ­ ƒ\b ­ƒ   ‰\b  €­‰‡ ­\n\n ‰ ­† \t ‚\nƒ ‚ ­  ’­ € ’  \b­\t\n ’ Š­\tƒ . Œ \b­\t\n\t‰ Š­\tƒ\t  \b ‚ ­ \t\n \t­ Š­\tƒ  \b ‚ ­ \t\n ˜\b ­ƒ   ‚‰­  \b­\t\n  ‚ƒ ‰  ­ \t ‚\n ƒ\t’­ ­ƒ   •   Š­\tƒ .   ‰ ‚\n \b\t\t ‚„ ­ ƒ\b ­ƒ  ­ ­ƒ ‹ ,  \b ‚ ­ \t\n . \n‰     Š­ ‚\t’” ‡  ­‡, ­.. ‚     ­† ‰\n† •\n†  ‚‚, \n  ‰ ‚\n \b\t\t ‡•\t­ ‰ \t \n ƒ  , ‚\n‰‡ ’ ­\b‡  , ­Š† ­\n\tŠ \t’­ ‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n ­ ­ƒ  ˜\b ­ƒ    \b ‚‰­ ­ \t\n. \n‰ ‚ Š\t‡Š„     Š­ ‚\t’” ‡  ­‡ \n  ‰ ‚\n  \b\t\t ‚„ ­ ƒ\b ­ƒ   \b ‚ ­ \t\n (\t     ‚\t\b\t). ‚\n  ‚\n ‰ \n   \b\t ‚\nƒ  \b ‚ ­ \t\n ‡   +1,0¢1,5 ‡ \n‰ ‚\t\n­; +0,5 ‡ \n‰ ‚ \t  ­. ­  €Š„ \n  † ‚  ‚\nƒ • \t €† \n  ‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n ‡   \n‰ ‚‰‡ ‚\n ‚ \n\t’”  \n —­\t; =0,5¢1,5 ‡ \n‰ \b\n †  ­\bŠ‡ €ƒ‡. ž  \t ‚  ‚ \n   \b\t \n ‚  \b­\t\n ƒ Œ  ‰’­ ‚\n\t’­ ‚\n ƒ ’ ‚‰‡ ’  ‚ƒ ‰  \n  † ‚†‡Š  ­ƒ Œ \n  † €  ­ƒ ‹ \b ­ƒ Œ ‚ \t’­ ‚‚  \n‰, ‚ƒ  ­   \b­\t\n’, ‚† \n \b ­ƒ  ,, €\b\tƒ\t’­  \n  €† \n  ‚\nƒ \n ‚  \b­\t\n ƒ    ‰’­  ­ƒ† Œ ‚\n ƒ\t’­ € ’ \n  ’ ‚\nƒ , ­ƒ  ‚ƒ ‰ ­†   \b­\t\n’, ‚ † \b ­ƒ ‹, €\b\tƒ\t’­ ‹ \n  \b\n ‚­  ’­ € ’  \b­\t\n ’ Š­\tƒ  , ­ \n   €† \n  ‚\nƒ  \n ƒ \t’­ \t \n ƒ   \t­\t:  \b ‚ \n  € •\t ƒ    ‰’­  ­ƒ†  ‚\n\t†  †, ‚„‰ ”†  ‚‚  \n‰  ‚‰‡† ‹ ­ƒ  \t \t­‰  ‡ 5,0 ‡  —­† ‚‰‡†. \tƒ­\t‰ ‚ €\t\t ‚ €\t‡ \n ‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n ‹Š \n  ‚‰­ ƒ\b ­ƒ Œ \n  \n  \t‡\t\t  \b ‚ ­ \t\n  ˜\b ­ƒ   ‚‰­ \n  ’, ‚\n‰’” ’ \t‚\t\n  ‚\b \t‡\t\t (‚ ‡\n ). \n \t ‚\b \t‡\t\t = ‡  ‚ \t\t„ 13,5 ‡,  ‚\t\n­ 14,5 ‡ ‚\t „ ‚ \n  \t‡\t\t \n  \b ‚ \n  \t‡\t\t Œ \b­\t\nŠ† \t‡\t, \t ‚\t \n, \t‚\n\t\t’­ ‚\t\t\n\n\n \n   \b\t. \n \t ‚\b ­ \t\n \t‡\t\t €\n• \n Š ‚\b  \b­\t\n \t 1,0... 1,5 ‡. \n  \b\n ­ €\t‰  \b­\t\n\t‰ Š­\tƒ\t \t ‚\nƒ , ­  \t­ ‚‰­  \n  ’ \t‡\t\t (\t ƒ­  ‚ \t\b\t).  \t\n ƒ € \t\n\t \t‡\t\t  \b­\t\n  ’ Š­\tƒ  \t‚\n\t\t’­ ­\t ‡ €\t\b‡, ƒ­€Š \t \t„ \n\t \t 4,0 ‡   „ \t‰ \t‡\t\t.   \n \n  \n ­\tƒŠ  \t\t €Š\t’­ \t\b\n ƒŠ‡ ‚ ­ ­ ‡   • ’.  „†  ƒ\t”  ­ƒ\t­‰  „•Š†   \t  ‚ ‡ \n­Š‡ •‡,  ­„•Š†  \t. •Š  \t\t  „†  ƒ\t”  ‚\n\b ’­ \n‰ ‡‰  „ \n „ ­\t†.  ‡ \t\b€\t\b  \t „‡\t ‚­ ‰ ƒ­\t Š    „ \t ­\t . „\r 20 \tƒ‚€ƒ„„   € ‚­ ‚€’ ‰€‚€ †­  ­\b \t‚\t\n  ‚‡” ‰ \tƒ­\t‰ ‡ \n\t \n \t ­\b\t, \t ­\nŠ† \tƒ­ \n \t ‚†‡Š \b\n ‰ \b‡‰’­ ‚ ƒ­  ‚\nƒ \b\n ‰ (€\b  ƒ­\t  ­’ \t ‰ ‚†‡Š ‚  ) ‡\t ‚\t ‡. ­\t€\n Ž  «‡\t ‚\t »  €\t\t \t ‚\t   \t\t   \n \t \t­\t  \t\t  ž  \t  \t\t (‚ ‡­  ‘ž)     Š­\t \t­\t   ž  \t  \t\t  ­‡      ­‡      ­.    \t €†  Š­\t \t­\t  \t\t „ ‚ ­ \t\n  \n \t •  Š  \t\t  ­‡   ‚\t \n ‚  \b­\t\n    ­.   ­ ­ƒ   \b ‚‰­ ­ \t\n , ­ƒ ‚ƒ ‰ „   \b­\t\n’, ‚† ƒ\b ­ƒ   , €\b\tƒ\t’­  \n  \n   \b\t  \b ‚ ­ \t\n \n  \n  \n­‰  \b ‚ ­ \t\n \n ­ \b‡   .\n, ­  .\n  \b ­ƒ   \n ‚‰­  \b­\t\n : ‚ ’  ‚ƒ ‰  ­ \t\n’, ‚„‰”† ƒ\b ­ƒ   ,  ­ƒ  , ­ ’  ‚ƒ ‰  ­ \t\n’, ‚„‰”† ƒ\b ­ƒ   ,  ­ƒ  †.     \n  \n \t  € ‚­ ‚€’ ‰€‚€ \n \t \n   \b\t  \b ‚ ­ \t\n ž  \t  \t\t  \b  \n ‚ ‚‰‡†   .  . ˆ —­ \b‡  •  Š  \b\t  \t\t (\n ‚‚\n\t‡),  ­‡   ‚\n  ‡  \n­ ‚\t­\t ‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n  ‰’­ ‚‰‡† ­ƒ  ˆ \n  ‰ \n­ ‚\t­\t. \n ‚  \b­\t\n   ­ ‚‰‡† ­ƒ   ˆ \n  ‰ ‚ ‚\t­\t. ­ ­ ­  \n  \t­\t ‚ ‡­  ‘ž. ‚\n  ‚‡\t­\n† ­ƒ  \n ‚  \b­\t\n ‚\n  ‚‡\t­\n† ­ƒ  \n ‚  \b­\t\n ‚\n   ‰ ‚† \tƒ „ ‚ ­ \t\n ( \b‡‰’­ \t ƒ­ ‚\nƒ ) ‚\t \n ‚  \b­\t\n ‚\n   ‰ \b\t† \tƒ ‚ \t­   \t\t „ ‚ ­ \t\n ( \b‡‰’­ \t ƒ­ ‚  ) ‚\t \n ‚  \b­\t\n  ‰’­ ‚‰‡Š‡ ­ƒ    ­ƒ†  ­ƒ    ­ƒ†  ‚‡\t­\n\t‰ ­ƒ\t 1  \b \n ‚ € ­   \n\t  ‚‡\t­\n\t‰ ­ƒ\t 2  \b \n ‚ € ­   \n\t  „’’ ƒ\t­ \t­\t  \t\t ‡\n‰’­,    ‚\n\t†  † ­ƒ  \n ‚  \b­\t\n  ‰’­ ‚‰‡† ­ƒ   \b ‚\t ‚ ‚‰‡†  ‚‡\t­\n\t‰ ­ƒ\t 4 \n  \b ‚ ‚‚  \n‰   ‚‰‡†  ‚‡\t­\n\t‰ ­ƒ\t 5 \n „ ‚ € ­   \n\t  2 ( \b‡‰’­ ‚ ƒ­  ‚\nƒ ) †.   \n \n  \n \t ‚‰…‘‚’ ‰€‚€ ­ ­ƒ   ‚\t \n ‚  \b­\t\n ­\n\tŠ\t ’­ \n ƒ   ‚ ‚\t­\t:  \n ƒ \t ‚ ‚\t­\t \t\t \n‰ ‚ \t\t 2,5...3,0 ‡, \n‰ ‚\t\n­ 3,5...4,0 ‡.  ‰’­ ‚‰‡Š‡ ­ƒ  (\t  .  ‚\t\b\t) ‡\n‰’­ ‚\n\tŠ‡  Š‡ \n  ‚ \t‰  † ( ) „† ( ) ƒ\t­†  \t\t.  ‚ ƒ \n  ‚ \t‰  † ƒ\t­  \t\t  \n  † \t­\t ‚\n ƒ\t’­ ­ƒ   ,  \n  †  \b\t š ­ƒ   \b ­ƒ  , ‚\t ‚‰­  \b­\t\n  „ ‚ƒ  ‰  ‚\n ‡ \n  ‚ \t‰ „† ƒ\t­  \t\t  ­ƒ\t„  ‡\n‰’­ ‚\n\t†  †  ƒ\t­ \t­\t „† ƒ\t­ ‡   ­ƒ\t‡  (\b\t\n ­€\t   †  \n  ’  \b\t ‡  ­ƒ\t‡  \n ƒ \t \n­ ‚\t­\t: Š•  \b­\t\n , ‚† ƒ\b ­ƒ  0\, 1,0...3,0 ‡; \t   \n  \n­‰ 0,5... 1,5 ‡; \t   \n   \b\t 0. †.    \n\n  \n ‚\t \n ‚  \b­\t\n „ \b ­ƒ   ‚‰­ ­ \t\n . ƒ   ­ \t\n , ‚† \b ­ƒ  \n  † \t­\t  \t\t € \b\tƒ\t’­ ­ƒ†  ˆ • \t \n­ \t‰  † ƒ\t ­  \t\t. \b ­ƒ  \n ‚‰­  \b­\t\n  ‚ƒ ‰   ­ \t\n’, ‚† \b ­ƒ  , ‚\n ƒ\t’­ ­ƒ   ˆ • \t \n­ \t‰ „† ƒ\t­  \t\t. ‡\n‰’­ ‚\n\t†  †  ƒ\t­ \t­\t ‡  ­ƒ\t‡  ‚\t \n ‚  \b­\t\n  ‰’­ \tƒ\t\n\t ‚‰‡Š‡ , \t \b\t­‡ ‚\n\tŠ‡  Š‡ \n  \n­ \t‰ „† (‚‰ „ ƒ\b ­ƒ  )  † (ƒ\b ­ƒ  ) ƒ\t­†  \t\t. \n   \t ‚ ‡­\t •\n Ž\t, ­ \n  \n­ \t‰ „†  † ƒ\t­† „‰­‰  •  •\n ŽŠ ˆ  ­ƒ  „\r 21 \t   ‚‚ €\b\tƒ  ­ ­    ƒ\t­\t ­  ­\n† \n‰ \b\n † ‡€  \tŠ† (­‰ƒ- ­\n†) ­†\t ( . )  \b\t­† „  ( . \t)  ‡€  \t† \b\t­† „  ­Š­† \t \t ( . €)  Ž\n- Š† ­†† ( . )  ­\b† ( . .‚  .‚  .‚   ‡\n ,  ‡ 6,0¢8,0 /3 /3 /3 2/3 /3 ‚ ‡\n ‚ ‡\n =•   ‚\n \b\t\t =•   ‚\n \b\t\t †. 28.    \n\n \r \r \r\f\n   \n \t‚’•Š ‚ ‚€    ‰ „  \b \n ‡ ‚\t\b\n‰’­‰ \t ­\tƒŠ ‚ ­ \t’” ‰.  ‚ ­ ƒ­\t  Š­ •   \t‚’•\t \t’­ ‚ €\t \t € €\n\t  (\n‰ €Š   ‰, \b\t ‰ \b  •† ‚\n† \n‰  \n \t ‰ ­‚\n€‡\t, \n‰  ƒ­\t ­\n” Š ‡\t­ \t\n\t). „\r 22 \tƒ‚€ƒ„„    €Š‘‚ †­  ­\b \t‚\t\n  ‚‡” ‰ \tƒ­\t‰ ‡ \n\t \n \t ­\b\t, \n ƒ \t ‚“‡\t \n  ­\tƒ \t ‰ „ ‚ ­ \t\n ­ ­ƒ  \n ƒ \t  \b\t  ­ ­ ‡Š \t‚’•\t, ­‚ €Š  \b\t­Š\nƒ† ƒ\t­ . \n ƒ \t ­ ‰ † \n  \t‚’•\t ‚ ­ \t\n \b ­ƒ  \t  ‡, \tŠ‡ •   \t‚’•\t ‚ \n  ­\tƒ \t ‰, \t  \b­\t\n , ‚† ƒ\b ­ƒ  , \n\t’­ \b\tƒ  ‚\n ƒ\t’­ ­ƒ   + ,  ˆ \n \t \n Š \b\n ‰ ( \b‡‰’­ ‚ ƒ­ );  ˆ \t­ Š­\tƒ \n Š­\tƒ. Š­\t \t‚’•\t „ ‚ ­ \t\n  ‡ ‡ \b‰­ \t† ‚\n  \b‡ ‰ ­ ­ƒ  \t ‰ • ‚\t\t ƒ\b Š• ’ ­ƒ  \nŠ  ­ƒ \t ‰ • \n\t. \n ƒ \t € ƒ\n\t \b\t  ­ ­ ­ ‚ €Š \t‚’•\t. ž  \t \t‚’•\t „  \n ‚  \b­\t\n  ‰’­ ‚‰‡† ­ƒ  \n ƒ \t \t \t‚’•\t „   \b ‚ ‚‰‡†  ‚‡\t­\n\t‰ ­ƒ\t \t € ­   \n\t ’’ \n  ’ \t‚’•\t ‡\n‰’­,    ‚\n\t†  † ­ƒ   Ž† \t† \t‚’•\t ‡\n‰’­  ­­­  ‡\n’.  \t €\n ‚­† ‡\n ( . \t) \n Ž† \t† ‚ „ ­ ƒ\b ­ƒ  (€\n €Š† \t‚’•).  •\n‡ ‡ ‡\n \n Ž \t‰ ( . €) „ ­ ­ƒ  ­\n\tŠ\t’­ Š­  Š­ ‚\t \t‚’•\t \t \b\t ­  ˆ ­\b  , \t ‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n ˆ ­\b  , \tŠ† •   €­\t: = •   €­\t. ­\b  ) \n‰­ ‚‚\n\t‡, ‚\n ƒ\t’­ ­ƒ  3 \n ‚ ‚‚  \n‰    ­\n\tŠ\t’­ ­\b 3-4 ˆ ‚  € \n Ž \t‰:  Ž† \t† ‡\n‰’­,    ‚\n\t†  † ­ƒ    ’ ­\tƒ \t ‰ \t‚’•\t ­‰­ \n ’” ‡ €\t\b‡. \n ‚ ‡­\t \t Š­\tƒ\t ( . \t), ­  ‚ \n  ‚\n‰­ ­ƒ\t  . ­\b  ­\n\tŠ\t’­ ‚ ‚‰ ‡†  \n ‚ ‡­Š  Š­\tƒ ( . €), ­ \tƒ\t\n\t \t„‰­ „ ‚\n , ‚\n‰‡ ­ƒ\t‡ \b ­ƒ   ‚‰‡†  ­\t\n‰’­ ‚‚  \n‰Š ­\n\tŠ\t’­ \t  „ \n ƒ   ‚ €\t \n  ­\tƒ \t ‰  \n   Š­\tƒ    ’ ­\tƒ \t ‰ ‡\n‰’­,    ­ƒ  ‚\t \n ­ ­ƒ  ­\n\tŠ\t’­ ‚ ‚\n  \t­\t Š­\tƒ . \n \t ­† Š­\tƒ €Š\t­ ‡• \t 0,5... 1,0 ‡. ­Š Š­\tƒ \n\t’­ ‚‰‡Š‡ \n \n\t \b ­Š‡ . †.29.    \n …\tƒƒ  1. \t  „Š \tŠ €„ ‡Š \n‰ ‚­ ‰ Š ­ Ž ‚‰ \b\n ‰ \n‰ ‡\t\nƒ ? Š€ ­ ‚\t \nŠ† ­­: “)  \t  (\r\n \r, \r\n ,   \r \r  \r \r, \r )  \n  \n ; ”)  \t  (, \r\n \r, \r\n , \r\n ,   \r \r  \r \r, \r )  \n  \n ; )  \t  (\r\n \r, \r\n ,   \r \r  \r \r, \r ). 2. \t ‚\n‰­‰ •  \t €’ ‚ \n   \b\t \n‰ ‡\t\nƒ ? Š€ ­ ‚\t \nŠ† ­­: “)  \r  \n\r; ”)   \r  \r  \r  \n\r; „: ‚­ ­ ƒ­  ‚‰Š„ ‚\nƒŠ„ \b\n † \n‰ ‡\t\nƒ  (\n\t€\t­Š \t€­Š Ÿ4 Ÿ5). \r 3. ˆ\f\n\b\r \n\f \f \f‡ 3.1.  \t ƒ Œ  \t  Ž\f\f  \tŽ Œ  \f ( \f)   \t ,   \t ‚ \t \n-\t .  ­‡ ‡ «‡\n \t  Š» €Šƒ ‚\t\b ‡\t­‰ ­ƒ † ‚Ž \b\t ‰ † ‡\n \b\n ‰   ƒ­‡  \t\b\tƒ ‰  \t’”† €­\t , •  ­ €\n \t ƒ\n\t, †­ ‡\t­ \t\n.  ­ ­ Š‡ \n ­„ ƒ ‡ ‡\n \t ‡ Š ‚\t\b ‡\t­‰ Š† ‚Ž \t\b\t€­ ƒ­† \n \n\t\n ­\t\n† \b\n ‰  ‚\n\b\t ‡ ƒ­† \n \n\t\n ­­­ ’”† €\t\b† Š \b\n ‰, ­.. ‡  \tŽ ‰ (  \b‡ ) „† ­ Ž \b\n ‰  Ž\n’ \b‡ ‰  ‡\nŠ„ „\t\t­ ­ . Ž \t\b\t€­ ­ Ž † ‡\n \n’ƒ\t­ \b ƒ  \t\t\n \b ‡\n , ‚€ ­­­ ’”† €\t\b† Š \b\n ‰,  ­ƒ  \n \b‡  Š ‚ \t  ‡\nŠ„ €­†, ‚\t ‚\t \n­ \t\b\t€­\t† ­ Ž . ­ ­  ‡\n \t   Š‚\n‰’­, \t€­\t‰  •\t€\n\t‡ ­\t\n† „† ­ Ž  \n ‚­ \t ƒ­ .  \b\t  ‡­ ­ ­‚ \b‡ ‰  \t\b\n ƒ\t’­ \n   ‡  \tŽ †:  ‡Š  1-  \t \t‰ ‡\n Š \t\b\t€\t­Š\t­‰ €\b \b‡ ‰ ‡Š \b\n ‰. €\t\b\t ’ ‚\t’­‰ ‡\t \n\tŽ\t, €­, ­ , \n ƒ­ \t\b‡”  ‚­\n ‚  Ž, \t‚\n  ‡\t \t‡\t   „ ‡\n „ ­\t\n†,  ­ƒ‰­‰ \n \t \b\n ‰.  ‡Š  2-  \t  „ ­ \b‡   \n —­\t ‡\n €\b \b‡ ‰ €“‡† ‡Š  €\n\t­ ‚Š„  ƒ\t­ ( ‚\nƒ† €\n\t­ ‚ \n    \n‰ ‚\nƒ† Š).  —­‡ ‚\n\b ’­‰ ‚ ‡Š  ƒ ‚\t\t\n\n\n \t•  ‰ ­\t\n†, ‚\t­‰ ‚€\t\b\t ’   \tŽ ‰ ­  ­\t\n† (‰‰ \n  ‰ ‚  , €Š \bŠ, \nŠ, \bŠ  \t\t ­.‚.).  ‡Š  3-  \t  \t\b\t€­ † ‡\n \b‡‰­‰ ‚† \b\n ‰ ‚ ­‡ ‚€\t\b\t ‰ €\t\b† Š Š  ­\tƒŠ‡ \n\t ƒ ‡  \t‡  ­ Ž ’   \t\t‡   „ ­ ‚ ( €\t•ƒŠ‡, \n\t, Ž\nŠ‡, ‡€  \tŠ‡ .).  ‡Š  4-  \t \t\b\t€\t­Š\t­‰ \t‰ ‡\n Š    \t. \t‚ ‡, \t €\t\b†  ‚\t\n­ \b\t  ‡ ‡  † Š ‚ „ ­‰ ‚­ \t­ ­ Ž ’ ‚\n\t­‰ \n €\n \bŠ. ™­ \t ‡ ­ƒŠ† ‡­ ‚ ‡‰­‰  \t ­\n . ­ Ž ‰  ­ƒ‰­‰ ‚ \b­\n €\t\bŽ\t. …\tƒƒ : 1. \n   ­ ­  ‡\n \t ‰  ”­ ­? Š€ ­ ‚\t \nŠ† ­­: “) \f; ”) \f; ) . 2. \t  \b‡ ‰ ­‰­‰  ‚ ‡\t‡ ­ ­  ‡\n \t ‰ 1  \t? \t† ­ ‚\t \nŠ† \t \t­: “) ‰\n \r\f  \n   \t \r. \n \n  \t \r\n, \n, \n\n, \r\n  ‚ \r\f   \n, \r  \t \n    \r \r,  \r \r. ”) †\n \n \r\f     \n. ) Š  \r  \n \n \n   \n \r \n \n   \n   \n. „: \t ƒ­ Š ‚\n\t­‰ \n‰ ƒ ­\t• •\n \b\t­\t \t\b\t€­\t­ ­ Ž Š„ ‡\n†, ‚\n\b ‰ 4 ‚ ‡\t ­ ­  ‡\n \t ‰. ‰ Š‚\n ‰: 1. \b‰­ •\t€\n Š ‚\n\t­‰ \n‰ ƒ ­\t• •\n \b\t­\t €­ \t \n ­ € ‡\t . \t\b\t€­\t­  ’ ‡\n Š, ‚\n\b ‰ ‚ ‡Š ­ ­  ‡\n \t ‰ 1  \t. 2. \t\b\t€­\t­  ’ ‡\n Š \t •\t€\n Š ‚\n\t­‰, ‚\n\b ‰ ‚ ‡Š  2  \t. 3. \t\b\t€­\t­  ’ ‡\n Š \t •\t€\n Š ‚\n\t­‰, ‚\n\b ‰ ‚ ‡Š  3  \t. 4. \t\b\t€­\t­  ’ ‡\n Š \t •\t€\n Š ‚\n\t­‰, ‚\n\b ‰ ‚ ‡Š  4  \t. 3.2. \f \f  † \b  ”­Š„  Ž † ­’‡\t ‰\n‰­‰ —­­ ƒ\t‰  Ž ‰. \t  ‚€Š­‡ €”­ ƒ\n ­ \n‰    ­\n \t  ­  \b\t” ­Š ­ \n ‡\t­ ƒ „  \n †,  \t  \b‡­ \n\t­ ’ •­ €\n ‚ \n\t­\n†  \n\t\b\t„ ‚\n‡ , ‚ \nƒ  €  ‡\t .  \t\b ­ ‡ ­’‡\t  —­­ ƒ\t‰ \n \b\t­\t\n\t. \t \tƒ\t\n\t \t\b€\t\b €\t­  \t­‰, ‚† ‚\t”\t‰  \t­‰” ‚ \b   ­\t.  ­ ‡\n  ­\t\n ­“‡\n‡Š‡ ‡‡­‡ \b\t ‰ ­’‡\t, ‚\n‰’” ‡  ­­­  —­­ ƒ ‡ \t\n\t‡ ­€\t ‰‡ ‡Š ‚\n† —‚„ .  ‡‡ \t \tƒ\t\n\t ‚\t\b\n‰­‰ \t ‚ ’, ‚\t\b ƒ ’, ‡\t•’’ ­. .  \b\t  ‡­ ­  \t\b\tƒ ‰  \n † —‚\n \t­\tŽ ­\t\n ‚\n‰­‰ Š ‚ Ž ‚Š „ ­ ‡\n ‰ ­’‡\t   ­’‡ ˆ —­ „ ­\t‰  ­‡\t,  ‚­  \t•\t’” „  —\n‡­,  ‡’” „ ‚\t­ ƒ \t\b\tƒ ‰.   ­ \n ­\t‡ ‡Š\n \t­ Š —\n‡­Š    ‰\n‰’­‰ €‰\b\t­\nŠ‡ , \t, \t‚ ‡, ­ ­ Š \n  Ž \t\nŠ (\t‡\tŠ, Š­\tƒ , \b\t­ , ‡\t­Š .). \t  ‚‰\n‰’­‰  ­’‡ ƒ\n\t    \b\t‚\t‡‰­Š ‡\t  ­‰’­ † \t­ \t\n­ ‰.  ‡ ­„ ƒ‡ \t\b€\t\b ‚ƒ \nŠ„   ‚ ‡  \t ‰ •†Š„ ‡\t­ \t\n Ž\n „ ‚ ‡ ‰ \t ˆ ‚\t­ ­ \t  € ‡­\t ‚\n­  „ ­ ‡\n \b\n , \n\t­ ­’‡, \b\tŠ† \b —­  \t• ‡\t­ \t\n\t ‚­ ‡Š‡ , ‡ ­, ­  \b ­\n‰ ‚\n ’ ‡\tŽ ’. •\n   \t ­Š‰ƒ\n­ ‰ \t\b ­ ‰ ­’‡\t ƒ\nƒ­ \b€\n €ƒ \n ‡­ ‚ ‡ \t­  ‡\n ‰ Š.  \t €\n  ‡ ‚‡­ \t‚­\tŠ‡ \b  „ ‡ ­­ \n ’”  ‚€Š „ ­† €\t€­ ­\t†: ˆ Š• \t ˆ \t   \b\t \t ­\t    ‡\t­ \t\nŠ ‚ ‚‡” Ž­Š„  ­†, \b\n­† €‰† ‚\n , \tŽŠ„ ‚\n \tŽŠ„ \t‡†, ‡ƒ \t, € \t, ­\n‰ \t .; ˆ \t‚‚\n \tŽ ‰ ˆ Š‚\n  —\n‡­  \b\t \b \t\b\n ƒŠ„ ‡\t­ \t\n  ‚\n ’” ‡ ‚ ‚\n ‡ „ \t \b\n ; ˆ „ ­ ­\tƒ­ ˆ \b\t   \b\t \b€\t ‰ ‚­‡ ‚‚\n­ ‰ \t\bŽ­Š„  ­†, ƒ\t­ ‡’” „ \t\b\n ƒ ’ \t­  ; ˆ ‚—ƒ ˆ ­\t\n   \bƒ\t­ ‚\n­\t \b \t\b\n ƒŠ„ \n ­ ­\t   „ ‡\t­ \t\n; ˆ  \n­ ˆ  \b\t‰ ­\t \n ­ ‚\n­\t  ‚\n\b\t ‡ ‚\n\tƒŠ„ ‡\t­ \t\n \n‰  \n ƒ ‰ €“‡\t \b\t ‰ \t­ † \t­ Š \b\n ‰ (\t­\t, \t­ ,  ­‚ .); ˆ ­   ˆ Š\t\n \t    \t  \b\t \t ‡‰† ‚„­ ‡\t­ \t\n\t; € —­­   \t „\t\t­ \n‰ ‡\n ‰ \tŠ„ \b\n †; ˆ \t€†\t ˆ \t  Ž­   \t \t ‡\t­ \t\n ‚ ‚‡” ‚ƒ\t­Š„ ‡ ˆ ‡\t­ Ž, ‚ —­‡ \n ƒ­ ‡\t­ Ž ‚\n‰­‰ \n ƒ­‡ Ž­Š„ ­­   \t; ˆ €\t­  ˆ \t    \t \t ­\t ‚ ‚‡” ‚Ž \t\nŠ„ ­­ \nŠ„ \t ­\n†;  ”­ ­ ‡ ­„  €\t­ \t: €\t‰ ‚ , \t    \t ­‰ \t ­\t ‚­  ­’; „\nŠ† €\t­ , \t    \tƒ\t\n\t \t ­‰ \b  ’”†  ­’, \t ƒ \t’”† ‚\n”\t Ž­ ‚‰­\t  \t’”† \t \b\t­\t­ \b\t  \t Ž , \t \b\t­‡  ­’ \b\t‚\n‰’­‰ Ž­Š ‚‰­\t   \t; ‰ƒ † €\t­ , \t    \tƒ\t\n\t \t ­‰ ‰ƒ ‡ \b  ’” ‡ ­\t‡, \t \b\t­‡ ‚\n  \b\t­Š\t ‰ ‚\n‰­‰  ­’; \t\t‰ \b —­ „ ­„  ‡­  „\t\t­Š —­Š; ˆ ‚\n­  ˆ ‚€ \b\t ‰  \b   ‚\n­\t ‚ ‚‡” ‚Ž \t\nŠ„ ‚ ‚€\n † ˆ \n’•; ‡     ­„  ; ˆ ‚\tŽ ‰ ˆ \b\t    \t \b\t ƒ­ Š‚\n ‰ \t ‡\t­ \t\n  \bƒ\t­Š„ ­­ †; €Šƒ ‚\n\b ­‰ \n‰ \tŽ Š‚ ƒ „ ‡\t­ \t\n, ­\t „ \t \t, \b\t‡•\t, ­\tŠ ‡\t­ \t\nŠ; ˆ ‚ ­, ­‚ ­ ˆ \t  \t ­\t   \t \n’€† \n­ ( ­‡ ƒ \n ­ ‡\t), ‚ ‚‡” ‚Ž \t\nŠ„ ‡‚’­Š„ ‚\t‡‡.  —­ ­\t Ž Š \t­ Š ‚ ‡Š ­„  \t­  ‚\n\b ’­‰  „ ­‡ ‡\n ‡† Š. \n  \r \n \r  €Š† \t­ Š† —­ \b\t­ ­\n\t ­’‡\t ‚ ‚‡” \n\t, \b\t” ‚, \n, \n\t, ’•, €, €    „ —\n‡­. ™­\t ­\n\t  ­€ ­ ‚\n\b\t ‰ ‚\n ­\nŠ„ ‡\t­ \t\n ˆ \t ­\n†,  ­†, ­\nƒŠ„ ­\t† ., \t ‰\b\t\t   ­‡ ­„\n ƒ† €\t€­ \b\n †. \t\t‰ ­\n\t ­\n ƒ\t­‰ ‚­­† \b‰”­‡, ‡ ­, \t, \b\tƒ\t­ ’ ‰\n‰‰ ­‡ \b\t ‰ ‡Š, ƒ\n ‰  \t ­\nŠ ƒ\t­ , \t\bŠ ‰\b\t\t  ­ Ž † \b\n ‰  \b\tƒ ­\n† ­‚ ‚\n‰­ \t„ ‡\t­ \t\n\t.  ‡†  ­\t\t‰ ­\n\t ‚\n\b ­‰ \n ƒ\t­, ­\t \t ‚\b\n‰­ ‡\t\nŠ‡ ­\t‡ € ­‰   \t\n­ ‡\n . ƒ\r \r  ‡†  ­\t ‡\t \t‚­\tŠ‡ ‰\n‰­‰  \t•  ­\t\n‰‡ , Š‚\nŠ‡ \b ­\nƒ† ­\t \n ‚Ž \t\nŠ„ ‡\t­ \t\n ˆ  ‡, ­‡†, • ‡,  ­\t‡, €\t„‡†, \n­\t‡ ­. ‚. ­\n\t —­ ‡ ‡\t­ \t\n\t‡ \n \n Š‚\n‰­‰ ‡­   ‚„‡ \b\t‡ ­  \t‰‡ ­’‡ ­ ‡ ’ ­‰” ’ Š•  . \t Ž Š ­„  „ ­ ‡\n ‰ ­\t €Š\n \b€­Š ‡  \t ­Š‰ƒ\n­ † \t\b\t,     ­\t­ \n † \t­ \t\n­  ‡† . \n\r \r\f\n \n \n ‚\n\b ‰ ­­ \n † \t­ Š† ‚ ‡  ‡‡ ­’‡, €„ ‡  ƒ ­Š\t­ ‰ €” „ ­€\t †: ˆ  \n €Š­  ‡Š‡, ‚ƒ \t­ ‡ , ­­­\t­ †, \t  €Š­ \n ƒ\t†Š‡, ƒ  ‡; ˆ    \t \n ‡­ ­\t­ƒ \t, ƒ­€Š ‚ \t­ ‚­­  €\n\t­  \b ; ˆ   \t \n ­­­\t­ \tƒ­  ‡\t­ \t\n\t, \b ­ \b­\n\t \t, \t‚ ‡, ­‰\n\t‰ ­\n­\t‰ ­\t ­€ ­  ‚† \n† Š•  , ­\t \t ­\t‰ ˆ \b‰”†, \n†; ˆ  \n €Š­ ‡‚\b Ž Š‡ Ž­‡ ­’‡\t, ‚ \n\t‰  €  ‡\t  ‚ \t\t‰ \b\n ’ €\t\b ’ Š\t\b ­\n­. ‚\n\b\t  \t­  ‡\n ‰ ‡­ €Š­ ‚ \b\t  \tƒŠ‡ ­\n  ­‡ \n ƒ\t, \n  ‚€­ ­ \b\t ’ Ž\n­, \t‡ ƒ,   \t\n ­’‡\t, ­­­ ’” ­€\t ‰‡ ‡† ‡Š. …\tƒƒ  1. Š€ ­ ‚\t \n ­­­ : 1. ƒ\r \r 2. \n  \r  3. •\n   “) \n, ‚, \r, \r\f\t, , ; ”) \r, ‚, \r\f\t, \n\r, , , \t; ) \n\n, \r,  \n, , ; ­) \n, \f, , , , \r. 2. \t \t\bŠ\t­‰ Š‚\n  —\n‡­  \b\t \b \t\b\n ƒŠ„ ‡\t­ \t\n  ‚\n ’” ‡ ‚ ‚\n ‡ „ \t \b\n ? Š€ ­ ‚\t \nŠ† ­­: “) ; ”) \r; ) . „: \t\b\t€­\t­ 10 ‡\n† ­† Š, ­\n ƒ\t’” „‰ \t\b\n ƒ† ­\n†, ‚\n\b ‰ ‚\n ’   ‚\n\t­‰. \t\t  Š‚\n ­ \t \n ­\t„ 4 \n ­  \t†\nŠ \b\tƒ­† ‚\t‚ . ‰ Š‚\n ‰: €­ ‚\nŠ† •\t€\n ‚\n\t­‰ \n‰ ƒ 10 \t\b.   ‡\t­ 10 \t \t­ ­\n —­ ‚\n\t­‰ \n\t­ — \bŠ (\t \t­ ‚  ‡\tŠ \t \t­Š ­\n \t €Š„ •\t€\n\t„) \t‚ \t­ ‚‰  ­\n \t ‚\n\t­‰. 3.3.   \f    ˆ ­\n\n­ \t\n\t‰ ƒ\t­ ­\t\t, Š\t\t‰  †­Š„ ­\n —­‡  ­\t  \t\b\t  \b\t†, €\n\t\t’”\t‰  ­†ƒ †  \n† ‚\n ­\n† ‡‡  \tŽ †  ‚ ‚\t­\n‡. \n ­ \t\b\n ƒ\t­ € ­ ’ ‡\t . ’€† € ‰\n‰­‰ ­† ‡\t†,   \t\t‰ ­\t‰ ‡\t\t ˆ €‡. \t‰ ‡\t\t ­\t ­‰ €‡ ­\t, \t ‡‡  \tŽ ‰ \t- ‚\t­\n ­ ­\t\t ­\t ­‰ \b\tƒ ­\n  \n  ­†ƒ  ‚ ­• ’  \t\t\n ƒŠ‡ ‡‡  \tŽ ‰‡ ­\t- ­.  ­  ‡‰ ­  ‚­ ƒ­ ’ \t Ž  ‡  ­† ‡\t† €‡. \t ‚\t \n, \n  ‡ ‚\n Š Ž\n† \t  ­ ‚\n ­\n ­‰­‰  \t‡  ­\t , ­  ‡ \t\b\t­ €‡.  ”­ ­ €\n• \n ƒ­ € ­† Š: Sela, Adidas, Next, Otto, Gloria Jeans, Fox Kids, Kiko, \t•\t,  ­ , \t\n\t‰ ‰, ‡\t, \r\n­Š† ­,  ‡‚‚, \t„\t\n, \t•\t ‡\t‡\t, \tŠ† €\n’, \t\n\t‰ ‰ . Adidas  Disney Adidas \b\t ’ ‚ƒ­ ­\n­’’ ­ ’ ‚•\n ‚ ­ \b ‡\t\n ‡† ‚‚ ‰­ ‰, Š‚ \t• \n  ‚­ Š ­\t‚ƒ  ‚•\t‡ , \b­\nŠ‡ \b ­\tŠ„ \t­‡€ \nŠ„ ‚Š•,  ‡” Ž\t  ­’ \t€ , ­  †, \n\t€\t­ † € ­ , \t\b€\tŠ„ ‚ ‡  ‡  . †ƒ\t ‚ ‚ \b­ Š €  ‡‚\t ‰ Adidas ‚\n\b ­ Š­„\n ƒ  ‡\t­ \t\nŠ, ­Š ‡\t ‡\t\n \t\t‚­ \tŠ ‚ €­  \b \n ­† \b\nŠ„,  ” „ \t­ Š† €\t\b  \b .  2009 . \t  ‚Š„ €\t €“  • , ‚­\t \n ‡­ ’ \n  ’ ­† Š,  ­† \n•€Š‡ €\t\b‡ €“  \n ‚  ” \b\n ‰‡ Adidas Š \tƒ­ ƒ\t\t­\nŠ    ‡ \n­ ‚\n \tŽ Š  . ­\n ƒ ­\nŠ‡ ƒ­\t‡ —­† \n\nŽ ‰ \n  \n\t ƒ  ­ ‚\n , „\t\t­Š  ‡‡  ­ \n’ Adidas  ƒ­\t  \b€\t ‰‡   „    \t  ˆ   \n‰ ‡\t\nƒ    \t \t ˆ   \n‰ ƒ. ‡ ­, \b\n ‰  \t•Š ‡­\t\n\n \b \tŠ‡ €  \t‡ € ­Š‡ • \t‡ . ­ ­ ­‡­ ­ ­\t \t \tŠ €  —­† \n\nŽ : ‡\t\n   ‡ƒ ƒ\b ‚\nƒ,  \t•Š ­„‡Š‡ \b€\t ‰‡     \t .  \b\n ‰ —­† \n  Š‚\nŠ \b ‡\t­ \t\n, ­ƒ\t’” „ \t‡Š‡ Š ‡ ­€\t ‰‡  €\b‚\t­ .  2011 . €Š\n\t Š‚ ”\t ” \t ‡­\t‰ \n  ‰, ­\n ƒ ­\n† ƒ­† ­† ­\t\n    ‡ \n­ ‚\n \tŽ Š  ˆ   - „   \b‰  \t ‰­\tƒ. \n\nŽ ‰ ¦  - „ --§ \n’ƒ\t­  €‰  , €  \t \tŠ. \b’‡ † \n\nŽ €  ‰\n‰­‰ ‚\b\tƒ\t‰ ‚•\t,  \t•\t‰ \b€\t ‰‡   , ‰­\tƒ\t  Š. ‹\n\t\t‰ ‚\n\b\t ’ \t\bŽ­Š„ \n ‚ ƒ ‚ ­  \b€\t ‡ \n’€ ‡Š„ ‚\t† \t\t‰ ‚\t\t €  ‰\n‰­‰   \t\n†.  \b‰”\t‰ Š• \t ‚ €\t‡  ‡\n \b  ­ ‚\n ‚\t\t. † Ž­  \n  ¦‰­\tƒ§ \n‰ ƒ ˆ ‰-\bŠ†, \t  \n † ¦  - „§ \n‰ ‡\t\nƒ  ˆ \n €† ‰-\tŠ†. ‡‚\t ‚\n­ ­  ƒ\t’­ ‚ƒ­ \tŠ†  \b\t’­ Š \n\nŽ . —\r  ­ƒ­\t‰ ­\t‰ ‡\t\t «\r\n­Š† ­» Š‚ \t­   \n‰ ­† ‰\n \b\t­\t, ‚\n\b ‰ \n’ƒ ­\n ‡Š \tƒ­Š ‡\t­ \t\nŠ   ­  . ­ ‡­ ‚ Ž ‡‚\t ‚­\t\n ­\t ‡ \b\n ‰‡ , \t ‚\n\b  , ‡€ \bŠ, ­ƒ , ‚\n\t­‰, ‡‚\n­Š, \nŠ  €Š, € \b\n ‰  Š• \t‡ .  ‚•  ­† Š —­† ‡\t ‚\n\b ’­‰ ‡Š ­\t , ­\n ƒ\t’” ‰ „• ‡ †­\t‡ , ‡‰­’,  ’­‡ ‡­’ ( ­\n,  €\t\t,  ­, \n’ .) Ž  2000 . €Š\n\t \t\t ‡\t\t ­ƒ­† ­† Š « ‡‚‚», ­\t‰ ­\t\n\t  ‡ \b \n  ‚ ‚ \b­  ‚\t \b\n † \n‰ ­† ­  ‰  ­„ \n­.  \t­ ‡­ ­† Š ‡\t « ‡‚‚» „‰­ \t€Š \n‰ Š„, ­ ­\t\t‰ ‰\b\t\t‰ \t, •\t‚ƒ ,  \tƒ  ,  , \n­ . \t\t ‚\n\b ­ \t­ \t\nŠ \tƒ­Š \t Š ‡\t­ \t\nŠ,  ­ \t•Š ­† ‡ \t ­\n‰‡ , ‚—­‡   \n ‰’­ ‚ ­ , ‚ —­‡  \t\bŠ\t‰  ­ † \t \b‡  \t \t.   —­† ‡\t ­\n ƒ\t­ \t\b€\t\b  ‰ „ ­\t†    \t\nŠ‡ \tŽ­\t‡ ­Š‡ \tƒŠ‡ \t‚‚\n \tŽ ‰‡ . \b \t‰ ‡\t\t « » Š‚ \t­„’’   \n‰ ­† „ \b\t­Š„  ‚‚. ­ ‡­ —­† ‡\t ƒ • : ‡€ \bŠ ‚\n ‡€ \bŠ, ­ , ‚ „   ­ , ‚\t\n­, \nŠ  €Š  \tƒ  . ­\n ƒ ­\n† ƒ­† ‡\t « » ‰\n‰­‰ € \n  Š•  \t , \t‚‚\n \tŽ †, \b‡Š„ €\n­‰” „ \b\t­   \t\n† ‡Š \t‡\tƒ  ˆ    Ž­ƒ ƒ. €  ‡\t  ‚ \n\t­ €\n•  ’\b\tƒ , ‚­‰’”  ‡  \t‡\t, ­Š  ­ \t €‰\b\t­\nŠ† \t \t  „† . ‡\r\f \t  1997   €Š\n\t \b\t\t ­ƒ­\t‰ ­\t‰ ‡\t\t «‡\t\n\t‰ ‰», ­\t‰ ‚\tƒ\t\n  ‚­\t\n‰\n\t ­\n ‡­ ƒ ’ ‚ Ž ’ \n‰ ƒ. \t ‰• †  —­­ € „ ­  ­†  \n ƒ• „ ‡‚\t † ‚  \b\t\t‡­ ‚ \b ­ ­\t  , €  ­ ’,   , \t\t , Š    ­  ­\tŠ.  2008   €Š\n\t \b\t\t ‚\t‰ \n\nŽ ‰ ‡† Š €  ­ \n‰ ƒ ­ 5-­  10-­ \n­. ™­\t €Š\n\t \n  ‰ ‚\t\b ƒŠ„ ‚\n\t­. ­\n ƒ ­\n† €­’  \b\t†\t Š —­† ‡\t ‰\n‰­‰ ‡\t­ \b‡ ‰  ­­ , \tƒ­\t‰   ­ \t, ­  \t  ­ \n\t‰ ­\n\t. ­ ’   ­† ‡\t ‚ \b‰­   Ž ‚ — \b\t‡  \b\t† ‡‚\t «\t\n\t‰ ‰». …\tƒƒ  1. ˜­ „ ­  \t­ € ­Š €\t? Š€ ­ ‚\t \nŠ† ­­: \r, \n\n  \n ; ”) , \r /\t ,  \r , \t, \n  . .; ) , \r,  . 2. \t       \t•\t\n   ‡­† \n  ­† Š Disney Adidas  2009  ? Š€ ­ ‚\t \nŠ† ­­: “)    „ ; ”) \r\f ; ) ‡  ‡ ‡. \r 4. \f\b‡ \n \r“  \f\f 4.1. ­   ƒ \f Œ\nŠ  €Š ‰\n‰’­‰ ‚\n ‡  ­’‡  \n \t­ \n‰ ‚„\t ‰ \nŠ \b ‡† ­ „\n\t, \n­‡ ­ \nƒŠ„ \n ƒ†, \t ­\t \n‰ „\t ‰ ‚ ƒ .  ‡  •\t‚ƒ •’­ \b ‡„\t,  \t, ‚\n’•\t, €\t„\t­\t, \t‚\t . ­\t†; \n­  ˆ \b ‚\n­Š„ „\n‚ƒ\t­€ ‡\tŠ„ ­\t : ‚\n­\t, ‚  \n ­\t ‚\n\t­‰. ­ ‡­ \nŠ„  € \n \t\b€\t\b \n’ƒ\t­ \n ’”   Š \b\n †: •\n‰‚Š, €­Š, ‚ ,  \t , ‚\t\t‡Š ­.. \t\b‡ •\t‚ €Šƒ ­­­ ­ €„\t­  \nŠ €\t  \t­ ‡­\t„. ­ƒ\t’­‰ \nŠ  €Š, \t\b‡ ­Š„ ­­­ ­ \b\t­  €\t, \t‚ ‡, 12 ‡‰Ž, 18 ‡‰Ž. ™­  ƒ  €, ­\t \t \n\t   „ \t\b\t‰. ž\t‚    Š€ \t­ \t 1-2 \t­ ‡­\t €\n• €„\t­\t \nŠ ‡\t\nŠ•\t. ‹\n •  † \n†  € € ­ \t\n \t­‰ \t \n\t\b\t. „\r 23 \b€†­ ’ƒ‚­… ‰‚ ƒ  \b\t­ €\t €“‡ \nŠ €\t, ‡  \r\r \r\n \n  ”­ ­ 2 ‡­\t ‚­ ‰ \n\t\n \nŠ„  €: 1) \tƒ­Š† 2) ­ƒŠ†) \tƒ­Š† ‡­ ‚ ‡‰­‰  ­„ \n ƒ\t‰„, \t ‡\t \n  €\t \n ­\nŠ  ­\t\n €\n \b ‚„‰­  ‚\t \n† ‡­ ƒ†    (Ž \n ,  ƒŠ†   ­..). ‡  \n  €\t \n‰­ \t ‚\t \nŠ ‡­ ƒ    Š, \t \b\t­‡ ‚ \b‰­ \t\b­     \t ‚\n­ , ‚ —­‡ \n\t’­ ‚ ‚  \t •Š, ‰­ ‚‚\t  \t  \t  \t­‰ ‡­ ­\t  \t\bŠ„ \t‚\t\n ‰„. ­ƒŠ† ‡­ ­  \t ‰ \b\t\n’ƒ\t­‰  ­‡, ƒ­ \n  • \t‰­ \t ‡  \n  €\t ‡\n‡, ‚‰­ Š \n  ƒ\b \tŠ 2-3 ‡ \t‰­ ­ƒ . \t­‡ \t ‚\n­ ­‡ƒ\t’­ \t­‰  ‡  ‚\n ƒŠ‡ ­ƒ\t‡ . \t„‰­ Š ­ƒ  ‰’­  ­ƒ ‚\n\t† \n  †. ­  \t­ —­ ‡ ‡­‡ ‡ ­\n  ­‡ \n ƒ\t, \n ‡’­‰ ‰Š ‡Š.  ‡\t• „  \n ‰„ \n ƒ•  ­  \t­, ‚ ‡‰‰ \tƒ­Š† ‡­. 4.2. ­\t‰ €  ­ ‡­ ­† €  \t\b€\t\b. ™­ ‚ ­ , \t\t\n , €­  , ­ \n , \t\n , \b Š \t‚ . ˜­€Š ‚\n ­ \t\b‡ €  ,   \b‡ ­ \n   ­‚Š. \n‰ —­ ‚­\t­ €  ‡\t\nŠ•\t ( \t„) \t \n ­ € ‡\t € ­ „ \t\t\t•‡. †.30. ƒ\r  \n \r  \b‡­ \t­‰  ­ \t‡† Š­ ‚\t’”† ­ƒ ‚‰­  \t €\n Š­ ‚\t’” ‚\t\nŽ\t. \n \n‰ ‚\t† \n†  \n Š \t\b\t\n  \t\b\n ƒŠ, Š€ ­ \t €\n• ’.  \n ­ ‚\n ƒŠ† \b \n­\t­  5 ‡‡. \n ƒ ­‰ \t\b‡ €   ‡­ ƒ†  ­‡. „\r 24 ‚‚ €†‚ ‰‚  (ˆ)  ‘…€‚ (”)   •­ „‡\t†  ­‡, ­\t‰ ­\t ‚\n\b ­‰   , \t\b‡‡ €  ƒ ­\t­‰ \n \t ­\n  •­ „\t„ (1 •­ „ = 2/3 ‡). \n \t ­\n €Šƒ €\n• \n Š ­‚Š \t ­\t \t\bŠ\t‡Š† \t­ Š† ‚ ‚ .  \n \t ‡­ \n€\t­‰ ­ 0  1,5 ‡. ™­­ \t­  ƒ ­Š\t­‰ ‚ ‚ \t\b‡ \b †  ­‡Š    ’. €  \n\t ‚„ ­  ­\n ‚ \t\b‡ ,  ‚ ‚\n­. \n­\t (‚“‡) ­‚Š – —­ €„\t­ ­‚Š  \t‡‡ • ‡ ‡­  ƒ† ƒ\t­ . †. 31. ƒ\r \r  \n •‡  \b\t‰ €  ‡  ­ ­‚Š ‡\t\nŠ•\t \t •\t­ €\t” .  ­† \b ‡† €  ‡\b ­  .   † ­Š,  \n •‡ • ‡ €­  \t  ‡­ ‚Š  ­†ƒ \t. €  \n\t \n \t\t­‰  ‡\t­‰. \n \t\t  €­ \t ­€ ­   \n † (\t \n ­  \t­‰),  ­ ­ „ ‚ ‚\t­  \tƒ­‡, ƒ­  «\t\b‰­‰». \t €­  €  ­ «\t\b\t• \t­‰», € \b  „   Š\t­­. ‚€ †­ ‚ ‡ ­   ’ ‚\t   €\n•† ‚\n­†. ­\t‰ €  Š‚ \t­‰ ­„   ‚\n­Š  ‚\n\t„ \t \t\b‡\t: • \t‰, ‰‰,  \b\t‰. ­Š ‡\n \n­† €  ‡’­ \b‡­  \n \t­ ‚\n­  €   ‚‡”’ \b\t­ \n «\n ‚ ƒ». „\r 25 \b€†­ ‰‚  ‚ ƒ  \t\b‡ ­‚Š (‡) \t\b‡ €  \t\b‡  \t\b‡ ­‚Š (‡) \t\b‡ €  \t\b‡  „\r 26 \b€†­ ƒ’ ƒ  \b\t­ €\t ­ €\t (‡) \t\b‡ \n­ \b\b ‡ \t\b\nˆ   ƒ  ‘1 “\r   \r \n  ‘\n: \b ƒ  \t­ ‡­\t €­† ­† Š \t\b\n ƒŠ„ \b\t­Š„  ‚‚. \t\t : ‚\t\t\n \b \t­   \n‰ ­† ‡\n\tƒ†, ‰\n†, •\n†, ‡\n\t•† •\n†, ­\t•† •\n† ’•†  ‚‚. ‰ Š‚\n ‰ \t€­Š: 1. \b ƒ ­ ‚­\t\nŠ ‡\n ­† Š \n‰ ƒ ‡\t\nƒ  „ \b\t­Š„  ‚‚. 2. \t‚\n ­ ­\t€\n Ž , „\t\t­ \b ‰  12 ‡\n† ‚ \tŠ‡  ­ ‰‡. „\r 27 €ƒ†   ­ \t \n‰ ­† ‡\n\tƒ†  ‚‚Š \t \n‰ ­† ‰\n†  ‚‚Š \t \n‰ ­† •\n†  ‚‚Š \t \n‰ ­† ‡\n\t•† •\n†  ‚‚Š \t \n‰ ­† ­\t•† •\n†  ‚‚Š \t \n‰ ­† ’•†  ‚‚Š „\r 28 •€€€   ­ \b€\t ‰  ­ \t\t­ ­ \t \t\b\t  ( ), \t\b\tƒ  \b\n ‰, ‡\t­ \t\n \t­ \n‰ ƒ  •\n \b\t­\t, \b ‚\n •­‰ ­ ­\t ‚\n­\t    ‡  ‡\n ’ ‚\n  ‡\t ( \n —­), ‚†. ˜\n .  \n  ­\t\n .   ‰  \b\t. \t­\t. \t­  \n Š† ‚\n ‚ \n\t’”  \n —­\t  Ž­\t\n† \b\t­† \t ­  \b­\t\nŠ ‚\bŠ ‚­\n ‚  ŽŠ. \t\t­ ­ \t ­ Ž ‚\nƒ ‚\nƒ  ­\bŠ‡ €ƒ\t‡ , ‚\nƒŠ‡ Š­\tƒ\t‡ \t\t­ ­ \t ­ Ž ‚  ‚ \t   ‡ •‡ \t\t­ ­ \t ­ Ž  \t\t. †  \t\t, \n \t. ‡\t  \t\t. €“‡  \t\t. •   \b\t  \t\t. ­\tƒ†  \t    ‡ •‡, ‡\t  \t\t \t• \t‰, €“‡  \t\t  †,  \b  \t\t  ‡\t­† \t\t­ ­ \t ­ \t. ­‚ ‚ \n\t ‰  •. ‚€   ‰  \n †.   ­ Ž \n Š.   ­ \t. \n ƒ \t ­ \t ­  ­­\t’” † ­ • , ­\tƒ†, ‚\n\n\t” †, ‡\t\n † ­\nƒŠ ­\t\n \t‡\t    Ž­ƒ\t \b ­\nƒ† ­\t ­\t­ Ž­\t   ­\n ‚ ­\n­  Ž\t‡ ­ \t, €­\t‡  \b  \b\n ‰ ‚\n\t ­\nƒ\t‰ ­ƒ\t \t \t­‰ 1 ‡ ­ \t‰. ‡‡­\t 1. \t\b\t  ( ), \t\b\tƒ  \b\n ‰, ‡\t­ \t\n .­.‚. 2. ‡\t ( \n —­), ‚† (‚ \n\t’” †, ‚\n ‚ \n\t’” †, €Š†, ‚‰‡†, \t• Š† \b\t Š†  \b ). ˜\n  (\n   ­† €\b, ’€\t  ­† €\b).  \n  ­\t\n (\t ­­‡ ‡­, \b\t•\t‰, \b\t \t‰).   ‰  \b\t (\b\t \t‰, ‚‰‡\t‰, \t• \t‰). \t­\t ( \b\t­† „  \n  „ , \t ‚\bŠ \n \tŠ ‚­\n ‚  ŽŠ, \t ‡\n , ‚­\t†\t‰,  ‚\n\t† .). 3. \t\t­ ­ \t ­ Ž ‚\nƒ (­ ­ Š \n  , Š­\tƒ , \nŠ) 4. \t\t­ ­ \t ­ Ž ‚  (­ ­ Š \n  , Š­\tƒ , \nŠ) 5. \t\t­ ­ \t ­ Ž  \t\t. †  \t\t (­\tƒŠ, Ž\nŠ, \n\t), \n \t.   ‡ •‡ (  ‡ \n \n­Š‡),  ‡‰ (‚ ‡ \n­Š‡ \n „ ‡   ‡), ­‡‰ („ ‡, \n­Š‡   ‡). ‡\t  \t\t (‚‰‡\t‰, \t• \t‰, \b\t \t‰). €“‡  \t\t ( \b †, † •  Š, •  † \n ƒ •  †). •   \b\t  \t\t (‚ €Š,  ‡\t­\t‡ \n ­­\t‡ , \n\tŠ ). 6. \t\t­ ­ \t ­ \t. ­‚ ‚ \n\t ‰  • (‚\n­ ‚ \n\t’”   •, ­­\t’”  ­ • ). ‚€   ‰  \n † (Ž\nŠ ­  , ­\tƒŠ, “‡Š).   ­ Ž \n Š (\b\t­\t  „ ,  ­­\t‡ €­\t).   ­ \t (­‰ƒ †, ­\n†, ‚\n\n\t” †). \n ƒ \t ­ \t (€\n•†, ‡\t\n †) 7. ­\nƒŠ ­\t\n (\t‡\tŠ, ‚‰, \n\t‚\tŠ .) 8.   ­\n (­\nƒŠ ­ƒ , \t­Š, €† , \t‚‚\n \tŽ .)   ƒ  ‘2   \n  \r \r \n ‘\n: \t\b ­  \tŠ ‚­ ‰ ƒ­†  ‚‰Š„ \b\n † \n‰ ƒ. \t\t : ‚­ ­ ƒ­  ‚‰Š„ \b\n † \n‰ ƒ (‚‰‡†  ƒ† ’€, €’). \t   ‚    Š ƒ ‚ (. . 6  7) ‰ Š‚\n ‰: 1. Š€\t­ „Š \tŠ \n‰ ‚­ ‰ ƒ­\t ( \b‡ ­     ƒ \n € Š€\t­ \b ­\t€\n Ž), \b\t‚\n ­ ­\t€\n Ž  26  ­­\t . 2. Š‚\n ­ \tƒ­Š \n‰ ‚­ ‰ ƒ­\t Š ‚‰‡† ’€ \n‰ ƒ \t ­ ’     (‡. ­\t€\n. 7). 3. ­ ­ ƒ­ Š ‚‰‡† ’€ \t ‡ \n\n ‡­† € ‡\t. 4. ‚\n ­ ­‚ \t\n•­ ’€ . \n‰ —­ Š‚\n ­ \tƒ­Š \t     \bŠ \n  ­\t\n \n   \b\t ’€ (— Ž ­ ). ‡. ­\t€\n.7. 5. Š‚\n ­ \tƒ­Š \n‰ ‚­ ‰ ƒ­\t \t\n•† ’€ \t ­ ’     (‡. ­\t€\n. 9) 6. ­ ­ ƒ­  ƒ† ’€ . „\r 29 \n†, …­ ƒ   € ‚­  Š ƒ ‚ €\b\tƒ  \b‡ ‰ \t ‡\t  \b‡ ‰ \n ƒ \t \b‡ ‰, ‡ ­ \n €„\t­ ­\t\n \n €„\t­ € \t­‰  ­ \n  ­\t\n  ‚\n\t €  \t­‰  ­ \n  ­\t\n \b\t  Š•† ­ƒ ‚­  ‡ ‚\nƒ •\t   \t • \n \t \b\n ‰ ˆ \t­‰  ­ \n  ­\t\n   \b\t ’€ \b\t  €\t \t € €\n\t : ˆ ‚ \n  €  ˆ 2,0 ‡ (\n‰ \t\b‡\t 134-68); ˆ ‚ \n  ­\t\n  ˆ 1,0 ‡ (\n‰ \t\b‡\t 134-68). \t  € ‚­ Š ƒ ‚ (\t. . 9) ‰ Š‚\n ‰: 1. \t‚\n ­ ­\t€\n Ž  27  ­­\t . 2. Š‚\n ­ \tƒ­Š \n‰ ‚­ ‰ ƒ­\t Š €’ \n‰ ƒ \t ­ ’     (‡. ­\t€\n. 11). 3. ­ ­ ƒ­ Š €’ \n‰ ƒ \t ‡ \n\n ‡­† € ‡\t. „\r 30 \n†, …­ ƒ   € ‚­ Š ƒ ‚ €\b\tƒ  \b‡ ‰ \t ‡\t  \b‡ ‰ \n ƒ \t \b‡ ‰, ‡ ­ \n €„\t­ ­\t\n \n €„\t­ € \t­‰  ­ \n  ­\t\n  ‚\n\t €  \n \t  ‚  ­† ‚„­ Š­\t \n† ­ƒ \n \t €’ ž  \t €’  \b  ž    €’ \t   \n†  €\t \t € €\n\t  (Š€ \t’­  \b\t  ‡­ ­ ­‚ ‚ \n\t ‰ €’): ˆ  ‚\n €„\t­  ­\t\n  ˆ  ‚\n €„\t­  €    ƒ  ‘3   \n \r\n \r \r \n ‘\n: \t\b ­  \tŠ ‚­ ‰ ƒ­†  ‚\nƒŠ„ \b\n † \n‰ ƒ. \t\t : ‚­ ­ ƒ­ Š ‚\nƒŠ„ \b\n † \n‰ ƒ, •  \t\t ­ . ‰ Š‚\n ‰: 1. \t‚\n ­ ­\t€\n Ž 28 29  ­­\t . 2. Š‚\n ­ \tƒ­Š \n‰ ‚­ ‰ ƒ­\t Š ‚\nƒŠ„ \b\n † \n‰ ƒ \t ­ ’     (‡. ­\t€\n. 13). 3. ­ ­ ƒ­ Š ‡ \b ‚\t\n­ \n‰ ƒ (‡.  . 14). 4. ­ ­ ƒ­ •  \t\t (‡.  . 17). 5. ­ ­ ƒ­ ­  (‡.  . 18, 19, 20). „\r 31 \n†, …­ ƒ   € ‚­ ƒ‚­… †ƒ ƒ ‚ €\b\tƒ  \b‡ ‰ \t ‡\t  \b‡ ‰ \n ƒ \t \b‡ ‰, ‡   ­ \n €„\t­   ‚Š† \n €„\t­   ­† \n €„\t­   ­­ † \n €„\t­ € \n €„\t­ ­\t\n \n €„\t­ • ž  \t ‚ Š ž  \t   ž  \t ‚\nƒ \t­\t \t­‰  ­ \n  ­\t\n \b\t  Š•† ­ƒ ‚­  ‡ ‚\nƒ •\t   \t ‰ • \t­‰  ­ Š•† ­ƒ ‚­  ‡ ‚\nƒ •\t   \t ‰ •   ‰ \b\t „  \n ‚‡Š•ƒŠ„ ‚\t  Š­\t ‚\nƒ\t \t‰ Š­\t   \t­‰  ­ Š•† ­ƒ ‚­  ‡ ‚\nƒ •\t   \t ‰ •  \n  ­\t\n ‚ \n \t \b\n ‰  €\t \t € €\n\t  ( \tƒ­ ‚ ‡\t Š€\tŠ ‚ €\t \n‰ ‚­ ‰ ƒ­\t ‡ \b ‚\t\n­ ‚‰‡  \n —­\t \n‰ ƒ ): ˆ ‚ \n     ˆ   ƒ\t­\t‡ ‚   ˆ   ƒ\t­\t‡ ‚\nƒ  ˆ  •   \n Š  ˆ  Š­ \n Š ‚   Œ ˆ \n  ‚  ‚ \n  ­\t\n   ˆ \t €  ‚†‡Š   €\t ‚ \n  ­\t\n  ‚ \n  €  \n‰ \b\n † € ‚ \n\t ‰   ‡\t   ‚  ‡\t’­‰. ™­ ‚ €\t \t’­ \t ’ \n ‚ ­  \t \b\n † ‚ \n\t’” ‚\n ‚ \n\t’”  \n —­. „\r 32 \n†, …­ ƒ   € ‚€’ ‰€‚€ €\b\tƒ  \b‡ ‰ \t ‡\t  \b‡ ‰ \n ƒ \t \b‡ ‰, ‡ (\n‰ ‚ ‡\t ‚ Š \b‡ ‰ \n‰ \t\b‡\t 134-68) . €„\t­ ‚\nƒ\t \n \t  \t\t (‚ ‡\n ) ž  \t  \t\t  \b  (‚ ‡\n ) \n \t ‚†‡Š ( \b ƒ­\t) Š­\t \t­\t  €\t\t \t € €\n\t :    ƒ  ‘4   \n  \r \r \r\f\n ‘\n: \t\b ­  \tŠ ‚­ ‰ ƒ­†  ‚‰Š„ \b\n † \n‰ ‡\t\nƒ . \t\t : ‚­ ­ ƒ­ Š ‚‰Š„ \b\n † \n‰ ‡\t\nƒ  ‰ Š‚\n ‰: 1. \t‚\n ­ ­\t€\n Ž  30  ­­\t . 2. Š‚\n ­ \tƒ­Š \n‰ ‚­ ‰ ƒ­\t Š ‚\nƒŠ„ \b\n † \n‰ ƒ \t ­ ’     (‡. ­\t€\n. 15). 3. ­ ­ ƒ­ Š €’ \n‰ ‡\t\nƒ  (‡.  . 21). „\r 33 \n†, …­ ƒ   € Š €\b\tƒ  \b‡ ‰ \t ‡\t  \b‡ ‰ \n ƒ \t \b‡ ‰, ‡ \n €„\t­ ­\t\n \n €„\t­ € \t­‰  ­ \n  ­\t\n  \n  \n† \n \t €’  €\t :   ƒ  ‘5   \n \r\n \r \r \r\f\n ‘\n: \t\b ­  \tŠ ‚­ ‰ ƒ­†  ‚\nƒŠ„ \b\n † \n‰ ‡\t\nƒ . \t\t : ‚­ ­ ƒ­ Š ‚\nƒŠ„ \b\n † \n‰ ‡\t\nƒ , •  \t\t ­ . ‰ Š‚\n ‰: 1. \t‚\n ­ ­\t€\n Ž  31  ­­\t . 2. Š‚\n ­ \tƒ­Š \n‰ ‚­ ‰ ƒ­\t Š ‚\nƒŠ„ \b\n †,  \t\t, ­ \t \t‚’•\t \n‰ ‡\t\nƒ  \t ­ ’     (‡. ­\t€\n. 16, 17, 18, 19). 3. ­ ­ ƒ­ Š ‡ \b ‚\t\n­ \n‰ ‡\t\nƒ \t (‡.  . 24). 4. ­ ­ ƒ­ •  \t\t (‡.  . 27). 5. ­ ­ ƒ­ ­  (‡.  . 28). 6. ­ ­ ƒ­ \t‚’• (‡.  . 29). „\r 34 \n†, …­ ƒ   € ƒ‚’ †ƒ €\b\tƒ  \b‡ ‰ \t ‡\t  \b‡ ‰ \n ƒ \t \b‡ ‰, ‡    \n €„\t­ • \n €„\t­   ­­ † \n €„\t­ ­\t\n \n €„\t­ €   ƒ­‡ Š­ ‚\t ‰  ­\t ž  \t   \t­‰  ­ \n  ­\t\n \b\t  Š•† ­ƒ ‚­  ‡ ‚\nƒ •\t   \t ‰ • \t­‰  ­ Š•† ­ƒ ‚­  ‡ ‚\nƒ •\t   \t ‰ •  \n  ­\t\n ‚ \t­‰  ­ Š•† ­ƒ ‚­  ‡ •\t   \t ‰ •   ‰ \b\t  \n\t ‚‡Š•ƒ† ‚\t Š Š­\t ‚\nƒ\t \t‰ ž  \t ‚ Š \n \t \b\n ‰ ž  \t ‚\nƒ \t­\t \n \t  \t\t €„\t­ ‚\nƒ\t  €\t , ‡: = 10,0 = 1,7 ШП = 1,8 ДТС = 1,0 =3,5 ШГС = 1,7 = 9,6   ƒ  ‘6 ‡\r\n    \r \n ‘\n: ‚€­\t­ ‡ \t ’ \t\b ­ ’  ‡ † \tŠ ‡\n \t ‰ Š \n‰ ƒ ­ ‡­Š ‡\t­ \t\nŠ: Ž­\t‰ € ‡\t\t, \n†,  ŽŠ, ƒ­Š ­ ‡­Š, •\t€\nŠ  Š \n‰ ƒ. \t\t : 1. ‡\n \t­ ‚\n\t­ \t   † ­  ­Š‡ Ž\t‡ \n‰ ƒ •\n \b\t­\t. 2. ‡\n \t­ ‚\n\t­  ‚\bŠ‡ ‚ €\tŠ‡ €ƒ\t‡ \n‰ ƒ •\n \b\t­\t. 3. ‡\n \t­ \n   ­ ‡ Ž\nŠ‡  \t‡ \n‰ ƒ •\n \b\t­\t. 4. ‡\n \t­ \n  \n\t \n‰ ƒ •\n \b\t­\t. 5. ‡\n \t­ ‚\n\t­  Ž\n† ­† \n‰ ƒ •\n \b\t­\t. \tŠ ­† Š ‚‰­    \t \t Š†  ‚ ­‡ \b ­\n ‚\n ‰ ‚\n ‰ \tŠ„ \n  † ‚ ­• ’  ­ \t‡   Š, ­. . •   \n Š, \n  ‚\nƒ\t, \n €  ‚†‡Š,   ‚\t. †. 32.  \r \t \r\f  \n:  € ‚ \n;  €  \n \n  ; \n € . \t  . ‚\t\b\t ‚\n\t­ \t ‚‰‡† ‚\n ­  Ž\nŠ‡ ‚ ‡ \n ‡ \n\t\t‡  • \n \t. ˜­€Š ‚­ \t ‚\n\t­‰ \t Š† , \t    ‚\n\t­‰ ­‡ƒ\t’­    ‚\t, \b\t­‡ ‚\n‰’­ \n   ‚\n ­ ‚ ­• ’  \n €  ‚†‡Š.  \t‡ \t \n \t ‚\n ­ \b\t ‡\t­ ‚\n   \n € Š ‚†‡Š. ‚\n‰’­ •    Ž\n \n \t ‚ ­• ’  •   \n Š. \t    ‚\n\t­‰ •  \t \n \t \n ‡• •  Š \n Š. \t ‚\n  \tŠ„ \n  † \t    ‚\n, \t \n ­ € ‡\t €‰­  ’ Š†  ‚\n\t­‰ \t † ­‡ƒ\t’­ \n  ’ \n € Š ‚†‡Š \n  ’ ­\t\n .   \t\t \t Š† \t‰­ ­\t, \t  ‚\nŠ \t   , ­. . ­‰­ Š†   \t’. ž    Ž\n \n \t \t Š† € ­ \t 0,5ˆ1 ‡ ‡• •  Š \n Š, \n \t ‚\n ­ \b\t ‡\t­ ‚\n   \n € Š ‚†‡Š. Œ\n €   ‚†‡Š \b‡‰’­ ­ \t‰ ‚\nƒ\t  \n  \n € Š ‚†‡Š ‚ ‚‰‡†. \t \t† ­\t\n Š† ­‡ƒ\t’­ \t‚\t\n  \n†  ­ ‚ \t‡ƒŠ‡ \tŠ‡ \n  ‰‡ Š†  \t\b\b\t’­.  \t  Š† ‚ \n  ‰‡ \t\b\b\t \t’­ ‚ €\t  \t •Š, € , \n\t , \b\t„ €\t€­  \b\t­ , \t ‚\t\b\t \t  ., . \n \t \t ‡’­‰ \n\t , ­ \t Š† „ ­‡ƒ\t’­ \n  ‰‡ , ‚ ­Š‡ Š†  \t\b\b\t’­ ‚ \t ‚ \n  \t\b\b\t \t\b \t’­ \t \n €   \n\t . \r\f  \t       ‚ \t  ­ƒŠ‡ \n\t\t‡ ­ ‡Š . \t­\t \t ‚ . ­\n† ­  \b  „ ‚\n ­ .  \t\t \n Š, \t ‡\t­\t„. \n\t­ ‡ • ­ \b \n\t\n , € ‡\t\b , •­\n\t , \t \t   „ ­\t†. •† ­\n†  ‚\n\t­’ ‡­ €Š­ ­‡\t \n €†\t, ‚ • ­Š  ­\n­  ­ \t ­ . \n \t . \t † Š† ‚  ‚\t ‚\n\t­‰ \t‰­ \n  ’ ­ \n\t. \n‰ —­ ­‡ƒ\t’­ \n €   ‚†‡Š ­ \t‰ ‚\nƒ\t ‚‰‡† \n  †. ­\t ‚ \n  \b\t ‡\t­ 2/3 ƒ\t­ \n € Š ‚†‡Š. Š  ‡\n‰’­ \t ‚\n  •  Š ­ . ­ Š­ ‚\t ‡Š \t ‚\t\t\n\n\n   ‚  ‚\t ‚‰­ \n  \n\t. Š†  ‚ \t‡ƒŠ‡ \n  ‰‡ \t\b\b\t’­. \t \n ­ € ‡\t €‰­ Š†  ­ ‚  ‚\t,    „ ‚ ‚\nƒ , Šƒƒ \t’­ Š†  ­ \t, \t ‚\t\b\t \t  ., €. †. 33 ˜ \r\f  \t     :  ™  ‚ \n, , \n €  \n \n  ; ™ . \r\f      \n  ‚\b ‚ • ­\t \t‰ €†\t \b  „ ƒ\t­†. \t ƒ\t­ €† • \t­‰  ‚\b ‚  , ­\t‰ ˆ  ‚\b ‚\t.  \t ‚\t  •‡, ­ ­ ‡\n Š­ ‚ \b\t­ . ­  \b ­\nƒ† ­\t . \n\t­ ‡ • ­ \b •­\n\t , \t \t, \n\t\n , •­\t‚\n ‚\n­\t   „ ­\t†. †. 34 \r\f    :  ™  ‚ \n, , \n €  \n \n   \n \t . \t † Š† ‚  ‚\t ‚\n\t­‰ \t‰­ \n  ’ \n € Š ‚†‡Š. \b \t‡ƒ\t’­, ­­ ‚  ­ \t‰ ‚\nƒ\t \t •    €† . \n  ‚\b\t \t ‚  ‚ ˆ \t ‚\n  \t­‰ ‰ ­ ‚\nƒ\t  \n  \n € Š ‚†‡Š.  •  Š ­\t \n Š ‚\b  „ ­ \t 1 ‡. Š†  ‚ \t‡ƒŠ‡ \n  ‰‡ \t\b\b\t’­. \t† ( . ).  \t † ­\t\n ‚   €‡  \b  \t’­ ‚ ‚  \t \t\n•  \b  3ˆ4 ‡,   † ­\t\n ‚\t ­\t 3ˆ4 ‡.    ‚\t \t’­ ‚ ‚  \t • 2,5 ‡. \t ‚\t† ‚\n  ‚\t ‚ \n  \b\t­ ‚ ‚  \t • \t\t’­. ­ \tƒ „ €\t\b ­‰ Š­ ‚ \b\t­ , ­Š† €\t€\t­Š\t­‰ ‚†† €­\tƒ†.  \t ‚\bŠ„ €Š„ ­\t\n† ‚ƒ\t ‚   ‚‡  \b  \t’­ ‚ ‚  \t \t\n•  \b  2ˆ3 ‡ \t €  5 ‡. \n‰ €\t€­ \b\t­ Š\t \t’­ ‚† ’ €­\tƒ  •  † 5 ‡ \t 1 ‡ \n  \b\t­ . ‹†  Š\t \t’­ ‚ †  ­   €‡ ‚  . \n \t €† š ‚ \n  ‚\b\t. †. 35. ˜ \r\f    :  € ‚ \n; , \n €  \n \n  ; € , ‡\r\n \r\t   \r\f \n Š†  \n \t  Ž\nŠ‡ ­ ‡  \t‡ (\t\b‡ 36) ­‰­ \t † Š† \n \t \n‰ •\n ŽŠ. \t \n ­ € ‡\t €‰­  ’ Š†  \n \t ‚  . \t €† Š† \t‰­ \n  ’ \n € Š ‚†‡Š \n  ’ ‚\n Š •  Š ‚  . \nƒ† • ‚   ­ ‚ ‡\t’­ \t 0,5 ‡, \t ‚ \t’ ‚\nƒ\t \t 1,5 ‡ ‚\n\t’­ ‚‰­ ’ \n  ’ ‚\nƒ\t \t \n    \t\t (5ˆ6 ‡). ‹† • ‚ ‡\t’­ „ \t 1 ‡. \n‰ Šƒƒ \t ‰ \b\t  \t\t \n  ’ ‚\n Š •  Š ‚  \n‰­ \t ­ ƒ\t­ ­ 1/3 ƒ\t­ ­\n\tŠ\t’­ 3,5 ‡. \t†  \t\t \t• \t’­ \t 0,5 ‡. Šƒƒ \t’­ \b  \t\t, \t ‚\t\b\t \t  . \t. †. 36.  \r\t   \r\f \n:  € ;  €   \t \n ­ € ‡\t €‰­  ’ Š†  \n \t ‚\t. \t €† Š† ­‡ƒ\t’­ \n  ’ \n € Š ‚†‡Š \n  ’ •  Š ‚\t. \nƒ† • ‚\t  \n  ‚ Š­\tƒ  ‡\t’­ \t 0,5 ‡,  \b‡‰‰ \t‰ ‚\nƒ\t, ‚\n\t’­ —­  \n  ’ \t \n    \t\t (5ˆ6 ‡). ‹† • ‚\t ‚ ‡\t’­ \t 1 ‡. \n‰ Šƒƒ \t ‰ \b\t  \t\t \n  ’ ‚\n Š •  Š ‚\t \n‰­ \t ­ ƒ\t­ ­ 1/3 ƒ\t­ ­\n\tŠ\t’­ 3,5 ‡. \t†  \t\t \t• \t’­ \t 1 ‡. Šƒƒ \t’­ \b  \t\t, \t ‚\t\b\t \t  . 1, €.  ’’ ƒ\t­ ‚\n\t­‰, ­. . ’€   \n  , ‚ ƒƒ \t’­, \t    ‚\n\t­‰. ‡\r\n \r\t  \r Š†  \n \t \n\t (\t\b‡ 36) ­‰­ \t † Š† \n \t ‚\n\t­‰  \t\t  ‡ . \t Š†  \t\t \t‡ƒ\t’­ ­\nŠ ­ƒ :  \b\t† ƒ\t­ \t­\t  \t\t \t ‚ƒ \t­\t  ‚‡\t­\n† \n  †,  ‚† ƒ\t­ \t 1 ‡   —­ ‚ƒ ‰. Š†   \t\t \t\b\b\t’­ ‚ \n   Š, ƒ­€Š ­\n ­ \b\t’’ ‚\n    \t\t ­ ‚† ( . \t), ‚ \t \b\t‰‰ ƒ\t­  \t\t ( . 6) \t \n ­ € ‡\t €‰­  ’ Š†  ‚  \n \t. \t €† Š† ­‡ƒ\t’­ \n  ’ \n € Š ‚†‡Š \n  ’ •  Š ‚  . \n €\n‰’­ ‚†‡  ‚ €‡  \b  \t 1 ‡. \t­‡ \t„‰­ ­\n ’ ­ƒ  ‚†‡Š \n\t \t \n  ‚\n Š •  Š ‚  . \n‰ —­ Š†  \b\t† ƒ\t­  \t\t ‚ \n\tŠ\t’­ ­\t, ƒ­€Š   † \b  \t\t ‚\t\n  ­ƒ† 1  €‡ \b ‚  , \t ­\n\t‰ ­ƒ\t  \t\t \n\n\t \t \n  ’ ‚\n Š •  Š ‚  , \t ‚\t\b\t \t  . 6. \n  ­\n† ­ƒ  \t\t \t \n  ‚\n Š •  Š ‚  ‰\n‰­‰ ­\n† ­ƒ† ‚†‡Š \n\t. €‰­  ’’ ƒ\t­ \t­\t  \t\t ­ ­\n† ­ƒ  € \b\t, ­. . Šƒƒ \t’­  ’’ ƒ\t­ ‚†‡Š \n\t. \t ­‡ƒ\t ­\n\t‰ ­ƒ\t \n\t\t Šƒƒ\t  ‰‰ ƒ\t­ ‚†‡Š, Š†   \t\t  ‡\t’­ Šƒƒ \t’­ „’’ ƒ\t­ ‚†‡Š \n\t. \n‰ —­ \n  ’ ­\t \n‰­ ‚‚\n\t‡ ‚\n    ‰’­ ‚‡\t­\n† \n  †  ­\n† ­ƒ† ‚ \n  ‚\n Š •  Š ‚  . ‚‡\t­\n ’ \n  ’ \n‰­ ‚‚\n\t‡ „ ­  Š ­\n\tŠ\t’­ 1 ‡. Šƒƒ \t’­ „’’ ƒ\t­ ‚†‡Š \n\t,  ‰‰ ‚\n   ­\t  ­\n† ­ƒ† ƒ\b ‚‡\t­\n ’ ­ƒ , \t ‚\t\b\t \t ƒ­. \nƒ† • ‚   ­ ‚ ‡\t’­ \t 0,5 ‡, \t ‚ \t’ ‚\nƒ\t \t 1,5 ‡.  Šƒƒ† \n  ‚†‡Š \n\t „’’ ƒ\t­ ‚\nƒ\t ‚  ­\b\t’­. \n‰ ‚­ ‰ Š† \b\t† ƒ\t­  \t\t \n\t  † Š† \b\t† ƒ\t­  \t\t ( . \t) ‚ \n\tŠ\t’­ ­\b\t ’ ƒ\t­ ‚\nƒ\t ­\t, ƒ­€Š ‚\t\n ­\nŠ ­ƒ  \t\t ‚†‡Š \n\t, \t \t† ‚\nƒ\t ‚  š  \n  † \t­\t  \t\t. ˜\t­  \t\t, ­\t‰ Š„ ­ \b\t ‚\nƒ ‚  , \b\t’­ ‚\n\t† \n  †.  ‚‰‰ ƒ\t­  \t\t ( . ) \t \n ­ € ‡\t €‰­  ’ Š†  ‚\t \n \t. \t €† Š† ­‡ƒ\t’­ \n  ’ \n € Š ‚†‡Š \n  ’ ‚\n Š •  Š ‚\t. \t \n  ‚\n Š •  Š ‚\t \t‡ƒ\t’­ ­ƒ  Š­ ‚\t ‚†‡Š, ­\t‰ € ­ ‰\n‰­‰ ­\n† ­ƒ† ‚†‡Š \n\t.  €‡  \b  ‚†‡   \n €\n‰’­ \t 1 ‡. \n‰ Šƒƒ \t ‰ ‚†‡Š \n\t ­ ­\n† ­ƒ  ‚†‡ ‚\t  ­   Š ‚\t ­\n\tŠ\t’­ 1 ‡.   ’ Š\b\t \n Š \n‰­ ‚‚\n\t‡.   ’ Š­\tƒ ­\t \n‰­ ‚‚\n\t‡  \t \t’­ \n   ­† \n  Š­\tƒ ‚ ‚†.  ‰’­ ‚‡\t­\n† \n  † ‚\n   \n  Š\b\t \n Š  ‚\n † \n Š Š­\tƒ  ­ƒ† 1  Š­ ‚ ‚†‡Š. ­ ‚‡\t­\n† \n  „ ‚ Š­\tƒ ­\n\tŠ\t’­ ‚ 1 ‡ ‚\n\t† \n  † ƒ\b ­ƒ  7 Šƒƒ \t’­ ‚†‡  ‚\t \n\t, \t ‚\t\b\t \t ƒ­.  ‚\nƒ‡ \b ‚\nƒ ,  \n  ‚ \t’ ‚\nƒ\t  ‡\t’­ ‚ 0,5 ‡.  Šƒƒ† \n  ‚†‡Š „’’ ƒ\t­ ‚\nƒ\t ­\b\t’­ \b\tŠ\t’­  ­\b\t‡ ‚\nƒ Š­\tƒ . \n‰ ‚­ ‰ Š† ‚† ƒ\t­  \t\t \n\t  † Š† ‚† ƒ\t­  \t\t ( . \t) ‚ \n\tŠ\t’­ ­\b\t ’ ƒ\t­ ‚\nƒ\t ‚\t  \b\tŠ­† Š­\tƒ† ­\t, ƒ­€Š ‚\t\n ­\nŠ ­ƒ  \t\t ‚†‡Š ‚\nƒ , \t \t† ‚\nƒ\t ‚\nƒ ˆ  \n  † \t­\t  \t\t. ˜\t­  \t\t, ­\t‰ Š„ ­ \b\t ‚\nƒ ‚\nƒ , \b\t’­ ‚\n\t† \n  †.  ’’ ƒ\t­ ‚\n\t­‰, ­. . ’€   \n  , ‚ ƒƒ \t’­, \t    ‚\n\t­‰. †. 37.  \r\t  \r:  € \r \r\f   \n \n  \n;  €    \f \n; \n €    \f \n \r\f  \r\f  \n\t­ ­\b ‚ ­\t\n . \t ‚   \n\t‰ ­\t, \t ‚ ­\t \t ‡­  ‚† ƒ\t­’ ‚\nƒ .  \t\t \t  \t ‡\t­. ­  \b ­\nƒ† ­\t . œ€\t ‚‰‡\t‰, €\t\t‰  € . \n \t  ( . €).  ’ Š†  ‚\n\t­‰ ‚ \n  ­\t\n \t\b\b\t’­. \t \n  ‚  \t‰­ \n  ’  \n† ­ . \n \t ­ \t\t •   ‚\nƒ\t. \t ‚\nƒ \n \t \t‡ƒ\t’­ \n  ’ ­ \n  ­\b\t ‚† ƒ\t­ ‚\nƒ , \t ‚\t\b\t \t  .3, €.  \t‡ƒŠ‡ \n  ‰‡ Š†  \t\b\b\t’­. †. 38. Ž \r\f  \r\f :  €  ‚ \n;  €  \n \n  ; \n € . \t† ( . ).  \t ­ ‚\t  ‚† ƒ\t­’ ‚\nƒ \t \b\t„ \b\t­ €\t\n‰’­ 2 ‡ \t €\t€­   4,5 ‡. Š†   \t\t ‚ \n  ‰‡ \t\b\b\t \t\b \t’­ \t 6ˆ8 ‡ \n‰ € Šƒƒ \t’­ \t­  \t\t, Š\t \t‰ ‚ ‡\t‰ „ \t 1 ‡. œ€  ‰­ €\b Š† \b  „ \n ­„ ‚‰‡Š„ ‚\n­ ” ­\t ‚ ‰­† ‡ \n Š ’€  ‚ ‚ ‡ \t ‚•  .  ‚  \t •Š \b\t‚\tŠ, \t‚\t\n  \n†  ­ ‚ \t ‚\t\b\tŠ \t  .….   ƒ  ‘7 ‡\r\n    \r \r\f\n ‘\n: ‚€­\t­ ‡ \t ’ \t\b ­ ’  ‡ † \tŠ ‡\n \t ‰ Š \n‰ ‡\t\nƒ  ­ ‡­Š ‡\t­ \t\nŠ: Ž­\t‰ € ‡\t\t, \n†,  ŽŠ, ƒ­Š ­ ‡­Š, •\t€\nŠ  Š \n‰ ‡\t\nƒ . \t\t : ‡\n \t­  €\t•    €­† \b\t­†. 2. ‡\n \t­ ­  •­\t • . \n \t   €\t•   €­† \b\t­† Ž \t Ž  \f \n\t\f .  ƒ Ž  \f  \f. ­ ˆ  Œ  2 \t.     \n  4 \t.         \n  1 \t.        ƒ        Ž \n\t. †. 39. †  \n :  ™ ‚ \n; 6 ™ . ‡\r\n   Š†  ­ „ •­\t • ­‰­ \t Š† \n Š„ €’ƒ \tŠ‚ .  €‡  \b  ­\n\tŠ\t’­   ’ \n   •­\t •  ‚ ‚ ‡ \t ‚•    \b\t 3 ‡ (35 ‡). ­ ­‡ƒ† \n Š ‚ €  ‚‰­  \b­\t\n ’ \n \n ’  \b\t •­\t •. ž    ‚† \b\t† ƒ\t­† •­\t •  \b   ‡•\t’­ \t 1 ‡  •\t‡ \b ‚\n\t’­  \b\t \n  ’  \b\t \t 1 ‡. Šƒƒ \t’­   † \b •­\t •. ­  \b\t •­\t • ­\n\tŠ\t’­ ‚ ‚  \t ‚•   3 ‡. ‹† •\t† \bŠ  ‚ ‚  \t ‚•   \t• ‰’­  \b . †.40.  \n  . \t†.  \t   \n ­ \b\t ­‡, ƒ­€Š \n\t‰  ­ ‚„ \n\t ‚  \b\t „ ‚ „ ƒ\t­† •­\t •, ­.. ‚ \n  \b\t ­’ .  €‡  \b  \t’­ ‚ ‚  \t \b\t„ \b\t­ \n † 10 ‡, •  † 3 ‡. \t\t \t’­‰ •­\t • €\b ‚ ‚  \t •Š.   ƒ  ‘8 …    ‘\n: ‚€­\t­ ‡ \t ’  ‡ † \tŠ \t\b\t€­ ­Š„ —\n‡­ €\t ­† Š ­ ‡­Š ‡\t­ \t\nŠ: Ž­Š \t\t\t• , \n‡\t­Š, € ‡\t\t. \t\t : \b\t­ ‚­ €\t ­† Š. ‰ Š‚\n ‰: 1. \b ƒ ­ —­\t‚Š \b\t ‰ €\t. 2. \t\b\n ­ \t ‡\tŠ ‚ 4-5 ƒ\n. 3.   ‡\t†­ \t\b\t  \t• €\t ­† Š  \b. 4. ‚\n ­, \t \t† \b\t­ € ­ ‚\t\b\tƒ\t­‰ \t \t• €\t. 5. \t  ­\t ‚\n\b ’­‰ ‚ ‚•  ­† Š \t• €\t? 6. \t  †­ † \t­ ‡­ Š. 7.   ‡\t†­ ‚\b­\tŽ ’ €\t. 8. \b­ †­ \t• € Š. ™­\t‚Š \b\t ‰ €\t 1. ‘\n‚\n\t\t . ˆ \t\n \b ‡  ‡‚\t \n \t \b\tŽ ˆ ‚\n  ‡­\t €\t  \t„ ­­  € ‡‚\t \n \t \b\tŽ ˆ ‚\n  \n\t‡ ­‰ ‰ €\t (\tƒ­,  \b Ž \n\t,  ­Š„ ‚ ‡ ”­) ˆ ‡ \n \t  \b‡‰‡Š„ ‚\t\t‡­ €\t (KPI) 2. \n\t \t  ‚­\t. ˆ \t\n \b ‡’” „‰   ( \tŠ„, ƒ\nƒ „, \b\t † ­. .) ˆ ‚\n  ‡\tŠ \b\t\t\bƒ ,  ƒ\t­  ‚\n ­\n† ˆ ‚\n   ‚­\t ˆ Š‰\n  Š„  \n † \n \t ƒ \t’” „ \t­ 3. \t\n \b ­ ” ­‰ ‰ €\t (­\n \n‰  ”­ ’” „ €). ˆ ‡\n¨­  €   Ž\n† \t  ­ ˆ \t   € Ž\n† \t  ­ ˆ ­•   €  Ž\n† \t  ­ ˆ  \n‰\n­  €  ˆ ‚\n  ­­­ ‰ ­ ” ­‰ ‰ €\t \n\t‡‡  4. \t\n \b Šƒ†  ­ \tŽ ˆ \t\n \b  ­ (\t­ ‡­, Ž\n\t‰ \t  ­ ‰, ‚\b Ž  \t , ‡­Š ‚  ‰, Ž€\t\b\t ) ˆ \t\n \b ‚‚\n\t\t‡† Ž\n† \t  ­ („\t\t­ ­  , ‚‚ƒ­ ‰). \n ‚ ‰ ‚­€ ­\n†. ˆ Š €Š­\t (‚, \n‰,  \t‡ \t). 5. ‡ \n \t   ”­ €\t ˆ   ‰, ‚\b Ž  \t  ‚\n\b­ €\t \n‰ Ž\n† \t  ­ ˆ    \t\n­: Ž­ , \tŽ \tŽ , ƒ­Š,  ­Š ‚ ‡ ”­\t ˆ ­ € ­Š €\t ( ‡‰, \n­ ‚/ ‡Š† \b\t, ‚\t \n †, • ­,  ‚\t\t ­. .) 6. ­\t­ ‰  ‚\t\n ‰ €‡ ˆ \t\b\t€­\t ‚\t \n \b\t ‰ ‡\t­ Š„ ‡\t­ \t\n ‚ \t  ‚Ž  ‚  ‚\t\n ’ €‡ (€-€ ). ˆ ‚\n  \n Ž, ­­­Š„ \b\t \t\b ­  €\t („\t ­\n† €\t) ˆ \t\b\t€­\t ‚\n\t\t †­ † ‚ ‚  ’ €\t ( ­ \tŠ ‡\t­ Š ‡‡  \tŽ ) ˆ \t\b\t€­\t ‚\n\t\t ‚Ž  ‚ ‡ ­   €\t Ž —­ ­ 7.    €\t š ­ \tŠ ‡\t­ Š ‡‡  \tŽ ˆ  \t‚\n\t ˆ \b­\n  \n\t‡† ‚ Ž ˆ \t\b‡”  \n\t‡† ‚ Ž  \t\t\n\t„ ‡‡  \tŽ † ˆ ‡‚\nŠ ‚\t‡‡Š \n‰\n­ 8.  ­  €\t Ž\t —­ ­ †­ † ˆ  ­  \b‡‰‡Š„ ‚\t\t‡­ (KPI) €\t, ‚\n¨Š„ \t —­\t‚ 1 ˆ \t  ­ ” ­‰ ‰ €\t  \n\t‡Š‡ ˆ Ž ‰ ­\t­ \n ­\t­  – \n  ˆ\f\n\b\r \n\f „ 1 …\t   ƒ  Žˆ  , ƒ \f   ƒ. ‚ \t  ‡\n : \n\t­  ‚‰‡† ­†.  ‚ \t  ­ƒŠ‡ \n\t\t‡ . \t­\t \t ‚ . ­\n† ­  \b  „ ­ . ­\tƒŠ  \t\t «\t  » ­ . „ 2 …\t   ƒ  Žˆ  , ƒ \f   ƒ. ‚ \t  ‡\n : \n\t­  ‚‰‡† ­†. \t   ‚\t \b\t­\t. ­\n† ­ .  \t\t ­\tƒŠ ­ . • † \t\n\t† \t‡\t   \b­\t\nŠ‡ \t‚\n ‡ \n   \b\t. „ 3 …\t   ƒ  Žˆ  , ƒ \f   ƒ. ‚ \t  ‡\n : \n\t­   ‡‡­ ƒŠ‡ ‚\b‡ \t ‚. \t­\t \t ‚ . ­\n† ­  \b  „ ­ . ­\tƒŠ  \t\t «\t  » ­  \t ‡\t­\t„. „ 4 …\t   ƒ  Žˆ  , ƒ \f   ƒ. ‚ \t  ‡\n : \n\t­  ‚‰‡† ­†.  ‚ \t  ­ƒŠ‡ \n\t\t‡ . \t   ‚\t \b\t­\t. ­\n† ­ .  \t\t ­\tƒŠ \n Š \t ‡\t­\t„. „ 5 …\t   ƒ  Žˆ  , ƒ \f   ƒ. ‚ \t  ‡\n : ­’‡ ­ ­ \b \t\t\t\t \t­\t. \t­\t \t\t\t\t \t ‚ . \r\t­  \n Š‡ ­\tƒŠ‡  \t\t‡ . \t­\t-\b\t‰\b\t  ‚\n €† , ­† ­\n\tŠ \t‰ \t­\t  \b  \t\t. „ 6 …\t   ƒ  Žˆ  , ƒ \f   ƒ. ‚ \t  ‡\n : \n\t­ ­\b ‚ \n  ­\t\n . \t­\t \t ‚ . \t ‚ ‚  ‚ 2 ­\t\n Š Š­\tƒ . œ€\t  2 \n\t\t‡ ‚ \n  Š­\tƒ \t ‚  2 \t ‚ . ­\tƒŠ  \t\t «\t  » \t ‡\t­. ­  ­\n† \b  „ ƒ\t­†. „ 7 …\t   ƒ  Žˆ  , ƒ \f   ƒ. ‚ \t  ‡\n : \t\t\t ­\b† ‚ \n  ­\t\n . \t­\t \t €† \n  \n\t. \t ‚ ‚  ‚ 2 ­\t\n Š Š­\tƒ . œ€\t  2 \n\t\t‡ ‚ \n  Š­\tƒ \t ‚  2 \t ‚ . „ 8 …\t   ƒ  Žˆ  , ƒ \f   ƒ. ‚ \t  ‡\n : \n\t­ ­\b ‚ \n  ­\t\n . \t­\t \t ‚ . \t ‚ \nŠ Š­\tƒ . œ€\t ‚‰‡\t‰, €\t\t‰  € .  \t\t ­\tƒŠ ­ . ­  ­\n†, ­ ­ \b  „ ­ . „ 9 …\t   ƒ  Žˆ  , ƒ \f   ƒ. ‚ \t  ‡\n : \n\t­ ­\b ‚ \n  ­\t\n . \t­\t \t ‚ . \t ‚ \nŠ Š­\tƒ , ‚„‰”   2 ­ƒŠ \n\t \t ’€. \t ‚  2 ­ƒŠ \n\t . ­\tƒŠ  \t\t «\t  » ­  \t ‡\t­. ­  ­\n†, ­ ­ \b  „ ­ . „ 10 …\t   ƒ  Žˆ  , ƒ \f   ƒ. ‚ \t  ‡\n : \n\t­ ­\b ‚ \n  ­\t\n . \t­\t \t ‚ . \t ‚ ‚  ‚ 2 ­\t\n Š Š­\tƒ , ‚„‰”   2 ­ƒŠ \n\t \t ’€ ‚ \b\t . ­\tƒŠ  \t\t \n Š \t ‡\t­. ­  ­\n†, ­ ­ \b  „ ­ . \b\n \f\bˆ\n \r  ˆ ‚‡­, ‚\n\b ‡Š† \n‰ ‚\n ‰ •  \t \n ­ \n‰ \t €\n ‚Š† ‡Š‡ ­Ž ‰‡.   \t \tŠ ‚ \t’­ ­’‡  \b\tƒ­: \n†  €, •\t, ‚\n\t­, ‚ƒ\t­ ,  ‡\t, \t\n­ , ‡, •\n¨ (‚­‡), \n’ƒ Ž\t,  ­\n‰, €\n, € \n\t\t, \t\n †\t‰ € \n\t\t .  \t   – ƒ­ Š\tŠ \n     ‡Š \t ­\n €\t\b\t ‰ \n­\t: •„\t­­ , € Š, ­­  ­†, \t ŽŠ ‡‰ „ ­\t† \t ­\n. ƒ – —­ \b\t     ‚ ­‡ \b\t‚\n ‰  ƒ ­\t \t ­\t‡ . ƒ  ƒ  – \b€\t  Š„ ­\t\n† ‚ \n  \t  \n —­\t Š   ƒ­‡ ‚ €\t \t € , ­\n”   ‚\t­\t ‡\t­ \t\n ­„\n ƒ „ ‚ ‚  \t \n\t-­‚\n ’ €\t€­  ­‡ €\n \t , \n  ­ \n‰ \t\b\t€­ ‡\nŠ„  ­ Ž †   \tŠ‡ ‚ \b\t\t‡ ‚\n ‰ \n ƒ  \t\tŽ .  ƒ –  ­ † ‚\t , „\t\t­ \b ­‰ \t ‡ ‚ „ \b\t „ ƒ\t­† \b\n ‰ \t    (‚\b\t † €\t\n\t) Ž­\t\nŠ„ €Š„ ƒ\t­† (€† €\t\n\t).  \n \f –  ­ † ‚\t , „\t\t­ \b ­‰ \b\t ‡ Š‡ ‚\n ‡ Š• „ ­ƒ \n Š ‚\t ‚    \b ­\t\n‡ ­ \t\n‡ \t‚\t\n ‰„.  ƒ\n  –  ­ † ‚\t , „\t\t­ \b ­‰ \t\b ­’ ‡  \n \t‡  „ \n  † \b\t† ‚† ƒ\t­† ‚‰Š„ \b\n † ­ ­\t\n  €, €‚ƒ \t­ \t ‚\n  \b\n ‰ \t   . ƒ ˆ ­\n­\t‰ „\n‚ƒ\t­€ ‡\t\t‰ ­\t ‚\n­‰ ‚‚\n­ ‰, ­€\n\t‰, \n\t\t•\t‰ \n \t€ \t‰.  \t­‰” ‡‰ ‚\n\b ­‰  ‡ \t ­\t \n‰ ‚­\n €\n‰.  ˆ ‚\n­\t‰ \t‰ ­\t  „\n‚ƒ\t­€ ‡\tŠ‡ ‡ ( ­ƒŠ‡), Š\t€\t­Š\t‡\t‰ \b \t ­\n ­† ‚‰ .  ƒ• ‡ ­‡ \n­\t ‰\n‰­‰ \n­-, ‡’” † \t \n Ž† ­ \n Š Š  €ƒ  . Œ – ƒ ­•­‰† \t­ \t\nŠ† ‡\t­ \t\n   ­†  ­† ‚„­’ (­ 3-„  7- ‡‡), ‡‰ † Š† \t ” ‚. ­\t­ƒ ‚ƒ  ­†ƒ   ‡„\t ƒ ‡ ‚ ‰‡ ‚ \b†­ ‡ ­ ‰, „•  ­ ‡  \n „\t‰­ ‚\tƒ\t\nŠ† • †  .  – ‚\n  \nŠ \t­ Š —\n‡­Š. ‚\n\b ’­‰   \t• ­ ƒ, ‚\n\t­ Ž, ‚ ­.   – ­\t\n \n  \b\n •† \b\n ‰ \n‰ €\t€­  ‡\n ‰ Š\b\t \n Š.  ‡ƒ\t : ­  ‡­ ­‰­ \b „   ­ \t.  – ­\tƒ†  ƒ\t­ ­\t  \b\n , \n \t” † \n‰ \b\t ‰ €“‡† ‡Š ­\t\n . Ž – —­ \b€\t , \t ‡  ‚‡”’ ­, \t‡Š† ‚‚ \n‰Š†   ­\n . ­  – Š\b \n‰ • \t Š† ‚\nƒ ‚  .    – —­ \n  ,  ”­ ’”  \n’ƒ ­\n \n‰ \t­ Š„ Ž\n†.  \t­ Š‡ ­‰­‰ \n  \t\b\n ƒŠ„ ­\n: \b\t” ‚Š, \n\t , € , Š•  , ­\nƒŠ •Š.   \n – \n ‡\t‰ \n €\t‰ ­\t\n \b\n ‰ \b  (‚) ‡\t­ \t\n\t.   – ƒ\t­ \b\n ‰ (\n ‡\t‰ \n €\t‰ \b ‚ \n\tƒ ‡\t­ \t\n\t), ‚ ‚\n\t‰   ­† ­ \b\n ‰ ‚\t\b\tƒ\t‰ \n‰ ‡\n ‰ \b\n ‰  \b\tƒ† ­Š (\n‰ Š­ ‰ •, \b, „\t ‰ ‡Š,  ‚ƒ ‰,  ­‚\n ‰  € ­\t —‚\n \t­\tŽ ).    – ƒ\t­ \b\n ‰ (\n ‡\t‰ \n €\t‰) \b ‚ Ž \t\n ‡\t­ \t\n\t, \n \t”\t‰ \n‰ ‚ \t ‰  ­†ƒ † ‡Š \n  ­‚\n ‰, \t‚\n\t‰ ‡  ­\t\n‰‡ „\t ‚\n\t .  Ž\fˆ ƒ – ƒ\t­ •† \b\n ‰, Ž\n\t‰ \n ­\t\t‰.    – —­ \b\t   † ‡Š  ƒ\t­\t \b\n ‰  ‚‚† ‡‰ „ \n\t. \b  – ­ ­\t ‚\n­, \t  ‡‚\nŠ„ \n  ­ ­ †  «\b  ». ­\t ‚\n­\t – „\n‚ ‚\n —­.  ˆ  † \n†  €,  ‰’” †  € ƒ­Š ƒ‚Ž\t •\n‰‚Š.  \t‚\t Š\t‰ •\n‰‚\t‰ ­ \n‰ (\n‰  €\tŠ„ \t \b\t­Š\n \n) €\t‡\n‰’”  \n Ž •   ¨­  ‚\n‰,  \t’” ‰  \b\t­Š\n . \t‚   \t\n‰ \t \n ‡\t­\t‡ š •  ‡ \n­\t‡ , \b\t‰\bŠ\t• ‡ ‰ ‚ ‚€‡ €\t­‡.  – \t­ \t‰ ­\t\n, ‡\n‰’”\t‰ „’’ ƒ\t­ \t\b\b\t \t‡\t\t. ‰ƒ \f – \t‚\n  ­\t\n† ‚  ‚‚\t‡ \t   ­\t ‚ ‚\nŠ‡ ‚ \b\t\t‡.  – „‰‰, ­\b\t‰ ƒ\t­ ­\t\n† \b\n ‰, ‚\nƒ , ‚  , ’€ , €’).     – ‚­  ‡\n , \b\t  ­  Ž , \tƒ­ ‚­  ƒ­† \t\b­ ­\t\n† Š, \t\b\t€­\t ­„ ƒ†  ‡­\tŽ \t \b­\n .    – \n  , \b\t’”   ’ ‡  ­\t\n†, \n   ‰’”  ­\tŠ ­\t\n Š: €Š, ‚ , ­\t\n Š, ‚\nƒŠ •Š, •Š  ‰’”  ­Š ,  \t\t, Š­\tƒ .  ƒ  –  ‚­ \b\t ‡‰\b\tŠ„ ­\t\n† Š, ‚€Š „   ‰  Ž\n’ ‚\n ƒ ‰ ‚\n† ‡Š Š.    • ­Š‡  ‚  ‡ ‚\n\t­ \t‡ , ­  „\t­Š\t’”  ’’ ƒ\t­  † \n­  ­ \n‰ ‚ \t ‰    €„ ‡  \t (\t‰ \t\t, ­†\t‰ ­\t\n ‰) ‡‰† ‚   . €Šƒ  † \n \n „ ­ \n\t\t • \t,    † ­Š \n\t’­ \b\t­¨ \n ­\t\n‰’­ ‡\n ’.   – —­ \b\t   \bŠ„ \t Š„ \b\n †  ‚‡”’ • ­‰ \n† \n ‚\n­ ‰ \t \n’•\t„ (€€ \t„),     \t €\t\b ­‰  \b \n­\t­ ‚‚\n­ ‰  ­†.  – —\n\t­ ƒ ­ ­\t ‚\n­ \b „\n‚\t  Š\t€­†  ‡\n ’ ‚\n . ­\t ‚\n­\t – 100% „\n‚.  – ‚ ­\tƒ\t‰ \n Ž\n\t‰   \t\t‡ ­\t\n \t  \b  ‚†‡Š, €‚ƒ \t’”\t‰  €­    .    – \n  ‚­ ‰ ƒ­\t ­ Ž Š. ‰ – „‰‰ ƒ\t­ † ‚\nƒ† Š. \n  ˆ \n‰\t‰ \n „\n‚ƒ\t­€ ‡\t\t‰ ­\t, ‚„­ ­†  † \n  „ ­ ‚Š­\t ‡ \b ‚­\n Š„  ­†.    ƒ  –  ‚­ ‡­, ‚ ‡ ‚\t­ ƒ ‚­ ‰ ƒ­† \t\b­ ­\t\n† Š, \t\b\t€­\tŠ„ ‚ ‚\n‡  ‚ Ž ‚ .   – —­ \b‡  \n  † † ­ Ž  ­­­  Š€\t† ‡\n’.  – —­ ‚\n ­\n\t‰ ‚ €\t\t \t €\t\b\t  € €“¨‡\t \b\n ‰ \t •‡   ‰  „ ­\t\n†. € – ­\t\n \n‰ €\t€­ Š\b\t, \t\b\b\t, Š\t‰ ‚ ‡ €\t€\t­Š\t‡  ƒ\t­\t. €  –   \tŽ ‰ ­\n\t ƒ\n\t ‚ ­­‡ ­ \t\n‡ ‚\n , „\t\t­ \b ­‰, \t\b\n ƒŠ‡ \b €\t‡ ‚\bƒ  \t  €\n\t­ • ­\t\n , ‚\n ‡   ‚ ­• ’  ­\n  Š­† ‚\nƒ. € – \b\n  \n  ‚­ \b\n † ‚Š\t’” „ (ƒ\t­ ƒ  \n ‚\n­’) ­\n ƒ\n\t \n‰ €‚ƒ ‰   ”­\t ‰  \b‰­\n­ , \b\t ‡‰\b   \t’”† Ž \t\n†  \b ƒ † †. € \tˆ   – \t, \b­\t\n \t‡\t‰   \n ‰„ ‡\t ‚‡Š•\n ‚ \b­\t \t ­\t\t­Š ­ ‚Š   Š. €  \t \t – \t, \b­\n‰‡\t‰ ‚ \b ‡ ‰‡   Š \b\t\t\bƒ \t     \t\nŠ‡ \t‡. € Žƒ –   Š  \t\b\b‡ ‚\t \n ‚  „   \b ,  \b\t­† \n €\b . €  Žƒ –   Š \t\t‡† ƒ\b \n  €\b \t\b \b\t ‚\t \n ‚  „   \b . € – „‰‰ ƒ\t­  \t\t, \t ƒ\t‰ \n\t\n† \n  †. €    – €”\t‰,   \t\n\t‰, „\t‰ €\t\b\t \n‰ ‚­ ‰ ­ Ž † Š \t\b\n ƒ \t­ ‡­\t,  \t‰ \n‰ ‡ ƒ , ”  ­†, \n’ƒ\t­  ­‡  Š„ ­ ­  Š„ ­\b \t ƒ \b€\t  Š„ ­\t\n†  ‡\n  ‡ \n Š,  † ƒ\t­ ‚†‡Š, Š­\tƒ \t \n‚\t­ ,  ,  ­,  ­\t\t\n \t­ \b\t ‡‰\b \t\b‡Š„ ‚ \b\t  ­ ­  ­\b\t‡ , ­­­ ­ €\nƒ  ‡  ‡\t\nŠ‡ ‚ €\t\t‡ . € – €\t€­\tŠ† \t† ­\t\n : ­ \t, ‡\t­Š, \n\t\t ­.‚.   – \t­ Š ­\t\n \t  \t\t„, \t‡\t\t„    ‚\n \t\b† ‡Š.    – ‚‰‰ ­\t\n •† \b\n ‰ Ž\nŠ\t‰ \n ­‰”\t‰ \b ƒ\t­†.  ƒ  – \t\n\t\t \n‰ ‚ \t ‰ ‡Š ‚\nƒ† ƒ\t­ •† \b\n ‰.  ƒ  – \t ‚ \t’”\t‰‰ \t ‚\nƒ† ‚‰.  ˆ – \t­ Š ­\t\n    ‚\n, \t‚\n\t\t‡Š„ \t ‚\nƒ \n „† ƒ\t­  \t\t.    – ­\t\n \b\n ‰ \b † ­\t , ‚\t\b\tƒ\t‰ \n‰ €\t€­ €­\t Š\t‰ ‚  ‡.   (‰) š ­ ­  \tŠ† «\t\n‰Š†» ‚\n —­, ‚ ‚ \b­ ­ ‚\n\b ­‰ ‚Ž \t\nŠ ­„\n ‚\n­ ‰ \n \b\t ‰ \t.  ’ š €” \t\b\t  ‚\n — Š„ \n ‡\t­ \t\n. \t \b ‚\n —­\t ‚ƒŠ, \b­† ,  \n . • „\t‰’­ ‡ , ‡\t\n ‡ ­‰,  ­†ƒ Š  \b†­ ‰‡ ­‚\n\t ­\t,  ­€ ’­ ‚Ž \t\n  „\t.    Œ – ­\t\n •† \b\n ‰, \n\t‰ ‚\t\t‰, ‚Š \t’”\t‰  ’’ ƒ\t­ ­ \n ”\t  .  ‡ƒ\t : ‚\n \t €’ ‡­ ­‰­ \b ‚† \b\t† ƒ\t­†.  ‚ Œ – ­\t\n •† \b\n ‰, ‚‰‰ ( \n ) \b\t ‰‰, ‚Š\t’”\t‰ ƒ\t­ ­ \n ”\t .   ƒ – ‚\n  Š \t    ƒ\n\t, „\t\t­  \b ­‰ \b\t ‡Š‡ ­­­ ‡ \t\b‡ ‡ ­\n\t ƒ\n\t Š.  ƒƒ  – \t ‚Š\t’”\t‰  ’’ ƒ\t­ ­ \n ”\t  ƒ\t­ ƒ \n ‚\n­’, ‚ \t’”\t‰‰ \t ­\t\b€Š† ‚‰.      – ‚­  ‡Š ‡\n , \t\b\t€­\t ‚­\t ­ Ž Š, \n’ƒ\t­ ‚ \t , \tƒ­Š, ƒ­ \t\b ­ ­\t\n† Š   ƒ­‡ †­ ­\t , ­„\n € \t  ‰, ‚­  \t\tŽ ‰ \n\t\n —‚ ‡­\t\n €\t\bŽ\t ‚Š­ † ‚\t­ .      ƒ – ‚\n\t­\nŠ† ‚‰ \t€­  „ \b\t ‰ ­ Ž Š.     ƒ – ­\t\t‰ ƒ\t­ ­ ­  ­\b \t, ­\t‰  \n ƒ \t­ \n  ‡•\t­ \t\b‡Š† ‚ \b\t   ƒ­‡  \b \n-   ƒ „ ­€\t †, ­\n” Š ‚\t­\t, €Š  \b\t  ‡­ ­ \t\b\tƒ ‰ Š, ‡ \t‚\t\n ‰,  \n —­\t, \n ‰­ \t \t\b‡Š ­ \b\n ‰,     \t – \n ƒ \t ‚ €\t ,  ƒ ­Š\t’”\t‰ \b‡  ‰ \t\b‡ ­\n\t ‚   .      – \n ƒ \t ‚ €\t ,  ƒ ­Š\t’”\t‰  \b \n-   ƒ  ­€\t ‰, \b •Š ‚\n† , \b\t ‰”  ­ \t\b\t ƒ ‰ Š,  \t‡  , ‡Š,  \n —­\t.     ‚  \t  – \n ƒ \t ‚ €\t ,  ƒ ­Š\t’”\t‰ ­\n”   „ \n ‡\t­ \t\n ‚ ‚­  ‡† †, ­\t‰ \t‚\n‰­‰ \t  ­ † ‚\t­ (\t„‰” †‰ ‚ ‚­  ‡† †) • † (€­Š† ‚\t­ ‚­  ‡†     ‰ˆ-ˆˆƒ – \n ƒ \t ‚ €\t ,  ƒ ­Š\t’”\t‰ Š„\t , €\t” , ‚ ”\t , ­‡ \n \t , \t\b€ ‡  \n \t”\t‰ \n‰ \b\t ‰ ‡ \n ‡\t­\t ‡­Š„  \n † \n‰ \t \b‡\t.    – —­ ‚ €\t\t \t €\t\b\t  •\t.    \nˆ\f – ­\t\t‰ ƒ\t­ ­ ­  ­\b \t,  ƒ ­Š\t’”\t‰ ‚€ ­ Ž ’   ‰ ­\t\n†, \n\t-­‚\n ’ €\t€­ , †­\t ‡\t­ \t\n,  \n ‰­ \t \t\b‡Š ­ \b\n ‰.        -\f   – \n ƒ \t ‚ ‚ \t,  ƒ ­Š\t’”\t‰ \b‡  ­ ­ Š„ ­\b  \b\t  ‡­ ­  \t ‡\t­ \t\n\t ‚ \n\t- ­‚\n† €\t€­.   \f\t š Š\b ­ ‚\nƒŠ„  €Š„ \b \n‰   ‰  \t\t  \n ‡.      – ‚\n ­•  ­\nŠ„ ƒ\t­† ­\n\t ‡  €†,  ‡ ƒ­ ­ \n ”\t. \t \f   – \t\b‡  ƒ\t­\t ­\n\t ‡  \t­‚‡­ ƒ ‡ ­ƒ\t‡ . \t ƒ ˆƒ –    Ž \t\t‰  ­‡\t ­ ‚Š„    ‡ ƒ , ”  ­†, €‚ƒ \t’”\t‰ \t €\n• ’  \n­ ­ \t\n ‰ † ‡\t ‚ \b­\t ‚ \b\t\t‡ ƒ \n ­ ‚. ‰ – —­ \bŠ \n  , ­Š \n‰­  ’ Š†  \t ƒ\t­  ‚‡”’ ­Š„ \b\t­‰ ‡\t \b\n ‰, €\n\t’”\t‰    .  ˆ —\n\t­ ƒ „\n‚ ­ ­\t ‚\n­  Š\t€­†  ‡\n ’ ‚\n . ­\t ‚\n­\t – „\n‚  \n\t††, „\n‚  \n\t†† ‚\n —­‡.  – \n  ‰ •\t ­\tƒ \t ‰ ­ \t  ‚€­‡ ­ ‚\nƒ •\t  ­ƒ  ­ ‚\t.  ˆ Š\b \n‰ • ­ ‚\nƒŠ„ \b   Š ‚  „ .  – ­\t\n \n  \b\n •† \b\n ‰ ‚Š\t’”\t‰   .  ‡ƒ\t :  \t ‡­ €Š­ \t\b\n ƒ† \n Š, ­Š†,  „•Š† \n ­„•Š†, ­\tƒ†, Ž\nŠ†  ‚ †, ‚‡, ­†, ­‰”† \b „†,  †, \b\t† ( \n ) ‚† ƒ\t­ . … ˆ ­\t \t­  ‚‚\n­ ‰  ­† \b „\n‚ƒ\t­€ ‡\t \n „ ‡ ƒ \n\t. ‡­ \n\t ’, •\n ­ ’ \n Ž ’ ‚„­, \t ­† ‚€\n\t\t’­  ­ƒŠ  ­ ; Š‚ \t­‰  ‡ \n\t\t•†, \t€ † ­€\n¨†.  ‡‰­‰ \n‰ \b­\n ‰ ‚\n\t­, ‡  „  €\t•, \t ‚\n\tƒ\t‰ ­\t ­.. …ƒ – ­ ­\t ‚\n­ \b „\n‚ƒ\t­€ ‡\tŠ„  ­­ ƒ „ \n. \n‰  ‚\n\b ­‰ \n‰ \b­\n ‰ ‚­ † Š. ­\t ‚\n­\t – 100% „\n‚, „\n‚  ‚\n —­‡, \t \n. …\t   ƒ  –  ‚­ ‚ ‡, ‚ƒ Š„ €”‡  ‡  ‚ Ž ‚ , ‰\n‰­‰ \t ƒ† †  ­  \t ‰ Š. … ˆ \n\t‰ „\n‚ƒ\t­€ ‡\t\t‰ ­\t ‚\n­‰ ‚‚\n­ ‰ \b ­€\n† ‚‰ .  ­  ­\t Š  \t† ­\n” Š. \t‡­ \t ­‰ \t€††. … – \b\t‰‰ ­\t\n •† \b\n ‰ Ž\nŠ\t‰ \n ­‰”\t‰ \b ƒ\t­†. …  – ­ Š ŠŠ„ ­\t\n†. …  ˆ ‚\n¨\t‰ \tŽ­ \t­ \t\t‡€\n‰ (­’‡\t  • ‡ ‡Š\n), ‚ ­\t\t‰ \n ’” ‡ ‚ \b\t\t‡ ( \n „  ‚­’): \b\t­‡, ‚\n‡, ‚ †, Ž \t\nŠ‡ ­\t­ ‡, ‚ \t\n­’   € \n­ , \n ƒŠ‡  ‡ ƒ\n\t, —‚„†  \b €”­\t, \tŽ \t\n­’, \n  \b† ‚ \t\n­’,  ‡­­’,  Ž \t\n­’, €\t\b‡  \b    \t\nŠ‡ €­‰‡ . †\n  –  ‡­  ­\t\t\n \t­  \t\b\tƒ  ‚\t\b\t­\n \tƒ­\t \b\n ‰, ­„ -—‡ ƒ  ‚Ž \t\nŠ ­€\t ‰, ‚“‰\n‰‡Š  \t\b\t€\t­Š\t‡‡  \b\n ’, €“‡ , ­\t  ‰‡ \t\b\t€­ ­\t  ­ ­†  ‡­\tŽ . †ƒ \f –   €\n• \n ƒ­\t \t\b€\t\bŠ„ ­\t\n†  ‚\n‡  ƒ \n  ­ ‚, ­Š €‚ƒ \t’­  Š  ­­­ ’”† €\n\t­ . †ƒ ‰ˆ  –   \t, Š \t\b‡Š „\t\t­ ­  ­ †  ­\t\t\n \t’­‰ ­\t\t­‡, \t ­ ’ \b­\n‰­‰ \t ‡\t  ‚ \b­\t, ‚ \t‰ \n‰ ‚\n†  ‚‚Š    \t\n †  – ­ƒ\t \tƒ\t\n\t ­\tƒ \t ‰ ­ \t  \n  . † Œ (­ . tournure ˆ \t\t ˆ ‡\t\t \t­‰), ‡  80-„ . XIX \t ‚ ‚€\n     ‚ •ƒ , ­\t‰ ‚\n\tŠ\t\n\t \t‡\t‡ \b\t ‚ ‚\n\t­,   ­\t\n \n‰ ‚ \t ‰ ‚Š•­   . \t  ­ ’ ‡ €Š­    €ƒ\t­† \t\n\t , \t‚\n\t\t•‰ ƒ ­   ­\t\n \t \b\t‡ ‚\n­ ” „† ƒ\t­ ’€ , ƒ­ ‡ \t\n „\t\t­Š†  \n —­  ƒ Š‚ \n†  † ƒ\t­’ ­\n\t. ‰ƒ \f – ‚   \t\b‡, ­ ‚, ‡ ­\t\n†   Ž \t\n \t\b\tƒ ‰  ‚­ ‡\t\n‡   €\t\b ’.   –  ƒ\t­ €­\t ­ ­ƒ  ­ ‚\t (\tƒ\t\n ­ \t)  \t‰ €­\t. Šƒ – \t­ \t‰ ­\t\n, ‚ ‡‰’”\t‰‰ ‡­ ‚‰\t \t ‚  \b\n ‰ \n‰ ‚ \t ‰ ‡  €\n•† ‚ ­\t\n­ .       – \b€\t   ‚­ Š„ ­\t\n† Š \n‰ „†  † ƒ\t­† ­\n\t,  ­\t\t\n \t­ \b\t ‡‰\b, \t\b‡Š„ ‚ \b\t €„ ‡Š„ ‚ €\t   ­ ­ Š‡ ­\b\t‡ ,   ƒ ­Š\t­ \n ‰ ‰  \t‡  , ‡\t­ \t\n, ­„\n , ‡Š.   \f    – \b€\t  Š„ ­\t \n† ‚\n  \t  \n —­\t Š \t  ­\t\n ’ ­ ‚ ’       ƒ­‡ ‚ €\t \t € , ­\n”   ‚\t­\t ‡\t­ \t\n ­„\n ƒ „ ‚ ‚  \t \n\t-­‚\n ’ €\t€­  ­‡ € \n \t , \t  ­† \t\b\t€\t­Š\t’­‰ ‡\nŠ ­ Ž   \tŠ‡ ‚ \b\t\t‡ . \rˆ   – • ƒ­\t  ­\n\t ƒ\n\t. \r ˆ „\n‚ƒ\t­€ ‡\t\t‰, •­‰\t‰ \n ‚\n •­‰\t‰ ­\t ‚\n­‰ \n \t ‚‚\n­ ‰, €Šƒ  ‚ • ­Š‡  ‡ \tƒ¨‡. ‚\n€\t’” †, ‡‰ †, ‚ ‰­Š† \t ” ‚ ‡\t­ \t\n.  ­Š† ­\t­ ˆ ‚ \n •‡ \n†  \tƒ \t­ «\t­Š\t­‰». \r – ­ ­\t ‚\n­ \b „\n‚\t.  Ž\t‰ ­\t  ­\t \t‚‡ \t­  \n  ’ \n\t, \b\tƒ\t‰ ­\t – ‚­\n€\t\b\t‰ \n  Šƒ\tŠ‡ ‡. ­\t ‚\n­\t – „\n‚, „\n‚  €\t\n ‡ ‚\n —­\t. “ – ­\t\n  ‡  \b† ‚\n , ‚ ‡‰­‰ \n‰ ‚\t ‰ ‚‰\t, ‚, ‚\t­, „\n‰­ \t. \r\f \n\t ,., \r\f \n\t \b.. ­  \t  ‡\n \t  ­† Š:  ƒ€-‡­ ƒ ‚€ ‹ ‡\t\t ­\t‰. ƒ\t­  \b\t ƒ\t‰.  \t 500 —\b. \t\t\b 00/2               

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