КОНСТРУИРОВАНИЕ И МОДЕЛИРОВАНИЕ ДЕТСКОЙ ОДЕЖДЫ


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   -\r\f  \n \t\r\r \b \n .\r 
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­ ‚\t ƒ „ \t , ‚
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­ ‚\t ƒ „ \t , ‚
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\r\f \n\t ,., \r\f \n\t \b..
    \t  \f : -\t  /
..…\t†\b\t„‡\t\t, .. \t†\b\t„‡\t. – \n\t€ \t: \b-  \n \t\n\t   .\n\t€ \t, 2012. ˆ 92 .
 -  \n\r \f , \r 
 \n \n  \r\n .   \n\r  \r
  \r
, \r , \r \n   \r\n   \r
\n, \r\f   \n  \r\n  .
© \t†\b\t„‡\t .., \t†\b\t„‡\t\t .., 2012 .
© \b\t­\n­  \n \t\n\t   .\n\t€ \t, 2012 .
 574
 20.1
 574
 20.1
\r\f \n\f
   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
­ 1. €‚ ƒ  \f  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.1. ­ ‰ ­† Š. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.2. ­ ‡­ ­† Š. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.3 \t \n‰ ­† Š. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.4. €\t ‰  ­† . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.5. \t\t­ ­ \t Š \n‰ ­† ‚ \b\t­Š‡  ‚‚\t‡. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
­ 2.    \f  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.1. ­Š ­  \t ‰ ­† Š. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.2. ­  \t  Š \n‰ ƒ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.1. ­  ƒ­\t Š ‚‰Š„ \b\n † \n‰ ƒ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.3. ­  \t  Š \n‰ ‡\t\nƒ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
­ 3.   \f  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
3.1. ­Š ‡\n \t ‰. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
3.2.  \b\t† ­† Š. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
3.3. ‹Š ­† Š. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
­ 4.     ƒ \f . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
4.1. Œ\nŠ  €Š \n‰ ­†. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
  \f  \t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
„ƒ  \t  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
­ \f  \t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
\t\b\f\n\r\n\f
€  «­  \t  ‡\n \t  ­† Š» \t\b\t€­\t  ­­­
 \t€ƒ† ‚\t‡‡† \t†  Ž ‚\n Š ‚\t\b\tƒ ­ ­\t‡ ‚Ž \t\n­ 030600 ˆ
«„\n ‰ ‚‚  ‡\t­\n­».
‘\n’  Ž ‚\n Š ‰\n‰­‰ ‡ \t  €„ ‡ €“‡\t \b\t †,  ‡ †
‚\t­ ƒ „ \tŠ, ­Š  €  ”‡ ‚\b\n‰­ ­ ­\t‡ Š€ \t­ ‚­ ‡\t\nŠ
­ ­ Š ‡‚\b Ž Š • ‰ \n‰ \b\t ‰ ­† Š  Š ‡
—­­ ƒ ‡  ­ \n ­\tŠ‡ †­\t‡ .
 Š \b\t\tƒ  Ž ‚\n Š „‰­ \b\t‡\n  ­ ­  \t­ ‡­‡ ­†
Š „ \b\t­Š„  ‚‚;  ­€\t ‰‡ , ‚“‰\n‰‡Š‡  ­† ;  ‚\t \n\t‡
‰­ ‰ ‡ ­†,  ­ ­ Š‡ ‚ €\t\t‡ ‚ ‚ \t‡ ; ‡ \t   ‡ †
‚­ ‰ ƒ­† ­ Ž † \b\n † \n‰ ­† \t\b\n ƒŠ„ \b\t­Š„  ‚‚; \b\t‡\n 
 ‚Ž‡ ‡\n \t ‰ ­† Š, ‚\n\b ‰ €\t\bŠ Š.
\b ƒ  ­  \t ‰ ‡\n \t ‰ ­† Š Š\t­‰ \t \b\t ‰„,
‚\n ƒŠ„ ­ ­\t‡  ‚Ž \b ƒ ‰  ­  \t ‰ ‡\n \t ‰ Š,
‡\t­ \t\n ‰, ­„\n •†Š„ \b\n †,    \t, ƒƒ ‰.
 ‚\n  Š ­\t‰ \t Š„ ­ \t  \b \n   ’” „ ‡­   ­ \n†
‚‡Š•\n­ , „­‰ ” \t † ‡   \n‰\n  ‡\t .
 ­‡ ‚‚ \n‰­  ­ ­† Š  €\n• €\n•  \b\t† \tƒ\t\n
‚‰”\t­ ’ \t€­  \b\t ’ \n’ƒ ­\n ­† Š, ­\n ƒ\t’”†‰   \t\n
­’ \b€­\t­\n­’, ­ ‡ \n  ’”† ­ €\t  \t’”† \b‡­ 
‡ \t­    „ ‚ ‡\t  —­­  \t­Š.
\b\t  ­† Š ˆ \nŠ† ­Š† ­ƒ † ‚Ž, ­Š† ­€ ­ Ž
\n ‡‚\n\t ‚Ž \t\nŠ„ \b\t †  ­\n  €\n\t­ ­  \t ‰ ‡\n \t ‰ 
Š,   €\n\t­  \b ƒ \t\b ­ ‰ ­†, ‚ „\n , ‚\t  ,  \b \n .
\b\t  † ‡\n Š ‚ „ ­  „  ‚­ \t ‰. ­ \t 
Š…ˆ \b\t   €\t\bŽ\t Š  \b\t\tŠ‡ †­\t‡ , \n’ƒ\t’” \n\t ,
\b\t  — \b, ‡\t­, ‡\n†, \tƒ­Š ‚­  ƒ­† \b\n †, \b­\n  ‚Š­
Š„ €\t\bŽ. Ž ‚­ \t  Š \n’ƒ\t­  €‰ —­\t‚Š ­  \t ‰, ‡\n
\t ‰ ­„\n \b­\n ‰.
­  \t  Š ˆ \t\b\t€­\t ­ Ž ‡\n Š, ­.. ‚­  \b\t ‡
 \t‚\n ‰   \tŽ ƒ\t­† (­\t\n†) Ž\n ( \b\n ‰). „ ƒ ‡
\n \t 
ˆ \t\b\t€­\t ƒ­† €\t\bŽ\t Š ‚ €\t
\b† ‡\n \n  \t ƒ‡  \b
€\t ’.
­\t‰ \t ‚ \b\t\t ‚€­\t­ ­­† \n‰ €\t \n’€\b\t­\n­ \t
­ ­ , ‚‡\t­  ‚Š„  Š„ •\t\t„  Ž \t\n† \t\t‚­\tŽ  ­  \b
\nŠ„. ­Š­  €    \t\n­, ­     ‡‡.
‡ ­, ­ † \b\t­ ‚­\t\n‰­ €\n•  \b‡­ \n‰ ­ƒ† \t\n \b\t
Ž ­ ­, ­„\n  \b\t†, \b\t’” „   \n‰ ­†. \t \t —­­ \b\t­
\n’ƒ\t­  €‰ \n —­\t‚ (­ ‡\n\tƒ­\t  ’•­\t), ­Š \b\tƒ ­\n ­\n ƒ\t
’­‰   ­  \t ‡†,  \n —­‡, ‚‡, ­\n†, ­ \n‡ Š ­..
\r 1. \n\f \r\f\f \n  \f \f\f
1.1. \b ƒ \f 
­ ‰ ­’‡\t ‚­\t\n‰­ €† ­\t  ­ ƒ\n\t ƒ\nƒ €”­\t.
Ž \t\n  ­†­ €”­\t,  \n­ \t, ‡ \b\b ,   \t\b ­ ‰ ­„  , ­Š
‰\b ‡  ­\t\t‡ ˆ  —­  ­† \n † ­‚ \t„ \n Š\t   ­„ ­’‡\t„, ­
Š  \n \n’  ‚\n ’ —‚„ .
\t ‚­‰ ­Š‰ƒ\n­ † ­† \t\n ­\t , \t \b\nŠ„. ­ † ­’‡ ‚­\t
\n‰\n €†  ‡• ’ ‚ ’ \b\n. \t‚ ‡,  \t‚\t† ‚ ƒ \b ‰ „
‡†  \n ­  \t \b\t­\t.  ­† €­’ €Š\n \t\n ƒ   ­’‡
‡\t\n „ ­† ‚ \t, ­Š† \t\t\n , ƒ­€Š  ‚\tƒ\t\n ‚\n\t­. ‚\n­  XIX .  
”­\t\n\t ­\t ­\t Ž ‰ ‡\t\nƒ   ‚‰­ \n­ (\t  \n  10ˆ12 \n­) \t­  ‚\n\t­‰.
\n  XVIII .  \n \b \t­ \t‰ ­\t Ž ‰ \t­ ­†  ­­­  „ \b\t­‡
 €\n  € ’    ƒ ’   (ƒ ­\t\n  ­ ‚\n\t­‰ €\b ­\t \t\t\t, \t 
­† ‚\n  XVIII . ˆ  \b\tŠ•† ­\t\n †), ‚‰\n‰’­‰ ­  ‚ ƒ .  XIXˆXX .
\n\tŠ\t­‰ \t\b€\t\bŠ† \t­ ‡­ ­† Š  \b\t  ‡­ ­ ‚ \t\n­ 
‚\n† \b\t­†  ‚‚.
, \tŽ, ­\n  ­† ‚\n  XX . ‚‰\n‰­‰ ‡\n\t‰ \t. \n ƒ\t
 ‰ ­† ‡ † †Š,  1950- ., ‡  ­‰ \t‰ €\t‰ Ž \t\n\t‰  ‚‚\t ˆ ‡\n,
\b\t ‡\t’”\t‰ ‚‡ ­ƒ ‚\n  ‡  ‚­\t‡ \b\nŠ‡ . Š•  €\t\b\t
­\n  ‰,  \n ƒ  ‡ , €„ ‡ \n‰  ƒ€Š ‚\n ƒ ‰ ‚ , ­ 
„ \b‡­  \t† \b\t  ‡­ ­  ­\n† ˆ  —­ ‚ \n   ’ ‡
\n†  \n­ Š   ‡ Ž­‰‡ ,  ‡ \t‡ ­ \n‰‡ , ­\n ƒŠ‡ ­ «\b\n†» ‡Š.
  1960- . ‚‰\n‰­‰ ‚‰­  «‡\n\t‰ ‡\t», Š‡ ‚­€ ­\n‰‡ ‡Š„ ­
\t ­\t‰­‰ ‡\nŠ \n’ . \t \t ‡\n ‰\n‰­‰ \t €\n \t­ Š‡ ‚ Ž‡
‡Š, ­ \t‡Š   \t\nŠ • ‰  \b\t†Š \t ’­ ‡ ‡\nŠ‡.
\t ‚­‰ ‡ „ ­Š‰ƒ\n­ †, ­\t‰ \t €Š\n\t  ‡•† ‚ † \b\n†,
­\n  ­† ‚\n  VIII . \t Š\n \n\t  ­\nŠ†   Š „Š†  \b
\n† † ‚  ‡    ƒ ‡ \tƒ­\t‡,  €­‡   „\t \b\t † – ­\t‰ \t.
\t  ­\t‰ \t ­\n ƒ\t\n\t † ­\n†, \t\b‡\t‡ ,  \t• ‰‡ .
    ­ (1200 – 1450)
\n\tŽ ‚\n\t\n ‚\n\t‡ ­\t , ƒ\t­ € \n ‚Š­Š‡ Š• †.
­† ‚­\t• \t\n ‚€ \b\nŠ‡,  ’€  \t\t €Š\n ‡ ƒ.  
Ž \t\nŠ‡ ­­Š‡ \n ƒ\t‰‡ ­† \b \t ­\t­ ƒ „ ­‰­\nŠ„ ‡† \t‰\t
\n ­\t  €\t­, \t „  ­\n†. ˜‚ƒ  \t\t\n ƒ\t‡, ‡\t\nƒ \t‡,   ƒ \b-‚
 €Š\n  Š \nŠ.
     (1450 – 1600)
\n\tŽ ‚\n\t\n  \t­, \t ­ ’   • \n ‚€ \b\n†, „­‰ ‡ ‡\t
\n ‡ \t\b•\t\n \t­  „  €\t•\t„  ­ „. \t\n „ ƒ ‡\t\nƒ  \t\n 
\t:  \n Š ’€ ƒ‚ƒ  \n \t‚Š.  \b\t­ ­„-ƒ­Š„ \n­ \t ‡\t\nƒ 
­\t \n\t €\n ‡ †; ƒ  \n \t‚Š  ‰­ \n­.
\t‚
€  \r\n , ‚ \n     \r.
    \n
­† ‚\n\t\n \t­  ‚€  \b\n† Š, \t ‡Š \n Š  ‰ƒ  „ 
 \t\t \n  \n «‚\t‡ » \n‰ ­†,  ƒ\t” „‰ „ ­. ­‚  ‚\t­ \n   \n 
Š ‚\n ‡\t­ \t\n\t ‚\n\b\t\n  ­\t  XVIII . \t\nƒ  ‚-‚‡   ƒ­Š„ \n­
 \n ’€ .
  \n  \n
 XVIII . \t \t\n \b‡ \n‰ \b\n‰ \t ‚ ­\t  ­†,  \t ‡\t „ \t­
—­ ­\t\b \n \n •  ‚\n† ƒ­­ \t. \tŽ \b † ‚­ ­\n \r\t-\r\t   
‡ ­  «™‡ \n \n  ‚ ­\t », ‚€ \b\n  ‚­ \n\t­Š ­­\t, Š­ ‚ \n ‚
­  ­ ­\t \t ­‰\nŠ„ ‡\b „ .
 1760-‡ \t \n‰ ƒ ­\t\n\t \b\tƒ ­\n ­\n ƒ\t­‰ ­ †, \tƒ\t\n —­ \t\t\n
­\n Š \n‰ \t‡Š„ ‡\t\n „;   1780-‡ ƒ -‚­  \n ‡ \n Š ‚\n\t­‰
  \b ‡ Š\b\t‡ , Š† ­\t\n † ƒ\t­  ­ ‡  \t\t‡ . €Šƒ  €Š\n €\nŠ‡ 
Ž­Š‡ •\t‡-‚‰‡, ’€\t ‚\t\t\n\t ‚‰‡  \nŠ \n ‚“‡\t  .  1780-„ ­’
­\t\n €’ ,  ­Š \t\n ‡\t\nƒ  ‚\n ­, \t   ‡\t\n ­ ‚\n\t­,  ­,
\t  €\n\tƒ\t\n   ’­  €  , ˆ «\b\n ’»   ˆ ‚ €\n \b ­\n  ‰­ \n­. ‹’
  €Š\n ‡ Š‡  ‡ Š: ‚€Š ­’‡Š  \n ‡‰ \n 1760 .,  
 •\n  €” ’ ‡ , ‚\t  €Š\n ‚ ‰­Š  \tƒ­ ­† Š.  €’\t‡ ‡\t\nƒ 
 \n  €\t•   €ƒ\t­Š‡ ­ ‡  ­  €\b ‚\n \n \t\n, \t  •  ‡ ‚‰‡-
•\t‡,  €\b  \n­\t.
 1790-‡ \t‡ €’ , ­Š ­‚  \n   Š† ­\t\n †, ‚ ­ \t\n  ‚  Ž\t
‡   ­: \t —­­ €Š\n \b­ ‚ \t\b\t ‡ «\n­Š† ­’‡» ­\t\t\n‰  ‡ \n‰
‡\t\nƒ  ­„-‡ \n­ ‚\n­  1830-„.
­ ‚€ ‡ ƒ \t‡  \n ‚\t  ‚ €\n \b ­\n  1750ˆ1760-„ ., \t ‡\t
­\t\n\t €\n ­­†,  1770-‡ ‡\t\nƒ  ­\t\n  ­ ­  \nŠ.  ƒ ƒ,
•\t‚ƒ •\n‰‚ \n\t\n † ‡. \t €  ­\t ­­­\t\n \b\n† ‡, 
\t ‡\n  \b  \t€\n  ;  \n† ‡­­  \n \t€ \n €\t•‡\t \t ‰† ‚•.
  \n  \n
 \tƒ\t\n XIX ., \t  ­ƒ  ‚Š ” „ \tŽ\t­ \n­, ­  \n  ,  Š\t
’” ’   †,   ƒ  \b\t­\t \n \t­ ‚\n\t­‰, ‚ \tŠ  \b\nŠ„
‡\n†.
\t \n‰ ƒ ‚­ ‚­‰\n\t ‡  \b\nŠ„, \n’ƒ\t‰ \t  \n Š
­ ’Š,   €\n ­ ‡ ’€\t‡ :   \n \n  ” \n­ . \t­  ˆ \b €\n ‡ 
\n \t, \n­ƒ\t­† \n ‚\n\t­† ‡\t­ , ƒ •\n\t \n \t­ \t €Š\n ­“‡\n‡† ƒ\t­’
\t‰\t ƒ  ­ƒ   \t, „ ­\t  \n ‡\t\n  ‡\t\nƒ  . \n Š \nŠ, \b\tƒ
\tŠ \n\t \t\b\t ‚ € \n ‚‰\b , €Š\n ­ ‚ ƒ† ‚ ƒ†, \n \n\b‰ €Š\n € ­‰
\n; \t ƒ\t‡ \b\t‚\n­\t\n Š \n \t ­ ­ \n , „­‰ —­ \n ƒ\t\n . \b
   ƒ „ €\t † ­Š   ­\n  ƒ€Š„ \b\t † ‚  ‡\t\n •  
­† ­  ­†,  —­\t ‚\t­ \t ­ƒ\t\n\t  \n ‚­ \n ,  Ž  1860-„ \t
‚\t­ \n\t.
 ­† ‚\n  XIX . ­\t\n\t  „ ­  ‚•\n ‚\t­ \t \t­ ­†  ‚€  \b
\n† Š.  1860-„  ”­\t\n €”­    ‚­  \b\t­‰ \t ‰ ƒ  
­Š, \t \b \n­\t­ €Š\n   \n • 1880-„, \t ƒ \tƒ\t\n \t­  \n  ‚\n\t­‰.
€\n‡\t Š \n‰ ‡\t\nƒ   \b\t­ ­„-‡ \n­ €Š\n\t •\t  1860-„  ‚‡”’
­’‡\t  € \t‡ , ­Š†, ‰­, €Š\n \b\t  ‡ .  ­‰\n \b •  „ € †,
ƒ ­   \n, ­†  ­ €\b ­ \t, \b\t­ \t’”†‰ ­\n \t • (\t‚‡ \t’
”†  † \t­ «\b \t»), ‚„ €\n†  €\t•  €\t‡ .
\t‰   ‚‚ \n‰­’ ­’‡\t  € \t‡ \b \n\t ‡\t \t ‡  ­’‡ƒ  .
\b€ \n  ­\n \t  „ ‚\n\t­‰„  \n Š ƒ  1870-„,  ‚ €\n \b ­\n
 1880 .    †­ Œ —†, ­Š \tƒ\t\n ‚‰\n‰­‰  1872 .,  \n ‡  \t ‚\n\t­‰  Š
† ­\t\n † ‚­Š‡ ‚‰\t‡ -\n­\t‡ , \t ­\t    \tŠ  ­ \n \t‡‚ , „­‰  ” ­‰
”Š„ ‡Š‡ \t‚\t‡ , ­\n\tŠ‡ ‚‰‡ ,  \t•Š‡ \n­\t‡  \nŠ‡ ƒ‚ƒ \t
‡ , ‡ ­\t‡ ­. .
 Ž  ‰­ \n­ ‰ ƒ\t‡ ­ ­\t\n \t\t­ ‡\t­  €\n \bŠ,  ’€ƒ\t‡  \n\t
 , ­Š  \n ­\t  Ž 1890-„  ­ ­\tŠ‡ \b\n ‰‡ •­\n\t ‡ €
­\t‡ . \n\t­‰ ‚ ‡ ­  ‚‰, \b\t   ­ €Š\n\t \b‰­\t \t€ƒ\t‰ \t \t\n † „
­‰, ­\t\n  ­ ” Š, \t‰  ­ , ƒ , \t ‚ ’ Š„ ’
 .
ƒ \r  \n \n \n
 €\n \b ­\n  1910š1912 . ‡\t\nƒ  \t\n  ’€   „ \n­ \n \n ­, 
 —­\t ‚\t­ \t ƒ\b\n\t;  1914 . ‡\t\n  ‡\t\nƒ  ­\t\n  ­ ­  •­\t •
‡€ \bŠ \n ‡\t­  ­’‡ƒ   ‚‰‡Š‡ €Š‡ ‚\t\n­ ­\t‡ \b ‡† \t  \n
Ž. \t ‚,  ­‚  €\n ’‡ \b\t­, ‡\t\nƒ  \tƒ \t\n  ­ ‚ \t , \t „
­ŽŠ,  ­ ‡ €’\t‡ ,  „ • ‡  \n, \n Š •­‰Š \nŠ, ‚„‰ \t
\n Š €’ ‚ €\n \b ­\n  ƒ­Š\tŽ\t­ \n­.
 1930ˆ1940 . \t ƒ \n\t\n\t † ‡: ‚‰‡Š, ‚­Š ­  ‚\n\t­‰
 \b\t † ­\t\n †, ƒ\t­ ‚„ ‚\t­\t\n-   ­,  ­Š ’€  \n\t ; ‚\t\n­
‚‰‡ ‚‰, \b‡,  ‡„† ­\n† \b ‡†; €­Š \n •­\n\t  €­Š, \n\t 
­Š •\n‰‚Š  • † ­ \n†  \t\b‡\t ‚\n‰‡  ‚† \n­† \b ‡† \b ­\t
\n‰† \n ‚\t\n‡† \n‡ , ­\n\tŠ Ž­\t‡ \n \t€ Š‡ •\n‡, ˆ \n­‡, ­ 
€\nŠ    ­ \n  • † \n ­ \n  ‡•‡.
 ‚  \n ƒ \t\n \n ƒ­ •\n- ­\t­ \n‰ ƒ, €\n• ­ \b  „ ­
€\t\n •\n ’ ‡ . ­­, ‡\t  \t\bŠ„ •\n\t„ €Š\n\t \t\b†,  ‚\n\t­-\t\t\t 
€\t†­Š‡ \n\t\t‡ ­  \b† ­  \t\t­Š‡ Š\b‡ ­‡- , ­‡-\b\n \n
 ƒ Ž­\t €Š\n \t‡Š‡ €ŠƒŠ‡  €\n• ­ € ­\t „ •\n  —\n ­Š„ •\n\t„ \n‰
ƒ    „ ‚† „ ­\t\t„, ‡  \b ­Š„ \b\t ‚\t\n •\nŠ ‡Š  ‹ ­\t .
\n\t­-\t\t\t  \n ‚„ ‡† \n €\n† €\n \b \n  €\t• , ƒ\t­  \t\n­ ‡ ­\n
ƒ ­\nŠ„ Ž­ •\nŠ.
\t\nƒ  ­\t \n \t\n , \t ƒ, \t ­‚ ƒ ƒ\t­ \t’­ \t ‡\t\nƒ ; 
\n‰ ƒ    ”­ ­ €\n• \t \t­: ‚\n\t­‰, ’€  ­Š \n ‚\t­ ƒŠ ‚
\n\t­\nŠ \t\t\tŠ ‚„ ƒ­\t’” „‰ \n­  ­.
…\tƒƒ 
1. \t† ‚­ ­\n, Š­ ‚  ‚­  ­ ­\t \t ­‰\n† ‡\b†
Š, \b‡ \n \b\n‰ \t ­ ’  ? \t† ­ ‚\t \nŠ† ­­:
) › ‡ ‡ †;
‹) \r\t-\r\t  ;
)  ­.
2. Š€ ­ ‚\t \nŠ† ­­. ˜‡ ‰\n‰­‰ \t‚?
) \nŠ‡  €‡;
‹) € ’;
) ‚\n\t­‡.
3. \t\t : \b\t‚\n ­ ­\t€\n Ž 1 «­ ‰ ­† Š» \t \n ­\t„ 4 \n ­  \t†\nŠ
\b\tƒ­† ‚\t‚ .
„\r 1
\n   ­
 
\b€\t  ­† Š
\t\t­ ­ \t
1. ™‚„\t Œ­ \t (1200-1450 .)
2. ™‚„\t \b ‰ (1450-1600 .)
3. XVII .
4. XVIII .
6. XX .
7. XXI .
‰ Š‚\n ‰:
1. \b  ƒ€Š„ ‚€ †, ­­\t \t†­ \b€\t ‰ ­†, ­Š„  „\t\t­ ’ \n‰ \t
† \b ‚­\t\nŠ„  ­\t€\n Ž —‚„   (\n‰ \t ­ ƒ ‚ \t ‚€\t­ ‚
2-4   \t).  \n ­ Š€\tŠ \b€\t ‰  ­† ­\n€Ž ­\t€\n ŽŠ.
2. \t­ \t­ ’ „\t\t­ ­   ‚­\t\nŠ„ ‡\n† Š \n‰ ­†, \n\t‰ €” †
€\b ­† Š \t ‚ \t.
1.2.  \t \f 
­ ­ \t \t­ ‡­\t ­† Š ƒ \t\b€\t\b\t ‚ \t\b\tƒ ’, ‚\n\b ‡Š‡
‡\t­ \t\n\t‡, ­„
\n \b­\n ‰,  \t‡, ‡, ‚’, Ž­Š‡ • ‰‡, ­\n ­..,
ƒ­ € \n\n €­‰‡  \b ƒ, ‚ „\n ƒ  \b \n ƒ \t\b ­ ‰ 
­†  \t\b\n ƒ‡ \b\t­.
\t   \n‰ ­† ‚‰\n‰­‰ ‚\t.  † ‡Š  \t€\n’\t‡ ­\t „ ƒ\t­Š„
\b „ ‡ ‡,  \n —­ €“‡. ­ Ž ­† Š  €“‡Š €\n ­\t
€ \nŠ ‚ \t ’  \b\n†, \t \n ‰  ‡ ‡Š ” ”\t­‰  ‡  ­\t\n‰„
­\n.
…\r  
  ƒ­‡ €­† €\t\b\t  \b ­†  ­\t\n‰„ Š ‚\n ƒ \n \t\b ­  ‚ ‡ ”
­ ­ ­ \n‰ ˆ ‚­ Š†, ‡\t­ ƒ †, ­ \n    (\t€\n. 2).
„\r 2
€‚ƒ„€ …€€€ ƒ   ­
‚­ Š†
­ \n
‡\t­ ƒ †
­ \n
­ \n
  
 \n —­Š
‰‡†, ­\t‚Ž  
Š†,  ˆ ‚\n ‚ \n\t
’” † ‚ \n\t’” †.
Š‡  \n —­‡
‡\t­ ƒ ­ \n‰
‰\n‰­‰ ‚ \n\t’” †,
‚ƒ \t’” †    .
   \n —­\t \n ,
‡‰ , ‚\n\tŠ
 \n —­Š…– €Š,
•  , €‡Š.
‡\t
‰‡ \n\t‰, \t\t­
\t‰, \t\n\t‰. \t
‚­  ­ \n‰ ‡
­ €Š­ €†,
‚\n­†. ˜\t­ ­ƒ\t
­‰ ƒ­\t  \t\bŠ„
‡
X-€\t\b\t‰. O€“e‡Š \t\b
\n ƒŠ. ƒ­\t ‰ ‡\t\nŠ„
€\n• „ €“‡: ‚
­\t\nŠ† \n …ˆ ‚Š•\t‰
’€\t; €“‡, \b\tŠ†
\t‚ †  † ƒ\t
­ \b\n ‰, ­Š­Š
\n ‚­‰’”  \b €Š
  Š   †
‰‡ \n\t‰, \t\t­
\t‰, \t\n\t‰.
 \t\t
 €\t•ƒŠ† (­\tƒ†
\t• Š† „  
‚ Š‡ \t­‡),
\n\t, Ž\nŠ†.
\t­Š \b\t­ \t’­
‰ \t ‚ , \n ‚ ƒ ,
‡\n
­\tƒŠ,  ‚ €† ‚
\t­ , \n\t  ‚ \t­ ,
  ‚ €†  \b ,
 \t «\n\n», Ž\n
Š†  \n†
\n  †. ‡\n 
 † ƒ\t­  \t\t:
’•ƒ ,  \t, ‡\t
­Š
­\tƒŠ, \n\t. \t
­Š \b\t­ \t’­‰ \t
‚ , \n ‚ ƒ , ‡\n
­\n ƒ ­\nŠ
€­
\t\n\tŠ ­\t\n , \b\t
­ \t’” ‰ \n\t‚\tŠ,
‚‰\t, „\n‰­  , ­ƒ
(†Š, \t­ 
Š, \b \b\t, Ž­Š
­\t­Š), ­ ,
\nŠ, ‡\t­Š, ‚
Š, \t\b\n ƒŠ \n\t ,
•\n ŽŠ, \t­ Š
ƒ\n ‰
\t‚  .  ‡ ­
\t‚\n\t\t­‰ \t   ,
­ ­ ­\t\n , ‚ ‚\n .
‹Š­  ‡‡­ ƒŠ‡
\t ‡‡­ ƒŠ‡ . \t
‚  ‡ ­ ƒ­\t­
‰  ­\n† €•’,
 ­Š‡ Ž­‡
\n \t­ † ‚ 
 Ž†
\n ­ ­­  ‚
\b\t,  \t\bŠ\t’” „ \t
‚\n ’ ‚ \t\n­
„ \n\t\nŽ\t.…
‘­ Š  ‰ †.…
 Š Š
€Š €’ ; 
€Š  €\t• ; •­Š;
‚­ Š ­ ­\t
Š ‡‚\n­Š, €  ;
\n ‚ ; ­\n­ ;
‡\t† ;  ­€\n ; ­‚Š,
‚\t\n­, ‚\n ‚\t\n­, ‚\n\t
” , ‚\t , ‚\n\t­‰, ’€
 \n\t , \t\t\tŠ,
 \n­Š,  Š
  ‚\n\t­‰
€\n \b ,  ˆ \t­Š,
‚\n\t” ‚\t\n­.
•   •­\tŠ, €
‡Š €\t\n\t„Š,
 ­€\n , €“‡
Š
 ­Š  ­ \n † 
 Š €\t,  ­\t\n ,
‡€ 
\bŠ, ‚\n 
‡€ \bŠ,  Š 
€\n• ‡ \t\b€\t\b ‡

\t­ Š„  Ž
\t\nŠ„ —\n‡­
  
 Ž ­† Š ‚€ \b\nŠ \t    1.
 Ž ­† Š
 ­ \n ­\tŠ
Ž \t\n-—­­ ƒ 
\b\t” ­Š
 ­ \n ­\t-‚\t­ ƒ
 
Ž \t\nŠ
„ ­-—­
­ ƒ 
\t” ­\t ­ €\n\t‚
‰­Š„ \t­ 
\b ƒ†, „ ‡ ƒ†,
 \b \n-‚ „\n ƒ
† ‚ † Š,
­ ‚ ­  \b
‰­\n­ \t \b‡\t
ƒ\n\t, ‡„\t ƒ†
‚\t­ .
€‚ƒ   \b ƒ
† \b‡­ \n‰
—­  Š
‚\n ‰ \n €
\t\b\tƒ ‰,  \tŽ ‰
‡\t  ­\n\t.
\t\n-—­ ƒ\t‰,
‡\tŽ \t‰, ‡‡ 
 \t­ \t‰, ‚ ­\t­\n
\t‰  Ž  Ž ‰
­ ‡ \n‰­\t ‚ „ ƒ†
\t­ ­
˜ ­-—‡Ž
\t\n  \n­
  „ ­
­’ Š, 
\t‡ †   
\t’”† †,
• ‡ €“­‡
\n ƒ­’ ƒ\n\t.
†. 1.   
\n  ‚ ­\t­\n \b\tƒ  Š \n‰ ­†. \t
\t‰  €\t‰ \t \b\t­ „
• \t­ , \t\b \t­ „ 
­Š†   €\t ” \t \t „ —­\t‚\t„  \b , ‚
 ƒ\t­
 \t \t­­ , ƒ ­‚\n­­ .
\b\r\t  
­ ’  , ­\t  \t \b\n ’, \n\t  Ž  ’­ ‚ \t\b\n ƒŠ‡ ‚ \b\t\t‡.
\n\t  \tŽ ‰ ­† Š ‚ \b\t­Š‡  ‚‚\t‡:
\t \n‰ ­† ‡\n\tƒ†  ‚‚Š ˆ ­  ‰  1 \t
›\n\t‰  ‚‚\t ˆ 1-3 \n­
•\n\t‰  ‚‚\t ˆ 3-6 \n­
\n\t•\t‰ •\n\t‰  ‚‚\t ˆ 7-11 \n­
­\t•\t‰ •\n\t‰  ‚‚\t (‚­\t‰) ˆ 12-15 \n­
œ•\t‰  ‚‚\t ˆ 16-17 \n­.
†  
\t\b‡Š \t ­† , \t \t  \b\nŠ„, ­‡ƒ\t’­‰ \t\b\n ƒŠ‡ €\t\b‡. \t
 ‡   ­ \b\t­ €\t, ­, €„\t­   \n \t\b‡. \n ­‡ƒ \b\t­ 
€\t, ­ —­  ‡  €, ­\t \t    ­­  \b\t­ ­ ‡ ­ ­\n ƒ\t­‰ ‚ ­ ,
­\n\n ’, ‡\t ­..  ƒ•, \t \t   \t\b\t €\n• ‚\t\t‡­.
„\r 3
\b€†­   ­
\b\t­
­, ‡
\t\b‡
€„\t­   , ‡
0-1 ‡.
1 
†. 2. \b\r\t  
…\tƒƒ 
1. Š€ ­ ‚\t \n ­­­ :
1. \t” ­\t‰  Ž ‰;
2. ­ \n ­\t\t‰  
3. Ž \t\n\t‰  
4.  ­-
—­­ ƒ\t‰  Ž ‰
 ˆ €‚ƒ   \b ƒ† \b‡­ \n‰ —­  Š‚\n ‰ \n 
€ \t\b\tƒ ‰,  \tŽ ‰ ‡\t  ­\n\t;
‹ ˆ ­ ‡ \n \t  ‚ „ ƒ† \t­ ­ ;
 ˆ \b\t” ­\t ­ €\n\t‚ ‰­Š„ \t­  \b ƒ†, „ ‡ ƒ†,  \b \n-
‚ „\n ƒ† ‚ † Š, ­ ‚ ­  \b‰­\n­ \t \b
‡\t ƒ\n\t, ‡„\t ƒ† ‚\t­ ;
Œ ˆ ƒ ­-—‡Ž \t\n  \n­  „ ­­’ Š, 
\t‡ †   \t’”† †, • ‡ €“­‡ \n ƒ­’ ƒ\n\t;
 ˆ ‡\t\n-—­ ƒ\t‰, ‡\tŽ \t‰, ‡‡  \t­ \t‰, ‚ ­\t­\n\t‰
 Ž  Ž ‰ ­ ‡ \n‰­\t ‚ „ ƒ† \t­ ­ .
2. \t \t  ­ ‚Š \n ­‰ ­\t‰ \t ‚ \t\b\tƒ ’? \t† ­ ‚\t \nŠ† ­­:
) ‚\t‰, \t‰\t‰ \t, ‚­ -€Š­\t‰, ‡\t•‰‰;
‹) ‚\n\t­‰, €\n \bŠ, ƒ , ’€ , €’ ­..;
) \b\n ‰ \n­ , ‡ \bŠ, \b ‡ , \bŠ.
3. \t\t : \b\t‚\n ­ ­\t€\n Ž  «­ \n ­† Š» \t \n ­\t„ 4 \n ­  \t†\nŠ
\b\tƒ­† ‚\t‚ .
„\r 4
ƒ   ­
­ \n
\b€\t 
\t\t­ ­ \t
‚­ Š† ­ \n
1.  \n —­ 3.  \t\t
2. ‡\t 4. ­\n ƒ ­\nŠ €­
‡\t­ ƒ †
 
‰ Š‚\n ‰:
\b  \t\n, \t\b­, \t­\t\n Š\b\t­ ‚ 3 \b€\t ‰ ‡\n† ­† Š 3-„
­ \n† (‚­ , ‡\t­ ƒ,   ).
 \n ­ \b€\t ‰  ­† ­\n€Ž ­\t€\n ŽŠ.
„\t\t­ \b\t­ Š€\tŠ ‡\n ‚ \n ’” ‡ ‚ ­\t‡:  \n —­, ‡\t,  \t\t,
­\n ƒ ­\nŠ €­ \b\t‚ \t­  ­­ † ­\n€Ž ­\t€\n ŽŠ.
† ƒ \f 
‡Š† Š ­† Š „\t\t­ \b ­‰ ‚\n\b\t ‡ \t‡Š„ \t\b€\t\b
Š„ ­\t† ‚ ­\t  ‡\n ’.
­ ’   •’­ \b \t­ \t\nŠ„ ­\t† (\n’, ‡\t„\t, \n\t­  .), \b  ­
Š„. \t €„ ‡  ƒ ­Š\t­ \n Š \b\t­ €\t. Š† \n† Š \n
€Š­ ­\n \b \t­ \t\nŠ„ ­\t†.  ­‡ ­­‡ \n‰„ \b‡ ‚\n\b\t­ ‡•\t
Š  ­Š ­\t .  \t­‰” ‡‰  ”­ ­ €\n• \n ƒ­ ‡Š„ 
 ­Š„ ­\t†, „\t\t­ \b ’” „‰ „• ‡ \b „‚ Ž\t‡Š‡ , ­\b\t” ­Š‡ ,
 ‚Š‡ , ­‚\n\b\t” ­Š‡ . †­\t‡ (’‚,  Ž, \t†\n,  \n€\t\n .)
‡\n  ­\t† \n‰ ­† Š ƒ \t\b€\t\b ‚ Ž­ ,    .  \t\n
Š‡  \b­\n Š \n‰ ­† ‰\n‰’­‰ ­\t  ‡\n† † \n ƒ † \t‡
­\t\n ‡­ \t. ™­ ­\t  \n\t ƒ ‡   ‡ „\t, ‚\nŠ, \n­ . \t •  
‚\n\b ­‰ \t­ ­\nŠ† \t‡­.
­‰‡ \t‰­‰ ­\t  ­‡\t­ ƒ ‡   ‡. ™­ ­\t  ‡­ Š, ­Š „• \b\t‡Š
€ , ‚‰­Š, \b‰­Š \b ‡ \n­ , ‚, \t\b.  ­ ‡ \n  ’­ \t­\t\b ’ €\t, € 
‰­ ­ ’ \n’€\b\t­\n­.
 \t‡­ \tŠ‡ ­\t‰‡ ‚“‰\n‰’­‰ \n ’”  ­€\t ‰:
‡‚\b Ž \t‰ „‡\t \n\t €Š­ ‚­† ‚‰­†;
   \n \n ‚ƒ ­Š\t­‰ \t €”‡ ;
\t‡­\t\nŠ ‡Š \nŠ ‡­ ‚\t€­\tŠ† ­  ­ ’  ­
’’ \t\b\t€­ .
 \b­\n „   ­† Š, €  ­, ‚\n\b ’­‰ \n\t\t•
Š ­\t , ­Š ‡ ­ ‚ ‡‰­‰ ­\t  \tƒ­ ­\nƒŠ„ ‡\t­ \t\n  ƒ­\t 
\t‡­ \tŠ‡ ­\t‰‡ .
‘­ ­\t† ­† Š \t \n\t­ ­ \t ‚‡ ‚ „\t \n\t 
†­\t ˆ  Ž \t\n­ , ­\t \t ­ \n’€‰­  \tƒ, ‰. —­‡ , ‚ ­\t‡ ‚ „
\n, \t \n‰ ­† \n\t €Š­ ‚ \b‡­ \t\bŽ­†. ™­ ‚€ \t­ ­ † ‡\b 
\t\b ­ ’. ‹ †­ \t \t\b€\t\bŠ  \bŠ ‚€ \t­ ­, \b\t­\t\n‰­ €\t \t­ 
‡Š\n ­ \n\t­  ‡\b\t\n’ƒ ‰.
…\tƒƒ 
1. \t  \t ‡ \t‡­‡ ‚\n\b ’­‰ \n‰ ‚• \t ­† Š? Š€ ­ ‚\t \n
Š† ­­:
) ‡­ ƒ    Š, \n­ , \b \b\t ;
‹) „, ‚\nŠ, \n­ ;
) \t­\t­ ƒ    Š, \n­ , „.
2. \t  ­€\t ‰ ‚“‰\n‰’­‰  \t‡­ \tŠ‡ ­\t‰‡? Š€ ­ ‚\t \nŠ†
­­:
) ‡‚\b Ž \t‰ „‡\t \n\t €Š­ ‚­† ‚‰­†;    \n €Š­ „•
\b\t‡ € ; Ž­\t‰ „‡\t \n\t €Š­ ­\t­†;
‹)    \n \n ‚ƒ ­Š\t­‰ \t €”‡ ; \t‡­\t\nŠ ‡Š \nŠ
‡­ ‚\t€­\tŠ† ­  ­ ’  ­’’ \t\b\t€­ ; Ž­\t‰ „‡\t \n\t €Š­
­\t­†;
) ‡‚\b Ž \t‰ „‡\t \n\t €Š­ ‚­† ‚‰­†;    \n \n ‚ƒ ­Š
\t­‰ \t €”‡ ; \t‡­\t\nŠ ‡Š \nŠ ‡­ ‚\t€­\tŠ† ­  ­
 ’  ­’’ \t\b\t€­ .
\t\t : \b\t‚\n ­ ­\t€\n Ž  «\t \n‰ ­† Š»
„\r 5
€ ƒ   ­
‡\n  ­\t
\b€\t 
€\t\bŽ ­\t
Œ„
\nŠ
\n­\t
\t­ ­\nŠ† \t‡­
‡\t­ ƒ †   
Œ\n\t\t•\t‰ ­\t
‰ Š‚\n ‰:
\b  \t\n, \t\b­, \t­\t\n ‚€\t­ \b€\t ‰ ‡\n† ­† Š \b ­\t†
 \t\b\n ƒŠ‡ \t‡­\t\nŠ‡ ‡­ ‡ („, ‚\nŠ, \n­\t, \t­ ­\nŠ† \t‡­, ­‡\t­
ƒ †   ) \b \n\t\t•† ­\t . Š\b\t­ ‚ \n ­  ­† ­\n€Ž \t‚­ 
­­­ ’” ‚ ­\t \b ‚ ­\n€Ž\t.
€\t­ ‚„  €\t\bŽŠ ­\t†  ­‡  ‡­ \t‡ \n\t\t• ’ ­\t, ‚ \n
­  ­­ † ­\n€Ž.
1.4. † ƒ  \f 
 ­†  ‚“‰\n‰­‰ ‡‚\n ­€\t †, ­Š† \n’ƒ\t­  ‚‚Š ‚­€
­\n „ ‚ \b­Š„ ­€\t † ( .3.).
\r\f \n
…  ƒ
­\t\t’­ ‚ ‚ ‚\t­\n† \t ­ ’   Ž\n€\t\b
\t­ ‡­\t, ­ƒ\t’” ’ \t‡ €”­ ‚ ­\t ‰ ­† Š \t’” ’  
­‚€­ \t  ­‡ •‡ Š\t„.
\r  ƒ
Š\t\t’­ ­€\t ‰ ­­
­ ‰ Š ­‡  \t
\b\tƒ ’ (‚ ‡‚\b Ž ‡  ­’ ‡\n , ­ Ž ‡\t­ \t\n\t‡, \b\t\t
‡ ˆ\t
 ƒ
\n’ƒ\t’­ ‡‚\n \t­‚‡
­ ƒ „,    ƒ „ ‚ „ \b \n ƒ „
­€\t †.
 \t   ƒ
\t\t’­‰ ­­­ ‰ 
Š \t\b‡ , ‡ ­\n\t, ‚
‚Ž ‰‡, €­‰‡ ­ ‰ ­†   Š \t\bŠ„ \b\t­Š„  ‚‚, „\t\t­  Š‚\n‰
‡Š„   †. ‹\n•  ‡\t  \n ­  \n ­ ‚’  \t
 \t \t €\n ‚ Š„ ƒ\t
­† ­’‡\t.  €\t‰ \t \n •\t­ ­† \t­ ­ , ‡•\t­  \t­‰, Š\t­  
 ‰. Š† ­’‡ ­ Ž\t­\n †­ ­ \t ­ \t\b ­  \t \b‡\t ˆ \t •\t­‰ 
€\t” , ­\t‡  ­‰ Š† ‚.
 Ž \tƒ­\t ­ Ž •†Š„ \b\n † \t €\n  ‚­€ ­\nŠ‡ ‰\n‰’­‰
‚‰­ ‰ « €­» «‡­». \t  €“­ \t‰ Ž\t  €­\t \n ‡­\t ƒ\t­ \t
„ ­‰  €“­ †, ­\t \t ƒ\n ‡­ ‚ ‚€ ­‰  \tŽ \t\n†,  ­ƒ \b ‰
—‡  , ­ Ž . 
€ ­  ‚\n ƒ ­ —‡ ƒ ’ Ž  \tƒ­\t Š 
\n €\t. \n­  ƒ \t\b\t€­\t\n ‡\t­‡\t­ ƒ ’ ‡\n —‡ ƒ ­­­ ‰
­ 
Ž Š.
 \n‰ˆ  ƒ
\t\n \b ’­‰  †­\t„ Š, ‚  ‡\t‡Š„ ƒ
\n‡  ” ” ‰„. \t  \n\t Š\bŠ\t­   ­† ­ Ž\t­\n ’ \tŽ ’ ‚ ‰­
Š  ‡‚­‡Š. ­ Ž\t­\n \b†­  \t \t \b‡ ­\n €
\t ‡ ­ \t\bŠ\t­ \b\n •‰‰
‡\t\t \b\n ‰,  ­\n” \t, \n’
ƒ­ ­\t ,  €\t‰ €\t€­\t •, \b  , ­  ­‰ \t’” 
­\t\n ’, \b\t‚‰­‰ \n ” 
\n­ . ‡ ­, ­\t‰
\t \n\t ­\n ƒ\t­‰
‡­­’ \t\t ‰
‰­ ‰, \t ­\t  €­‡
‚\n\b\t ‰  ­\nŠ‡
—\n‡­\t‡ .
‡  
‚“‰\n‰‡Š  ­
† , ‚
\n‰’­‰
•­‡ ‡‚\b Ž
 Ž­ • ‰
‡\n , \t‡ †, \t\b
‡­’ ƒ\t­† Ž\n,
‚\n\t­ ƒ† Š\t\b ­\n
­’ ‡Š, ­ \n ­ ƒ
† ‰\b’  ‚‡­Š‡
‡ ‡,  \b† ‡\n
­ Ž , ­\tŠ‡ 
‡.
†. 3. \b\r\t \n   

‡  ƒ
 ­†  ­\t­ƒ \t
Š \t\t’­‰  ­†ƒ 
­ Š ( ‡Š, ‡\t­ \t\n\t, 
­ Ž , ­\t\n†, \t •)  ­ ’, ‡ \t ’, \t\b
Š , \b € , †­ ’ ­‚Š, „ ‡ƒ ­ , ­  .
\n\n \n
 \b­Š ­€\t ‰, ‚“‰\n‰‡Š  ­† 
, ‡ \t\b\n ­ \t 
­ ­-­„\n ƒ  —
‡ ƒ .
  -\nˆ
­€\t ‰ ‚
\n‰’­ ­„\n ƒ­ ­ Ž
•† \b\n ‰, \b\t­\t­Š ­ \t  \b­\n ‰ ‡\n .
‡\t  ƒ
 ƒ ­Š\t’­ ‚\t\b\t­\n ‚ \b
­† —‡ ƒ­ (\b\t
­\t­Š \t \b­\n  ‡\n 
Š) ‚­€ ­\n  \t„Š \t —‚\n \t­\tŽ ’ \b\n ‰ (\t
„Š \t „ ‡ƒ ­ , ­   ­\t\n ).
­  \n   
  †† \tŽ ­\t‰ \t ‚\n ­ €‰\b\t­\n† ­  \tŽ , ­\t‰ 
 ­  ­‡, \t\n —­ \b\n  €\b‚\t. ‹\b \t ­\t-—‚ ‡ \n ƒ \b\t\n’ƒ ‰, \t
\t ­ Š\t­‰ ­  \t­ \tƒ­\t, \t ­ ­  ‚\t\t ­† 
Š \b\t‚”\t.
 ­† Š ‚“‰\n‰’­‰ \n ’”     ƒ  ­€\t ‰.  , ­
\t‰ \t \n\t €Š­ \n†,  € ‚‰, ­­­\t­ \b\t­  \t\b‡ , €‚
ƒ \t­ €    ‰.  ­­ \t \t \n‰ \t \b‡\t, ‚ \t ­\tŠ‡ ‡\t‡ ‚\n\b\t
  „ ‡ ƒ „ ”­ ‚ \b­\n ­† Š \n €Š­ ­ \t ƒ.
\n‰ Š„ ­† \t \b\t­\t €\n \n €Š­ ­\n \b \t­ \t\nŠ„ ­\t
†.  ‡  „ ‡ ƒ „  ­† ‚\n\b ­‰ ­\n \n‰ • \b\n †,  ‚ \t\t’” „‰
 † €\t.    ­\nŠ •\t \nŠ €Š­ Š‚\nŠ \t \n Ž ’ ­ . ‚\n
\b\t  ­\n \b  ­­ ƒ „ ‡\t­ \t\n ( , \t‚‚\n \tŽ †) ‚ \t­‰ \t , ‚
\t\b\tƒ† \n‰ \t­‡†  ( €\n 2 ƒ\t). ­ €\n ‡ ­‰ \b­
\n‰­ \b ­\nŠ„, \n ƒ•  €\nŠ„ ­\t†.
­\t‰ \t  \n\t ‡­ ­\n­Š„,  €Š„ •, ­  „ \b , ‡†, ­‰’” „
­  „ ‚‰, \n , \t\n \t’” „   ’ \n­ , Š „ ­Š„ ­ .
ƒ \t, \b \t ‡\t­ \t\n\t \b­\nŠ ­  \n­ . € \n‰ ‡\t\nŠ•† 
­„ \n­.  ‚\t \n\t‡ ƒ \nƒ-ƒŠ \b\n ‰  16- \t\b‡\t \nŠ €Š­ \b \t­ \t\nŠ„
\n. \t \t „ ‰­ ­ , ­ ­ ‚\t­ ƒ ‚­‰  ‡‰ €­\t ‰ 
‚ \t\t’­‰  † €\t.  €\t ­\t• ­„ \n­  ‡ ­ €Š­  €\t\n ‡  ­­  ,
 ‡ ƒ \nƒ-ƒŠ \b\n ‰, \tƒ \t‰  18- \t\b‡\t, ‡ ­ \t­ \n\t\t \n  
\b ,   €\n 30%.  \b\t­‡ \t   ­­  ‡­ €Š­ €\n•.
…\tƒƒ 
1. Š€ ­ ‚\t \n ­­­ :
1. Ž \t\nŠ ­€\t ‰
2. ­ ­-­„\n
ƒ  ­€\t ‰
3. ™‡ ƒ  ­€\t ‰
 ˆ  ƒ ­Š\t’­ ‚\t\b\t­\n ‚ \b­† —‡ ƒ­ ‚­€
­\n  \t„Š \t —‚\n \t­\tŽ ’ \b\n ‰;
‹ ˆ ‚
\n‰’­‰ •­‡ Ž­ ‡‚\b Ž  •
 ‰ ‡\n , \t‡ †;
 ˆ ­\t\t’­ ‚ ‚ ‚\t­\n† \t ­ ’   Ž\n€\t\b
\t­ ‡­\t,
­ƒ\t’” ’ \t‡ €”­ ‚ ­\t ‰ ­† Š \t
’” ’  ­‚€­ \t  ­‡ •‡ Š\t„; Œ ˆ
‚
\n‰’­ ­„\n ƒ­ ­ Ž •† \b\n ‰, \b\t­\t­Š
­ \t  \b­\n ‰ ‡\n .
2. \t  ­€\t ‰ ­\t\t’­ ‚ ‚ ‚\t­\n† \t ­ ’   Ž\n€\t\b \t
­ ‡­\t, ­ƒ\t’” ’ \t‡ €”­ ‚ ­\t ‰ ­† Š \t’” ’  ­
‚€­ \t  ­‡ •‡ Š\t„?
) Ž \t\nŠ;
‹)    ƒ ;
) \t­‚‡­ ƒ .
1.5. Š    ƒ \f   \t ˆ \t
ƒ \r  \r  
\t\t­ ­ \t ­\n\n ‰ €\t: Š­\t \nŠ ­ ­‰  \n   ­\n\t \t 1:4,
•‰ ­\t‰,  ƒ ­   ­Š  €\t\b ­ ‚‰‡  ­,   ­ ­\n
\n Š.  ‚ ‰\n‰­‰ Ž­‡   Š. €„\t­ \nŠ ‡\n\tŽ\t ‚ €\n \b ­\n \t €„\t
­   † \n­ , •  \t ‚\nƒ \t\t ‚\n €„\t­  €.
Œ\t€ ‡\n\tŽ\t ­\t\n‰’­ \t‚\t• ,  €\t•ƒ , ƒ‚ƒ  , ‚\n\b  , € , ­Š ­
\n ƒ\t’­‰ ‚­Š‡ ‡, €† ‡†, ‡  ‡\t\n
Š‡ \n ƒ­‡ •, \n† ­\n
† \n† \t\b“‡­’. ‡€ \bŠ ‚\n\b  ‡ ­ \t­ \t­‰ ‡  \t‡ \n‰
 €† ‡Š ‚ \b \t.
 \tƒ­ „† Š ‡\n\tŽ ƒ\t” ‚\n\b ’­ ‡€ \bŠ-­\t‡Š, ­
Š„ \tƒ\t\n\t ‚­ \t’­  ­, \t \t ‡\t\nŠ• ‚\t­­, ‚\t”\t’­  ‚\nŽŠ† ‡
€ \b. \t ‡ €\t\b‡,   ‡€ \b ‡­ ‚\n  ­   ‰  ‚\n ­\t \n­.
€† \n  † ‰\n‰­‰ \t \n‰ Š„ \t Š‚  . ™­  Š ­Š
\n ‡‰  \n’Š ‡€ \bƒ  .  ­\t\t­Š† \t€ \n‰ Š‚  „‰­: ­ \t
‡\n ˆ 1 •­., ­‚\n\t‰ ‚\n\t ˆ 2 •­., \n\t‰ ‚\n\t ˆ 2 •­., \t‚\t•\t ˆ 2 •­., ƒ‚ƒ  ˆ 2 •­.,
\t­ Š†  \n ˆ 1 •­., ‰\n – 1 •­.
ƒ \r  \r\f   (1-3 \r)
 —­‡ \b\t­ ­ \t­  \t­ ­. ‚Ž ­\n\n ‰ ‡‰’­‰: Š­\t \nŠ ­
 ­‰  \n   ­\n\t \t 1 : 4 \n 4,5,  \n ‰­‰ •‰, ­ƒ ‚\nƒ ­\t
‰­‰   • ;
­ ” €\n•†, \n
‚\t­ Š‚ \nŠ. \b
ƒ  ‚ €­\t­ \b €, \t \t\t ˆ 
­
­\n  \t\b\t. ­ \tƒ \t’­ „ ­.   ‰ „ ” 
­\t­ƒ   
\tŠ,  
2ˆ3 \t    ‡  \t
’­‰.
­   
­ ­ \b ‚\n\t­‰, \t\t\t\t,  ­€\n , ‡\t† , ­  , \n­, ’€,
•­, €’,  ­‡ ƒ \n  Š„, ‡€ \b\t \n ‚\n € \b\t,  ­ , ‚\t\n­, ­Š,
\n\t\b .
† ‡† Š \n‰ ƒ ‰\n‰­‰ ­\t
‚Ž  \t‰, \t• \t‰ ­ ‚\nƒ
‚‰\t,  ­
† \n €\b , ­\t‰ \tŠ\t­ Š‚ \n­  ­\t. ‚\n\b\t  ­
‚€­ ­ ‚ ‰
­ ’   Š, \t €\n ‚‚Ž \t\n†.
\t•  ’  \b  ‡  ‡  ”­ ­ \t\b\n ƒŠ‡ ‚‡:
ˆ Ž\nŠ ‚\nƒ\t ‚ \t  •Š‡ €Š‡ •\t‡ ;
ˆ ‚\nƒ\t ‚ \t, ­‰”  \b \n „ \nŠ„ ƒ\t­†, \t• Š„  \b ;
ˆ ‡ \t  ­\t ­ \n  ­ €\t‡ , \n\t\t‡ \b\t” ‚\t‡ .
ˆ   \t
„‰­ €’ ,  €\t•ƒ , ‡\t† , •­Š, ­ Š, \n­ , ‚\n 
‡€ \b \n ‡€ \b,  ­\t, ‚\t\n­. \t \n‰ ‡\t\nƒ  „\t\t­ \b ­‰ ‚‰‡†
‡†.
 ‚­ ‡Š Š \n‰ ­† ‰\n \b\t­\t €„ ‡ ­‡ ­‰  ‚
­­ \n\t ƒ­ . \t ‚ ­ ‡ ­ \t\b€\t\b   • ­\nŠ„ ƒ\t
­† ‡Š. \t‚ ‡,  \t\t \n­ „ ‚\n\t­ ‡ ­ •\t­‰    «\t \t», «Š\nŠ
•», \t Š\b \n Š ‡ ‡ ­ ­\nŠ‡ ­ \t‡  \t\b€\t\b •\t‡†
\n  † ­\n­\t.  ‡\n \t „† Š \n ­ •  ‚\n\b\t­ •   
\t‚’•\t‡ .
 \t ‚ ‡\t­ \t­‰ \b \t\b\n ƒ   „\t\t
­ Š ƒ ‡\t\nƒ  ‰\n
 \b\t­\t, ­\t \t „   Š „\t\t­ ‰­\n­ ‚ƒ­  \t
Š†: ­    ‰­
€’ ,  ­€\n , ‡€ \bŠ ‚\n ‡€ \bŠ.
ƒ \r  \r\f  \n (3-6 \r)
­ Š†  \b \n
 ƒ † ­ €\t ‚\n\t­‰.  ƒ­Š„\n­‡  \b\t­   ­\t
 ­‰ ­†:   \n ‰’­‰,  
\t‰ \n­\t ­\t ­‰ €\n ‚\n† • 
†, Š‚ 
\n­  
­\t  ‡•\t­‰. 
‚Ž ­‚ Š: ­•  Š­Š \nŠ  ­  ­\t
\n‰­ 1:5 \n 1:5,5.
­ ‡­ Š ‡ ­\t­‰ ‚ ‡,  „\t\t­ ƒ\n ‰ \b\n † ‡
‡‰­‰.  ‚\n\t­‰„  €\n• ‡ ­\t‡ ‚  \b  ‡ \t\t­ ‚
\n  € , ‚\n  \n
\n\t .
Š ‡Š ( \n —­Š) Š ˆ ­\t‚Ž  \t‰ ‚‰
‡\t‰. \t‚Ž  \t‰ ‡\t ‚
€­\t­ ­  \n —­ Š\t  ˆ -€\t\b -€\t\b. 
­ ­  —­ •\t
­‰ \b\tŠ• ‡ \n  ­\t\n  ‚† ‡ \b\t  ‡  ­†.
 Ž\n‰„ ‚” ‰ \t‡­‰­\n­ ­†  ‚\n
\b\t † † \n ­ ‚ ‡
­­  € •  \b\t­ . \t \n\t \t‚\n\t\t­‰ ‚ ,  Š ­  ‚\t\n
ƒ  \nŠ \n \t„ ­ ‚  ŽŠ  €† \n ƒ Š. „ \n €Š­  \b\n ‡.
\n \b\n   ‡­ \b\t­ , \n ­ €\b\tƒ\t­ ‚ \tƒŠ‡   ‡, \t‚‚\n \tŽ †, Š
• † ‚.
­  €”   ­ \t‡ \t † ‚\n
”\t \n  ­‡ \t , Š Š, \t
­\t  \t \nŠ
\t„, \t‰„, \t„ ­€ ’­ ‚‚\n ‰ \t€\t •\n \t ‚­ Š‡  ­
\t‡ , €’\t‡ .
\t  —­­ ‚  ‚  ƒ\t­ €\t  ƒ ­­ ‚‰­­ . ™­‡  \n \t­ €\nŠ ­
 , \t‰Š €\nŠ ­\nŠ \t­  .   ­\t\n
‡ \t ­† •\n \b\t­\t ‰\t‰,
\t
­ \t‰, ‡‰ „ €Š„ ‡.
ƒ \r  \r  \r\f  \n (7-11 \r)
 \b\t­ 8ˆ10 \n­ ‚ „ ­ ­\t‰ ­\t€ \n
\b\tŽ ‰   Š \n­   ‡• ‰
­ ­ ­\t, € «‡ \t­»; \t\b \t­‰ ­\t‰ \t,  ‚\n‰­‰ ‡  \n\t­ 
\t,   \t ­\t ­‰ ­† \b\t ƒ­  \n  ‰ , Š‚ \n­  ­\t ƒ\b\t­, \t‡ƒ\t
­‰ ­\t\n ‰. ‚Ž   Š  10 \t‡  \b ‡‰’­‰: Š­\t \nŠ ­ ­‰  \n 
 ­\n\t \t 1 : 6 \n 1 : 6,5.
Œ\t€ •\n \t  ”­ ‡‰­‰, ‚ 
„ ­ ƒ­ ‚\n  \b\n † ‚ \t
\b\tƒ ’: ‡ •\n† ‡Š ‚‰\n‰’­‰ ‚­ Š ­’
‡Š \n‰ \b\t‰­ † \t ­\t 
 ‚­\b\t\n, \t€ƒ  \t­  \n „\t\n\t­Š \n‰ ­ Š„ \b\t‰­ †, \t \n‰ \b\t‰­ †  ‡\t,
\t‰\t‰ \t.
Š  \n —­Š
 ƒ 
7‹8 
ˆ ‚‰‡† \t• Š† ­ \n  ­\t\n .
\n\t­‰ (‡\t• , ‚Š, ‚\t\b ƒŠ) \t\t\tŠ \n‰ ƒ 7ˆ8 \n­ \n ƒ• •\t­ 
\b\tŠ•† \n  † ­\t\n ,  €\n \b   ­­‡  ‚\n ’, ­..    „ ”  ­\t­ƒ
‚\nŠ ­ Š ­\t\n . \t ­‚ \b\tŠ• ‰ \n ‡•, ƒ‡   ­† 
•\n†  ‚‚Š.
†  \n —­
 ƒ  9‹10 
ˆ ‚\n ‚ \n\t’” †. \n\t­‰ ‚\n ‚ \n\t
’”  \n —­\t \t• ‰’­‰  \b  \t\b\n ƒŠ‡ 
­\t‡ . \n\t­ ‡­ €Š­ ­\bŠ‡ ‚
\n  ­\t\n ,  \t \t­‡ ‡­ €Š­ •  ‚\n\t­‰ Ž\n ‚ ­\b ‚
\n  ­\t\n \b\t € .  ‚‰‡‡  \n —­  \b ‡‚\t \n €\n \b ‚ \t­‰ \n
  
\n  ­\t\n .  ‚\n\t­‰„ \t —­† \n  \t‚\n\t
\t’­ \n\t‚\tŠ, \t‡\tŠ, ‚\n\t , „\n‰­  .
Š  \n —­Š
 ƒ \t 7‹8 
ˆ €Š† ‚\n ‚ \n\t’” †;
\t
 9‹11 
„\t\t­ ­\t ‚‰‡†  \n —­ Š,   ” ‡ ­\t ­‰ ‚\n ‚
\n\t’” †.  —­‡  \n —­ •\t’­  ­ , ‚\t\n­, \t ‚‰‡†  \n —­ ‚
€\n \t’­  ‚\n ‚ \n\t’
”‡ , \t‚\n\t\t‰ ‚  \b   ­  €\t•ƒ ‚ ­\tƒŠ ‚‰\t, \b\t” ‚Š, Š­\tƒ ‚.
­  —­‡ \b\t­   \n­ ‡ ‚‰­ 
€ ‡‰  ‚­ Š„ \t„  
, \t­\t’­‰ \t \t„, \t\t„, \nŠ\t„ ­. ‚., ‚—­‡  €” † ­ \n Š ˆ ‚­ Š† ( 
\n’ƒ  ‡ ­ ­\t
\n‰­ \t‰Š ­’‡Š, ‡\t•‰‰ \t). ™­ ‚
\n‰­ \b‡­
•  ‚\n\b\t ‰ ­, ‚ƒ , \t\n\tŠ„ \t‡\t, \n\t‚\t, „\n‰­ , Š\t
\b ­\n†   ­ Š.
ƒ \r    \r\f  \n (\n) (12-15 \r)
  \t €\t ‚\n\t­ \b‡‰­‰. \t­ ‚\t­ Š† —­\t‚ €Š­ ­\t:   ƒ 
12ˆ13 \n­,   ‡\t\nƒ   13ˆ14 \n­. Š­\t \nŠ ­ ­‰  \n  ­\n\t \t 1:7 \n 1:7,5.  
ƒ ‚‰\n‰­‰  \n­   , ­\t‰­‰ •  €\t Š, Š‰\n‰­‰ ­\t\n ‰.  ‡\t\nƒ 
\t• ‰’­‰ ‚\nƒ , ­ƒ ­\t\b \b ­\n ­\t ­‰  , ­\t\n ‰ Š‰\n‰­‰ €\n ƒ­.  
€   \n ‰’­‰, ‚‚
Ž †   Š ‚ €\n \t’­‰  ‚‚Ž ‰‡    \b
€ ƒ 
‡­ €Š­ Š‚\n\t  ƒ­Š„  \n —­\t„.  ” ‡ ‰\n‰­‰ ‚\n ‚
\n\t’” † (\n \t \n \n†), \b\t­‡ ‚‰‡†  \n —­ ( \b\n ‰„ ‚
­  „\t\t­\t); ‚ ­\t
\nŠ† ­\t‚Ž  Š†  \n —­Š   ‡Š‡ \t•  ‡  \b   ‡ „\t\t­Š \n‰
\b\n † „† ‡ \b† Š.
€­ ‡  ’”†‰   Š ƒ ‚\b
\n‰’­ ‡‚\b Ž Š† Ž­ \b\n ‰
\t‚\n\t\t­  „† ƒ\t­ ,  ­ \t\b€\t\b† ‡Š ­  ‚‡”’ € \n \n
 ‡ €\t\b\t­ 
€„ ‡Š† €“‡. Š\b \n Š ‡\t ­  \t\b€\t\bŠ.
‚• ‚\n\b ’­‰ ­   ­†\t‡ ‚­ ­† . ‡\t \t­  \t  \b\t 
‡­ ­ \t\b\tƒ ‰ \b\n ‰ ­\t \t\b€
\t\b\t.
‡‚\b Ž Š† Ž­ ‡­ \t‚\n\t\t­‰  €\n\t­ ‡\n‰’”†‰ ­\t\n , ­\t‰ ‡
­ ‚ƒ
 \t­‰ ‚‰‡, €\n• ‡ \t‚ ‡ € \n \t ( \b\n ‰„ ‚‰‡  \n —­\t),
\t•  ‡ ’€ ­ \n  ­\t\n , ­\t‰  —­‡ \n ƒ\t ‡­ €Š­ ƒ ­ \b\t \t.
 \t€ ƒ „‰­ ‚\n\t­, •\n\t‰ ‡\t, €’ , ’€\t, €\n \b\t, \t\t\t, ‚­ \t‰
 ­\t, ‚\n\t”, ‚\t\n­, ‚\n\t­, ­   , €  , \n Š ..
€ ƒ \t
‡­ €Š­ Š‚\n\t  ‚‰
‡‡  \n —­ €Š„ ‡‰ „ \n  †
‚\n ‚ \n\t’
”‡ ˆ ­†‡, €\n• „ €“‡. \t €\t\b ‚ \b‡Š ‚­ Š •
 ‰  ‚\n\b\t ‡ \t
\n\tŠ„ \t‡\t ­\t\n†.
\t ‡\t\nƒ  † ‰† ‚­ ­’ ‚‚Ž ‰‡ ‚ €\n \t­‰  ‡\n†
 \b\nŠ„. † ­ ‚ ‚‰ š   \t\t‡ \n\t ­\tƒŠ‡  \t\t‡ . ž  
‚\n\b ­‰ \t
­ -­ ­ \t‰ ­ƒ\t ­\t\n†.
Œ\t€ ‡\t\nƒ \t ­ ­ \b •\n† ‡Š, €’, ‚\n ‡€ \b\t, •­, ‡‚\t,
„† ƒ , ‚­ †  ­ , ‚\t\n­ \n ‚\n ‚\t\n­.
ƒ \r    (16-17 \r)
 —­­ ‚  ‚„ ­ ­  ‡ \t    Š.  ƒ ( 14 \n­) \t\b \t­
‰  , Š‰
\n‰’­‰ €\t.  ‡\t\nƒ  ( 15 \n­) \t\b \t­‰ ‡  \n\t­ \t, ƒ­ €\b\tƒ\t­‰
­\t\n ‰. ‚Ž ‚­
 ‚€Š \b\nŠ‡, Š­\t \nŠ ­ ­‰  \n  ­\n\t \t 1:7,5
\n 1:8.     ” ­ , \t ­ \n ” ‚ \t ’  \b\n†   † ­. ™­
\n\t­     ­†† \n†.
Š  \n —­Š • ‰ Š \n‰  • ‚\n ‚ \n\t’” †, ‚ ­\t\nŠ† ‚‰‡†
( \b\n ‰„ ‚­  „\t\t
­\t). \t‚Ž  Š†  \n —­  \t ‚\n\b ­‰,   ƒ
Š ‚ƒ \t­  \t‡ \b‡   ‰  • .
‡ •\t‰‰   \t ‚\b\n‰­ ‚\n\b\t­ \t‡Š \t\b€\t\bŠ (  ‚­ ƒ\t” 
\b\t­ ) 
­ ­ Š \n  \nŠ† †.
 ­\t\nŠ†  \n —­ ‡­ ƒ ƒ­  ­\t­Š ƒ­\t ‰ ‚\n­‚ \n\t’” \n \t
\t• † ’€ . ‡  ‚\n\t­‰ —­  \n —­\t ‡  ”­ ­ \n ’” ‡ ‚€\t‡ :
1) ­\b† ‚ ­­† \n  ­\t\n \n  ‡  ’­ Š­\tƒ\t‡ ;
2) \n  ’ ­\b\t ‚ ‡\t’­ ‚  ,  ƒŠ† \n  ‡\n‰’­ Š­\tƒ\t‡ , \b\t” ‚\t‡
\n €\t‡ , \t ’€  ˆ \n\t\t‡ , Š­\tƒ\t‡ , ‡\n ‡ \b\t” ‚\t‡ , \t„‰” ‡ ‰ ­ ­­
† \n  ­\t\n ;
3)  ƒŠ† \n  ’€   ‰’­ •  ‡ ­\tƒŠ‡ ‚‰‡;
4) ‚ ‚‡” ‚\nŠ„ \n  †, ‡ ‡\n‰’” „ ‚ \n\t  \n \t ‚   
\t•   ’€ .
Œ\t€  •  Ž\n‡ ‚\n‰­‰  \t­ †  \b‰­\n­’, \t ‚—­‡  €” †
­ \n ,  ‡, ‚­ Š†.  ‡ ‡    Ž \tŠ„ \b\n †.  ‚‰\n‰’­‰ 
Š ­ ‚Š \t‰Š„ ‚\n\t­, €\n \b, ’€,  \n­, \t\b\n ƒŠ„ ‚\n †    •\t, Š
, \b­  ‚. ­\t€ \n\t‰ ƒ\t­ \t€\t: ‚\t\n­, ‚\n\t” ,  ­ , ‡‚\n­Š ‚†,
‚
­ †, ‡\t•† Š, \t \n‰ \n­ ­Š„\t, ‚\n‰Š ‡‚\n­Š.
Š  \n —­Š Š \n‰ ’•† ˆ ‚‰‡†, €† ‡Š ‚\n ‚ \n\t’” †. 
­\t  \n —­, \t• Š†  €\n\t­ ‚\nƒ  Š†  \b , ‚ \t\t• †    ‡ ­
­.
€” † ­ \n \t€\t ’•† ‚­ Š†,   „‰­ ‚\n\t” ,  ­ , ‚\n ‚\t\n­, ‡
‚\n­Š ‚†, \t‰†, ‡\t•† ‚­ † 
Š, ‡‚\n­Š \n‰ \n­ „  
‚­\t ­Š„\t.
 \t­ ‡­ Š ’•† •  \t‚­\t ­’‡ ‚ \tƒ† ‡Š ‚\n 
‚\t\n­. ‡‚\b Ž  •  ‚€Š„ ­’‡ ( \n —­, ‚‚Ž , ‡\t ­ \t,
\n\tŽ\t, \t‡\t, \b\t­, ­\n\t) ‡­ ­\n ƒ  ­ ‡‚\b Ž ‡  ­’‡\t:  \n —­
ƒ ƒ­ †  ­­† \n  † ‚\nƒ\t, \b\t­\t \tƒ \t­‰ Š, ­  \n\tŽ\tŠ 
€\n• , \t‚\n  ‡\n  \t‡\t \t‡ \t\b€\t\b.
 —­‡ \b\t­  ‡­ ‚\n\b\t   ­’‡ ‰ „ \n ‚­Š„ „ „ ƒ, ­\t
†  \n­ , ‚\n , ­\nŠ ­\t.
…\tƒƒ :
1. \t\t‰ ‡\t Š ‰\n‰­‰ † \n‰ ƒ ‰\n \b\t­\t?
) ­\t‚Ž  \t‰, \t\n•\t‰ ­ ‚\nƒ ‚‰\t;
‹) ‚‰‡\t‰  ­†;
) ‚\n ‚ \n\t’”\t‰, \t\n•\t‰ ­ \n  ­\t\n .
2. \t  ‡Š  \n —­Š ‚€\n\t\t’­   \n‰ ­† •\n \b\t­\t?
) ‚‰‡\t‰ ‡\t  -€\t\bŠ‡  \n —­‡;
‹) ­\t‚Ž  \t‰ ‡\t  -€\t\bŠ‡ -€\t\bŠ‡  \n —­\t‡ ;
) ‚ \n\t’”\t‰  -€\t\bŠ‡ -€\t\bŠ‡  \n —­\t‡ .
3. \t\t : ‚\t\t\n \b \t­ ­ ’   \t\b\n ƒŠ„ \b\t­Š„  ‚‚ (\n\t€\t­\t‰
\t€­\t Ÿ1)
\r 2.  \b\n\b\r \n\f \f \f‡
2.1.    ƒ \f 
† \b\t\tƒ† ­  \t ‰ Š ‰\n‰­‰ ‚\n ƒ  \b ‚\n† ‚„­
‚­\t­ ’ ‡  , \t€­, ‚\n ƒ  \b €“‡Š„ ‡ \t\b­ \t ‚\n­ .
\n‰ ­ ƒ­€Š \t\b ­ \n’€ ’ €“‡ ’ ‚„­ \t ‚\n­ , €„ ‡ \b\t­
‡  ‚„­ „Š  \n ‰ \t\b­Š\t ‰.   \n ‰‡ \t\b­Š\t ‰ ­‰­‰: \t)
‚\n  „Š„ \n  † \t\b­Š\t ‰ \t \t† ­\t\n ; €) ‚ Ž ‚ \t\n\t‰ „‡\t ƒ\n
 ‰; ) ­ ‚ ƒ\n ‰.
\n‰ ‚\n ƒ ‰ \t\b­ ­\t\n† Š  \t\b\t€­\tŠ, \b ƒŠ ‚ ‰­Š  ‚\t­ 
­  \t ‰ •†Š„ ­ ­\tŠ„ \b\n † \t\b\n ƒŠ ‡­Š ­  \t ‰ (\t€\n. 6).
 \b\t  ‡­ ­ „\t\t­\t „† ‡\tŽ  \b­Š ‡­Š ­  \t ‰ 
Š ‡ \t\b\n ­ \t \t \n\t\t (­\t€\n Ž\t):
ˆ ‚ €\n Š ‡­Š,
ˆ Š ‡­Š  €Š‡ \t\n ­‡‡, ‚ \t’” ‡ Š€ \b ‡­\t \t \t
­ • † ‚­ ‡\t\n.
„\r 6
ˆ­ ‰‚€ €†‚ €ƒ  ­ \b
 €\n Š ‡­Š
Š ‡­Š
 \n‰Š†
­ ‚ ‡
\tƒ­-\t\t\n ­ ƒ  ‡­Š
 ” „ ‚\n­†
\t\n ­ ƒ †
Œ\t ƒ †
\r­ „ €\nƒ
\t‡­ ‡ ­Š ‡­Š.
   \t
 \n‰Š† ‡­ ‰\n‰­‰  ‡ \b
‚Š„ ‡­ ­  \t ‰, ­
Š† ‚‰ \n‰ ‡  \t\b\t   „
‚   ­\t­ \n † \t­ \t\n­ .  ­
‡­\t \b\t\n’ƒ\t­‰  ­‡, ƒ­ ‡\n
Š \b\t’­‰ \t\b­  ­\t
\n† ‚\n ƒ\t’­‰ ‚ ­‡ ‡ \n‰ \t ‰
(‡\t­ \t ‰) \b\n ‰ \t    ƒ\n
\t \n \t ‡\t. ™­ \t­ \b‡
­ ‡\t ‡\t\n  ƒ ­Š\t­ \t­‚
‡Š €­   Š ƒ\n\t,
\t ­\t ­­ ’ ‚€­ ­\t
 ‡€\t\b\t ’.  ‡­‰ \t ‚
‡ ”­\t \t ‡­\t,  €\n\t\t­
€\n• ‡ ­\t­‡ ˆ \b\t­\t­­’.
-‚Š„, ‚ „ ­‰ \t€­\t­ €\n
• ‡  ‡ ­\t , ‚ „  \t€­Š ­
\b\t‰  \n •; -­Š„, ‚ „‰­
€\n•  \b\t­\t­Š ‡ .
- \t
  ƒ ,
‚­‚
‚­ •  ‡ \n‰Š† ‡­, \tƒ\t\n
†. 4. ‡\r 
‡ \t­‰  Ž XYIII
ˆ \tƒ\t\n XIX . „ \t­Š, Š\t\n  Ž \tŠ \b\t†”
 , €€”  † ‚Š­, Š‰ \n \t €\n ­ ‚ ƒŠ ­ Ž Š \t\b\t€­\t\n  ­‡ 
\tƒ­ \t ƒ „ ‚­ † \n‰ \t\b\t€­ ƒ­† Š.  \t­‰” ‡‰ \b­
\n ‰­ \t\b ­† \tƒ­-\t ƒ „ ‡­.
‡ ˆ\r\f  -\r\n\r\f 
 \n \r (ˆ‰ŠŠ‹)
 1959   ‘­\t\nŠ‡ \t ƒ- \n\t­\n ‡ ­ ­ ­‡ •†† ‚‡Š•\n
­ €Š\n\t‰ \t\b\t€­\t\t ‡­ \t ­  \t ‰ ‡ †, † ­† Š. ˜­
­ Ž † ‚ \t† ‡­  ­‰­‰ ‚ ­‡ ‡­ ƒ „ \t\b­ \n\t ­ \t
­ ‚†   Š ƒ\n\t  ‚ ‚ \t‡ \t € €\n\t  \t­  ‡\n . 
  \t\b‡Š„ „\t\t­ ­    Š ‚\nŠ ­\t€\n ŽŠ \b‡ †, ‚\n ƒŠ„ \t €\t\b \t
­‚\n ƒ „ \b‡ †  ­ † \t ­\n”   €\n‰.  ­  \t ‡ †,
† ­† Š ­ ­ \t Š„ \tƒ­Š„ ‡ \n ­\t­‰  \t†, ‚ —­‡
\b‡‰’­‰ \n • — Ž ­Š ‚ ‚‡Š„ \n ƒ \t„ \t€\n’­Š \n ƒ Š ‚ 
€Š„ ƒ\n\t„,  \b\t  ‡­ ­ ‚\n\b\t­Š„ €­†   Š  \t \b\n ‰.
­  \t  ‡ †, † ­† Š ‚ \t† ‡­  ‚ \b ­‰ ‚
 \tŠ‡ \tƒ­Š‡ ‡ \n\t‡, \b‡‰’­‰ \n • — Ž ­Š ‚ ‚‡Š„ \n ƒ \t„
\t€\n’­Š \n ƒ Š ‚ €Š„ ƒ\n\t„,  \b\t  ‡­ ­ ‚\n\b\t­Š„ €­†
  Š  \t \b\n ‰.
­\t­‡ ‡­  ‘ž ‰\n‰­‰ ­, ƒ­, ‡­‰ \t ‡\b­ \t ƒ „
‚­ † \tƒ­Š„ ‡ \n, \t ‚  \tƒ‡ \t ‚Š† \b\n‰ Š€ ‚ ‚  ( \b 325
\t ‡\t † ‚ ‚ ), ‡­,  ,  €‚ƒ \t­ €„ ‡† ­ƒ­ ‚­ ‰ 
Š ­ Ž Š ­€ ­   ­ƒ ‰  ‚Ž \b­\n ‰ ‚Š­Š„ €\t\bŽ.
  \n  -\r\n
…\n Œ ‚
(‡\bƒ …Œ)
\t\b\t€­\t  † ‡­  ­  \t ‰ Š ­\t-ƒ\n ™  ‚\tƒ\t\n‡
\t \t­ €Š\n\t  ”­\n\t  1962 .  1980 .  ™, ‚\b\n •\t‰ \t­‡\t­ \b \t­ \t\b\t
€­  ƒ­ ­ Ž ‚\n\t‰    ‡­\t ‡Š„ , \t\b\t€­\t\t 
ƒ\t­\n‡ \t \t­.
­ \t ‡­ ’  ­‡  €\b\tƒ ‰ \t\b‡Š„ ‚ \b\t, \n  † €\t\b † ­
­ ­ Š„ ­ƒ,   ’  ­‡   Š† ‚€ \tƒ­\t Š„ ­ ­ Š„ ­
\b \n‰ \t\b\n ƒŠ„ ‚\n\b\t­Š„  ‚‚ \t\n ‰. \t† \tƒ­† ‡ \n   ­‡ ­
\b ‚  † ‚‰Š† ‡ \t\b\t€­\t\t  \t‰ ‚\n\t­\n­ ­  
\t ‰ \n‰ „   Š.
  ˆ\r\f -
\n \r (ˆƒ„‹Ž)
 1966-67 . ‘­\t\n† ‚Š­-­„ ƒ† •†† \n\t€\t­ †  €Š­\t  €Š\n
\t\b\t€­\t  Š† ‡­ ­  \t ‰. ­ ‚\b\n‰­  ‚­ ­ ­Š ‚ ‡Š 
­  \t ‰ \b\t ƒ­ ‚\n\b\t ‰ ‚\n ­\nŠ„ ‡, ­Š   \t\b\tŠ  \t­‚‡
­ ƒ „ ­\t\t­\t„  ‡\t’­‰ \t    \b\t\t\bƒ \t. ™­ ­\t  ‡ , \t \n \t ­\t\n ‚\t
­\t‰ (­‚II=­‚I), \n \t ­\t\n ‚  ­\t‰ (­II=­cI), Š­\t   ­\t‰ .
‡ «‡\r\r  »
\n‰ ‡­  ’\n\n\t, \t\b\t€­\t†  Œ‡\t , „\t\t­ ‚\n\b\t  \b‡ †
  Š,  ‚ ‡‰’” „‰    „ ‡­\t„. \t\b‡Š† ‚ \b\t «€„\t­   » ‚ ‡­ 
’\n\n\t ­­­ ­ €„\t­    ­‡  \n\t ­\t\t­\t‡, ‚ ‰­Š‡   .  ‡­
  «’\n\n Š» ‚\n\b ’­‰ \n ’”  \t\b‡Š ‚ \b\t ,  ‚\n\b ‡Š    „
\tƒ­-\t\t\n ­ ƒ „ ‡­\t„: Š­\t € (€), \n \t \n Š ‚  ().
\b  \t
‡ ‚ \r
 1954 . .. \t\t ‚\n\t\t­ Š† ‡­ ­  \t ‰, \tŠ† \t ‚\n ƒ
\t\b­ ­\t\n† Š ‚€\t‡ \tƒ­\t­\n† ‡­ ƒƒ ‰.     \n‰­ \t
 ƒ\t­ ,  \n ‚ \t \t’­  \t\b­Š\t’”†‰ ‡­ ƒ† ‚„­ ‚\n\t
­\n \t\b­Š\t’­  \n\tŠ\t’­ \t ‚\n­ . \t ­ ‡­ \n­ \b\t ‡ ‰\b
 ­\nŠ„  ƒ\t­ \t\b­ ­\t\n ‡  €†  ‚\b\n‰­ ‚\n\b\t­ —­­ ‡­ \t
‚\t­ .
†.5. ‡ ‚ \r
…\tƒƒ 
1. ­\t ­ ‚\t \n ­­­ :
1. Š ‡­Š
 ˆ Œ\t ƒ †
2.  €\n Š ‡­Š
‹ ˆ  \n‰Š†
 ˆ ­ ‚ ‡
Œ ˆ  ” „ ‚\n­†
 ˆ \t\n ­ ƒ †
2. \t† \b ‚ƒ \nŠ„ ‡­ ­  \t ‰ Š ‚‰ \n‰  ‡ \b ‚Š„? Š
€ ­ ‚\t \nŠ† \t \t­ ­­\t:
)  \n‰Š†;
‹) \t\n ­ ƒ †;
)  ” „ ‚\n­†.
2.2.     ƒ 
­  \t  ­† Š,  ƒ\t­­ , Š \n‰ ƒ, Š‚\n‰­‰, ‚\n\b ‰
­   „‡ , ƒ­ \n‰ ­  \t ‰ † Š:
ˆ Š€ \t’­‰ „Š \tŠ,
ˆ Š‚\n‰’­‰ \tƒ­Š,
ˆ ­‰­‰ €\t\b \t‰ ­\t ƒ­\t, ‚­‡ ƒ­ Š„ ­\t\n†.
­  ­ , ’€ \n‰ ƒ ‚\n­’ ­­­ ­ „‡ ‚­ ‰ ƒ­
† ­  ’€ \n‰ ” .
­  \t  ­† Š ­\n ƒ\t­‰ ­‡, ƒ­ \n\tŠ‡  \n ‡ \b\t ‰ ­ 
Ž Š ‰\n‰­‰  ƒ­ €­† ­\n\n ‰ ‚‚Ž †    ­† \t\b\n ƒŠ„ \b
\t­Š„  ‚‚.
 ­  \t ­† Š ‡ ‚\n\b\t­ \n ƒ Š \b‡ †    
­ €\t \n ‚\n\b\t­ \tŠ \t\b‡Š„ ‚ \b\t ƒ,  \t\b\tŠ   17-
66-77 «\b\n ‰ •†Š, ­ ­\tŠ, ‡„Š.  ‚Š   Š ƒ. \t\b‡Š ‚ \b\t
\n‰ ‚­ \t ‰ ».
‡ ­,  ”­ ’­ ­\t€\n ŽŠ ‚ €\t \t € €\n\t , \b ­Š„ ‡ Š
€\t­ ‚ €\t  \b\t  ‡­ ­  \t \b\n ‰,  ‡Š  \n —­\t, †­ ‡\t­ \t\n\t, \b ­
Š„ \b­\t\n \t­‰ \t.
 ‚­ ƒ­†  ‚\nƒ† Š ’€ \n‰ ƒ ‚\n\b ­‰  Š†
‡­ ­  \t ‰ ‘ž, ƒ­† €’ \n‰ ƒ ˆ ‡­ \t ‘ž.
2.1.       ƒ\n \f ƒ 
 ‚‰Š‡ \b\n ‰‡ \n‰ ƒ ­‰­‰ ’€ €’ . œ€ ‰\n‰’­‰ \t‡† €\n•†
\t\b€\t\b†  ‚‚† ‚‰Š„ \b\n † \n‰ ƒ.  ’€  \b\t  ‡­ ­ ‚‰ ‡
\t\b\n ­ \t 2  ‚‚Š: ‚‰‡Š  ƒ , ­Š ­‰­‰ \t\t‰ ‚ † „‡.
2.1.1.   \n  
„\r 7
\n†, …­ ƒ   € ‚­  Š ƒ ‚
€\b\tƒ 
\b‡ ‰
\t ‡\t  \b‡ ‰
\n ƒ \t \b‡ ‰, ‡
(\n‰ ‚ ‡\t ‚ Š \b‡ ‰
\n‰ \t\b‡\t 134-68)
‹
II
­
\n €„\t­ ­\t\n
\n €„\t­ €
\t­‰  ­ \n  ­\t\n  ‚\n\t € 
\t­‰  ­ \n  ­\t\n \b\t  Š•† ­ƒ
‚­  ‡ ‚\nƒ •\t   \t •
\n \t \b\n ‰ ˆ \t­‰  ­ \n  ­\t\n   \b\t
’€ \b\t
 €\t \t € €\n\t :
ˆ ‚ \n  € 
ˆ 2,0 ‡ (\n‰ \t\b‡\t 134-68);
ˆ ‚ \n  ­\t\n 
ˆ 1,0 ‡ (\n‰ \t\b‡\t 134-68).
„\r 8
\b€ ƒ   € ‚­  Š ƒ ‚
†­ 
­\b
\t‚\t\n  ‚‡
” ‰
\tƒ­\t‰ ‡ \n\t
\n \t ­
\b\t, ‡
­  €\t\b † ­
‚\n   ‰ \n   \b\t
’€
 \b ‚ ­ \t\n
‚\n   ‰ \n  €
’€
 \b ‚ ­ \t\n
‚\n  •  Š ’€ ‚
\n  €
‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n
‚\n  •  Š \b\t ‚
\n­ ”\t ’€
‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n
  ‰ ‹‹
ˆ \n  ‰ € ’€ , \n  ‰ 
ˆ \n  ‰  \b\t, ­ \t\n ‹
ˆ ‰‰ \n  ‰ ‚ ‚
\n­ ”\t, ­ \t\n ‹
ˆ €\t‰ \n  ‰ ‚‰‡† ’€
­  ƒ­\t Š
‚\n  \n Š ’€ ‚
„ ‚ ­ \t\n
‡  
=+0,5 ‡ \n‰ ƒ •\n† ‡\n\t•† •\n†  ‚‚;
= \n‰ ƒ ­\t•† •\n†  ‚‚Š;
= – 0,5 ‡ \n‰ ƒ ‚­†  ‚‚Š.
‚\n  \n Š ’€ € 
„ ‚ ­ \t\n
‡  
+1,0 ‡ \n‰ ƒ •\n† ‡\n\t•† •\n†  ‚‚;
+1,5 ‡ \n‰ ƒ ­\t•† •\n†  ‚‚Š;
+2 ‡ \n‰ ƒ ‚­†  ‚‚Š.
\n\t­\n   ­ ­ƒ , 
‚\n   ‡‡Š \t­ Š
­\tƒ ‚ \n  ­\t\n
‹\t‰ Š­\tƒ\t
\t‰‰ Š­\tƒ\t
‰‰ Š­\tƒ\t

‹\t‰ Š­\tƒ\t \t‚\n\t\t­‰  €‡ •
‚\n  ‚\n ‰ \b\t†
Š­\tƒ
‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n
=0,4‹‹
‚\n  ‚\n ‰ ‚†
Š­\tƒ
\n ‚  \b­\t\n
=0,4(‹‹
– ‹‹
\b ­ƒ ‹
„ ‚‰­ ­ \t\n  ‚ƒ ‰  \n  † ­\t\n  ­ƒ\t„ 
. ­ ­ƒ 
 € ­Š ‚ \n  ­\t\n ­\n\tŠ\t’­ ‚ ‚\n  \t­\t \b\t†, €† ‚† Š
­\tƒ ­­­.
•   \b\t† Š­\tƒ \t‚\n\t\t’­ \t \t­‰ 3,0¢5,0 ‡, €†
2,0¢3,0 ‡ ‚†
4,0¢6,0 ‡ ­ \n  €.
­Š \b\t† ‚† Š­\tƒ ‡\n‰’­ ‚‰‡Š‡ \n  ‰‡ , \t €† Š­\tƒ
‚\n\tŠ‡ 
\t•   ’€ ‚ \n   \b\t
\n ‚  \b­\t\n
‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n
˜\b ‚\n ƒŠ ­ƒ 
\t \n   \b\t ­ƒ ‹ ‹
\t \n  € ‚‰­ \n   Š
\b\t ‚ ‚\n­ ” ’€  ‚ƒ ‰  \n  † ­\t\n  ­ƒ\t„ 
 ‡‡  \t­ Š­\tƒ  ‡•\t’­ \t \n ƒ   
    ƒ\t­ €Š„ \b ‚­\t\n‰’­ €† ‚‰‡Š \n  ­   Ž\t €Š„ Š­\tƒ
 ­ƒ 
  ’  \b\t ‡\n‰’­ ‚\n\tŠ‡  Š‡ , \n‰ \b\t ­‡, ƒ­€Š  \nŠ  ­ƒ\t„ 
€Š\n
‚‰‡Š‡ .
‚\n ­\n \t•  ­ ’€  ‚  \b  ‡  €\n ƒ‡ \t 5,0 ‡  \t ’ ­  ‚ €†
†. 7. ‘ \n   \r \n
†.6. ‘ \n   \r \n
2.1.2.   \n   \r \n
 \b\t  ‡­ ­ ‡\n  ƒ  ’€ ‡ ­ €Š­ •Š‡ ,  „•Š‡ ‡
•Š‡ . ­  ’€ «\nŽ ‡ ­ €Š­ Ž\nŠ‡ , €\b •.
\n‰ ‚­ ‰ ƒ­\t Š  ƒ† ’€ €„ ‡ Š‚\n ­ \tƒ­Š \t  
  \bŠ \n  ­\t\n \n   \b\t ’€ . \n‰ —­ ‚\n\b ’­ — Ž ­ , ­Š† „\t\t
­ \b ­ ­‚ \t\n•­ ’€ .
„\r 9
‹ŒŒŽ­  €ƒ‘ Š
   ƒ† ’€
— Ž ­ 
\n•
€\n•† \n•
«\t\nŠ† \n\n»
« † \n\n»
«‹\n•† \n\n»
«\n \nŽ»
«\nŽ»
„Š \tŠ ‚ €\t ‚\n\b ­‰ ­ .
„\r 10
\b€ ƒ   € ‚­  Š ƒ ‚
†­ 
­\b
\t‚\t\n  ‚‡
” ‰
\tƒ­\t‰ ‡ \n\t
\n \t ­
\b\t, ‡
­ ­ \t\n ’ \n  ’
­ ­ƒ 
 \b ‚ ­ \t\n
‚\n  ‚\n ‰ \n 
­\t\n
 \b ‚ ­ \t\n
=
‚\n   ‰ \n   \b\t
’€
 \b ‚ ­ \t\n
‚\n   ‰ \n 
€ ’€
 \b ‚ ­ \t\n
\b ­ƒ  \t \b Ž­\t \t  \t‡ , ‹  ‚\t ­ ­ \t\n  ‚­   .
‚\n  •  Š ’€ ‚
\n  ­\t\n
­ ­ƒ  ‚\t ‚
 
˜\b ­ƒ  1 ‚­ ‚‰‡ ’. ƒ  ‚ƒ ‰   \t‡ , ‚Š‡ ƒ\b ­ƒ ‹ ,
€\b\tƒ\t’­ ‹1 1.
­ \t\n  ‰\n‰­‰ † \n  † \b\t ‚\n­ ”\t, \n  ‰ 11 ˆ † \n  † ‚ ‚
\n­ ”\t ’€ .  \t 1 ˆ \n  ‰  \b\t ’€ ,  \t ‹‹1 ˆ \n  ‰ €.
\n     ‹‹1 ‚ ‚­ ƒ­† ’€ \n• €\n•† \n• \n ­ ‚‰­. \t \n\t
\t‰­‰ \n ƒ  ‹+‹ \n €Š­ €\n• . \n \t \t­‰ ‡• —­† \n ƒ Š, €„ ‡
‚\n ­    ‹‹1 ‚\t \t † ­\n ­ \n ƒ   ‹+‹. \n ƒ ’ ­ƒ    €\b\tƒ ­
‹11: ‹11= ‹+‹. ˜\b ­ƒ  ‹11 ‚‰­ ‚‰‡ ’, ­\t‰ ‚\t­ \n  ’  \b\t  ­ƒ 11.
‚\n  \n Š ’€ ‚

‡  
110=1111=+0,5 ‡ ˆ \n‰ ƒ •\n† ‡\n\t•† •\n†  ‚‚Š;
110=1111= ˆ \n‰ ƒ ­\t•† •\n†  ‚‚Š;
110=1111=–0,5 ‡ ˆ \n‰ ƒ ‚­†  ‚‚Š.
ƒ  10 ‚\n\t   ­.
 ’€\t„ \n• €\n•† \n• \b\n • •  Š ’€ ‚ \n  ­\t\n 1011  € \t’­  Š­\tƒ :
0,71011 ˆ  € ’; 0,31011 ˆ  \b\t’’.
‚\n  ‚\n ‰ €
Š„ \b
‚ \n  €
=‹‹
/2 – 1,0 ‡ \n
=‹‹
˜\b ­ƒ  ‹2 ‚­ ‚‰‡ ’  ‚ƒ ‰  \n  †  \b\t  ­ƒ 2
‚\n  \n Š ’€ € 
­ ­ƒ 
„
‡  
22 = 110+1,0 ‡ ˆ \n‰ ƒ •\n† ‡\n\t•† •\n†  ‚‚;
22 = 110+1,5 ‡ ˆ \n‰ ƒ ­\t•† •\n†  ‚‚Š;
22 = 110+2,0 ‡ ˆ \n‰ ƒ ‚­†  ‚‚Š.
ƒ  2  ‰’­  ­ƒ\t‡  10 \n  11 ‚\n\tŠ‡  Š‡ .
‚\n  ‚\n ‰ \b\t†
Š­\tƒ
­ ­ƒ ‹ ‚\t ‚
  ‹‹
=0,4‹‹
˜\b ­ƒ   ‹3 ‚­ ‚‰‡ ’ \n  ’, ­ƒ  ‚ƒ ‰ ­†  \n  † ­\t\n €\b\tƒ ­ 3.
­ ­ƒ 2 3  € ­Š ‚ \n  ­\t\n ­\n\tŠ\t’­ ‚ ‚\n  \t­\t €† \n \b\t†
Š­\tƒ ­­­. ­Š ­\tƒ ‡ ­ ­\t , \t  ‚‰‡† ’€.
\n \b\n • •  Š ’€ ‚ \n  ­\t\n (­\b 1011)  ‚Š•\t­ 1,5 ‡, ­  ‡ \n’
ƒ ­  ‚\t  ‚ \n  ­\t\n \t \t­‰ ‚ 10 ‡  € ­Š ­ ­ƒ 2, \t Š­\tƒ   \n\t­.
\n \b\n •  €\n 3,0 ‡, ­ ‚­  ’­   € ’ Š­\tƒ .  \b\n • €\n 3,0 ‡ ƒ \n
Š­\tƒ  \n ƒ \t’­. ‚\n ­\nŠ Š­\tƒ \t\b‡”\t’­ \t ‚‡ \n \b\t‡ ‚\n­ ”\t„.
2.1.3.   \n  \r \n
„\r 11
\n†, …­ ƒ   € ‚­ Š ƒ ‚
€\b\tƒ 
\b‡ ‰
\t ‡\t  \b‡ ‰
\n ƒ \t \b‡ ‰, ‡
(\n‰ ‚ ‡\t ‚ Š \b‡ ‰ \n‰
\t\b‡\t 134-68)
­
\n €„\t­ ­\t\n
\n €„\t­ €
\t­‰  ­ \n  ­\t\n  ‚\n\t € 
\n \t  ‚  ­† ‚„­
Š­\t \n† ­ƒ
\n \t €’
ž  \t €’  \b 
ž    €’ \t   \n†
 €\t \t € €\n\t  (Š€ \t’­  \b\t  ‡­ ­ ­‚ ‚ \n\t ‰ €’):
ˆ  ‚\n €„\t­  ­\t\n 
ˆ  ‚\n €„\t­  € 
„\r 12
\b€ ƒ   € ‚­ Š ƒ ‚
†­ 
­\b
\t‚\t\n  ‚‡
” ‰
\tƒ­\t‰ ‡ \n\t
\n \t
­\b\t,
­  €\t\b † ­
1 ‚\n  ‚\n ‰ \n 
Š­Š   ‰
 \b ‚ ­ \t\n
‡  
›=(
)+3,0 ˆ \n‰ ƒ ‰\n†  ‚‚Š;
›=(
)+1,0 ˆ \n‰ ƒ •\n†  ‚‚Š;
›=(
) –2,0 ˆ \n‰ ƒ ‡\n\t•† •\n†  ‚‚Š;
›=(
) –3,0 ˆ \n‰ ƒ ­\t•† •\n†  ‚‚Š;
›=(
) –4,0 ˆ \n‰ ƒ ‚­†  ‚‚Š.
2 ‚\n  ‚\n ‰ \n 
€
„ ‚ ­ \t\n
3 ‚\n  ‚\n ‰ \n 
 \b\t
 \b ‚ ­ \t\n
, 
=1,0¢1,5 ‡ ˆ \t
 \t€­ 
4 ‚\n  ‚\n ‰ \n 
\n†
 \b ‚ ­ \t\n
‡  
)+1,5 ˆ \n‰ ƒ ‰\n†  ‚‚Š;
)+2,5 ˆ \n‰ ƒ •\n†  ‚‚Š;
)+3,5 ˆ \n‰ ƒ ‡\n\t•† •\n†  ‚‚Š;
)+4 ˆ \n‰ ƒ ­\t•† •\n†  ‚‚Š;
)+4,5 ˆ \n‰ ƒ ‚­†  ‚‚Š.
5 ˜\b ­ƒ , ‹, ›, ,  ‚­  \b­\t\n , \t ­Š„ ­\n\tŠ\t’­ ­\b , ‚\n‰’”  
Š •  Š ­\t\n† €’.
6 ‚\n  •  Š ‚
† ‚\n  €’
­ ­ƒ  \n ˆ
, ‚\t ˆ 
7 ‚\n  •  Š \b\t†
‚\n  €’
­ ­ƒ  \n ˆ
, ‚\t ˆ 
8 ‚\n  •  Š ‚
† ‚\n  €’ \t  
\n†
­ ­ƒ  \n ˆ 
‚\t ˆ 
9 ‚\n  •  Š \b\t
† ‚\n  €’ \t  
\n†
­ ­ƒ  \n ˆ 
‚\t ˆ 
10   ­ ‚‰‡Š‡ \n  ‰‡ ­ƒ 
11 ‚\n  ‚\n ‰ 
† ‚† \n 
\n ‚  \b­\t\n
12 ˜\b ­ƒ  ‹ ‚‰­ ­ \t\n, ‚\t’” ’  \b­\t\n , ‚Š ƒ\b ­ƒ › . ­\t
‚ƒ † \n  † ­‡ƒ\t’­ ­ƒ\t‡ ›
13 ‚\n  „ Ž\t
† ‚† \n  .
„ ‚ ­ \t\n
14 ‚\n  •  Š ‚
† ‚\n  €’
‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n
 =1,0¢2,0 ‡ ˆ
\n ƒ \t \t­\t
‚† Š­\tƒ .
15 ‚\n  • Š €
† \n  ‚† ‚\n 
€’
„ ‚ ­ \t\n
=1,0 ‡ ˆ \n‰ ƒ ‰\n†, •\n† ‡\n\t•† •\n†  ‚‚;
=1,2 ‡ ˆ \n‰ ƒ ­\t•† •\n†  ‚‚Š;
=1,7 ‡ ˆ \n‰ ƒ ‚­†  ‚‚Š.
16 ‚\n  •  Š •\t\t
\n ‚  \b­\t\n
17   ­ ­ƒ ‹
, \t ‚ƒ   \b­\t\n’ ››
‚­\t ­ ­ƒ  ›
18 ‚\n  ‚\n ‰ €
† \n  ‚† ‚\n 
 €’ \t \n  €
‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n
=‹‹
19   ­ ­ƒ 
. ƒ  \n  ‹
  \b­\t\n’, ‚† \b ­ƒ ›,
€\b\tƒ ­ ­ƒ† ›
20 ‚\n  ­ƒ ‹
\n ‚  \b­\t\n
21 ‚\n  •  Š •\t\t
\b\t† ‚\n  €’
‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n
22 ˜\b ­ƒ  ‹
‚­ ­ \t\n „  ‚ƒ ‰   \b­\t\n’  ­ƒ 
 \b  ‚
ƒ ‰   \b­\t\n’  ­ƒ ›
23 ‚\n  ‚\n ‰ €
† \n  \b\t† ‚\n 
€’
‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n
24   ­ ­ƒ ‹
. ƒ  ‚ƒ ‰ ‚\n ƒ† ‚‰‡†   \b­\t\n’ ››
€\b\tƒ\t’­ ›
25 ‚\n  \t‚\t\n ‰
† \n  \b\t† ‚\n 
 €’
‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n
= 2,0 ˆ \n‰ ƒ ‰\n† •\n†  ‚‚;
= 3,0 ˆ \n‰ ƒ ‡\n\t•† •\n†  ‚‚Š;
= 3,5 ˆ \n‰ ƒ ­\t•† •\n†  ‚‚Š;
= 4,5 ˆ \n‰ ƒ ‚­†  ‚‚Š.
26 ‚\n  \t‚\t\n ‰
† \n  \b\t† ‚\n Š
€’
  ­ ­ƒ ‹
27 ‚\n ­ ‚\n  €
† \n  \t  \b­\t\n 
‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n
 =2,0¢3,5 ‡ ˆ 
\n ƒ \t \t­\t \b\t†
Š­\tƒ .
28 ƒ  
  ­  ­ƒ† ‹
†.
‘    \r \n
­  ƒ­\t Š
29 \tƒ­ ­ \n  ’  \b\t ‚\n † ˆ ‚‰‡\t‰ 
30 ‚\n  ‚“‡\t 
Š  \b\t ‚† ‚\n 
„ ‚ ­ \t\n
31 ƒ  
 ‰’­ ‚\n\t†  †  ­ƒ\t‡ 
ˆ \n  ‰  \b\t ‚† ‚\n
  €’
32 ƒ\t­ 
‚­ ‚\n\tŠ‡  Š‡ , ‚„‰” ‡  ‚‰‡Š 
­­­
.   ‰ 
ˆ •\t\t‰ \n  ‰ ‚† ‚\n  €’
33 ‚\n  \n Š •\t†
\n  \b\t† ‚\n  €’
\b‡  \t ƒ­
34 ‚\n  ‚\n ‰
‚‡\t­\n† ­ƒ
‹ ­ \t  \n\t ‹
35 ‚\n  ‚\n ‰
‚‡\t­\n† ­ƒ
‹ ­ \t  \n\t ‹
\tƒ­ ­ €Š \n  ‚† \b\t† ‚\n † €’. ˜\b ­ƒ 
‚‰­ ‚‰
‡ ’ \t  ƒ\t­ ­ ­ƒ 
 ­ƒ 
, ‚„‰” ’ \t\n  ‚\n\t ’   ’. 
ˆ €\t‰ \n  ‰
‚† ‚\n  .
‹\t‰ \n  ‰ \b\t ‚\n  ‚­ ƒ\b ­ƒ 
. \t  ƒ\t­ 
—­\t \n  ‰ ‚‰‡\n
†\t. \t\n \t ‚„ ­  ‚\n\t ’   ’.
36 \tƒ­ ­ € ’ \n  ’
\b\t† ‚\n 
\b‡  \t ƒ­
37 ‚\n  ‚\n ‰
„† ­ƒ † \n 
\b\t† ‚\n  €’
\t   \b ­ƒ  \t
\t\n† ‹
38   ­ ­ƒ 
. ™­ \n  ‰ \b\t† ‚\n  €’.   ‰ ›
ˆ ‰‰ \n  ‰ \b\t†
‚\n  .
39 ‰‰ Š­\tƒ\t
\t­ Š­\tƒ
\n \t
†.
‘ \n  \r \n
 \t ‚† Š­\tƒ ‚\t\t­  ­ \t\n’ 
.  € ­Š ­ ­ƒ 
­\n ­ ‚ ‚\n
  \t­\t ‚† Š­\tƒ . ­Š Š­\tƒ ‡\n‰’­‰ ‚‰‡Š‡ \n  ‰‡
40 \t‰‰ Š­\tƒ\t
\t­ Š­\tƒ
\n \t
\t’’ Š­\tƒ  \t\b‡”\t’­ \t   \n  ­\t\n \b\t† ‚\n  . ‰‰ \n  ‰ Š­\tƒ ‚
‚  \n‰\t \n  ­\t\n .
2.2.       \n \f ƒ 
 ‚\nƒŠ‡ \b\n ‰‡ \n‰ ƒ ­‰­‰ ‚\n\t­‰, \t­Š, ‚\t\n­,  ­ , €\n \b .
 ‚­ ƒ­† ‚\nƒŠ„ \b\n † \n‰ ƒ ‚\n\b ­‰  Š† ‡­ 
­  \t ‰ ‘ž.
„\r 13
\n†, …­ ƒ   € ‚­ ƒ‚­… †ƒ
ƒ ‚
€\b\tƒ 
\b‡ ‰
\t ‡\t  \b‡ ‰
\n ƒ \t \b‡ ‰, ‡
(\n‰ ‚ ‡\t ‚ Š \b‡
 ‰ \n‰ \t\b‡\t 134-68)


­
\n €„\t­   ‚Š†
\n €„\t­   ­†
\n €„\t­   ­­ †
\n €„\t­ €
\n €„\t­ ­\t\n
\n €„\t­ •
ž  \t ‚ Š
ž  \t  
ž  \t ‚\nƒ \t­\t
\t­‰  ­ \n  ­\t\n \b\t  Š•† ­ƒ
‚­  ‡ ‚\nƒ •\t   \t ‰ •
\t­‰  ­ Š•† ­ƒ ‚­  ‡ ‚\n
ƒ •\t   \t ‰ •   ‰ \b\t „  \n
‚‡Š•ƒŠ„ ‚\t 
Š­\t ‚\nƒ\t \t‰
Š­\t  
\t­‰  ­ Š•† ­ƒ ‚­  ‡ ‚\nƒ
 •\t   \t ‰ •  \n  ­\t\n ‚
\n \t \b\n ‰
 €\t \t € €\n\t  ( \tƒ­ ‚ ‡\t Š€\tŠ ‚ €\t \n‰ ‚­ ‰
ƒ­\t ‡ \b ‚\t\n­ ‚‰‡  \n —­\t \n‰ ƒ ):
ˆ ‚ \n    
ˆ   ƒ\t­\t‡ ‚  
ˆ   ƒ\t­\t‡ ‚\nƒ 
ˆ  •   \n Š 
ˆ  Š­ \n Š ‚  
Œ
ˆ \n  ‚  ‚ \n  ­\t\n 

ˆ \t €  ‚†‡Š 
 €\t ‚ \n  ­\t\n 
‚ \n  € 
\n‰ \b\n † € ‚ \n\t ‰ 
 ‡\t   ‚  ‡\t’­‰. ™­ ‚ €\t \t’­ \t ’ \n ‚ ­  \t \b\n †
‚ \n\t’” ‚\n ‚ \n\t’”  \n —­.
„\r 14
\b€ ƒ   € ‚­ †’ €ƒ„ ƒ ‚
†­ 
­\b
\t‚\t\n 
‚‡” ‰
\tƒ­\t‰ ‡ \n\t
\n \t
­\b\t,
­  €\t\b † ­
‚\n  •  Š ­
ƒ­\t
‚\t ‚
 \b­\t\n
+­
† \n  ‚  \t
\n    + \t­
­ \t\nŠ„ •
Š­\tƒ ‚ \n    .
\n ’’ \n  ’ ‚  ­‰­ ­ ­ \t\n , ­ \n‰ „\t ‰ \b\t‚­ \t† •  Š
\b\n ‰ ‚ \n    ­  ƒ­\t \t• ‰’­ \t \n ƒ   ­\t † \n  ‚  \t  
\n    (\n € Š ‚†‡Š).
\n ’’ \n  ’ ‚  ­‰­ ­ ­ƒ 
, ­  ƒ­\t \t• ‰’­ \t 0,5
, \n  ­
‚ \b‰­ ­  ‰ \n‚\t­, ­ \t•   \t 0,6
\n‰ ‚\n ‚ \n\t’” „ ‚ \n\t’” „
 \n —­ 0,3
\n‰ ‚‰‡Š„  \n —­.
­\b 
‚\n‰­ \n ƒ   ­\t † \n  ‚  \t   ­\t\n
­ † \n  ‚ 
 \n —­
\n ƒ \t ­\t, ‡
‚ \t \t\b\b\t‰ ( •‡)  \b\n ‰„
\n‰ ƒ
‚ \t \t\b\b\t‰ (Ž\n\t‰)  \b\n
‰„ \n‰ ƒ
‡\n\t• \b\t­\t
­\t• \b\t­\t
‡\n\t• \b\t­\t
­\t• \b
\t­\t
‰‡†
\n ‚ \n\t’” †
 ­\t\nŠ†
 \b\n ‰„ €† ‡Š   \n ƒŠ‡ €“‡‡ ‚  ‚ \n  € ’’ \n  ’ ‚  
­‰­.
\n‰ €\t\b\t ‰ \n•\t ’’ \n  ’ ‚  ­‰­ \n ­ ­ \t\n \t \n ƒ  , \b\t ‰” ’ ­
‡\n .
 \b\n ‰„  €† Š­\tƒ† ­ ­ Š‡ •\t‡ , ‡’”‡ \t­Š Š­\tƒ ‚ \n 
  , ­  ƒ­\t \b\n ‰ \t• ‰’­ \t \n ƒ   \t­ ­ \t\nŠ„ Š­\tƒ,  ‡‡\t ­Š„
 ­ ƒ \t\t:
0,5¢1,5 ‡ ‚ † €† Š­\tƒ;
1,5¢2,0 ‡ ‚  „ •\t„ \n ‡ • €† Š­\tƒ;
2,0¢2,5 ‡ ‚ ­„ ­ \t\nŠ„ •\t„ \n  „ •\t„ €† Š­\tƒ.
‚\n  •  Š ‚ 
‚\t ‚
 \b­\t\n
‚\n  •  Š ‚\nƒ
(‚\t)
\n ‚
 \b­\t\n
‚\n  •  Š ‚†‡Š
ž  \t ‚†‡Š, ‚\n ƒ\t‰  \b \n­\t­ ‚­ ‰ \n \tƒ ­\t\t‰,  \n\t €Š­ ‡•
‚ †  ­\t€\n Ž  .
  ‡\t\n\t‰ •  \t ‚†‡Š \n‰ \b\n †  ­\tƒŠ‡  \t‡ \t ­ ‚Š   Š ƒ
  ‡\t\n\t‰ •  \t ‚†‡Š, ‡,  \b\n ‰„ \n‰ ƒ
  \b\n ‰
\b\t­†  ‚‚Š
\t\b‡\t
\n\t­
\r\t­
\t\n­ ‡
\b
\t\n­
\b ‡
•\n†
‡\n\t•† •\n†
­\t•† •\n†
‚­†
\n •  \t ‚†‡Š, ‚\n ƒ\t‰  \b \n­\t­ \tƒ­\t, \t\b\t\n ­\t­ƒ†, ­ \t•    ƒ\t­\t
‚†‡Š \n  ”­\n‰­‰ ‚ ­‡ \n  ‡• ‰ ‚ €\t  •   ‚  
ž
•  
‚\nƒ 
 ‡  ‡\t\n† \n ƒ Š \n  \n ƒ ‰ ‚ €\t ‚ \n    
‚\n   ‰ \n‚\t­
 \b ‚
­ \t\n
‚\n   ‰ \n 
\n € Š ‚†‡Š
 \b ‚
­ \t\n


‚\n   ‰ \n 
­\t\n
 \b ‚
­ \t\n

‚\n   ‰ \n  €
 \b ‚
­ \t\n
\b ‚\n ƒŠ„ ­ƒ Œ, , ‹ ‚\t ‚‰­  \b­\t\n . \b ­ƒ \t, \t
‚ \t’­ ­ \t\n .
ƒ  ­ \t\n† \b ­ƒ \t \t
 \n  †   €\b\tƒ ­ ­­­ Œ
, \t ‚ƒ 
­ \t\n , ‚† \b ­ƒ \t,  \n  ‰‡   , ­\t\n € €\b\tƒ\t’­ ­­­ Œ
†. 10. ‘   \r   
\n \r\n   \n \n \r \n
­  ƒ­\t ‚ 
‰‰ \n  ‰ ‚ 
 \b\n ‰„  \t\b\b† (Ž\n†) ‚ † \n‰ „    (‡.  . \t)  \b\n ‰„  \t\b\b†
‚ † \n‰     ‡\t\n† \t† (‡  . €) „’’ ƒ\t­ † \n  ‚   ­‰­.
 \b\n ‰„  \t\b\b† ‚ † \n‰  ­ \nŠ„   , ƒ\t­ ­ƒ\t’” „‰   ­† ­\t• \b\t­\t,
’’ \n  ’ ‚   „† ƒ\t­   ‰ \n‚\t­ ­‰­ ­ ­ \t\n (‡  . ). ­ ­ƒ 
‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n ­\n\tŠ\t’­ \n ƒ   ­\t: 
\n ƒ \t ­\t † \n  ‚  \t   \n  ­\t\n \b\t  ­ ­  \n —­\t \b\n ‰. \n ƒ  
­\t ­\n\tŠ\t’­ ­ ­ƒ  ‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n ‚\n ƒ\t’­ ­ƒ  
 \b\n ‰„  \t\b\b† ‚ † ­ƒ  
 ‰’­  ­ƒ† 
‚\n\t’­    ‰  \b\t (‡.
 . \t). ƒ  ‚ƒ ‰  \n  † € €\b\tƒ\t’­ ‹
 \b\n ‰„  \t\b\b† ‚ † ( •‡ ‚ ) ­ƒ  
\n ­ƒ  
£  ‰’­  ­ƒ†  .
ƒ     ‰’­  ­ƒ† 
\n  ’   ‰ ‚\n\t’­   ‰  \b\t. ’’ \n  ’ ‚ 
 „† ƒ\t­ ‡\n‰’­ ‚\n\t†  †.
\n‰  \n ƒ ‰ ­‚ ‚ \n\t ‰  \b\n ‰„  \t\b\b† ‚ † \n\t’­ ‚\n ­\n ’ Š­\tƒ  \t
\n   ‡ • ‚  : 
\t­‰  
\n‰­ ‚‚\n\t‡, ‚\n ƒ ’ ­ƒ   ‰’­  ­ƒ† ‹
\n  ’   ‰
‚\n\t’­   ‰  \b\t. ƒ 
£,  , 
 ‰’­ ‚\n\t† \n  † ‚\n ƒ\t’­ ’’ \n  ’
‚  .   ’ ­\t\n ‚‰­ ‚‚  \n‰  † ƒ\t­ † \n  ‚  .
†. 11.   \r  \n \r \r \n
Œ\n \t ‚ 
‚\n  •  Š
\n Š ‚ 
‚\t ‚
 \b­\t\n
‚\n  Š­Š
(\n € Š) \n Š ‚ 
 \b ‚
­ \t\n
Œ
¤= 
Œ
˜\b ­ƒ  
‚‰­ ‚‰‡ ’, ‚‚  \n‰ ’ „† ƒ\t­ † \n  ‚  . 
‚ƒ   † \n  † ‚  €\b\tƒ\t’­ .  ‰’­ ‚\n\t†  † ­ƒ 
. ™­\t
 \t‰ ˆ \n  ‰ \n Š ‚  ‚\nƒ \b\n ‰.
‚\n  \n Š
\b\n ‰
 \b ‚
\t\n†
=

­ \n  ’  \b\t ƒ\b ­ƒ  
‚‚  \n‰   † ƒ\t­ † \n  ‚  .
†. 12. ‘ \n \r\n  \r  \n \n \r \n
\nƒ\t‰ \n  ‰ ‚ 
‚\n  ‚\n ‰
‚\nƒ† \n 
\tƒ\t  † ­
­ƒ 
+ \t­
Š­\tƒ + ‚\t\t
‚\n  ‚\n ‰
‚\nƒ† \n 
\tƒ\t  † ­
­ƒ 

+ ­\n” \t
‚\nƒ† \t\n\t
\n‰ \b\n † ‚‰‡ €  \n —­ \n    ƒ\t­\t 
 ‡•\t’­ \t 0,5¢1,5 ‡.
\nƒ\t‰ Š­\tƒ\t. \t­ Š­\tƒ 1,5¢2,0. \n \t Š­\tƒ 5,0¢8,0
\n” \t ‚\nƒ† \t\n\t  „ „ \b\n ‰„ 0,5¢1,0 ‡.
\n  ‚\nƒ† Š­\tƒ ‚\n‰­‰ ‡\n’. \n‰ ­ ‚Š„    \t­‰  ­ Š•† ­ƒ
\n Š ‚   Š­\tƒ \t\t 1/4¢1/3 \n Š ‚\nƒ \b\t.
\t‚\t\n  Š­\tƒ \b\t  ­ ­ ‡\n . ˜\t”  Š­\tƒ  \t‚\n\t\t’­ ‚\t\t\n\n\n   ‚  .
\n \t Š­\tƒ \b\t  ­ ­ \t­\t, ƒ‡ ‡• \t­, ­‡ ‡• \n \t.
\n‰ \b\t ‰ €“‡\t \t €\n\t  \n‚\t­ ‚ \n  ‚†‡Š ‚  ‚­  ­‰ Š­\tƒ\t \n
 ­’ \t , \n ƒ \t ­Š„ ­\t\n‰­ 0,5¢1,5 ‡. ˜‡ €\n•  ­ \n­, ­‡ €\n•  ­’ \t 
‚ ‚†‡ ‚  .
\b-\b\t ­, ƒ­ ‚ ‰­ ‡ 
\t­ ‡­\t‰ \n­\t  ‚„ ­ ƒ\b Ž­ \n‚\t­, ­.. 
‚\n­’  ƒ ­Š\t­ Š‚ \n­ \n‚\t­, ‚\n   \n ƒ Š  ­’ \t ‰ ‚ ‚†‡ ­\n\tŠ\t’­
„ ‚ ­ \t\n ­ ­ƒ 
‚\n ƒ\t’­ ­ƒ  
™­\t ­ƒ\t ‰\n‰­‰ Ž‡ ‚\nƒ† \n  .
ƒ\t­\n ‚\nƒ† ƒ\b ‡\n‰’­,    ­ƒ 
£ ‚ \b\tŠ­† Š­\tƒ.
†‡\t ‚ 
‚ ­ ­ ‚‚  \n‰ \b ­ƒ 
£ \t \tŒ
\t†­ ­ƒ  
‚\n  ­ƒ \t\t ‰
„ ‚
­ \t\n
/3+1,5¢2,0 
‡• ’
\n ƒ   ­\t\n\t € ­ \n‰ ƒ ‡\n\t•, \t €\n• ’ ˆ ­\t• \b\t­\t.
‚\n  ‚\n ‰
‚‡\t­\n† ­ƒ 1
 € ­1 
‚‰‡  \n\t
 • † 
­ƒ Œ
‚\n   Š
‚†‡Š ˆ ­ƒ Œ
‚\t ‚
 \b­\t\n
­ \n  ’ ‚†‡Š ‚  ,  ‰‰ ‚\n\t†  † ­ƒ 
£, 
 ‚­ \n  ‚†‡Š  ƒ ­Š\t’­, ƒ­ ‚ ­ † \n  ‚  ­ ­ \t\n
\b \t’­ ‚­  •   ‚  . \n‰ „\t •  Š ‚  ‚  \b­\t\n \t   \n 
\n‚\t­ ‚\t ­ \n  ‚†‡Š ­\n\tŠ\t’­ ­\b, \tŠ† \t­‰ ’ ­ ­ \t\n , ‚†
\b ­ƒ 
,  † \n  ‚  , \t \n  ’ ‚†‡Š ‚‰­ ƒ\b ‚\n ƒ ’ ­ƒ .
\b ­ƒ Œ
‚ \t’­ ­ \t\n  ‚ƒ ‰  \n  † ­\t\n ‚  .
­  ƒ­\t ‚\nƒ
Š•\t‰ ­ƒ\t \n Š ‚\nƒ
‚\n  \t­‰ ‰
­  Š ‚\nƒ  \t €\n
Š­ ‚\t’”† ­ƒ  
\n ‚
 \b­\t\n
‚\n\t­‰ \t­\t;
‡ \b ‚\t\n­
/2ˆ \n‰ \b ‡
‚\t\n­
˜\b ­ƒ  Œ
„  \b ‚­ ­ \t\n  ‚ƒ   \n  † ­\t\n €\b\tƒ ­ 
‚\n  ‚ \t \n 
­\t\n ‚\nƒ
 \b ‚
­ \t\n
‡  
‚ \t \n  ­\t\n ‚\nƒ \t\b\n ƒ \n‰ ­† \t\bŠ„ \b\t­Š„  ‚‚ \b\t  ­  ‡ ­
­‚ Š­ ‚\t ‰  ­\t.
\n‰ ­† •\n† ‡\n\t•† •\n†  ‚‚ ‚  \n  ­\t\n \t 0,5¢2,5 ‡:
1,0¢1,5 ‡ \n‰ ­ ‚Š„   ;
0,5¢1,0 ‡ \n‰     €\n• ‡ Š­ ‚\t ‡  ­\t;
2,0¢2,5 ‡ \n‰     €\n• ‡ Š­ ‚\t ‡  ­\t.
\n‰ ­† ­\t•† •\n†  ‚‚Š ‚  \n  ­\t\n \t 0¢1,5 ‡:
0,5 ‡ \n‰ ­ ‚Š„   ;
0 ‡ \n‰     €\n• ‡ Š­ ‚\t ‡  ­\t;
1,0¢1,5 ‡ \n‰     €\n• ‡ Š­ ‚\t ‡  ­\t.
\n‰ ­† ‚­†  ‚‚Š \n  ‰ ­\t\n  ‡­ ‚ \t.
‚  \n  ­\t\n ­‡ €\n•, ƒ‡ ‡• €„\t­   .
˜\b ­ƒ  
‚\t ‚­  \b­\t\n  ‚ƒ ‰  \n  †  Š ‚\nƒ  ­ƒ
‚\n  ‚\n ‰
• Š \n Š
„ ‚
­ \t\n

+ ‚ ‚  \t  \t€­ ,
\t\n  ­\n”  
­\t .
 ‚  \t  \t€­ , \t\n  ­\n”   ­\t \t:
0,3¢,5 ‡ \n‰ \n† Š  \b\t­† ‚ ;
1,0¢1,3 ‡ \n‰ \t­\t;
1,0¢1,5 ‡ \n‰ ‡ \b ‚\t\n­;
1,5¢2,0 ‡ \n‰ \b ‡ ‚\t\n­.
\n ‚\nƒ\t ‚  ‡­ \b ’ \b\t­ , ­ „’’ ­ƒ   Š ‚\nƒ 
‚‡”\t’­ \n \t 0,5 ‡:
=1,0¢1,5 ‡ \n‰ ­† ‡\n\t• \b\t­\t;
=0,5 ‡ \n‰ ­† ­\t• \b\t­\t.
ƒ  
  ­  ­ƒ† Œ
, ‚\n ƒ\t‰ ‚\n  † \n  ‚\nƒ (\t\b\b†
‚ ) 
Œ\n \t ‚\nƒ
‚\n  •  Š
\n Š ‚\nƒ
‚\n  \n € Š
\n Š
 \b ‚ \n 
­ \n  ’ \n Š \n ’” ‡ €\t\b‡: \b ­ƒ 
\t  ‡, \tŠ‡ \n € 
\n Š 
, ‚­     ­  ­ƒ 
\b ­ƒ „ ‚ƒ ‰ —­ ‡  \t  ‡
‚­ \n  ’ \n Š ­ ­ƒ 
 ­ƒ 
„‰‰ Š­\tƒ\t
­  „† Š­\tƒ \t ƒ­\t„ \b\n † \n‰ ƒ ­\t• \b\t­\t \tƒ \t’­ 
‚\n ‰ ‚\n ‰ Š•† ­ƒ   Œ
. \b ­ƒ 
\t ­ \t\n† \n  Œ
\n\t’­ \b\tƒ 
\t  ‡, \tŠ‡ ‡ 
 \b\n ‰„ \n‰ ƒ ‡\n\t• \b\t­\t Š•\t‰ ­ƒ\t   ‚\t\t­  ­ƒ† Œ
  ­ ­ƒ 
\n 
, ‚\n ƒ\t‰ ‚\t ’ ­  „† Š­\tƒ .
‚\n  \t­\t
„† Š­\tƒ
\b ­ƒ Œ
\n
\t \b Ž­\t
\t  ‡ Œ
\n Œ
\n
‚­   
­\n ­ \t †
Š€ \t­\t \b ­\t\n\t 0,2¢2,0 ‡  ”­\n‰­‰  \b\t  ‡­ ­ \t\b‡\t \b\n ‰ (‡. ­\t€\n.)
 €\t \n‰ \tƒ­\t \t­\t \t † Š­\tƒ
\b\t­\t‰  ‚‚\t
\t\b‡ \b\n ‰ ‚ €„\t­   
 €\t\t, ‡
•\n\t‰
\n\t•\t‰ •\n\t‰
­\t•\t‰ •\n\t‰
­\t‰
˜\b ­ƒ 
\n 
‚­ \n ’ ­  „† Š­\tƒ .
†‡\t ‚\nƒ
‚\n  „† ­ƒ
‚†‡Š
„ ‚
­ \t\n
,  
\n € \t ‚†‡Š
‚  , \n ƒ   ­† ‚\n‰’­ \b‡ ‡ \t ƒ­ ‚†‡Š ‚  €\b ‚ €\t \t
 ­’ \t .
‚\n  ­\n†
­ƒ 
„ ‚
­ \t\n
\n‰ ƒ ‡\n\t•
\b\t­\t;
/3 \n‰ ƒ
­\t• \b\t­\t
‚\t ‚
 \b­\t\n
\b ­ƒ 
\t  ‡ 
\n ­ ­ƒ 
‚­   
‚\n  ­ƒ 
\tƒ\t  †
ƒ 
  ­ ‚‰‡†
‚\n  ­ƒ 3
 ‚‰‡† 
 ‚‰‡† 
\b ­ƒ 3 ­\t ­ ‚‚  \n‰ 3-4 \n † 0,5¢1,0 ‡.
‚\n 
‚‡\t­\n† ­ƒ 2
 € ­ 
 \n\t  • †
 ­ƒ Œ
\n  \n  ­\t\n ‚\nƒ
48.   ‰ ­\t\n ‚\nƒ \t ƒ­ ‚„ ­ ‚  \b­\t\n 
\t\n ƒ\b ­ƒ  ‚ƒ ‰ \n  ­\t\n ‚   ­ \t
\n’, ‚† \b  Š ‚†‡Š š ­ƒ Œ
\n‰ ­† •\n ‡\n\t• •\n \b\t­\t ‚
‚  \n  ­\t\n €\n• ƒ‡ \t 0,5 ‡ \n‰ \n† Š
€\n• ƒ‡ \t 1,0 ‡ \n‰ „† Š ‚­  ’­ Š­\tƒ  \t
€\n\t   ­\t. \t­ Š­\tƒ \t \n ƒ  ‚ \t \n 
­\t\n \n ‡•  \t 0,5 ‡. \t‚\n\t\t’­ Š­\tƒ
  \t 4,0...6,0
‡ Š• \n  ­\t\n . Ž Š­\tƒ  „ ­  ­ \t\n
\t 3,0...4,0 ‡.  —­‡ \n ƒ\t \n  ­\t\n ‚ 
 ‚\nƒ
 ‚\t\t’­ ‚ ­ \t\n , ‚† \b ­ƒ Œ
, \t \n ƒ  
\t­\t Š­\tƒ .
Š­\tƒ  \t €\n\t   ­\t  \b\t  ‡­ ­ ‡\n ‚
‡”\t’­  \n  ’ ­\t\n , \n \t ­\b\t‰,  \n  ’ ­ \n 
\tŠ† \n ‚ „ \t\n ƒ .
 \b\n ‰„ \b ­\t†, ‚\t’” „‰ \n\t-­‚\n† €\t
€­,
Š­\tƒ  ­’ \t’­, \n \n ƒ \t „ \t­\t  €\n
• 1,0 ‡.
 \b\n ‰„ \b ‡‰ „ ­\t† ­\t†  \n­  \t   Š 
 ‡ Š­ ‚\t ‡  ­\t ‚\t  \b\n ‰ €‚ƒ \t’­  
\n ƒ ‡ „ €\t\n\t\t, ­..  \n ƒ ‡ ­\b\t 
, \b\t ƒ­
 ‡• ‰ ‚ \t \n  ­\t\n ˆ ­\b\t 
 ‚\n\b\t­ ‡€  \tŠ† ‚€, ‚ ­‡
Š­\tƒ  \t €\n\t   ­\t \n‰­ \t  ƒ\t­ .   ƒ\t­ ­\t
\n‰’­  €‡ \b \b\t­‡  ­’ \t’­, \t ­ ’ ‚\n\b ’­
\n‰  ‡• ‰ ‚ \t \n  ­\t\n  \n ƒ ‰ „ €\t
\n\t\t \b\n ‰.
 \b\n ‰„ ­\t‚Ž    \n —­\t  ƒ \t•  
‚ \b‰­ \b\t ƒ­ €† Š­\tƒ \t €\n\t   ­\t.
\nƒ  \t\t’­ ‚ ­ \t\n ­ • Š €† Š­\tƒ 
\n   \b\t. \tŠ\t’­ € ’ Š­\tƒ .  —­‡ €\t‰ ƒ\t­
‚\nƒ ‚‡”\t­‰ \n, \t \b\n  \t• ‰­‰ ‚ \n 
 \b\t.
\n  \n   \b\t ‚\nƒ
‚\n  \n Š ‚\nƒ
‚ 
 \b ‚
­ \t\n
†. 13  \n
  \r  \n
   \r
 \b\n ‰„ \n‰ ƒ ‡\n\t• \b\t­\t  €\n• ‡ Š­ ‚\t ‡  ­\t (\t\b‡Š ‚ €„\t­    26
ˆ 36) ­\b 
 
\n ƒ \t’­ \t 0,5... 1,0 ‡.
\n‰ ‚\t\n­ —­­ ­\b  \n ƒ \t’­ \t 0,5... 1,0 ‡, ƒ­€Š  ƒ­  \t€­  ­\t .
­  ƒ­\t €­\t \n  € \t‡\t\t   \n‰ ƒ ‚‰­ ­\t , \t 
 \n‰ ” . €„
 ‡ ­\n ­‡­ ­, ƒ­ •  \t €­\t \n‰  €­ ‚\t\n­ ƒ 
‚Š•\t­ 10,0 ‡, \t \n \t \n  \t‡\t\t \t\t
10,0... 12,0 ‡  \b\n ‰„ \n‰ ­† ‡\n\t• \b\t­\t 14,0... 16,0 ‡ \n‰ ­† ­\t• \b\t­\t.
†. 14. ‘ \n   \r\f   \r  \r \n
  \n  \n
„\r 15
\n†, …­ ƒ   € ‚€’ ‰€‚€
€\b\tƒ 
\b‡ ‰
\t ‡\t  \b‡ ‰
\n ƒ \t \b‡ ‰, ‡ (\n‰
‚ ‡\t ‚ Š \b‡ ‰
\n‰ \t\b‡\t 134-68)
.
€„\t­ ‚\nƒ\t
\n \t  \t\t (‚ ‡\n )
ž  \t  \t\t  \b  (‚ ‡\n )
\n \t ‚†‡Š ( \b ƒ­\t)
Š­\t \t­\t
 €\t\t \t € €\n\t : 
\n   ‚†‡Š \b‡‰’­ ­ ­ƒ 
 ­ƒ 
‡­\t\n\n ƒ† \n ††, ‚­\t\n† \t
€.  \b‡ \n
Š ‚†‡Š ‚ ‚  \t  ­’ \t  ‚†‡Š ‚    ƒ ­Š\t’­.
\n‰ ‚\n ‰ ­ \t\n  \t‡­\t \b\t‡ ­† ‚†
‡Š ‚‰‡ ’,  ‰’” ’
• Š ‚†‡Š (­ƒ 
), \n‰­ ‚‚\n\t‡:
\b ­ƒ  \t \n  ’ \n € Š ‚†‡Š ‚ \t’­ ‚‚  
\n‰,  ‚ƒ   \n  †
\n € Š ‚†‡Š €\b\tƒ\t’­ 
\b 
‰\n‰­‰ ­ \t\nŠ‡  \t‡­‡ \b\t‡ ­†
‚†‡Š. Š­\t ‚†‡Š  \t\t \t\t \n  ­\b\t 
= 
– 
,  
= 2,5...3,0 ‡. ‹\n•  \b\tƒ ‰ ­\b\t 
Š€ \t’­ \n‰
\b\n † ‡• „ \t\b‡.
\tƒ ­Š\t’­ •     \t\t \t   \n € Š ‚†‡Š 
 ‡ \b  „ ‚€.
1-\f 
. ž     \t\t ‚\n‰’­  \b\t  ‡­ ­ \n
Š ‚†‡Š Š­Š \t­\t:
 
 ˆ ‚ ‚  \t ‚\t   \t\t,
  ˆ ‡\t ‚\t ,  ­\t\t\n \t‡\t‰ ‚ ­\t€\n Ž.
2-\f 
. ž     \t\t ‚\n‰’­  \b\t  ‡­ ­ \b‡
 ‰ €„\t­\t ‚\nƒ\t ‚ €\t
\t € €\n\t :
)/2,  
ˆ \b‡  «€„\t­ ‚\nƒ\t»; 
ˆ ‚ €\t\t \t € €\n\t 
 €„\t­  ‚\nƒ\t.
    \n  \n
‰­  \b\t ‡ ‚‚  \n‰Š \n   ‚
ƒ ‡  ­ƒ 
. ­ ­ƒ 
„
­\n\tŠ\t’­ Š­  \t­\t  \t\t 
( ƒ­\t \b\n ‰) = 
˜\b ­ƒ  
‚‰­ 
\b­\t\n.
 € ­Š ­ ­ƒ 
, ­\n\t
Š\t’­ ‚ ‚\n  •  Š  \t\t:
\b ­ƒ 
­\t\n‰’­ ‚‚  \n‰Š, \t „ ‚ƒ
   \b­\t\n’, ‚†
\b ­ƒ 
, ­\t‰­ ­ƒ 
­ \t\n 
‚\n\t’­  \b \t † ­ ­ƒ 
­\n\tŠ\t’­ \n    \t\t ‡   1,0...
‚\n‰’­   \n  \n­‰:
\b ­ƒ   \n ‚‰­  \b­\t\n .
­ ­ƒ  \n ‚  \b­\t\n ­\n\tŠ\t’­ \n ƒ  , \t ’ •
   \t\t  \b :

  \b\t  \t\t
•  \n ƒ Š € ­ \n‰ ‡• „ \t\b‡, €\n•  ˆ \n‰ €\n• „.   ’  \b\t
‚‰­ ƒ
\b ­ƒ  
ƒ 
 ‰’­ ‚‰‡†, \t ‚ƒ ­†  \n  † \n­‰ ­\t‰­ ­ƒ  
†. 15 ‘  \r   \n \n  \n \r \n
  \n \n  \n
­  ƒ­\t Š ­\tƒ  \t\t  ­‡   ‰­  ‚­ ’ \n  † \t­\t
 \t\t, ‚ ‚\t­\t \b\t ‚\t­\t.
\t„‰­ ‚‡\t­\nŠ ­ƒ \n‰ ‚­ ‰ „† ƒ\t­ \n  \t­\t.
­\n\t‰ \tƒ\t ˆ ­ƒ\t 1, ­­­ ’”\t‰ ­ƒ 
\t ‚\nƒ:
( ƒ­\t ‚\nƒ );
1-1£= 1 – 1» = 0,5 ‡ (‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n ).
†. 16. ‘ \n \n  \n \r \n
­\n\t‰ \tƒ\t ˆ ­ƒ\t 
­­­ ­ ­ƒ 
, \t ‚†‡ ‚  :
( ƒ­\t ‚  );
= 1 – 1£ = 0,5 ‡ (\n ‚ 
\b­\t\n ).
\t­‡ \t„‰­ ‚‡\t­\nŠ ­ƒ
ƒ 1£ 
 ‰’­. \t € ­ \t„  \n 1£O
­\n\tŠ\t’­ ­\b
3, \tŠ:
„’’ ƒ\t­ \t­\t  \t\t ‚‰­ ƒ\b ­ƒ 1£, 2, O
\t\n \t„‰­ ‚‡\t­\nŠ ­ƒ
 \n‰ ‚­ ‰  † ƒ\t­ \t­\t 1», »
1-1» = 1-1£ ˆ \n ‚  \b­\t\n ;
‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n .
­ ­ƒ 
\n ‚  \b­\t\n ­
\n\tŠ\t’­ ­\b 
Œ†, ( ƒ­\t ‚†‡Š) + (1 – 1£ ).
\t € ­  ‚‰‡  \n\t, ‚
† \b ­ƒ 
, ­\n\tŠ\t’­ ­\b 
2 ( ƒ­\t Š \b
ƒ »
 ‰’­:
4= »
ƒ 1», 8, Œ
, 5, »
 ‰’­ ‚\n\t†  † ‚\n ƒ\t’­  ’’ ƒ\t­ \t­\t  \t\t.
 € ‚ ‚\t­\t  \t\t ‚ \n  \n­‰
= 0,5...1,5 ‡ (‚ ‡\n ).
ƒ , 
 ‰’­ ‚\n\tŠ‡  Š‡ .
 ˆ \n  ‰ ‚ ‚\t­\t, 
ˆ \n  ‰ \n­
 ‚\t­\t.
­ Ž  „•  \t\t, \t €\n \t‚­\t
  „† ,
•  \t\t, \t‚­\t  \n† , ‚\n ƒ\t’­ ‚ ­‡ \t\b­Š\t ‰  \t\t

 ­\n ‚ \n­ ‚\t­.
ƒ\n \n
\t ƒ­ Š ­\tƒ  \t\t ‚\n‰’­ ‚\n  •\t.  ‡­ €Š­ \t\b\n ƒŠ‡:
• ‡­ \t‚\n\t\t­‰ ‚
  •  Š  \t\t  ­‡   \n ‚\t ­ 
 ‚‡ \n ƒ\t •  \t ‚ ‚\t­\t  „† ƒ\t­ \t\t ‚\n  •  Š ‚†‡Š,
\t   † ƒ\t­ ˆ ‚\n
 •  Š  \t\t  \b   ­‡  .  ­‡ \n ƒ\t •
 \t
‚ ‚\t­\t „   \b  \t\t 4 ‡.  ­ €Š­    \t \t­Š.
 \t‚\n \n  •\t ‚  •  Š  \t\t  ­‡  
ƒ , 
 ‰’­ ‚\n\t†  † ‚\n ƒ\t’­ \n  ’ •\t  \t\t.
†. 17. ‘ \n  \n \r \n
†\n\n \n   
’’ \n  ’  \t\t ‚‰­ ƒ\b ­ƒ 
‚\n\t’­  \b \t 0,5 ‡ 
­ƒ 
ƒ  
 ‰’­.
• \t ‚ \b\t  \t\t ˆ ­ƒ\t 
ˆ \n ­ \t ‚ƒ ‚‚  \n‰\t,
­\t\n \b ­ƒ 
 
„† ƒ\t­ \n  ‚ ‚\t­\t 
 ‚† \n  †
 \t\t.
‚‡\t­\n\t‰ ­ƒ\t \n‰ ‚­ ‰ \t­\t ˆ ­ƒ\t
8’. ƒ \r    \r †
ƒ 1£, 8£, 
 ‰’­ ‚\n\t†  †.
†\n\n \n  \r\n 
ˆ \t ‚‚  \n‰, ­\t\n‡ \b ­ƒ 
\n‰ ‚­ ‰ \n­† Š­\tƒ \b ­ƒ 
 \n  ‚\t
­\t 
­\t\n‰’­
‚‚  \n‰, ­Š† ‰\n‰­‰ ­† Š­\tƒ
˜­€Š \n  ‰ \n­ ‚\t­\t €Š\n\t ‚\n\t†, Š­\tƒ\t \n
\t  „ ­  \n  ‚\t­\t
\t 1,0...2,0 ‡.
­ ’ \n  ’ ‚‰­ ‚\n\t†  † ƒ\b ­ƒ 
• \t \n­† \n  ­ƒ\t 
, \n ­ \t ‚ƒ ‚
‚  \n‰\t, ­\t\n \b
­ƒ 
 „† ƒ\t­ \n  \n­ ‚\t­\t 
,  \n­† \n  †.
ƒ  
 ‰’­  £
, ‚\n\t†  †, ‚„‰”† ƒ
\b ‚‡\t­\n ’ ­ƒ  7. 
‚\n  ‚\n‰’­ \n 
’” ‡ €\t\b‡:
ƒ £
 ‰’­ ‚\n\t†  †.
  \n\n
\t ’ \n  •‡   Š \t’­ ­  . ‡\t ­  \t\b€\t\b\t.
 ‚ Ž ‚  ‚­ ‰ ƒ­† 
­  ‡ \t\b\n ­ \t ­ Š  ‚‚Š:
ˆ ­\nŠ ­  ­  -­†  \b\n ‰„  \b\t­
† €­\t  „\t;
ˆ ­\nŠ ­  \n‰ \b\n †  \n\tŽ\t\t‡ ;
ˆ ‚\n\n\t”  (‚ Š) ­  .
   ‚­ ‰ ƒ­† ­  \t†  ‚‚Š ‚
\n\t ‚\n\t‰
­ ­ \t‰ „‡\t. ­  ‚†  ‚‚Š ­‰­ ­\n ­ \n Š, ­  ­†
­
­†  ‚‚ ˆ \t ƒ­ \n Š \b\n ‰, ‚ ƒ‡ \n‰ ‚­
 ‰ ƒ­\t ­ Ž
‡­ \b\tƒ  \n • \n  ‰ ­\tƒ \t
 ‰ ­ \t. ­\t\nŠ —\n‡­Š ­ Ž , ­\t  \t
\n  •  Š ­ \t, Š­Š ­† , ­\n­\t Ž ­
 \t, Šƒƒ \t’­  ­­­
 ‡\n’.
ƒ\r \n
­\n† ­   \b\n  \b\t­† €­\t  „\t ­‰­, ‚\t ­\n \b‡ 
\n   ‚\nƒ ‚  \t ƒ­ Š \b\n ‰
­ƒ†Ž
­‰­ ‚‰‡†  \n  • †  ­ƒ , ­ ­† „ ‚ ­ \t\n ­\n\tŠ\t’­
­\b  = 1,5... 11,0 ‡.
­\b  \t ‚“‡   Š ­ \t.  \n ƒ \t \n ‰­ \t ‡  ­ \t:
ƒ‡ \t ‡•, ­‡ €\n ‚\n­ ­  ‚ \n\t­  •; ƒ‡ \t €\n•, ­‡ €\n ‚\n
\n ­ ­ .
\b ­ƒ  \t  \b­\t\n† ­  \n\t \n\t’­ \b\tƒ  \t
  ‡, \tŠ‡ \n  \n Š
‡   ‚‚\tƒŠ† —
Ž ­ (0,1 \n ƒ Š ‚“‡\t  Š ­ \t):
 =
­ƒ†Ž
‚\tƒŠ† — Ž ­ ‰­ \n‰ ­  \n Š \n  \n Š.  \b\t  ­
­ ­‚   \bŠ \n  ­\tƒ
\t ‰ ­ \t.
ƒ    ‰’­. ­\b  ­­­ ­ \n  \n
 Š ­ † \n  ‚ 
 ‚\n \b\t\t ‚\nƒ .
 ‚­ ­   €\n• ‡ ‚“‡‡  Š ( €\n ƒ‡ \t 3,0 ‡) ­\b
 \n‰­ \t ­ \tŠ ƒ\t­ ( .\t):
 =  = /3.
­\b \ \n‰­ ‚‚\n\t‡
\t = \t
˜\b ­ƒ  \t ‚‰­ ‚‚  \n‰Š  \n  , \t ­Š„ ­\n\tŠ\t’­ ­\b :
= 0,4...0,5 ‡ „.
  ’ ­\tƒ \t ‰ ­ \t ‚‰­,    ‚\n\t†  † ­ƒ , 
 ‚­ ­   \b\tƒ ­\nŠ‡ ‚“‡‡ 
 Š (€\n ƒ‡ \t 3,0 ‡)
­\b  \n‰­ ‚‚\n\t‡ ( . €):
 =  = /2.
\b ­ƒ  ‚‰­ ‚‚  \n‰  ‚‰‡†  ­\n\tŠ\t
’­ \t ‡ ­\b 
= 1,0...4,5 ‡  \b\t  ‡­ ­ \n Š ­\b\t .
  ’ ­\tƒ \t ‰ ­ \t ‚‰­,    ‚\n\t†  † ­ƒ , 
, .  ƒ\t
‚­ ‰ \n   \n  ­\tƒ \t ‰ ­ \t  \t \t’­  \n † \n Š \b\n ‰.
†. 18. ƒ\r \n \r \n
­‰­ \n  ’ ­† ­ \t. \n‰ —­ \t ­ \t\n  „ ­ ­ƒ  ­\n\tŠ\t’­
­\b 
­­­ ’” † Š
­ ­†
  ’ ­† ‚‰­,    ­ƒ 
 ‚\n\t†  †.
ž  \t ­ \t ‚  
‚\n‰­‰ ‚ ‡\n .
\n‰ ‚­ ‰ \n  † ­\n­\t Ž ­ \t \b ­ƒ  ­\t\n‰’­ ‚‚  \n‰ 
‚‰‡†  ­\n\tŠ\t’­ \t ‡ ­\b 
­ ­ƒ 
‚\t ‚‰­  \b­\t\n ­\n\tŠ\t’­ \t † ­\b 
, \tŠ† \n 
Š­ ‚\t ‚ Ž\t ­ \t:
ƒ 
,  ‰’­ ‚‰‡†, \b  Š ‚\n ƒ ­
\b\t ­\t\n‰’­ ‚‚  \n‰,
\t ­‡ ­\n\tŠ\t’­ ­
\b 1-2.
  ’ ­\n­\t Ž\t ­ \t ‚‰­,    ­ƒ 
.  ­\t
‡ ­ ­\n­ ‚\n\t†  †, 
   ­ƒ 
, \t ŽŠ ­ \t ˆ ‚‰‡† ( \n \n
\t  ­†) \n  †,    ­ƒ  
\t\b€\t\b  ­  ­ \t­‰ €\n\t\t‰ \t\b\n ƒŠ‡ Š
­ ­† , •   ­ \t
‡\n ‡  Ž ­\n­\t.
\b‡Š \t \t­Š ‡\n ‰ ­\n­\t Ž ­ \t ‚\t\b\tŠ \t  .18 .
-
 ­ \t„-­†\t„, \t  ­\nŠ„ ­ \t„, ­
 ­  \b\tƒ  ‡­ \n  ‰
­\tƒ \t ‰  \n  .  ‡\n \n  ­\tƒ \t ‰ ‚ ‚‰‡† ­†\t ‚ ‡­ ­
 ‚\n  ­ ­\n • ( . \t).  ‚“‡ ‚
 „ Ž ‡\n \n 
­\tƒ \t ‰ Š‚ \n†  † ­†\t ‚ ‡­ \t\n ‚\n , ‚ ƒ‡   \n ƒ ‡ ‚“‡\t
„ † \t† ­† € ­ \t‚\n\t\t­‰ €\n   • ( . €).  ‚“‡  Š ­†
‡\n ‰ \n
 ­\tƒ \t ‰  ­†  † ­†\t ‚ ‡­ €\t\b
 ’ ‡ , ­.
. „ † \t† € ­ ­­\t\t­ ­ • ( .5.).  \b\t  ‡­ ­ ‡\n ƒ­ ­ \t-
­† ‡­ €Š­ ‚­ \t \t €Šƒ† ‚ •   \n €  \n , ­\t \t \n ,
\t• † ‚ ‚\nƒŠ‡ \b\t‡  \n €\n†  ­Š ‚  ‚\t.
†. 19. - \r \n
  (. 19 )
˜­ ‚‰‡† ­† ‚­\t\n‰­ €† ‚‰‡ \n . \n \t ­†  \t\t \n 
\n Š \b\n ‰:
 =
l’ \r
Š­\t ­†
\n\n\t”  ­ 
\n\n\t”  \n ‚†Š ­  ‡’­ \t €\n ‚\n ’ ‡ . †Š
­  ‡ ­ €Š­ €\b ­† \n  €\n•† ­†† (Š­† 1,0...2,0 ‡).
˜­ ­‰­ \t \n  ‚  ‚\nƒ , ƒ ‚\nƒŠ \bŠ ‡”\t’­ ‚ \b\tŠ­Š„
Š­\tƒ\t„ ­\t, ƒ­€Š • Š 
\n Š ‚\t\n , \t • Š ‚†‡Š \t„ \n   \t  \t \t
1,0... 3,0 ‡.  €\n•‡ \b\t„ Š­\t ­† ­ \t  \n
ƒ \t­‰.
†. 20. \r\r‚ \n \r \n
  ‰ ­\tƒ \t ‰ ­ \t ‚­‰­ \n  ’ \n Š ‚ 
 ‚\nƒ . ž   
­ \t, \t ­\t ‡  ­\n­\t ‚
\n‰’­ \n\t ‡\n .
 \b\t  ‡­ ­ ‡\n ‰ \n Š ­\n­\t ‚\n\n\t
”  ­  ‡ ­ €Š­
 \nŠ‡ ­ ‚\t ‚\n Š ( ., \t),  \n Š‡ , «‡\t­ ‡ » ( ., €).
…\tƒƒ 
1. \t‚\n ­  ‚\t \n† ‚\n\t­\n­ ‚‰ \t€­Š ‚ ‚­ ƒ­\t
Š ’€ :
) ‚­  €\t\b † ­ ;
‹) ‚­  ƒ­\t Š ’€ ;
) Š€ „Š„ \tŠ„.
2. \t  ‚ €\t  ‚  ‡\t’­   ‡\t  ‚ ‚­ ƒ­\t ‚\nƒŠ„ \b\n †
€ ‚ \n\t ‰? Š€ ­ ‚\t \nŠ† ­­:
) ‚ \n  €  Š­ \n Š ‚  ;
‹) ‚ \n     •   \n Š;
) ‚ \n  ­\t\n ‚ \n  €.
3. \t\t : ‚­ ­ ƒ­  ‚‰Š„ (‚‰‡†  ƒ† ’€, €’) ‚\nƒŠ„
\b\n † \n‰ ƒ (\n\t€\t­Š \t€­Š Ÿ2 Ÿ3)
2.3.     ƒ \t
­   ­ Ž Š \n‰ ‡\t\nƒ  ‚
‰­ ‚ ­‡  —­\t‚\t‡, ƒ­ \n‰
­\t\n† Š: ‚\n ƒ  „Š„ \tŠ„, \tƒ­  ‚\n\t­\n­ Š€\t† ‡­
­  \t ‰  ­ƒ­’  0,1 ‡, ‚­  €\t\b 
† ­ ƒ­\t, \tƒ­ ‚­ 
\n  † ƒ­\t Š ­ Ž \b\n ‰, ‚\t \tƒ­\t Š‚\n ƒ­\t.
2.3.1.   \n  \r \r \r\f\n
 ‚‰Š‡ \b\n ‰‡ \n‰ ‡\t\nƒ , \t \n‰ ‡ ƒ , ­
‰­ \t\b\n ƒŠ  Š €’.
Š ­\t\n ­ ­ Š \n  €’ \n‰ ‡\t\nƒ  \t\t\n ƒŠ  ‡ ‡  ‡
€’
\t‡. \n\t\t‡ ‚­   ”­\n ‚ ‡­
  ‘ž.
„Š \tŠ \n‰ ‚­ ‰ ƒ­\t Š
\n‰ ‚­ ‰ ƒ­\t Š €’ €„ ‡ \b\t­ \b
‡ ‰   Š ‚ €\t 
Š‡ \b‡ ‰‡.
„\r 16
\n†, …­ ƒ   € Š
€\b\tƒ  \b‡ ‰
\t ‡\t  \b‡ ‰
\n ƒ \t \b‡ ‰, ‡
(\t\b‡ 134/68)
\n €„\t­ ­\t\n
\n €„\t­ €
\t­‰  ­ \n  ­\t\n  \n 
\n†
\n \t €’
 €\t :
„\r 17
\b€   € Š ƒ €ƒ„‚
†­ 
­\b
\t‚\t\n 
‚‡” ‰
\tƒ­\t‰ ‡ \n\t
\n \t
­\b\t,
­  €\t\b † ­
‚\n  ‚\n ‰
\n    ‰
 \b ‚ ­ \t\n
‡  
+2,0 ‡ \n‰ ‡\t\nƒ  ‰\n† •\n†  ‚‚;
+1,0 ‡ \n‰ ‡\t\nƒ  ‡\n\t•† ­\t•† •\n†  ‚‚;
‡ \n‰ ‡\t\nƒ  ‚­†  ‚‚Š.
‚\n  ‚\n ‰
\n  \n†
 \b ‚ ­ \t\n
‚\n  \n   \b\t
 \b ‚ ­ \t\n
‚\n  \n  €
„ ‚ ­ \t\n
˜\b ­ƒ 
‚‰­ €\t\b Š  \b­\t\n
‚\n  •  Š
‚† ƒ\t­ €’ ‚ \n 
€
‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n
‡.  
1,0 ‡ \n‰ ­† ‰\n†, •\n† ‡\n\t•† •\n†  ‚‚;
1,5 ‡ \n‰ ­† ­\t•† •\n† ‚­†  ‚‚.
˜\b ­ƒ  ‹
‚­ ­ \t\n, ‚ƒ  ­†   \b­\t\n’ 
€\b\tƒ ­ 
 \b­\t\n’ \b ­ƒ ›
ˆ ­ƒ† ›
‚\n  •  Š •\t\t
‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n
‚\n  \n   €\t
€’
‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n
‹=‹‹
˜\b ­ƒ  ‹ ‚­ ­ \t\n, ­ƒ ‚ƒ ‰ ­†  €\t\b ‡  \b­\t\n‰‡
€\b\tƒ ­ , ›, , .
ž    €’ ‚ \n   \b\t  ­‡   ž
‚\n‰’­ „‰ \b \n\t ‰ \b\t\t\bƒ \t \n
\n\t ‡‡  \t‚\t\n ’. \t  ‡  „ €’\t„, •
 \t  \b\t ‚† ƒ\t­ ‡•, ƒ‡
\b\t† ƒ\t­ , \t 4,0 ‡: 
‚\n  •  Š
€’ ‚ \n   \b\t
\n ‚\t ‚
 \b­\t\n
ž    €’ ‚† ƒ\t­ ‚ \n  \n† \n ‚\n‰’­ ‚ ‡
\n , \n  ‰’­ ­ƒ
\t ‚ƒ ‚\n ƒ† ‚‰‡†   \b­\t\n’  ­\t‰­ ­ƒ  
. ­ —­† ­ƒ ‚\t
‚  \b­\t\n ­
\n\tŠ\t’­ ­\b \n † 1,0... 1,5 ‡ ‚\n ƒ\t’­ ­ƒ  
, ‚ ƒ‡ ƒ‡ ‡•
•  \t €’, ­‡ €\n• \n \t —­ ­\b\t.
ž  \t ‚† ƒ\t­
\t   \n†
‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n
 ‰’­ ­ƒ ‹
, \t ‚
ƒ ‚\n ƒ† ‚‰‡†  
 \b­\t\n’ \b ­ƒ ›
‚\n ƒ\t’­ ­ƒ
  ›
, ˆ •   •\t† \n  ‚
† ƒ\t­ €’.
­  ‚† ƒ\t­ €’
\n  • Š † \n  ‚† ƒ\t­ €’ \n‰ ­† ‰\n† •\n†
 ‚‚ ( ‡’” „   Š  Š­ ‚\t’” ‡  ­‡) ‚\n‰­ ­\b 
, ­Š† ­\n\tŠ\t’­
„ ‚ ­ \t\n ­ ­ƒ 
(\t     ‚\t\b\t).
\n‰ ­\t\nŠ„  ‚‚ ‚\n  • Š † \n  ‚† ƒ\t­ €’ ‚\n‰­ ­\b 
\n  • Š
† \n 
\n ‚  \b­\t\n
‚\n 
‚‡\t­\n† ­ƒ 1
‚\t „ ‚
€ ­   \n\t ‹
­ ’’ \n  ’ ƒ\b ­ƒ 
ž  \t ‚† ƒ\t­
€’ ‚ \n  ­\t\n
\n ‚  \b­\t\n
  ˆ \t­ Š­\tƒ , \tŠ† 2,0¢2,5 ‡;
 ˆ \n € \t \n\t , \t\t‰ 3,0¢5,0 ‡.
ƒ\t 
\t     ‚\t\b\t\t.
 €’\t„ \n‰ ‡\t\nƒ   ‚­  ’­ Š­\tƒ , \n\t , €Šƒ ƒ­- €  .
ƒ ƒ\t­ \n\t’­  €\n•  \n\t .  \b\n ‰„ \n‰ ­† ‰\n† •\n†  ‚‚ Š­\tƒ
‚ ­\t\n €”  ‚­  ’­. ­\b 
­\n\tŠ\t’­ ‚  \b­\t\n , ‚† \b ­ƒ
.  \b\n ‰„ \n‰ ­† ‰\n† •\n†  ‚‚ ­ƒ  
‚\n ƒ\t’­ \t ‚ƒ   \b­\t\n ,
‚† \b ­ƒ 
­\b\t 
, ‚ —­‡ 
ˆ • \t €† \n  .  \b\n ‰„ \n‰ ­†
­\t\nŠ„  ‚‚ • † €† \n  € ­ ­ƒ\t 
, ­ ’ ‚\n ƒ\t’­, ­\n  ­ ­ƒ 
„
‚ ­ \t\n ­\b 
ƒ  
)  ‰’­  ­ƒ† 
) ‚\n\t†  † ‚\n ƒ\t’­ \n  ’ ­\t\n ‚†
ƒ\t­ .
Š­\tƒ  €Šƒ \t‚\n\t\t’­ ‚ † \n  , ­\n  ‚\t \n ­  ‚ ‚\n 
\t­\t (\t     ‚\t\b\t). \n \t Š­\tƒ \t\t 5,0¢7,5 ‡ ( \b\t  ‡­ ­ ‡\n ). Œ\n €  
\n\t €Šƒ ­\n\tŠ\t’­ \n ­ † \n  .  \n ƒ\t ‚­ \t ‰  „ \n\t \n € \t
‚† \t\t 0,6 \n ƒ Š €” \t­\t , ­† ­­­ 0,4, ‚ —­‡ \t­‰  ‡ 
\n\t\t‡ 4,0¢6,0 ‡.
  ’ € \t‰ ‡\n‰’­,    ‚\n\t†  † ­ƒ 
‚‰
‚‰‡ ’  ­ƒ 
  ’ ‚ \t‰ ‡\n‰’­,    ‚\n\t†  † ­ƒ ›
‚‰ ‚‰‡ ’ 
­ƒ 
  ‰  \b\t ‚„‰­ ƒ\b ­ƒ 
­  \b\t† ƒ\t­ €’
ž  \t €’ ‚ \n 
 \b\t
\n ‚\t ‚
 \b­\t\n
ž  \t €’ ‚ \n 
\n†
\n ‚\t ‚
 \b­\t\n
ž  \t \b\t† ƒ\t­ ‚
\n  €
= ‡  
)+1,0 ‡  \b\n ‰„ \n‰ ­† ‰\n†, •\n† ‡\n\t•† •\n†  ‚‚;
)+1,5 ‡  \b\n ‰„ \n‰ ­† ­\t•† •\n† ‚­†  ‚‚.
ž  \t •\t\t \b\t†
ƒ\t­ ‚ \n  €
‚\n  ­ƒ ‹
\n ‚  \b­\t\n
­ ­ƒ ‹
‚\t ­\n\tŠ\t’­ •    \b\t† ƒ\t­ ‚ \n  € ˆ ­\b ‹
‚\n ƒ\t’­
­ƒ  ‹
. ­ ­ƒ ‹
­\t ‚\t ­\n\tŠ\t’­ •    •\t\t ‚ \n  € ˆ ­\b ‹
‚\n ƒ\t’­
­ƒ  ‹
‚\n 
\t‚\t\n ‰ † \n 
\n ‚  \b­\t\n
‡  
=2,0 ‡  \b\n ‰„ \n‰ ­† ‰\n† •\n†  ‚‚;
=3,0 ‡  \b\n ‰„ \n‰ ­† ‡\n\t•† ­\t•† •\n†  ‚‚;
=4,0 ‡  \b\n ‰„ \n‰ ­† ‚­†  ‚‚Š  €„\t­‡   84-92 ‡;
=4,0 ‡  \b\n ‰„ \n‰ ­† ‚­†  ‚‚Š  €„\t­‡   96-104 ‡;
˜\b ­ƒ 
‚‰­ ‚‰‡ ’, ‚ ‚ƒ ­†   \b­\t\n’, ‚† \b
­ƒ ›
, ‚\n ƒ\t’­ ­ƒ  ›
; ­ƒ\t ›
‡­ \t„ ­‰ \t ‚\t, ­\t \n ­ ­ƒ ›
ž  \t ‚ \n  ­\t\n
\n ‚  \b­\t\n
 
ˆ \t­
Š­\tƒ ,
\tŠ†1,5¢2,5 ‡
  ’ € \t‰ ‡\n‰’­, ‚\n\t    ­ƒ 
‚‰ \b\t­‡ ‚‰‡ ’ 
­ƒ 
\t \t’­ €Š \n  ‚† \b\t† ƒ\t­ .  —­‡ ­ ­ƒ 
\t \n  
­\n\tŠ\t’­
­\b, \tŠ† 
, ‚\n ƒ\t’­ ­ƒ  
•   † \n  ˆ ­ƒ  
‚\n ƒ\t’­, \n\t \b\tƒ  \t ‚\n ‚‰‡† ‹
­ƒ  \t  ‡ 
.  ‰’­ ­ƒ 
‚\n ƒ\t’­ \n  ’ ­\t\n \b\t† ƒ\t­ . Š­\tƒ  ‚
\n  ­\t\n \t‚\n\t\t’­ ‚  ­\b\t 
. \n \t Š­\tƒ 6,0¢7,5 ‡.
 ‰’­ ­ƒ 
\t ‚\n ƒ† ‚‰‡† ­ ­ƒ 
­\n\tŠ\t’­ ­\b 
‚\n  • Š
•\t† \n  ›
ž\t ’ \n  ’ ‡\n‰’­, ‚\n\t    ­ƒ ›
‚‰ \b\t­‡ ‚‰‡ ’  ­ƒ 
‚\n 
‚‡\t­\n† ­ƒ 2
„ ‚\t ‚
€ ­   \n\t ‹
’’ \n  ’ ‡\n‰’­, ‚\n\t    ­ƒ ›
‚‰ \b\t­‡ ‚‰‡ ’  ­ƒ
  ‰  \b\t ‚„ ­ ƒ\b ­ƒ 
’’ \n  ’ ‡\n‰’­, ‚\n\t    ­ƒ ›
‚‰ \b\t­‡ ‚‰‡ ’  ­ƒ
†. 20.   
   \r \r\f\n
†.21.  

    \r \r\f\n
3.2.2.   \n \r\n \r \r \r\f\n
 ‚\nƒŠ‡ \b\n ‰‡ €Š­† „† Š \n‰ ‡\t\nƒ
 ­‰­ ƒ ,  \n­Š,
‚ \t ,  ­ , ‚\n\t” , ‚\t\n­. ˜\t”  —­ \t‚\t•\t‰ \t.
­  ƒ­\t ‚\nƒ \b\n ‰ \tƒ \t’­  €\t\b † ­ , \t ­† ­‰­ ‚  
‚\nƒ  ( €ƒ, \n  ­); ­\n ­‰­ ƒ­  \t\t ­ \t.
„\r 18
\n†, …­ ƒ   € ƒ‚’ †ƒ
€\b\tƒ 
\b‡ ‰
\t ‡\t  \b‡ ‰
\n ƒ \t
\b‡ ‰, ‡
(\t\b‡ 134-68)



\n €„\t­ •
\n €„\t­   ­­ †
\n €„\t­ ­\t\n
\n €„\t­ €   ƒ­‡ Š­ ‚\t ‰  ­\t
ž  \t  
\t­‰  ­ \n  ­\t\n \b\t  Š•† ­ƒ
‚­  ‡ ‚\nƒ •\t   \t ‰ •
\t­‰  ­ Š•† ­ƒ ‚­  ‡ ‚\nƒ
•\t   \t ‰ •  \n  ­\t\n ‚
\t­‰  ­ Š•† ­ƒ ‚­  ‡ •\t  
\t ‰ •   ‰ \b\t  \n\t ‚‡Š•ƒ†
‚\t Š
Š­\t ‚\nƒ\t \t‰
ž  \t ‚ Š
\n \t \b\n ‰
ž  \t ‚\nƒ \t­\t
\n \t  \t\t
€„\t­ ‚\nƒ\t
 €\t , ‡:
= 10,0
= 1,7
ž
= 1,8
= 8,5

= 1,0
=3,5
žŒ
= 1,7
= 9,6
„\r 19
\b€   € †’ €ƒ„ ƒ €ƒ„‚
†­ 
­\b
\t‚\t\n 
‚‡” ‰
\tƒ­\t‰ ‡ \n\t
\n \t
­\b\t,
\t €†   €
 \n  \n € Š
‚†‡Š
 \b ‚ ­ \t\n



 \n‚\t­
 \b ‚ ­ \t\n
 \n  ­\t\n
 \b ‚ ­ \t\n
‡  

\n‰ ‚ \n\t’” ‚\n ‚ \n\t’”  \n —­;
¥ 0,5¢1,0

\n‰ ‚‰‡  \n —­\t.
— Ž ­ ‚\n‰­‰  \b\t  ‡­ ­ \t . \n‰  ­ 
\n†   Š  \t 0,5, \n‰ ‡\t\n†
0,7, \n‰ ‚ € ­†   Š 1,0.
 \n  €
 \b ‚ ­ \t\n

 \b\n ‰„ \n‰ ­† ‰\n† •\n†  ‚‚ €­‰ — Ž ­ 2,0, \n‰ ­† ‡\n\t•†
­\t•† •\nŠ„  ‚‚ 3,0, \n‰ ­† ‚­†  ‚‚Š 5,0.
\b ­ƒ 
, Œ,  ‹ ‚‰­  \b­\t\n .
­ ­ƒ  ‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n ­\n\tŠ\t’­ \n ƒ   ­
 ‰ † \n  ‚  ˆ
­\b 
. ™­\t \n ƒ \t \b\t
  ­ ­  \n —­\t, \t\n ƒ ‰ \n ­ ­­ ‰ •\t ‚  
€­†
\t (‡. ­\t€\n Ž , \tŠ ‚ Š \n‰ ­ ‚†   Š  ‡\t\n† \t†) .
 ƒ  \f       
 \n —­
\n ƒ \t ­ ‰, ‡  \b\n ‰„  ‚ †
\t\b\b† (  ‡ •‡)
\n‰ ­†
\t\b\b† (€\b 
•\t) \n‰ ­†
‰\n†,
•\n†
‡\n\t•†
•\n†  ‚‚
­\t•†
•\n†
‚­†
 ‚‚
‰\n†,
•\n†
‡\n\t•†
•\n†  ‚‚
­\t•†
•\n†
‚­†
 ‚‚
‰‡†
\n ‚ \n\t’” †
‚ \n\t’” †
\n‰ ‚ € ­Š„    \n ƒ   ­ ‰, ‚  ’  ­\t€\n Ž,  ‡•\t’­, \t \n‰  ­ \nŠ„
 \n ƒ \t’­ \t 0,5 ‡.
†. 22.      \r\n  \r \r \r\f\n
 ‰’­ ­ƒ   
\n‰ \b\n †  \t\b\b† ‚ † ­ƒ 
\n‰ \b\n † 
\t\b\b† ‚ †. \t ‚ƒ
 ­\b  
  \b­\t\n’, ‚† \b ­ƒ Œ,
‚\n ƒ\t’­ ­ƒ  .
ž  \t €\t\b † ­
‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n
ž  \t ‚ 
‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n
ž  \t ‚\nƒ
\n ‚  \b­\t\n
ž  \t ‚†‡Š
\t \t’­ \n   ­\b\t \t\t
(•    ‚†‡Š)  † •  † ‚†‡Š, ‚ †  \n ’” „
­\t€\n Ž\t„.
„\r 6.5
 ‘€ ­ ‚ †ƒ…  ‚€­ ‰€‚ ƒ ‚­…
Œ’‰ €ƒ„‚ ƒ„, ‘ƒ„  ƒ€‘ ‘ƒ„ ’‰
\b\n 
‰‰ •  \t ‚†‡Š, ‡.  \b\n ‰„ \n‰ ­†
›\n†  ‚‚Š 
€„\t­‡   , ‡
•\n†
 ‚‚Š  €„\t­‡
  , ‡
\n\t•† •\n†  ‚‚Š 
€„\t­‡   , ‡
 \t,  ­\t
‡ \b, \n­
‚\t\n­
 ‡ ‚\t\n­ 
 ­‚\n‰’”† ‚\n\t†
­\n” † 0,4 ‡
 ‡ ‚\t\n­ 
 ­‚\n‰’”† ‚\n\t†
 ‘€ ­ ‚ †ƒ…  ‚€­ ‰€‚ ƒ ‚­…
Œ’‰ €ƒ„‚ €‘ ‘ƒ„  ‚ ’‰
\b\n 
‰‰ •  \t ‚†‡Š, ‡,  \b\n ‰„ \n‰ ­†
­\t•† •\n†  ‚‚Š 
€„\t­‡   , ‡
‚­†  ‚‚Š  €„\t­‡   , ‡
 \t,  ­\t
‡ \b,
\n­ ‚\t\n­
 ‡ ‚\t\n­
  ­‚\n‰’”†
‚\n\t†
­\n” † 0,4 ‡
 ‡ ‚\t\n­
  ­‚\n‰’”†
‚\n\t† 0,8 ‡
\n •  \t \t\t
‡­ €\n• ­\n  ­  \b\t
ƒ ‰, ­  ­  ’­, \b‡  
\n ’ ‚
€\t  
\b ­ƒ \t, \t
‚‰­ ­ \t\n .  ‡­\t„ „ ‚ƒ ‰   \b­\t\n’, ‚† \b
­ƒ Œ, ­\t‰­ Œ
. 
\n  —­ ­ \t\n  ‚ƒ ‰   \b­\t\n’, ‚
† \b ­ƒ
, ‚\n ƒ\t’­ ­ƒ 
. \n  ­ \t\n \b ­ƒ \t
 ‚ƒ ‰   \b­\t\n’ ‹, ‚\n ƒ\t’­
­ƒ  ‹
\t ƒ ’ƒ‚­  ƒ‚ ƒ 
\n ƒ  †
„ ‚ ­ \t\n
 \b\n ‰„  \t\b\b† ‚ † ’’ \n  ’ ‚   
„† ƒ\t­ (  ‰ \n‚\t­) ­‰­
‚\t \t 0,5 ‡: 
\n   \t ƒ  ­ \n\t‰, ­ ­\b 
 \n ƒ \t’­  1,0 ‡.
ž  \t \n Š
‚\t ‚
‚‚  \n‰   
žŒ
Š­\t (\n € \t)
\n Š
 \b ‚ ­ \t\n
˜\b ­ƒ  
‚‰­ ‚‰‡ ’, ‚\t\t\n\n\n ’ 
, \t ‚ƒ   ‚‰‡† 
­\t‰­ ­ƒ  .
­  ‚\nƒ \t‰ ‚ 
\n  ‚\nƒ†
­ƒ ‚  (Ž ‚\nƒ†
\b ­ƒ 
\t  ‡
 ‚‰­   
\n  ‚\nƒ†
­ƒ ‚ 
\b ­ƒ 
\t  ‡
‡  
ˆ \n‰ ‚ \n\t’” ‚\n ‚ \n\t’”  \n —­;
ˆ \n‰ ‚‰‡  \n —­\t
­  ‚\nƒ \t‰ ‚\nƒ
\nƒ† \t† ‚\nƒ
\n ‚  \b­\t\n
\nƒ† \t† ‚\nƒ
„ ‚
‚‚  \n‰ 
\n ƒ \t  ­’ \t ‰
„ ‚ ­ \t\n
\n‰ \b\n †  ­\bŠ‡ €ƒ\t‡
 ‰’­ ­ƒ Œ
\b ­ƒ Œ
 ‚\n ƒ† ‚‰‡† ­\t\n‰’­ ‚‚  \n‰ 
‚ƒ ‰   \b­\t\n’, ‚
† ƒ\b ­ƒ  
. \n ƒ ’ ­ƒ  €\b\tƒ\t’­ 
„’’ ƒ\t­ \n  ‚\n \b\t\t ­‰­ ­ 
\t \n ƒ   
\n‰ ‚ € ­Š„     \t\b ­Š‡ ‚\nƒŠ‡ ‚‰‡ 
\n‰  ­ \nŠ„     \t\nŠ‡ ‚ ‚\nƒŠ‡ ‚‰‡ 
­\b 
­\n\tŠ\t’­ ­ ­ƒ 
, \n ‚  \b­\t\n .
š \n  ‰ ‚\n \b\t\t  „† ƒ\t­ ‚\nƒ .
ž  \t \n Š
‚\nƒ
\n ‚  \b­\t\n
˜\b ­ƒ  
‚‰­ ­ \t\n, \t ‚ƒ ­†   \b­\t\n’, ‚† \b
­ƒ , ‚\n ƒ\t’­ ­ƒ  
\n ƒ \t ‚ \t \n 
­\t\n
 \b ‚ ­ \t\n
‡  
=1,5...2,5 ‡  \b\n ‰„ \n‰ ­† ‰\n† •\n
†  ‚‚ (1,5... 1,7 ‡ \n‰ ­ ‚Š„   ,
2,0...2,5 ‡ \n‰     €\n• ‡ Š­ ‚\t ‡  ­\t);
= 1,0... 1,5 ‡  \b\n ‰„ \n‰ ­† ‡\n\t•† ­\t•† •\nŠ„  ‚‚ (‚ —­‡ 1,0... 1,5 ‡ \n‰
­ ‚Š„    
= 1,5...2,0 ‡ \n‰     €\n• ‡ Š­ ‚\t ‡  ­\t);
= 1,0 ‡  \b\n ‰„ \n‰ ­† ‚­†  ‚‚Š.
˜\b ­ƒ  
‚\t ‚‰­  \b­\t\n \t  ‚ƒ
  ­ \t\n’, ‚† \b
­ƒ \t
, ‚\n ƒ\t’­ ­ƒ  
• \t \n Š
‚\nƒ
„ ‚ ­ \t\n
‡  

,  
ˆ ‚ €\t\t \t  \t€­ , ­\n”   \t\n  ­\t :
= 0,3...0,7 \n‰ ‚ \t,  ­;
= 1,0... 1,3 \n‰ \n­ „, ‡ \bŠ„ ‚\t\n­;
= 1,5...2,0 \n‰ \b ‡ „ ‚\t\n­.
Œ\n € \t \n Š
‚\nƒ
 \b ‚ ­ \t\n
\b ­ƒ 
‚ \t’­ ‚‚  \n‰ \t \n  ’ Œ
‚\n 
ƒ\t’­ ­ƒ  
‚‡\t­\n\t‰ ­ƒ\t
„ ‚ ­ \t\n
 ˆ \n ƒ \t  ­’ \t ‰ \n Š­\tƒ  ‚†‡ ‚  , \t\t‰ 0,5¢1,0 ‡
‚‡\t­\n\t‰ ­ƒ\t
„ ‚ ­ \t\n
\b ­ƒ 
\t  ‡
\b ­ƒ 
, \t  ‡ 
‚‰­    \n ­ ­ƒ 
\n\t’­ \t † \b\tƒ  \t  ‡
, \tŠ‡ ž
 ‰’­ ­ƒ 
‚\n ƒ\t’­ ‚\nƒ ’ \n  ’ ‚\nƒ .
\t  Œƒ 
’’ \n  ’ ‚  ‡\n‰’­  \b\t  ‡­ ­  \n —­\t \t\n ƒ ‰ \n ­ ­­ ‰ 
•\t.
\t  . ‚ Š ‚ ‡Š ‡\n ‰ † \n  ‚    ‡ •‡ ( \t\b\b†
‚ †)  \b\n ‰„ ‚
\n\t’” ‚\n ‚ \n\t’”  \n —­ ( . \t), ‚‰‡  \n —­\t ( . €) €\b
 •\t ( \t\b\b† ‚ †) ‚‰‡  \n —­\t ( . ).
†.23.   \r 
 \b\n ‰„  \t\b\b† ‚ †  ‰’­ ­ƒ 
‚\n ƒ ’ \n  ’ ‚\n\t’­
 \b  ‚ƒ ‰   \b
­\t\n’, ‚† \b ­ƒ ‹,  ­ƒ ‹
\n   \b\n ‰ ­\n\t
Š\t’­ ‚ —­† \n  ­ ­ƒ :

ˆ ‰‰ \n  ‰ ‚  €\b •\t (\t\b\b†).
 \b\n ‰„  \t\b\b† ‚ † ‚‰‡ ’  
‚\n\t’­  \b  ‚ƒ ‰   \b­\t\n’,
‚† \b ­ƒ ‹,  ­ƒ
 ‹
.  \b\n ‰„ ‚ \n\t’” ‚\n ‚ \n\t’”  \n —­\t ­ ­ƒ 
‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n ­\n\tŠ\t’­ ­\b, \tŠ† \n ƒ  ‚ ­\t\n­ (Š­\tƒ\t  ‡ •)
­\b 
\n‰­ ‚‚\n\t‡      ‰’­  ­ƒ
† ‹
. \n ƒ ’ \n  ’
‚\n\t’­  \b.
’’ \n  ’ ‚‰­ ƒ\b ­ƒ ,  , 
, \t\n \t —­† ‚\n† \n 
­\n\tŠ\t’­ \n   \b\n ‰ 
 \b\n ‰„ ‚‰‡  \n —­\t ‚‰‡ ’  
‚\n\t’­  \b. ’’ \n  ’ ‚‰­ ƒ\b
­ƒ ,  , 
\t\n ‚ ‚‰‡† ­\n\tŠ\t’­ \t † \n   \b\n ‰ 
˜\b ­ƒ  
‚‰­ ‚‰‡ ’, ‚‚  \n‰ ’ ­ \t
\n \b ­ƒ 
, ‚\n ƒ\t’­ ­ƒ  .
  ‰  \b\t ‚  ‚„ ­ ƒ\b ­ƒ  
‚‚  \n‰  † ƒ\t­ † \n 
  ’ ­\t\n ‚‰­ ƒ\b ­ƒ  
) ‚‚  \n‰  \n  ‰‡:
 \b\n ‰„   ‡ •‡;
 \b\n ‰„ €\b  •\t.
  ’ \n Š ‡\n‰’­,  ‰‰ ­ƒ  
‚\n\t†  †, ‚„‰”† 
‚‚  \n‰  † \n
 ‚  (\t \t­‰  ‡ 2,5 ‡).
 ‡\n ‡ \n  ‚†‡Š ‚  ‚\n‰’­ ‚\n
  ‚\nƒ† ­ƒ ‚  
 ƒ­‡ ­„\n ƒ† €\t€­ . Š‚ \n­ ‚  , €„ ‡ ’ \n‰ €\n\t ‰ \n‚\t­, €‚
ƒ \t’­  ‚‡”’ ‚\t  ­’ \t ‰ ­\t ‚ ‚\nƒ‡  \t’ \n  ‚†‡Š. \t €Š\n
 \t\b\t Š•, ‚­  ­ƒ ›  ƒ ­Š\t­ \t\n ƒ   ­’ \t ‰ ‚ \n  ‚†‡Š. \t  
( \n Š­\tƒ ) ‚ ‚\nƒ‡  \t’  ƒ ­Š\t’­, ­\n\tŠ\t‰ \t ‚
\n \n  ‚\nƒ\t ­\b 
= 0,3... 1,2 ‡. \n \t ­\b\t 
\b\t  ­ ­ ­‚ Š­ ‚\t ‰ \n‚\t­. Š­\tƒ  \n\t’­, \n ­\t
‚\n„  ­’ \t­‰ \n \n \n \t ­\b\t 
\n \n \t. \n  \b\n ‚ ‡\t­ \t­‰
‚‚\nƒ , ­ \b ­ƒ 
\t  ‡, \tŠ‡ 
, ‚‰­ „    \t † ­\n\tŠ
\t’­ ­\b
, \tŠ†  \n  ’ ‚†‡Š ‚  \t ‚\nƒ
 ’ \t\n\t  (‚‚\nƒ ). \t \tŠ† \t­ ‡­
­\n” Š ‚\nƒ
† \t\n\t ‚†‡\t  \n ‰­‰ \t 2,5 ‡.
,  
ˆ ‚ €\t\t  \n  ‰ ‚†‡Š \t ‚\nƒ ’ \t\n\t ; 
ˆ ‚\nƒ\t‰ \n 
†.24.   \n 
   \r\f \r \r\f\n
‚\n 
‚‡\t­\n† ­ƒ 
„ ‚ ­ \t\n
‚\n 
‚‡\t­\n† ­ƒ 1
„ ‚\t ‚
€ ­   \n\t 
‚\n 
‚‡\t­\n† ­ƒ Œ
‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n
  ’ ‚†‡Š ‚  ‚‰­,  ‰‰ ‚\n\t†  † ­ƒ 
 \b ­ ­ƒ Œ
‚‰­ ­ \t\n, \t ‚ƒ ­†   \b­\t\n’ \b ­ƒ  ­\t‰­
­ƒ  
, \t  \n  † ­\t\n ‚  ˆ ­ƒ  
­  ‡\n  ‚\nƒ
  ’ \n Š ‚\nƒ ‚‰­ ƒ\b ­ƒ 
. \n‰ —­ \b ­ƒ 
\t  ‡,
\tŠ‡ 
, ‚‰­    . \b ­ƒ „ ‚ƒ ‰ —­ ‡  \t  ‡ ‚‰­ \n  ’
\n Š ­ 
 
 \b\t­ „  \n   ‚\nƒ  \n €\n‰’­:
„ ‚   \t  ‡
‚\n 
‚‡\t­\n† ­ƒ 2
„ \n ‚
€ ­   \n\t 
ƒ 
 ‰’­, \n‰­ ‚\n ƒŠ† ­\b ‚‚\n\t‡    €\b\tƒ\t’­ ­ƒ† 3.
‚\n 
‚‡\t­\n† ­ƒ 4
‚\t ‚
‚‚  \n‰  
  ‰ ‚†‡Š ‚\nƒ ‚­\t\n‰­ €† ‚\n\t ’   ’, ‚ ’ ƒ\b ­ƒ 
  ‰ ­\t\n ‚\nƒ ‚„ ­ ƒ\b ­ƒ 
 ‰\b  €­‰‡ ­\n\n ‰ ­† \t ‚\nƒ ‚
­  ’­ € ’  \b­\t\n ’
Š­\tƒ .
Œ \b­\t\n\t‰ Š­\tƒ\t
 \b ‚ ­ \t\n
\t­ Š­\tƒ
 \b ‚ ­ \t\n
˜\b ­ƒ   ‚‰­  \b­\t\n  ‚ƒ ‰  ­ \t
‚\n ƒ\t’­ ­ƒ  
•   Š­\tƒ .
  ‰ ‚\n \b\t\t ‚„ ­ ƒ\b ­ƒ 
­ ­ƒ ‹
,  \b ‚ ­ \t\n .
\n‰     Š­ ‚\t’” ‡  ­‡, ­.. ‚     ­† ‰\n† •\n†  ‚‚,
\n  ‰ ‚\n \b\t\t ‡•\t­
‰ \t \n ƒ  , ‚\n‰‡ ’ ­\b‡ 
, ­Š† ­\n\tŠ
\t’­ ‚\t
‚  \b­\t\n ­ ­ƒ 
˜\b ­ƒ  
 \b ‚‰­ ­ \t\n.
\n‰ ‚ Š\t‡Š„     Š­ ‚\t’” ‡  ­‡ \n  ‰ ‚\n 
\b\t\t ‚„ ­ ƒ\b ­ƒ 
 \b ‚ ­
\t\n (\t     ‚\t\b\t).
‚\n  ‚\n ‰
\n   \b\t ‚\nƒ
 \b ‚ ­ \t\n
‡  
+1,0¢1,5 ‡ \n‰ ‚\t\n­;
+0,5 ‡ \n‰ ‚ \t  ­.
­  €Š„ \n  † ‚  ‚\nƒ
• \t €† \n 
‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n
‡  
\n‰ ‚‰‡ ‚\n ‚ \n\t’”  \n —­\t;
=0,5¢1,5 ‡ \n‰ \b\n †  ­\bŠ‡ €ƒ‡.
ž  \t ‚  ‚
\n   \b\t
\n ‚  \b­\t\n
ƒ Œ
 ‰’­ ‚\n\t’­ ‚\n ƒ ’ ‚‰‡ ’  ‚ƒ ‰  \n  † ‚†‡Š 
­ƒ Œ
\n  † €  ­ƒ ‹
\b ­ƒ Œ
‚ \t’­ ‚‚  \n‰, ‚ƒ  ­   \b­\t\n’, ‚† \n
\b ­ƒ 
,, €\b\tƒ\t’­ 
\n  €†
\n  ‚\nƒ
\n ‚  \b­\t\n
ƒ  
 ‰’­  ­ƒ† Œ
‚\n ƒ\t’­ € ’ \n  ’ ‚\nƒ , ­ƒ  ‚ƒ ‰ ­†
  \b­\t\n’, ‚
† \b ­ƒ ‹, €\b\tƒ\t’­ ‹
\n  \b\n ‚­  ’­ € ’  \b­\t\n ’ Š­\tƒ
 , ­ \n   €† \n  ‚\nƒ
 \n ƒ \t’­ \t \n ƒ   \t­\t:
 \b ‚ \n  €
•\t
ƒ  
 ‰’­  ­ƒ† 
‚\n\t†  †, ‚„‰
”†  ‚‚  \n‰  ‚‰‡† ‹
­ƒ 
\t \t­‰  ‡ 5,0 ‡  —­† ‚‰‡†.
\tƒ­\t‰ ‚ €\t\t ‚
€\t‡
\n ‚\t ‚
 \b­\t\n
‹Š \n  ‚‰­ ƒ\b ­ƒ Œ
\n  \n  \t‡\t\t
 \b ‚ ­ \t\n

˜\b ­ƒ   ‚‰­ \n  ’, ‚\n‰’” ’ \t‚\t\n  ‚\b \t‡\t\t (‚ ‡\n ).
\n \t ‚\b \t‡\t\t
= ‡ 
‚ \t\t„ 13,5 ‡, 
‚\t\n­ 14,5 ‡
‚\t „ ‚
\n  \t‡\t\t
\n  \b ‚ \n 
\t‡\t\t
Œ \b­\t\nŠ† \t‡\t, \t ‚\t \n, \t‚\n\t\t’­ ‚\t\t\n\n\n \n   \b\t.
\n \t ‚\b ­ \t\n \t‡\t\t €\n• \n Š ‚\b  \b­\t\n \t 1,0... 1,5 ‡.
\n  \b\n ­ €\t‰  \b­\t\n\t‰ Š­\tƒ\t \t ‚\nƒ
, ­  \t­ ‚‰­ 
\n  ’ \t‡\t\t (\t ƒ­  ‚
\t\b\t).  \t\n ƒ € \t\n\t \t‡\t\t  \b­\t\n
 ’
Š­\tƒ  \t‚\n\t\t’­ ­\t ‡ €\t\b‡, ƒ­€Š \t \t„ \n\t \t 4,0 ‡   „ \t‰ \t‡\t\t.
  \n \n  \n
­\tƒŠ  \t\t €Š\t’­ \t\b\n ƒŠ‡ ‚ ­ ­ ‡  
• ’.  „†  ƒ\t”
 ­ƒ\t­‰  „•Š†  
\t  ‚ ‡ \n­Š‡ •‡,  ­„•Š†  \t.
•Š  \t\t  „†  ƒ\t”  ‚\n\b ’­ \n‰ ‡‰
 „ \n „ ­\t†. 
‡ \t\b€\t\b  \t „‡\t ‚­ ‰ ƒ­\t Š    „ \t ­\t .
„\r 20
\tƒ‚€ƒ„„   € ‚­ ‚€’ ‰€‚€
†­ 
­\b
\t‚\t\n 
‚‡” ‰
\tƒ­\t‰ ‡ \n\t
\n \t
­\b\t,
\t ­\nŠ† \tƒ­
\n \t ‚†‡Š \b\n ‰
\b‡‰’­ ‚ ƒ­ 
‚\nƒ \b\n ‰ (€\b
 ƒ­\t  ­’ \t ‰
‚†‡Š ‚  )
‡\t ‚\t
‡. ­\t€\n Ž  «‡\t
‚\t »
 €\t\t \t ‚\t 
 \t\t


\n \t \t­\t  \t\t

ž  \t  \t\t (‚
‡­  ‘ž)
 
 
Š­\t \t­\t
 
ž  \t  \t\t  ­‡
 
   ­‡  
   ­. 
 
\t €† 
Š­\t \t­\t  \t\t
„ ‚ ­ \t\n

\n \t •  Š  \t\t
 ­‡  
‚\t \n ‚
 \b­\t\n
   ­.
 
­ ­ƒ 
 \b ‚‰­ ­ \t\n , ­ƒ ‚ƒ ‰ „   \b­\t\n’, ‚†
ƒ\b ­ƒ  
, €\b\tƒ\t’­ 
\n  \n   \b\t
 \b ‚ ­ \t\n
\n  \n  \n­‰
 \b ‚ ­ \t\n
\n ­ \b‡  
.\n,
­ 
.\n

\b ­ƒ   \n ‚‰­  \b­\t\n : ‚ ’  ‚ƒ ‰  ­ \t\n’, ‚„‰”†
ƒ\b ­ƒ  
,  ­ƒ 
, ­ ’  ‚ƒ ‰  ­ \t\n’, ‚„‰”† ƒ\b ­ƒ  
,  ­ƒ 
†.
 
  \n  \n
\t  € ‚­ ‚€’ ‰€‚€
\n \t \n   \b\t
 \b ‚ ­ \t\n
ž  \t  \t\t  \b 
\n ‚ ‚‰‡† 
 .
 .
ˆ —­ \b‡  •  Š  \b\t  \t\t (\n ‚‚\n\t‡),  ­‡  
‚\n  ‡ 
\n­ ‚\t­\t
‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n
 ‰’­ ‚‰‡† ­ƒ 
ˆ \n  ‰ \n­ ‚\t­\t.
\n ‚  \b­\t\n
  ­ ‚‰‡† ­ƒ 
 ˆ \n  ‰ ‚ ‚\t­\t.
­ ­ ­  \n  \t­\t ‚ ‡­  ‘ž.
‚\n 
‚‡\t­\n† ­ƒ 
\n ‚  \b­\t\n
‚\n 
‚‡\t­\n† ­ƒ 
\n ‚  \b­\t\n
‚\n   ‰
‚† \tƒ
„ ‚ ­ \t\n
( \b‡‰’­ \t
ƒ­ ‚\nƒ )
‚\t \n ‚
 \b­\t\n
‚\n   ‰
\b\t† \tƒ ‚ \t­   \t\t
„ ‚ ­ \t\n
( \b‡‰’­ \t
ƒ­ ‚  )
‚\t \n ‚
 \b­\t\n
 ‰’­ ‚‰‡Š‡ ­ƒ  
 ­ƒ† 
­ƒ  
 ­ƒ† 
‚‡\t­\n\t‰ ­ƒ\t 1
 \b \n ‚
€ ­   \n\t 
‚‡\t­\n\t‰ ­ƒ\t 2
 \b \n ‚
€ ­   \n\t 
„’’ ƒ\t­ \t­\t  \t\t ‡\n‰’­,    ‚\n\t†  † ­ƒ 
\n ‚  \b­\t\n
 ‰’­ ‚‰‡† ­ƒ 
 \b ‚\t ‚
‚‰‡† 
‚‡\t­\n\t‰ ­ƒ\t 4
\n  \b ‚
‚‚  \n‰  
‚‰‡† 
‚‡\t­\n\t‰ ­ƒ\t 5
\n „ ‚
€ ­   \n\t 
2 ( \b‡‰’­ ‚
ƒ­  ‚\nƒ )
†.
  \n \n  \n
\t ‚‰…‘‚’ ‰€‚€
­ ­ƒ 
 ‚\t \n ‚  \b­\t\n ­\n\tŠ\t
’­ \n ƒ   ‚ ‚\t­\t: 
\n ƒ \t ‚ ‚\t­\t \t\t \n‰ ‚ \t\t 2,5...3,0 ‡, \n‰ ‚\t\n­ 3,5...4,0 ‡.
 ‰’­ ‚‰‡Š‡ ­ƒ 
(\t  .  ‚\t\b\t) ‡\n‰’­ ‚\n\tŠ‡
 Š‡ \n  ‚ \t‰  † (
) „† (
) ƒ\t­†  \t\t.  ‚
ƒ \n 
‚ \t‰  † ƒ\t­  \t\t  \n  † \t­\t ‚\n ƒ\t’­ ­ƒ  
,  \n  †  \b\t š ­ƒ  
\b ­ƒ 
, ‚\t ‚‰­  \b­\t\n  „ ‚ƒ
 ‰  ‚\n ‡ \n  ‚
\t‰ „† ƒ\t­  \t\t  ­ƒ\t„ 
‡\n‰’­ ‚\n\t†  †  ƒ\t­ \t­\t „† ƒ\t­ ‡
  ­ƒ\t‡ 
(\b\t\n
­€\t   † 
\n  ’  \b\t ‡  ­ƒ\t‡ 
\n ƒ \t \n­ ‚\t­\t:
Š•  \b­\t\n , ‚† ƒ\b ­ƒ  0\, 1,0...3,0 ‡;
\t   \n  \n­‰ 0,5... 1,5 ‡;
\t   \n   \b\t 0.
†.
   \n\n  \n
‚\t \n ‚
 \b­\t\n
„ \b ­ƒ 

‚‰­ ­ \t\n . ƒ  
­ \t\n , ‚† \b ­ƒ 
\n  † \t­\t  \t\t €
\b\tƒ\t’­ ­ƒ† 
ˆ • \t \n­ \t‰  † ƒ\t
­  \t\t.
\b ­ƒ 
\n ‚‰­  \b­\t\n  ‚ƒ ‰  
­ \t\n’, ‚† \b ­ƒ 
,
‚\n ƒ\t’­ ­ƒ  
ˆ • \t \n­ \t‰ „† ƒ\t­  \t\t.
‡\n‰’­ ‚\n\t†  †  ƒ\t­ \t­\t ‡  ­ƒ\t‡ 
‚\t \n ‚
 \b­\t\n
 ‰’­ \tƒ\t\n\t ‚‰‡Š‡ , \t \b\t­‡ ‚\n\tŠ‡  Š‡ \n
 \n­ \t‰ „† (‚‰
„ ƒ\b ­ƒ 
)  † (ƒ\b ­ƒ 
) ƒ\t­†  \t\t.
\n   \t ‚ ‡­\t •\n Ž\t, ­ \n  \n­ \t‰ „†  † ƒ\t­† „‰­‰
 •  •\n ŽŠ ˆ  ­ƒ 
„\r 21
\t   ‚‚
€\b\tƒ 
­ ­ 

 ƒ\t­\t
­ 
­\n† \n‰ \b\n †
‡€  \tŠ† (­‰ƒ-
­\n†)
­†\t
( . )
 \b\t­†
„  ( . \t)
 ‡€ 
\t†
\b\t­†
„ 
­Š­† \t
\t ( . €)
 Ž\n-
Š†
­†† ( . )
 ­\b† ( .
.‚ 
.‚ 
.‚ 
 ‡\n , 
‡ 6,0¢8,0
/3
/3
/3
2/3
/3
‚
‡\n
‚
‡\n
=•  
‚\n \b\t\t
=•  
‚\n \b\t\t
†. 28.    \n\n \r \r \r\f\n
  \n
\t‚’•Š ‚ ‚€    ‰ „  \b
\n ‡ ‚\t\b\n‰’­‰ \t ­\tƒŠ
‚ ­ \t’” ‰.  ‚
­ ƒ­\t  Š­ •   \t‚’•\t \t’­ ‚ €\t \t
€ €\n\t  (\n‰ €Š   ‰, \b\t ‰ \b
 •† ‚\n† \n‰  \n \t ‰
­‚\n€‡\t, \n‰  ƒ­\t ­\n” Š ‡\t­ \t\n\t).
„\r 22
\tƒ‚€ƒ„„    €Š‘‚
†­ 
­\b
\t‚\t\n 
‚‡” ‰
\tƒ­\t‰ ‡ \n\t
\n \t
­\b\t,
\n ƒ \t ‚“‡\t \n 
­\tƒ \t ‰
„ ‚ ­ \t\n ­
­ƒ 
\n ƒ \t 
\b\t  ­ ­ ‡Š \t‚’•\t, ­‚ €Š  \b\t­Š\nƒ† ƒ\t­ .
\n ƒ \t ­ ‰
† \n  \t‚’•\t ‚
­ \t\n
\b ­ƒ 
\t  ‡, \tŠ‡ •   \t‚’•\t ‚ \n  ­\tƒ \t ‰, \t  \b­\t\n ,
‚† ƒ\b ­ƒ  , \n\t’­ \b\tƒ  ‚\n ƒ\t’­ ­ƒ  
+ , 
ˆ \n \t \n Š \b\n ‰ ( \b‡‰’­ ‚ ƒ­ );  ˆ \t­ Š­\tƒ \n Š­\tƒ.
Š­\t \t‚’•\t
„ ‚ ­ \t\n
 ‡ ‡ \b‰­ \t† ‚\n  \b‡ ‰ ­ ­ƒ
 \t ‰ • ‚\t\t ƒ\b
Š• ’ ­ƒ  \nŠ  ­ƒ \t ‰ • \n\t. \n ƒ \t € ƒ\n\t \b\t  ­ ­ ­
‚
€Š \t‚’•\t.
ž  \t \t‚’•\t
„ 
\n ‚  \b­\t\n
 ‰’­ ‚‰‡† ­ƒ 
\n ƒ \t \t
\t‚’•\t „ 
 \b ‚ ‚‰‡† 
‚‡\t­\n\t‰ ­ƒ\t
\t € ­   \n\t
’’ \n  ’ \t‚’•\t ‡\n‰’­,    ‚\n\t†  † ­ƒ 
 Ž† \t† \t‚’•\t ‡\n‰’­  ­­­  ‡\n’.
 \t €\n ‚­† ‡\n ( . \t) \n Ž† \t† ‚
„ ­ ƒ\b ­ƒ 
(€\n €Š† \t‚’•).
 •\n‡ ‡ ‡\n \n Ž \t‰ ( . €) „ ­ ­ƒ 
­\n\tŠ\t’­ Š­ 
Š­ ‚\t \t‚’•\t \t \b\t
­  ˆ ­\b 
, \t ‚\t ‚  \b­\t\n ˆ ­\b 
, \tŠ† •  
€­\t:
= •   €­\t.
­\b 
) \n‰­ ‚‚\n\t‡, ‚\n ƒ\t’­ ­ƒ  3 \n ‚ ‚‚  \n‰   
­\n\tŠ\t’­ ­\b 3-4 ˆ ‚
 € \n Ž \t‰:
 Ž† \t† ‡\n‰’­,    ‚\n\t†  † ­ƒ 
  ’ ­\tƒ \t ‰ \t‚’•\t ­‰­ \n ’” ‡ €\t\b‡.
\n ‚ ‡­\t \t Š­\tƒ\t ( . \t), ­  ‚
\n  ‚\n‰­ ­ƒ\t 
. ­\b 
­\n\tŠ\t’­ ‚ ‚‰
‡† 
\n ‚ ‡­Š  Š­\tƒ ( . €), ­ \tƒ\t\n\t \t„‰­ „ ‚\n , ‚\n‰‡ ­ƒ\t‡
\b ­ƒ 
 ‚‰‡† 
­\t\n‰’­ ‚‚  \n‰Š ­\n\tŠ\t’­ \t  „ \n ƒ  
‚ €\t \n  ­\tƒ \t ‰ 
\n   Š­\tƒ 
  ’ ­\tƒ \t ‰ ‡\n‰’­,    ­ƒ 
‚\t \n ­ ­ƒ 
­\n\tŠ\t’­ ‚ ‚\n  \t­\t Š­\tƒ .
\n \t ­† Š­\tƒ €Š\t­ ‡• \t 0,5... 1,0 ‡.
­Š Š­\tƒ \n\t’­ ‚‰‡Š‡ \n \n\t \b ­Š‡ .
†.29.    \n
…\tƒƒ 
1. \t  „Š \tŠ €„ ‡Š \n‰ ‚­ ‰ Š ­ Ž ‚‰ \b\n ‰
\n‰ ‡\t\nƒ ? Š€ ­ ‚\t \nŠ† ­­:
“)  \t  (\r\n \r, \r\n ,   \r \r 
\r \r, \r )  \n  \n ;
”)  \t  (, \r\n \r, \r\n , \r\n , 
 \r \r  \r \r, \r )  \n  \n ;
)  \t  (\r\n \r, \r\n ,   \r \r 
\r \r, \r ).
2. \t ‚\n‰­‰ •  \t €’ ‚ \n   \b\t \n‰ ‡\t\nƒ ? Š€ ­ ‚\t \nŠ† ­­:
“)  \r  \n\r;
”)   \r  \r  \r  \n\r;
„:
‚­ ­ ƒ­  ‚‰Š„ ‚\nƒŠ„ \b\n † \n‰ ‡\t\nƒ 
(\n\t€\t­Š \t€­Š Ÿ4 Ÿ5).
\r 3. ˆ\f\n\b\r \n\f \f \f‡
3.1.  \t ƒ
Œ  \t  Ž\f\f  \tŽ Œ  \f ( \f)
  \t ,   \t ‚ \t \n-\t .
 ­‡ ‡ «‡\n \t  Š» €Šƒ ‚\t\b ‡\t­‰ ­ƒ † ‚Ž
\b\t ‰ † ‡\n \b\n ‰   ƒ­‡  \t\b\tƒ ‰  \t’”† €­\t , •
 ­ €\n \t ƒ\n\t, †­ ‡\t­ \t\n.
 ­ ­ Š‡ \n ­„ ƒ ‡ ‡\n \t ‡ Š ‚\t\b ‡\t­‰
Š† ‚Ž \t\b\t€­ ƒ­† \n \n\t\n ­\t\n† \b\n ‰  ‚\n\b\t ‡ ƒ­†
\n \n\t\n ­­­ ’”† €\t\b† Š \b\n ‰, ­.. ‡  \tŽ ‰ (  \b‡ ) „†
­ Ž \b\n ‰  Ž\n’ \b‡ ‰  ‡\nŠ„ „\t\t­ ­ .
Ž \t\b\t€­ ­ Ž † ‡\n \n’ƒ\t­ \b ƒ  \t\t\n \b ‡\n , ‚€
­­­ ’”† €\t\b† Š \b\n ‰,  ­ƒ  \n \b‡  Š ‚ \t 
‡\nŠ„ €­†, ‚\t ‚\t \n­ \t\b\t€­\t† ­ Ž . ­ ­ 
‡\n \t   Š‚\n‰’­, \t€­\t‰  •\t€\n\t‡ ­\t\n† „† ­ Ž  \n
‚­ \t ƒ­ .  \b\t  ‡­ ­ ­‚ \b‡ ‰  \t\b\n ƒ\t’­ \n
  ‡  \tŽ †:
 ‡Š  1-  \t
\t‰ ‡\n Š \t\b\t€\t­Š\t­‰ €\b \b‡ ‰ ‡Š \b\n ‰. €\t\b\t ’
‚\t’­‰ ‡\t \n\tŽ\t, €­, ­ , \n ƒ­ \t\b‡”  ‚­\n ‚  Ž,
\t‚\n  ‡\t \t‡\t   „ ‡\n „ ­\t\n†,  ­ƒ‰­‰ \n \t \b\n ‰.
 ‡Š  2-  \t
 „ ­ \b‡   \n —­\t ‡\n €\b \b‡ ‰ €“‡† ‡Š  €\n\t­ ‚Š„
 ƒ\t­ ( ‚\nƒ† €\n\t­ ‚ \n    \n‰ ‚\nƒ† Š).  —­‡ ‚\n\b ’­‰
‚ ‡Š  ƒ ‚\t\t\n\n\n \t•  ‰ ­\t\n†, ‚\t­‰ ‚€\t\b\t ’
  \tŽ ‰ ­  ­\t\n† (‰‰ \n  ‰ ‚  , €Š \bŠ, \nŠ, \bŠ  \t\t
­.‚.).
 ‡Š  3-  \t
 \t\b\t€­ † ‡\n \b‡‰­‰ ‚† \b\n ‰ ‚ ­‡ ‚€\t\b\t ‰ €\t\b†
Š Š  ­\tƒŠ‡ \n\t ƒ ‡  \t‡  ­ Ž ’   \t\t‡   „ ­ ‚
( €\t•ƒŠ‡, \n\t, Ž\nŠ‡, ‡€  \tŠ‡ .).
 ‡Š  4-  \t
\t\b\t€\t­Š\t­‰ \t‰ ‡\n Š    \t. \t‚ ‡, \t €\t\b†  ‚\t\n­ \b\t
 ‡ ‡  † Š ‚ „ ­‰ ‚­ \t­ ­ Ž ’ ‚\n\t­‰ \n €\n \bŠ. ™­ \t ‡
­ƒŠ† ‡­ ‚ ‡‰­‰  \t ­\n . ­ Ž ‰  ­ƒ‰­‰ ‚ \b­\n
€\t\bŽ\t.
…\tƒƒ :
1. \n   ­ ­  ‡\n \t ‰  ”­ ­? Š€ ­ ‚\t \nŠ† ­­:
“) \f;
”) \f;
) .
2. \t  \b‡ ‰ ­‰­‰  ‚ ‡\t‡ ­ ­  ‡\n \t ‰ 1  \t? \t† ­
‚\t \nŠ† \t \t­:
“) ‰\n \r\f  \n   \t \r. \n
\n  \t \r\n, \n, \n\n, \r\n  ‚ \r\f   \n,
\r  \t \n    \r \r,  \r \r.
”) †\n \n \r\f     \n.
) Š  \r  \n \n \n   \n
\r \n \n   \n   \n.
„:
\t ƒ­ Š ‚\n\t­‰ \n‰ ƒ ­\t• •\n \b\t­\t \t\b\t€­\t­
­ Ž Š„ ‡\n†, ‚\n\b ‰ 4 ‚ ‡\t ­ ­  ‡\n \t ‰.
‰ Š‚\n ‰:
1. \b‰­ •\t€\n Š ‚\n\t­‰ \n‰ ƒ ­\t• •\n \b\t­\t €­ \t \n ­
€ ‡\t . \t\b\t€­\t­  ’ ‡\n Š, ‚\n\b ‰ ‚ ‡Š ­ ­  ‡\n \t ‰ 1
 \t.
2. \t\b\t€­\t­  ’ ‡\n Š \t •\t€\n Š ‚\n\t­‰, ‚\n\b ‰ ‚ ‡Š  2  \t.
3. \t\b\t€­\t­  ’ ‡\n Š \t •\t€\n Š ‚\n\t­‰, ‚\n\b ‰ ‚ ‡Š  3  \t.
4. \t\b\t€­\t­  ’ ‡\n Š \t •\t€\n Š ‚\n\t­‰, ‚\n\b ‰ ‚ ‡Š  4  \t.
3.2. \f \f 
† \b  ”­Š„  Ž † ­’‡\t ‰\n‰­‰ —­­ ƒ\t‰  Ž ‰. \t  ‚€Š­‡
€”­ ƒ\n ­ \n‰    ­\n \t  ­  \b\t” ­Š ­ \n ‡\t­ ƒ „  \n †,
 \t  \b‡­ \n\t­ ’ •­ €\n ‚ \n\t­\n†  \n\t\b\t„ ‚\n‡ ,
‚ \nƒ  €  ‡\t .
 \t\b ­ ‡ ­’‡\t  —­­ ƒ\t‰ \n \b\t­\t\n\t. \t \tƒ\t\n\t \t\b€\t\b
€\t­  \t­‰, ‚† ‚\t”\t‰  \t­‰” ‚ \b   ­\t.  ­
‡\n  ­\t\n ­“‡\n‡Š‡ ‡‡­‡ \b\t ‰ ­’‡\t, ‚\n‰’” ‡  ­­­ 
—­­ ƒ ‡ \t\n\t‡ ­€\t ‰‡ ‡Š ‚\n† —‚„ .
 ‡‡ \t \tƒ\t\n\t ‚\t\b\n‰­‰ \t ‚ ’, ‚\t\b ƒ ’, ‡\t•’’ ­. .
 \b\t  ‡­ ­  \t\b\tƒ ‰  \n † —‚\n \t­\tŽ ­\t\n ‚\n‰­‰ Š ‚ Ž ‚Š
„ ­ ‡\n ‰ ­’‡\t
  ­’‡ ˆ —­ „ ­\t‰  ­‡\t,  ‚­  \t•\t’” „  —\n‡­,
 ‡’” „ ‚\t­ ƒ \t\b\tƒ ‰.   ­ \n ­\t‡ ‡Š\n \t­ Š —\n‡­Š  
 ‰\n‰’­‰ €‰\b\t­\nŠ‡ , \t, \t‚ ‡, ­ ­ Š \n  Ž \t\nŠ (\t‡\tŠ,
Š­\tƒ , \b\t­ , ‡\t­Š .). \t  ‚‰\n‰’­‰  ­’‡ ƒ\n\t    \b\t‚\t‡‰­Š
‡\t  ­‰’­ † \t­ \t\n­ ‰.
 ‡ ­„ ƒ‡ \t\b€\t\b ‚ƒ \nŠ„   ‚ ‡  \t ‰ •†Š„
‡\t­ \t\n Ž\n „ ‚ ‡ ‰ \t ˆ ‚\t­ ­ \t  € ‡­\t ‚\n­  „ ­
‡\n \b\n , \n\t­ ­’‡, \b\tŠ† \b —­  \t• ‡\t­ \t\n\t ‚­ ‡Š‡
, ‡ ­, ­  \b ­\n‰ ‚\n ’ ‡\tŽ ’.
•\n  
\t ­Š‰ƒ\n­ ‰ \t\b ­ ‰ ­’‡\t ƒ\nƒ­ \b€\n €ƒ \n ‡­ ‚ ‡
\t­  ‡\n ‰ Š.  \t €\n  ‡ ‚‡­ \t‚­\tŠ‡ \b  „
‡ ­­ \n ’”  ‚€Š „ ­† €\t€­ ­\t†:
ˆ Š• \t ˆ \t   \b\t \t ­\t    ‡\t­ \t\nŠ ‚ ‚‡” Ž­Š„  ­†,
\b\n­† €‰† ‚\n , \tŽŠ„ ‚\n \tŽŠ„ \t‡†, ‡ƒ \t, € \t,
­\n‰ \t .;
ˆ \t‚‚\n \tŽ ‰ ˆ Š‚\n  —\n‡­  \b\t \b \t\b\n ƒŠ„ ‡\t­ \t\n  ‚\n ’” ‡
‚ ‚\n ‡ „ \t \b\n ;
ˆ „ ­ ­\tƒ­ ˆ \b\t   \b\t \b€\t ‰ ‚­‡ ‚‚\n­ ‰
\t\bŽ­Š„  ­†, ƒ\t­ ‡’” „ \t\b\n ƒ ’ \t­  ;
ˆ ‚—ƒ ˆ ­\t\n   \bƒ\t­ ‚\n­\t \b \t\b\n ƒŠ„ \n ­ ­\t   „
‡\t­ \t\n;
ˆ  \n­ ˆ  \b\t‰ ­\t \n ­ ‚\n­\t  ‚\n\b\t ‡ ‚\n\tƒŠ„ ‡\t­ \t\n
\n‰  \n ƒ ‰ €“‡\t \b\t ‰ \t­ † \t­ Š \b\n ‰ (\t­\t, \t­ ,  ­‚ .);
ˆ ­   ˆ Š\t\n \t    \t  \b\t \t ‡‰† ‚„­ ‡\t­ \t\n\t; € —­­
  \t „\t\t­ \n‰ ‡\n ‰ \tŠ„ \b\n †;
ˆ \t€†\t ˆ \t  Ž­   \t \t ‡\t­ \t\n ‚ ‚‡” ‚ƒ\t­Š„ ‡ ˆ ‡\t­ Ž,
‚ —­‡ \n ƒ­ ‡\t­ Ž ‚\n‰­‰ \n ƒ­‡ Ž­Š„ ­­   \t;
ˆ €\t­  ˆ \t    \t \t ­\t ‚ ‚‡” ‚Ž \t\nŠ„ ­­ \nŠ„ \t ­\n†;
 ”­ ­ ‡ ­„  €\t­ \t: €\t‰ ‚ , \t    \t ­‰ \t ­\t
‚­  ­’; „\nŠ† €\t­ , \t    \tƒ\t\n\t \t ­‰ \b  ’”†
 ­’, \t ƒ \t’”† ‚\n”\t Ž­ ‚‰­\t  \t’”† \t \b\t­\t­ \b\t  \t Ž ,
\t \b\t­‡  ­’ \b\t‚\n‰’­‰ Ž­Š ‚‰­\t   \t; ‰ƒ † €\t­ , \t    \tƒ\t\n\t
\t ­‰ ‰ƒ ‡ \b  ’” ‡ ­\t‡, \t \b\t­‡ ‚\n  \b\t­Š\t ‰ ‚\n‰­‰  ­’;
\t\t‰ \b —­ „ ­„  ‡­  „\t\t­Š —­Š;
ˆ ‚\n­  ˆ ‚€ \b\t ‰  \b   ‚\n­\t ‚ ‚‡” ‚Ž \t\nŠ„
‚ ‚€\n † ˆ \n’•; ‡     ­„  ;
ˆ ‚\tŽ ‰ ˆ \b\t    \t \b\t ƒ­ Š‚\n ‰ \t ‡\t­ \t\n  \bƒ\t­Š„ ­­ †;
€Šƒ ‚\n\b ­‰ \n‰ \tŽ Š‚ ƒ „ ‡\t­ \t\n, ­\t „ \t \t, \b\t‡•\t, ­\tŠ
‡\t­ \t\nŠ;
ˆ ‚ ­, ­‚ ­ ˆ \t  \t ­\t   \t \n’€† \n­ ( ­‡ ƒ \n ­ ‡\t),
‚ ‚‡” ‚Ž \t\nŠ„ ‡‚’­Š„ ‚\t‡‡.
 —­ ­\t Ž Š \t­ Š ‚ ‡Š ­„  \t­  ‚\n\b ’­‰ 
„ ­‡ ‡\n ‡† Š.
\n  \r \n \r 
€Š† \t­ Š† —­ \b\t­ ­\n\t ­’‡\t ‚ ‚‡” \n\t, \b\t” ‚,
\n, \n\t, ’•, €, €    „ —\n‡­. ™­\t ­\n\t  ­€ ­ ‚\n\b\t ‰
‚\n ­\nŠ„ ‡\t­ \t\n ˆ \t ­\n†,  ­†, ­\nƒŠ„ ­\t† ., \t ‰\b\t\t   ­‡
­„\n ƒ† €\t€­ \b\n †.
\t\t‰ ­\n\t ­\n ƒ\t­‰ ‚­­† \b‰”­‡, ‡ ­, \t, \b\tƒ\t­ ’ ‰\n‰‰
­‡ \b\t ‰ ‡Š, ƒ\n ‰  \t ­\nŠ ƒ\t­ , \t\bŠ ‰\b\t\t  ­ Ž †
\b\n ‰  \b\tƒ ­\n† ­‚ ‚\n‰­ \t„ ‡\t­ \t\n\t.  ‡†  ­\t\t‰ ­\n\t
‚\n\b ­‰ \n ƒ\t­, ­\t \t ‚\b\n‰­ ‡\t\nŠ‡ ­\t‡ € ­‰   \t\n­
‡\n .
ƒ\r \r
 ‡†  ­\t ‡\t \t‚­\tŠ‡ ‰\n‰­‰  \t•  ­\t\n‰‡ ,
Š‚\nŠ‡ \b ­\nƒ† ­\t \n ‚Ž \t\nŠ„ ‡\t­ \t\n ˆ  ‡, ­‡†,
• ‡,  ­\t‡, €\t„‡†, \n­\t‡ ­. ‚. ­\n\t —­ ‡ ‡\t­ \t\n\t‡ \n \n
Š‚\n‰­‰ ‡­   ‚„‡ \b\t‡ ­  \t‰‡ ­’‡ ­ ‡ ’ ­‰” ’
Š•  .
\t Ž Š ­„  „ ­ ‡\n ‰ ­\t €Š\n \b€­Š ‡ 
\t ­Š‰ƒ\n­ † \t\b\t,     ­\t­ \n † \t­ \t\n­  ‡† .
\n\r \r\f\n \n \n
‚\n\b ‰ ­­ \n † \t­ Š† ‚ ‡  ‡‡ ­’‡, €„ ‡  ƒ ­Š\t­
‰ €” „ ­€\t †:
ˆ  \n €Š­  ‡Š‡, ‚ƒ \t­ ‡ , ­­­\t­ †, \t  €Š­
\n ƒ\t†Š‡, ƒ  ‡;
ˆ    \t \n ‡­ ­\t­ƒ \t, ƒ­€Š ‚ \t­ ‚­­  €\n\t­
 \b ;
ˆ   \t \n ­­­\t­ \tƒ­  ‡\t­ \t\n\t, \b ­ \b­\n\t \t,
\t‚ ‡, ­‰\n\t‰ ­\n­\t‰ ­\t ­€ ­  ‚† \n† Š•  , ­\t \t ­\t‰ ˆ
\b‰”†, \n†;
ˆ  \n €Š­ ‡‚\b Ž Š‡ Ž­‡ ­’‡\t, ‚ \n\t‰  €  ‡\t 
‚ \t\t‰ \b\n ’ €\t\b ’ Š\t\b ­\n­.
‚\n\b\t  \t­  ‡\n ‰ ‡­ €Š­ ‚ \b\t  \tƒŠ‡ ­\n  ­‡
\n ƒ\t, \n  ‚€­ ­ \b\t ’ Ž\n­, \t‡ ƒ,   \t\n ­’‡\t,
­­­ ’” ­€\t ‰‡ ‡† ‡Š.
…\tƒƒ 
1. Š€ ­ ‚\t \n ­­­ :
1. ƒ\r \r
2. \n  \r 
3. •\n  
“) \n, ‚, \r, \r\f\t, , ;
”) \r, ‚, \r\f\t, \n\r, , , \t;
) \n\n, \r,  \n, , ;
­) \n, \f, , , , \r.
2. \t \t\bŠ\t­‰ Š‚\n  —\n‡­  \b\t \b \t\b\n ƒŠ„ ‡\t­ \t\n  ‚\n ’” ‡
‚ ‚\n ‡ „ \t \b\n ? Š€ ­ ‚\t \nŠ† ­­:
“) ;
”) \r;
) .
„:
\t\b\t€­\t­ 10 ‡\n† ­† Š, ­\n ƒ\t’” „‰ \t\b\n ƒ† ­\n†,
‚\n\b ‰ ‚\n ’   ‚\n\t­‰. \t\t  Š‚\n ­ \t \n ­\t„ 4 \n ­  \t†\nŠ
\b\tƒ­† ‚\t‚ .
‰ Š‚\n ‰:
€­ ‚\nŠ† •\t€\n ‚\n\t­‰ \n‰ ƒ 10 \t\b.
  ‡\t­ 10 \t \t­ ­\n —­ ‚\n\t­‰ \n\t­ — \bŠ (\t \t­ ‚  ‡\tŠ
\t \t­Š ­\n \t €Š„ •\t€\n\t„)
\t‚ \t­ ‚‰  ­\n \t ‚\n\t­‰.
3.3.   \f 
 
ˆ ­\n\n­ \t\n\t‰ ƒ\t­ ­\t\t, Š\t\t‰  †­Š„ ­\n —­‡  ­\t 
\t\b\t  \b\t†, €\n\t\t’”\t‰  ­†ƒ †  \n† ‚\n ­\n† ‡‡  \tŽ † 
‚ ‚\t­\n‡.
\n ­ \t\b\n ƒ\t­ € ­ ’ ‡\t . ’€† € ‰\n‰­‰ ­† ‡\t†,  
\t\t‰ ­\t‰ ‡\t\t ˆ €‡. \t‰ ‡\t\t ­\t ­‰ €‡ ­\t, \t ‡‡  \tŽ ‰
\t- ‚\t­\n ­ ­\t\t ­\t ­‰ \b\tƒ ­\n  \n  ­†ƒ  ‚
­• ’  \t\t\n ƒŠ‡ ‡‡  \tŽ ‰‡ ­\t- ­.  ­  ‡‰ ­  ‚­
ƒ­ ’ \t Ž  ‡  ­† ‡\t† €‡. \t ‚\t \n, \n  ‡ ‚\n Š Ž\n†
\t  ­ ‚\n ­\n ­‰­‰  \t‡  ­\t , ­  ‡ \t\b\t­ €‡.
 ”­ ­ €\n• \n ƒ­ € ­† Š: Sela, Adidas, Next, Otto, Gloria Jeans,
Fox Kids, Kiko, \t•\t,  ­ , \t\n\t‰ ‰, ‡\t, \r\n­Š† ­,  ‡‚‚, \t„\t\n, \t•\t
‡\t‡\t, \tŠ† €\n’, \t\n\t‰ ‰ .
Adidas  Disney
Adidas \b\t ’ ‚ƒ­ ­\n­’’ ­ ’ ‚•\n ‚ ­ \b ‡\t\n ‡† ‚‚ ‰­ ‰,
Š‚ \t• \n  ‚­ Š ­\t‚ƒ  ‚•\t‡ , \b­\nŠ‡ \b ­\tŠ„ \t­‡€ \nŠ„
‚Š•,  ‡” Ž\t  ­’ \t€ , ­  †, \n\t€\t­ † € ­ , \t\b€\tŠ„
‚ ‡  ‡  . †ƒ\t ‚ ‚ \b­ Š €  ‡‚\t ‰ Adidas ‚\n\b ­
Š­„\n ƒ  ‡\t­ \t\nŠ, ­Š ‡\t ‡\t\n \t\t‚­ \tŠ ‚ €­
 \b \n ­† \b\nŠ„,  ” „ \t­ Š† €\t\b  \b .
 2009 . \t  ‚Š„ €\t €“  • , ‚­\t \n ‡­ ’ \n  ’ ­†
Š,  ­† \n•€Š‡ €\t\b‡ €“  \n ‚  ” \b\n ‰‡ Adidas Š \tƒ­
ƒ\t\t­\nŠ    ‡ \n­ ‚\n \tŽ Š  .
­\n ƒ ­\nŠ‡ ƒ­\t‡ —­† \n\nŽ ‰ \n  \n\t ƒ  ­ ‚\n , „\t\t­Š
 ‡‡  ­ \n’ Adidas  ƒ­\t  \b€\t ‰‡   „    \t  ˆ 
 \n‰ ‡\t\nƒ    \t \t ˆ   \n‰ ƒ. ‡ ­, \b\n ‰  \t•Š
‡­\t\n\n \b \tŠ‡ €  \t‡ € ­Š‡ • \t‡ .
­ ­ ­‡­ ­ ­\t \t \tŠ €  —­† \n\nŽ : ‡\t\n   ‡ƒ ƒ\b ‚\nƒ,
 \t•Š ­„‡Š‡ \b€\t ‰‡     \t .
 \b\n ‰ —­† \n  Š‚\nŠ \b ‡\t­ \t\n, ­ƒ\t’” „ \t‡Š‡ Š ‡ ­€\t ‰‡
 €\b‚\t­ .
 2011 . €Š\n\t Š‚ ”\t ” \t ‡­\t‰ \n  ‰, ­\n ƒ ­\n† ƒ­† ­† ­\t\n
   ‡ \n­ ‚\n \tŽ Š  ˆ   - „   \b‰  \t ‰­\tƒ.
\n\nŽ ‰ ¦  - „ --§ \n’ƒ\t­  €‰  , €  \t \tŠ. \b’‡ †
\n\nŽ €  ‰\n‰­‰ ‚\b\tƒ\t‰ ‚•\t,  \t•\t‰ \b€\t ‰‡   , ‰­\tƒ\t
 Š. ‹\n\t\t‰ ‚\n\b\t ’ \t\bŽ­Š„ \n ‚ ƒ ‚ ­  \b€\t ‡ \n’€ ‡Š„
‚\t† \t\t‰ ‚\t\t €  ‰\n‰­‰   \t\n†.  \b‰”\t‰ Š• \t ‚ €\t‡  ‡\n \b  ­
‚\n ‚\t\t. † Ž­  \n  ¦‰­\tƒ§ \n‰ ƒ ˆ ‰-\bŠ†, \t 
\n † ¦  - „§ \n‰ ‡\t\nƒ  ˆ \n €† ‰-\tŠ†.
‡‚\t ‚\n­ ­  ƒ\t’­ ‚ƒ­ \tŠ†  \b\t’­ Š \n\nŽ .
—\r 
­ƒ­\t‰ ­\t‰ ‡\t\t «\r\n­Š† ­» Š‚ \t­   \n‰ ­† ‰\n \b\t­\t,
‚\n\b ‰ \n’ƒ ­\n ‡Š \tƒ­Š ‡\t­ \t\nŠ   ­  . ­ ‡­
‚ Ž ‡‚\t ‚­\t\n ­\t ‡ \b\n ‰‡ , \t ‚\n\b  , ‡€ \bŠ, ­ƒ ,
‚\n\t­‰, ‡‚\n­Š, \nŠ  €Š, € \b\n ‰  Š• \t‡ .
 ‚•  ­† Š —­† ‡\t ‚\n\b ’­‰ ‡Š ­\t , ­\n ƒ\t’” ‰
„• ‡ †­\t‡ , ‡‰­’,  ’­‡ ‡­’ ( ­\n,  €\t\t,  ­, \n’ .)
Ž
 2000 . €Š\n\t \t\t ‡\t\t ­ƒ­† ­† Š « ‡‚‚», ­\t‰ ­\t\n\t  ‡
\b \n  ‚ ‚ \b­  ‚\t \b\n † \n‰ ­† ­  ‰  ­„ \n­.
 \t­ ‡­ ­† Š ‡\t « ‡‚‚» „‰­ \t€Š \n‰ Š„,
­ ­\t\t‰ ‰\b\t\t‰ \t, •\t‚ƒ ,  \tƒ  ,  , \n­ .
\t\t ‚\n\b ­ \t­ \t\nŠ \tƒ­Š \t Š ‡\t­ \t\nŠ,  ­ \t•Š
­† ‡ \t ­\n‰‡ , ‚—­‡   \n ‰’­ ‚ ­ , ‚ —­‡  \t\bŠ\t‰  ­ † \t \b‡
 \t \t.
  —­† ‡\t ­\n ƒ\t­ \t\b€\t\b  ‰ „ ­\t†    \t\nŠ‡ \tŽ­\t‡
­Š‡ \tƒŠ‡ \t‚‚\n \tŽ ‰‡ .
\b
\t‰ ‡\t\t « » Š‚ \t­„’’   \n‰ ­† „ \b\t­Š„  ‚‚.
­ ‡­ —­† ‡\t ƒ • : ‡€ \bŠ ‚\n ‡€ \bŠ, ­ , ‚ „ 
 ­ , ‚\t\n­, \nŠ  €Š  \tƒ  .
­\n ƒ ­\n† ƒ­† ‡\t « » ‰\n‰­‰ € \n  Š•  \t , \t‚‚\n \tŽ †,
\b‡Š„ €\n­‰” „ \b\t­   \t\n† ‡Š \t‡\tƒ  ˆ    Ž­ƒ
ƒ. €  ‡\t  ‚ \n\t­ €\n•  ’\b\tƒ , ‚­‰’”  ‡  \t‡\t,
­Š  ­ \t €‰\b\t­\nŠ† \t \t  „† .
‡\r\f \t
 1997   €Š\n\t \b\t\t ­ƒ­\t‰ ­\t‰ ‡\t\t «‡\t\n\t‰ ‰», ­\t‰ ‚\tƒ\t\n 
‚­\t\n‰\n\t ­\n ‡­ ƒ ’ ‚ Ž ’ \n‰ ƒ. \t ‰• †  —­­ €
„ ­  ­†  \n ƒ• „ ‡‚\t † ‚  \b\t\t‡­ ‚ \b ­ ­\t  , €  ­ ’,
  , \t\t , Š    ­  ­\tŠ.
 2008   €Š\n\t \b\t\t ‚\t‰ \n\nŽ ‰ ‡† Š €  ­ \n‰ ƒ ­ 5-­
 10-­ \n­. ™­\t €Š\n\t \n  ‰ ‚\t\b ƒŠ„ ‚\n\t­.
­\n ƒ ­\n† €­’  \b\t†\t Š —­† ‡\t ‰\n‰­‰ ‡\t­ \b‡ ‰ 
­­ , \tƒ­\t‰   ­ \t, ­  \t  ­ \n\t‰ ­\n\t.
­ ’   ­† ‡\t ‚ \b‰­   Ž ‚ — \b\t‡  \b\t† ‡‚\t
«\t\n\t‰ ‰».
…\tƒƒ 
1. ˜­ „ ­  \t­ € ­Š €\t? Š€ ­ ‚\t \nŠ† ­­:
\r, \n\n  \n ;
”) , \r /\t ,  \r , \t, \n  . .;
) , \r,  .
2. \t       \t•\t\n   ‡­† \n  ­† Š Disney
Adidas  2009  ? Š€ ­ ‚\t \nŠ† ­­:
“)    „ ;
”) \r\f ;
) ‡  ‡ ‡.
\r 4. \f\b‡ \n \r“  \f\f
4.1. ­   ƒ \f
Œ\nŠ  €Š ‰\n‰’­‰ ‚\n ‡  ­’‡  \n \t­ \n‰ ‚„\t ‰ \nŠ \b ‡†
­ „\n\t, \n­‡ ­ \nƒŠ„ \n ƒ†, \t ­\t \n‰ „\t ‰ ‚ ƒ .
 ‡  •\t‚ƒ •’­ \b ‡„\t,  \t, ‚\n’•\t, €\t„\t­\t, \t‚\t . ­\t†; \n­  ˆ \b ‚\n­Š„
„\n‚ƒ\t­€ ‡\tŠ„ ­\t : ‚\n­\t, ‚  \n ­\t ‚\n\t­‰.
­ ‡­ \nŠ„  € \n \t\b€\t\b \n’ƒ\t­ \n ’”   Š \b\n †:
•\n‰‚Š, €­Š, ‚ ,  \t , ‚\t\t‡Š ­..
\t\b‡ •\t‚ €Šƒ ­­­ ­ €„\t­  \nŠ €\t  \t­ ‡­\t„. ­ƒ\t’­‰
\nŠ  €Š, \t\b‡ ­Š„ ­­­ ­ \b\t­  €\t, \t‚ ‡, 12 ‡‰Ž, 18 ‡‰Ž.
™­  ƒ  €, ­\t \t \n\t   „ \t\b\t‰. ž\t‚    Š€ \t­ \t 1-2 \t­ ‡­\t €\n•
€„\t­\t \nŠ ‡\t\nŠ•\t. ‹\n •  † \n†  € € ­ \t\n \t­‰ \t \n\t\b\t.
„\r 23
\b€†­ ’ƒ‚­… ‰‚ ƒ 
\b\t­
€\t
€“‡
\nŠ
€\t,
‡  \r\r \r\n \n
 ”­ ­ 2 ‡­\t ‚­ ‰ \n\t\n \nŠ„  €: 1) \tƒ­Š† 2) ­ƒŠ†)
\tƒ­Š† ‡­ ‚ ‡‰­‰  ­„ \n ƒ\t‰„, \t ‡\t \n  €\t \n ­\nŠ
 ­\t\n €\n \b ‚„‰­  ‚\t \n† ‡­ ƒ†    (Ž \n ,  ƒŠ†  
­..). ‡  \n  €\t \n‰­ \t ‚\t \nŠ ‡­ ƒ    Š, \t \b\t­‡ ‚ \b‰­
\t\b­     \t ‚\n­ , ‚ —­‡ \n\t’­ ‚ ‚  \t •Š, ‰­ ‚‚\t  \t  \t 
\t­‰ ‡­ ­\t  \t\bŠ„ \t‚\t\n ‰„.
­ƒŠ† ‡­ ­  \t ‰ \b\t\n’ƒ\t­‰  ­‡, ƒ­ \n  • \t‰­ \t ‡ 
\n  €\t ‡\n‡, ‚‰­ Š \n  ƒ\b \tŠ 2-3 ‡ \t‰­ ­ƒ . \t­‡ \t
‚\n­ ­‡ƒ\t’­ \t­‰  ‡  ‚\n ƒŠ‡ ­ƒ\t‡ . \t„‰­ Š ­ƒ  ‰’­
 ­ƒ ‚\n\t† \n  †.
­  \t­ —­ ‡ ‡­‡ ‡ ­\n  ­‡ \n ƒ\t, \n ‡’­‰ ‰Š ‡Š.
 ‡\t• „  \n ‰„ \n ƒ•  ­  \t­, ‚ ‡‰‰ \tƒ­Š† ‡­.
4.2. ­\t‰ € 
­ ‡­ ­† €  \t\b€\t\b. ™­ ‚ ­ , \t\t\n , €­  , ­ \n , \t\n ,
\b Š \t‚ .
˜­€Š ‚\n ­ \t\b‡ €  ,   \b‡ ­ \n   ­‚Š.
\n‰ —­ ‚­\t­ €  ‡\t\nŠ•\t ( \t„) \t \n ­ € ‡\t € ­ „ \t\t\t•‡.
†.30. ƒ\r  \n \r 
\b‡­ \t­‰  ­ \t‡† Š­ ‚\t’”† ­ƒ ‚‰­  \t €\n Š­ ‚\t’” ‚\t\nŽ\t.
\n \n‰ ‚\t† \n†  \n Š \t\b\t\n  \t\b\n ƒŠ, Š€ ­ \t €\n• ’.  \n ­
‚\n ƒŠ† \b \n­\t­  5 ‡‡. \n ƒ ­‰ \t\b‡ €   ‡­ ƒ†  ­‡.
„\r 24
‚‚ €†‚ ‰‚  (ˆ)  ‘…€‚ (”) 
 •­ „‡\t†  ­‡, ­\t‰ ­\t ‚\n\b ­‰   , \t\b‡‡ €  ƒ ­\t­‰
\n \t ­\n  •­ „\t„ (1 •­ „ = 2/3 ‡). \n \t ­\n €Šƒ €\n• \n Š ­‚Š \t ­\t
\t\bŠ\t‡Š† \t­ Š† ‚ ‚ .  \n \t ‡­ \n€\t­‰ ­ 0  1,5 ‡. ™­­ \t­
 ƒ ­Š\t­‰ ‚ ‚ \t\b‡ \b †  ­‡Š    ’. €  \n\t ‚„ ­  ­\n
‚ \t\b‡ ,  ‚ ‚\n­. \n­\t (‚“‡) ­‚Š – —­ €„\t­ ­‚Š  \t‡‡ • ‡ ‡­
 ƒ† ƒ\t­ .
†. 31. ƒ\r \r 
\n •‡  \b\t‰ €  ‡  ­ ­‚Š ‡\t\nŠ•\t \t •\t­ €\t” .  ­†
\b ‡† €  ‡\b ­  .
  † ­Š,  \n •‡ • ‡ €­  \t  ‡­ ‚Š  ­†ƒ \t.
€  \n\t \n \t\t­‰  ‡\t­‰. \n \t\t  €­ \t ­€ ­   \n † (\t
\n ­  \t­‰),  ­ ­ „ ‚ ‚\t­  \tƒ­‡, ƒ­  «\t\b‰­‰». \t €­  €  ­
«\t\b\t• \t­‰», € \b  „   Š\t­­. ‚€ †­ ‚ ‡ ­   ’ ‚\t   €\n•†
‚\n­†.
­\t‰ €  Š‚ \t­‰ ­„   ‚\n­Š  ‚\n\t„ \t \t\b‡\t: • \t‰, ‰‰,
 \b\t‰.
­Š ‡\n \n­† €  ‡’­ \b‡­  \n \t­ ‚\n­  €   ‚‡”’
\b\t­ \n «\n ‚ ƒ».
„\r 25
\b€†­ ‰‚  ‚ ƒ 
\t\b‡
­‚Š (‡)
\t\b‡
€ 
\t\b‡

\t\b‡
­‚Š (‡)
\t\b‡
€ 
\t\b‡

„\r 26
\b€†­ ƒ’ ƒ 
\b\t­ €\t
­ €\t (‡)
\t\b‡ \n­
\b\b ‡ \t\b\nˆ
  ƒ  ‘1
“\r   \r \n 
‘\n: \b ƒ  \t­ ‡­\t €­† ­† Š \t\b\n ƒŠ„ \b\t­Š„  ‚‚.
\t\t : ‚\t\t\n \b \t­   \n‰ ­† ‡\n\tƒ†, ‰\n†, •\n†, ‡\n\t•†
•\n†, ­\t•† •\n† ’•†  ‚‚.
‰ Š‚\n ‰ \t€­Š:
1. \b ƒ ­ ‚­\t\nŠ ‡\n ­† Š \n‰ ƒ ‡\t\nƒ  „ \b\t­Š„
 ‚‚.
2. \t‚\n ­ ­\t€\n Ž , „\t\t­ \b ‰  12 ‡\n† ‚ \tŠ‡  ­ ‰‡.
„\r 27
€ƒ†   ­
\t \n‰ ­† ‡\n\tƒ†  ‚‚Š
\t \n‰ ­† ‰\n†  ‚‚Š
\t \n‰ ­† •\n†  ‚‚Š
\t \n‰ ­† ‡\n\t•† •\n†  ‚‚Š
\t \n‰ ­† ­\t•† •\n†  ‚‚Š
\t \n‰ ­† ’•†  ‚‚Š
„\r 28
•€€€   ­
\b€\t ‰
 ­
\t\t­ ­ \t
\t\b\t  ( ), \t\b\tƒ  \b\n ‰,
‡\t­ \t\n
\t­ \n‰ ƒ  •\n \b\t­\t,
\b ‚\n •­‰ ­ ­\t ‚\n­\t 
  ‡  ‡\n ’ ‚\n 
‡\t ( \n —­), ‚†. ˜\n .
 \n  ­\t\n .   ‰  \b\t.
\t­\t.
\t­  \n Š† ‚\n ‚ \n\t’”  \n —­\t 
Ž­\t\n† \b\t­† \t ­  \b­\t\nŠ
‚\bŠ ‚­\n ‚  ŽŠ.
\t\t­ ­ \t ­ Ž ‚\nƒ
‚\nƒ  ­\bŠ‡ €ƒ\t‡ , ‚\nƒŠ‡
Š­\tƒ\t‡
\t\t­ ­ \t ­ Ž ‚ 
‚ \t   ‡ •‡
\t\t­ ­ \t ­ Ž  \t\t.
†  \t\t, \n \t. ‡\t  \t\t.
€“‡  \t\t. •   \b\t  \t\t.
­\tƒ†  \t    ‡ •‡, ‡\t  \t\t
\t• \t‰, €“‡  \t\t  †,  \b  \t\t
 ‡\t­†
\t\t­ ­ \t ­ \t. ­‚
‚ \n\t ‰  •. ‚€   ‰
 \n †.   ­ Ž
\n Š.   ­ \t. \n ƒ \t
­ \t
­  ­­\t’” † ­ • , ­\tƒ†,
‚\n\n\t” †, ‡\t\n †
­\nƒŠ ­\t\n
\t‡\t    Ž­ƒ\t \b ­\nƒ† ­\t
­\t­ Ž­\t
  ­\n
‚ ­\n­  Ž\t‡ ­ \t, €­\t‡  \b 
\b\n ‰ ‚\n\t ­\nƒ\t‰ ­ƒ\t \t
\t­‰ 1 ‡ ­ \t‰.
‡‡­\t
1. \t\b\t  ( ), \t\b\tƒ  \b\n ‰, ‡\t­ \t\n .­.‚.
2. ‡\t ( \n —­), ‚† (‚ \n\t’” †, ‚\n ‚ \n\t’” †, €Š†, ‚‰‡†,
\t• Š† \b\t Š†  \b ). ˜\n  (\n   ­† €\b, ’€\t  ­† €\b). 
\n  ­\t\n (\t ­­‡ ‡­, \b\t•\t‰, \b\t \t‰).   ‰  \b\t (\b\t \t‰, ‚‰‡\t‰,
\t• \t‰). \t­\t ( \b\t­† „  \n  „ , \t ‚\bŠ \n \tŠ ‚­\n
‚  ŽŠ, \t ‡\n , ‚­\t†\t‰,  ‚\n\t† .).
3. \t\t­ ­ \t ­ Ž ‚\nƒ (­ ­ Š \n  , Š­\tƒ , \nŠ)
4. \t\t­ ­ \t ­ Ž ‚  (­ ­ Š \n  , Š­\tƒ , \nŠ)
5. \t\t­ ­ \t ­ Ž  \t\t. †  \t\t (­\tƒŠ, Ž\nŠ, \n\t),
\n \t.   ‡ •‡ (  ‡ \n \n­Š‡),  ‡‰ (‚ ‡ \n­Š‡ \n „ ‡
  ‡), ­‡‰ („ ‡, \n­Š‡   ‡). ‡\t  \t\t (‚‰‡\t‰, \t• \t‰, \b\t \t‰).
€“‡  \t\t ( \b †, † •  Š, •  † \n ƒ •  †). •   \b\t  \t\t
(‚ €Š,  ‡\t­\t‡ \n ­­\t‡ , \n\tŠ ).
6. \t\t­ ­ \t ­ \t. ­‚ ‚ \n\t ‰  • (‚\n­ ‚ \n\t’”   •,
­­\t’”  ­ • ). ‚€   ‰  \n † (Ž\nŠ ­  , ­\tƒŠ,
“‡Š).   ­ Ž \n Š (\b\t­\t  „ ,  ­­\t‡ €­\t).   ­ \t
(­‰ƒ †, ­\n†, ‚\n\n\t” †). \n ƒ \t ­ \t (€\n•†, ‡\t\n †)
7. ­\nƒŠ ­\t\n (\t‡\tŠ, ‚‰, \n\t‚\tŠ .)
8.   ­\n (­\nƒŠ ­ƒ , \t­Š, €† , \t‚‚\n \tŽ .)
  ƒ  ‘2
  \n  \r \r \n
‘\n: \t\b ­  \tŠ ‚­ ‰ ƒ­†  ‚‰Š„ \b\n † \n‰ ƒ.
\t\t : ‚­ ­ ƒ­  ‚‰Š„ \b\n † \n‰ ƒ (‚‰‡†  ƒ† ’€,
€’).
\t   ‚    Š ƒ ‚ (. . 6  7)
‰ Š‚\n ‰:
1. Š€\t­ „Š \tŠ \n‰ ‚­ ‰ ƒ­\t ( \b‡ ­     ƒ \n € Š€\t­
\b ­\t€\n Ž), \b\t‚\n ­ ­\t€\n Ž  26  ­­\t .
2. Š‚\n ­ \tƒ­Š \n‰ ‚­ ‰ ƒ­\t Š ‚‰‡† ’€ \n‰ ƒ \t ­ ’
    (‡. ­\t€\n. 7).
3. ­ ­ ƒ­ Š ‚‰‡† ’€ \t ‡ \n\n ‡­† € ‡\t.
4. ‚\n ­ ­‚ \t\n•­ ’€ . \n‰ —­ Š‚\n ­ \tƒ­Š \t  
  \bŠ \n  ­\t\n \n   \b\t ’€ (— Ž ­ ). ‡. ­\t€\n.7.
5. Š‚\n ­ \tƒ­Š \n‰ ‚­ ‰ ƒ­\t \t\n•† ’€ \t ­ ’    
(‡. ­\t€\n. 9)
6. ­ ­ ƒ­  ƒ† ’€ .
„\r 29
\n†, …­ ƒ   € ‚­  Š ƒ ‚
€\b\tƒ 
\b‡ ‰
\t ‡\t  \b‡ ‰
\n ƒ \t
\b‡ ‰, ‡
­
\n €„\t­ ­\t\n
\n €„\t­ €
\t­‰  ­ \n  ­\t\n  ‚\n\t € 
\t­‰  ­ \n  ­\t\n \b\t  Š•† ­ƒ ‚­  ‡
‚\nƒ •\t   \t •
\n \t \b\n ‰ ˆ \t­‰  ­ \n  ­\t\n   \b\t ’€ \b\t
 €\t \t € €\n\t :
ˆ ‚ \n  € 
ˆ 2,0 ‡ (\n‰ \t\b‡\t 134-68);
ˆ ‚ \n  ­\t\n 
ˆ 1,0 ‡ (\n‰ \t\b‡\t 134-68).
\t  € ‚­ Š ƒ ‚
(\t. . 9)
‰ Š‚\n ‰:
1. \t‚\n ­ ­\t€\n Ž  27  ­­\t .
2. Š‚\n ­ \tƒ­Š \n‰ ‚­ ‰ ƒ­\t Š €’ \n‰ ƒ \t ­ ’
    (‡. ­\t€\n. 11).
3. ­ ­ ƒ­ Š €’ \n‰ ƒ \t ‡ \n\n ‡­† € ‡\t.
„\r 30
\n†, …­ ƒ   € ‚­ Š ƒ ‚
€\b\tƒ 
\b‡ ‰
\t ‡\t  \b‡ ‰
\n ƒ \t
\b‡ ‰, ‡
­
\n €„\t­ ­\t\n
\n €„\t­ €
\t­‰  ­ \n  ­\t\n  ‚\n\t € 
\n \t  ‚  ­† ‚„­
Š­\t \n† ­ƒ
\n \t €’
ž  \t €’  \b 
ž    €’ \t   \n†
 €\t \t € €\n\t  (Š€ \t’­  \b\t  ‡­ ­ ­‚ ‚ \n\t ‰ €’):
ˆ  ‚\n €„\t­  ­\t\n 
ˆ  ‚\n €„\t­  € 
  ƒ  ‘3
  \n \r\n \r \r \n
‘\n: \t\b ­  \tŠ ‚­ ‰ ƒ­†  ‚\nƒŠ„ \b\n † \n‰ ƒ.
\t\t : ‚­ ­ ƒ­ Š ‚\nƒŠ„ \b\n † \n‰ ƒ, •  \t\t
­ .
‰ Š‚\n ‰:
1. \t‚\n ­ ­\t€\n Ž 28 29  ­­\t .
2. Š‚\n ­ \tƒ­Š \n‰ ‚­ ‰ ƒ­\t Š ‚\nƒŠ„ \b\n † \n‰ ƒ \t
­ ’     (‡. ­\t€\n. 13).
3. ­ ­ ƒ­ Š ‡ \b ‚\t\n­ \n‰ ƒ (‡.  . 14).
4. ­ ­ ƒ­ •  \t\t (‡.  . 17).
5. ­ ­ ƒ­ ­  (‡.  . 18, 19, 20).
„\r 31
\n†, …­ ƒ   € ‚­ ƒ‚­…
†ƒ ƒ ‚
€\b\tƒ 
\b‡ ‰
\t ‡\t  \b‡ ‰
\n ƒ \t \b‡ ‰, ‡


­
\n €„\t­   ‚Š†
\n €„\t­   ­†
\n €„\t­   ­­ †
\n €„\t­ €
\n €„\t­ ­\t\n
\n €„\t­ •
ž  \t ‚ Š
ž  \t  
ž  \t ‚\nƒ \t­\t
\t­‰  ­ \n  ­\t\n \b\t  Š•† ­ƒ
‚­  ‡ ‚\nƒ •\t   \t ‰ •
\t­‰  ­ Š•† ­ƒ ‚­  ‡
‚\nƒ •\t   \t ‰ •   ‰ \b\t „  \n
‚‡Š•ƒŠ„ ‚\t 
Š­\t ‚\nƒ\t \t‰
Š­\t  
\t­‰  ­ Š•† ­ƒ ‚­  ‡ ‚\nƒ
•\t   \t ‰ •  \n  ­\t\n ‚
\n \t \b\n ‰
 €\t \t € €\n\t  ( \tƒ­ ‚ ‡\t Š€\tŠ ‚ €\t \n‰ ‚­ ‰
ƒ­\t ‡ \b ‚\t\n­ ‚‰‡  \n —­\t \n‰ ƒ ):
ˆ ‚ \n    
ˆ   ƒ\t­\t‡ ‚  
ˆ   ƒ\t­\t‡ ‚\nƒ 
ˆ  •   \n Š 
ˆ  Š­ \n Š ‚  
Œ
ˆ \n  ‚  ‚ \n  ­\t\n 

ˆ \t €  ‚†‡Š 
 €\t ‚ \n  ­\t\n 
‚ \n  € 
\n‰ \b\n † € ‚ \n\t ‰ 
 ‡\t   ‚  ‡\t’­‰. ™­ ‚ €\t \t’­ \t ’ \n ‚ ­  \t \b\n †
‚ \n\t’” ‚\n ‚ \n\t’”  \n —­.
„\r 32
\n†, …­ ƒ   € ‚€’ ‰€‚€
€\b\tƒ 
\b‡ ‰
\t ‡\t  \b‡ ‰
\n ƒ \t \b‡ ‰, ‡ (\n‰ ‚ ‡\t
‚ Š \b‡ ‰ \n‰ \t\b‡\t 134-68)
.
€„\t­ ‚\nƒ\t
\n \t  \t\t (‚ ‡\n )
ž  \t  \t\t  \b  (‚ ‡\n )
\n \t ‚†‡Š ( \b ƒ­\t)
Š­\t \t­\t
 €\t\t \t € €\n\t : 
  ƒ  ‘4
  \n  \r \r \r\f\n
‘\n: \t\b ­  \tŠ ‚­ ‰ ƒ­†  ‚‰Š„ \b\n † \n‰ ‡\t\nƒ .
\t\t : ‚­ ­ ƒ­ Š ‚‰Š„ \b\n † \n‰ ‡\t\nƒ 
‰ Š‚\n ‰:
1. \t‚\n ­ ­\t€\n Ž  30  ­­\t .
2. Š‚\n ­ \tƒ­Š \n‰ ‚­ ‰ ƒ­\t Š ‚\nƒŠ„ \b\n † \n‰ ƒ \t
­ ’     (‡. ­\t€\n. 15).
3. ­ ­ ƒ­ Š €’ \n‰ ‡\t\nƒ  (‡.  . 21).
„\r 33
\n†, …­ ƒ   € Š
€\b\tƒ  \b‡ ‰
\t ‡\t  \b‡ ‰
\n ƒ \t \b‡ ‰, ‡
\n €„\t­ ­\t\n
\n €„\t­ €
\t­‰  ­ \n  ­\t\n  \n 
\n†
\n \t €’
 €\t :
  ƒ  ‘5
  \n \r\n \r \r \r\f\n
‘\n: \t\b ­  \tŠ ‚­ ‰ ƒ­†  ‚\nƒŠ„ \b\n † \n‰ ‡\t\nƒ .
\t\t : ‚­ ­ ƒ­ Š ‚\nƒŠ„ \b\n † \n‰ ‡\t\nƒ , •  \t\t
­ .
‰ Š‚\n ‰:
1. \t‚\n ­ ­\t€\n Ž  31  ­­\t .
2. Š‚\n ­ \tƒ­Š \n‰ ‚­ ‰ ƒ­\t Š ‚\nƒŠ„ \b\n †,  \t\t, ­ \t
\t‚’•\t \n‰ ‡\t\nƒ  \t ­ ’     (‡. ­\t€\n. 16, 17, 18, 19).
3. ­ ­ ƒ­ Š ‡ \b ‚\t\n­ \n‰ ‡\t\nƒ \t (‡.  . 24).
4. ­ ­ ƒ­ •  \t\t (‡.  . 27).
5. ­ ­ ƒ­ ­  (‡.  . 28).
6. ­ ­ ƒ­ \t‚’• (‡.  . 29).
„\r 34
\n†, …­ ƒ   € ƒ‚’ †ƒ
€\b\tƒ  \b‡ ‰
\t ‡\t  \b‡ ‰
\n ƒ \t
\b‡ ‰, ‡



\n €„\t­ •
\n €„\t­   ­­ †
\n €„\t­ ­\t\n
\n €„\t­ €   ƒ­‡ Š­ ‚\t ‰  ­\t
ž  \t  
\t­‰  ­ \n  ­\t\n \b\t  Š•† ­ƒ
‚­  ‡ ‚\nƒ •\t   \t ‰ •
\t­‰  ­ Š•† ­ƒ ‚­  ‡
‚\nƒ •\t   \t ‰ •  \n  ­\t\n
‚
\t­‰  ­ Š•† ­ƒ ‚­  ‡ •\t  
\t ‰ •   ‰ \b\t  \n\t ‚‡Š•ƒ†
‚\t Š
Š­\t ‚\nƒ\t \t‰
ž  \t ‚ Š
\n \t \b\n ‰
ž  \t ‚\nƒ \t­\t
\n \t  \t\t
€„\t­ ‚\nƒ\t
 €\t , ‡:
= 10,0
= 1,7
ШП
= 1,8
ДТС
= 1,0
=3,5
ШГС
= 1,7
= 9,6
  ƒ  ‘6
‡\r\n    \r \n
‘\n: ‚€­\t­ ‡ \t ’ \t\b ­ ’  ‡ † \tŠ ‡\n \t ‰ Š
\n‰ ƒ
­ ‡­Š ‡\t­ \t\nŠ: Ž­\t‰ € ‡\t\t, \n†,  ŽŠ, ƒ­Š ­ ‡­Š, •\t€\nŠ
 Š \n‰ ƒ.
\t\t :
1. ‡\n \t­ ‚\n\t­ \t   † ­  ­Š‡ Ž\t‡ \n‰ ƒ •\n
\b\t­\t.
2. ‡\n \t­ ‚\n\t­  ‚\bŠ‡ ‚ €\tŠ‡ €ƒ\t‡ \n‰ ƒ •\n
\b\t­\t.
3. ‡\n \t­ \n   ­ ‡ Ž\nŠ‡  \t‡ \n‰ ƒ •\n \b\t­\t.
4. ‡\n \t­ \n  \n\t \n‰ ƒ •\n \b\t­\t.
5. ‡\n \t­ ‚\n\t­  Ž\n† ­† \n‰ ƒ •\n \b\t­\t.
\tŠ ­† Š ‚‰­    \t \t Š†  ‚ ­‡ \b ­\n ‚\n ‰
‚\n ‰ \tŠ„ \n  † ‚ ­• ’  ­ \t‡   Š, ­. . •   \n Š, \n 
‚\nƒ\t, \n €  ‚†‡Š,   ‚\t.
†. 32.  \r \t \r\f  \n:
 € ‚ \n;  €  \n \n  ; \n € .
\t  . ‚\t\b\t ‚\n\t­ \t ‚‰‡† ‚\n ­  Ž\nŠ‡ ‚ ‡ \n ‡
\n\t\t‡  • \n \t. ˜­€Š ‚­ \t ‚\n\t­‰ \t Š† , \t    ‚\n\t­‰ ­‡ƒ\t’­
   ‚\t, \b\t­‡ ‚\n‰’­ \n   ‚\n ­ ‚ ­• ’  \n €  ‚†‡Š.  \t‡
\t \n \t ‚\n ­ \b\t ‡\t­ ‚\n   \n € Š ‚†‡Š.
‚\n‰’­ •    Ž\n \n \t ‚ ­• ’  •   \n Š. \t   
‚\n\t­‰ •  \t \n \t \n ‡• •  Š \n Š. \t ‚\n  \tŠ„ \n  † \t
   ‚\n, \t \n ­ € ‡\t €‰­  ’ Š†  ‚\n\t­‰ \t † ­‡ƒ\t’­ \n  ’
\n € Š ‚†‡Š \n  ’ ­\t\n .   \t\t \t Š† \t‰­ ­\t, \t  ‚\nŠ \t
  , ­. . ­‰­ Š†   \t’.
ž    Ž\n \n \t \t Š† € ­ \t 0,5ˆ1 ‡ ‡• •  Š
\n Š, \n \t ‚\n ­ \b\t ‡\t­ ‚\n   \n € Š ‚†‡Š. Œ\n €   ‚†‡Š
\b‡‰’­ ­ \t‰ ‚\nƒ\t  \n  \n € Š ‚†‡Š ‚ ‚‰‡†. \t \t† ­\t\n Š†
­‡ƒ\t’­ \t‚\t\n  \n†  ­ ‚ \t‡ƒŠ‡ \tŠ‡ \n  ‰‡ Š†  \t\b\b\t’­.
 \t  Š† ‚ \n  ‰‡ \t\b\b\t \t’­ ‚ €\t  \t •Š, € , \n\t , \b\t„
€\t€­  \b\t­ , \t ‚\t\b\t \t  ., .
\n \t \t ‡’­‰ \n\t , ­ \t Š† „ ­‡ƒ\t’­ \n  ‰‡ , ‚ ­Š‡ Š† 
\t\b\b\t’­ ‚ \t ‚ \n  \t\b\b\t \t\b \t’­ \t \n €   \n\t .
\r\f  \t     
 ‚ \t  ­ƒŠ‡ \n\t\t‡ ­ ‡Š . \t­\t \t ‚ . ­\n† ­ 
\b  „ ‚\n ­ .  \t\t \n Š, \t ‡\t­\t„. \n\t­ ‡ • ­ \b \n\t\n , € ‡\t\b ,
•­\n\t , \t \t   „ ­\t†. •† ­\n†  ‚\n\t­’ ‡­ €Š­ ­‡\t \n €†\t,
‚ • ­Š  ­\n­  ­ \t ­ .
\n \t . \t † Š† ‚  ‚\t ‚\n\t­‰ \t‰­ \n  ’ ­
\n\t. \n‰ —­ ­‡ƒ\t’­ \n €   ‚†‡Š ­ \t‰ ‚\nƒ\t ‚‰‡† \n  †. ­\t ‚ \n 
\b\t ‡\t­ 2/3 ƒ\t­ \n € Š ‚†‡Š. Š  ‡\n‰’­ \t ‚\n  •  Š ­ . ­ Š­ ‚\t
‡Š \t ‚\t\t\n\n\n   ‚  ‚\t ‚‰­ \n  \n\t. Š†  ‚ \t‡ƒŠ‡
\n  ‰‡ \t\b\b\t’­.
\t \n ­ € ‡\t €‰­ Š†  ­ ‚  ‚\t,    „ ‚ ‚\nƒ ,
Šƒƒ \t’­ Š†  ­ \t, \t ‚\t\b\t \t  ., €.
†. 33 ˜ \r\f  \t     :  ™ 
‚ \n, , \n €  \n \n  ; ™ .
\r\f    
 \n  ‚\b ‚ • ­\t \t‰ €†\t \b  „ ƒ\t­†. \t ƒ\t­ €† • \t­‰ 
‚\b ‚  , ­\t‰ ˆ  ‚\b ‚\t.  \t ‚\t  •‡, ­ ­ ‡\n Š­ ‚
\b\t­ . ­  \b ­\nƒ† ­\t . \n\t­ ‡ • ­ \b •­\n\t , \t \t, \n\t\n ,
•­\t‚\n ‚\n­\t   „ ­\t†.
†. 34 \r\f    :  ™ 
‚ \n, , \n €  \n \n  
\n \t . \t † Š† ‚  ‚\t ‚\n\t­‰ \t‰­ \n  ’ \n € Š
‚†‡Š. \b \t‡ƒ\t’­, ­­ ‚  ­ \t‰ ‚\nƒ\t \t •    €† . \n  ‚\b\t \t ‚ 
‚ ˆ \t ‚\n  \t­‰ ‰ ­ ‚\nƒ\t  \n  \n € Š ‚†‡Š.  •  Š ­\t
\n Š ‚\b  „ ­ \t 1 ‡. Š†  ‚ \t‡ƒŠ‡ \n  ‰‡ \t\b\b\t’­.
\t† ( . ).  \t † ­\t\n ‚   €‡  \b  \t’­ ‚ ‚  \t
\t\n•  \b  3ˆ4 ‡,   † ­\t\n ‚\t ­\t 3ˆ4 ‡.    ‚\t \t’­ ‚ ‚  \t
• 2,5 ‡. \t ‚\t† ‚\n  ‚\t ‚ \n  \b\t­ ‚ ‚  \t • \t\t’­. ­ \tƒ
„ €\t\b ­‰ Š­ ‚ \b\t­ , ­Š† €\t€\t­Š\t­‰ ‚†† €­\tƒ†.
 \t ‚\bŠ„ €Š„ ­\t\n† ‚ƒ\t ‚   ‚‡  \b  \t’­ ‚ ‚  \t
\t\n•  \b  2ˆ3 ‡ \t €  5 ‡.
\n‰ €\t€­ \b\t­ Š\t \t’­ ‚† ’ €­\tƒ  •  † 5 ‡ \t 1 ‡ \n 
\b\t­ . ‹†  Š\t \t’­ ‚ †  ­   €‡ ‚  . \n \t €† š ‚ \n  ‚\b\t.
†. 35. ˜ \r\f    :  € ‚ \n;
, \n €  \n \n  ; € ,
‡\r\n \r\t   \r\f \n
Š†  \n \t  Ž\nŠ‡ ­ ‡  \t‡ (\t\b‡ 36) ­‰­ \t †
Š† \n \t \n‰ •\n ŽŠ.
\t \n ­ € ‡\t €‰­  ’ Š†  \n \t ‚  . \t €† Š† \t‰­
\n  ’ \n € Š ‚†‡Š \n  ’ ‚\n Š •  Š ‚  . \nƒ† • ‚   ­
‚ ‡\t’­ \t 0,5 ‡, \t ‚ \t’ ‚\nƒ\t \t 1,5 ‡ ‚\n\t’­ ‚‰­ ’ \n  ’ ‚\nƒ\t \t \n  
 \t\t (5ˆ6 ‡). ‹† • ‚ ‡\t’­ „ \t 1 ‡. \n‰ Šƒƒ \t ‰ \b\t  \t\t \n  ’
‚\n Š •  Š ‚  \n‰­ \t ­ ƒ\t­ ­ 1/3 ƒ\t­ ­\n\tŠ\t’­ 3,5 ‡. \t†  \t\t
\t• \t’­ \t 0,5 ‡. Šƒƒ \t’­ \b  \t\t, \t ‚\t\b\t \t  . \t.
†. 36.  \r\t   \r\f \n:  € ;  € 

\t \n ­ € ‡\t €‰­  ’ Š†  \n \t ‚\t. \t €† Š† ­‡ƒ\t’­
\n  ’ \n € Š ‚†‡Š \n  ’ •  Š ‚\t.
\nƒ† • ‚\t  \n  ‚ Š­\tƒ  ‡\t’­ \t 0,5 ‡,  \b‡‰‰ \t‰ ‚\nƒ\t,
‚\n\t’­ —­  \n  ’ \t \n    \t\t (5ˆ6 ‡). ‹† • ‚\t ‚ ‡\t’­ \t 1 ‡.
\n‰ Šƒƒ \t ‰ \b\t  \t\t \n  ’ ‚\n Š •  Š ‚\t \n‰­ \t ­ ƒ\t­ ­ 1/3
ƒ\t­ ­\n\tŠ\t’­ 3,5 ‡. \t†  \t\t \t• \t’­ \t 1 ‡. Šƒƒ \t’­ \b  \t\t, \t ‚\t\b\t
\t  . 1, €.
 ’’ ƒ\t­ ‚\n\t­‰, ­. . ’€   \n  , ‚ ƒƒ \t’­, \t    ‚\n\t­‰.
‡\r\n \r\t  \r
Š†  \n \t \n\t (\t\b‡ 36) ­‰­ \t † Š† \n \t ‚\n\t­‰  \t\t
 ‡ . \t Š†  \t\t \t‡ƒ\t’­ ­\nŠ ­ƒ :  \b\t† ƒ\t­ \t­\t  \t\t \t
‚ƒ \t­\t  ‚‡\t­\n† \n  †,  ‚† ƒ\t­ \t 1 ‡   —­ ‚ƒ ‰.
Š†   \t\t \t\b\b\t’­ ‚ \n   Š, ƒ­€Š ­\n ­ \b\t’’ ‚\n    \t\t ­
‚† ( . \t),
‚ \t \b\t‰‰ ƒ\t­  \t\t ( . 6)
\t \n ­ € ‡\t €‰­  ’ Š†  ‚  \n \t. \t €† Š† ­‡ƒ\t’­
\n  ’ \n € Š ‚†‡Š \n  ’ •  Š ‚  . \n €\n‰’­ ‚†‡  ‚ €‡  \b  \t 1 ‡.
\t­‡ \t„‰­ ­\n ’ ­ƒ  ‚†‡Š \n\t \t \n  ‚\n Š •  Š ‚  . \n‰ —­
Š†  \b\t† ƒ\t­  \t\t ‚ \n\tŠ\t’­ ­\t, ƒ­€Š   † \b  \t\t ‚\t\n  ­ƒ† 1
 €‡ \b ‚  , \t ­\n\t‰ ­ƒ\t  \t\t \n\n\t \t \n  ’ ‚\n Š •  Š ‚  ,
\t ‚\t\b\t \t  . 6. \n  ­\n† ­ƒ  \t\t \t \n  ‚\n Š •  Š ‚ 
‰\n‰­‰ ­\n† ­ƒ† ‚†‡Š \n\t. €‰­  ’’ ƒ\t­ \t­\t  \t\t ­ ­\n†
­ƒ  € \b\t, ­. . Šƒƒ \t’­  ’’ ƒ\t­ ‚†‡Š \n\t.
\t ­‡ƒ\t ­\n\t‰ ­ƒ\t \n\t\t Šƒƒ\t  ‰‰ ƒ\t­ ‚†‡Š, Š† 
 \t\t  ‡\t’­ Šƒƒ \t’­ „’’ ƒ\t­ ‚†‡Š \n\t. \n‰ —­ \n  ’ ­\t \n‰­
‚‚\n\t‡ ‚\n    ‰’­ ‚‡\t­\n† \n  †  ­\n† ­ƒ† ‚ \n  ‚\n Š
•  Š ‚  . ‚‡\t­\n ’ \n  ’ \n‰­ ‚‚\n\t‡ „ ­  Š ­\n\tŠ\t’­ 1 ‡.
Šƒƒ \t’­ „’’ ƒ\t­ ‚†‡Š \n\t,  ‰‰ ‚\n   ­\t  ­\n† ­ƒ†
ƒ\b ‚‡\t­\n ’ ­ƒ , \t ‚\t\b\t \t ƒ­.
\nƒ† • ‚   ­ ‚ ‡\t’­ \t 0,5 ‡, \t ‚ \t’ ‚\nƒ\t \t 1,5 ‡.  Šƒƒ†
\n  ‚†‡Š \n\t „’’ ƒ\t­ ‚\nƒ\t ‚  ­\b\t’­.
\n‰ ‚­ ‰ Š† \b\t† ƒ\t­  \t\t \n\t  † Š† \b\t† ƒ\t­
 \t\t ( . \t) ‚ \n\tŠ\t’­ ­\b\t ’ ƒ\t­ ‚\nƒ\t ­\t, ƒ­€Š ‚\t\n ­\nŠ ­ƒ
 \t\t ‚†‡Š \n\t, \t \t† ‚\nƒ\t ‚  š  \n  † \t­\t  \t\t. ˜\t­  \t\t, ­\t‰
Š„ ­ \b\t ‚\nƒ ‚  , \b\t’­ ‚\n\t† \n  †.
 ‚‰‰ ƒ\t­  \t\t ( . )
\t \n ­ € ‡\t €‰­  ’ Š†  ‚\t \n \t. \t €† Š† ­‡ƒ\t’­
\n  ’ \n € Š ‚†‡Š \n  ’ ‚\n Š •  Š ‚\t. \t \n  ‚\n Š •  Š ‚\t
\t‡ƒ\t’­ ­ƒ  Š­ ‚\t ‚†‡Š, ­\t‰ € ­ ‰\n‰­‰ ­\n† ­ƒ† ‚†‡Š \n\t.
 €‡  \b  ‚†‡   \n €\n‰’­ \t 1 ‡. \n‰ Šƒƒ \t ‰ ‚†‡Š \n\t ­ ­\n†
­ƒ  ‚†‡ ‚\t  ­   Š ‚\t ­\n\tŠ\t’­ 1 ‡.
  ’ Š\b\t \n Š \n‰­ ‚‚\n\t‡.   ’ Š­\tƒ ­\t \n‰­ ‚‚\n\t‡  \t \t’­
\n   ­† \n  Š­\tƒ ‚ ‚†.  ‰’­ ‚‡\t­\n† \n  † ‚\n   \n 
Š\b\t \n Š  ‚\n † \n Š Š­\tƒ  ­ƒ† 1  Š­ ‚ ‚†‡Š. ­ ‚‡\t­\n†
\n  „ ‚ Š­\tƒ ­\n\tŠ\t’­ ‚ 1 ‡ ‚\n\t† \n  † ƒ\b ­ƒ  7 Šƒƒ \t’­ ‚†‡ 
‚\t \n\t, \t ‚\t\b\t \t ƒ­.
 ‚\nƒ‡ \b ‚\nƒ ,  \n  ‚ \t’ ‚\nƒ\t  ‡\t’­ ‚ 0,5 ‡.  Šƒƒ†
\n  ‚†‡Š „’’ ƒ\t­ ‚\nƒ\t ­\b\t’­ \b\tŠ\t’­  ­\b\t‡ ‚\nƒ Š­\tƒ .
\n‰ ‚­ ‰ Š† ‚† ƒ\t­  \t\t \n\t  † Š† ‚† ƒ\t­
 \t\t ( . \t) ‚ \n\tŠ\t’­ ­\b\t ’ ƒ\t­ ‚\nƒ\t ‚\t  \b\tŠ­† Š­\tƒ† ­\t, ƒ­€Š
‚\t\n ­\nŠ ­ƒ  \t\t ‚†‡Š ‚\nƒ , \t \t† ‚\nƒ\t ‚\nƒ ˆ  \n  † \t­\t
 \t\t. ˜\t­  \t\t, ­\t‰ Š„ ­ \b\t ‚\nƒ ‚\nƒ , \b\t’­ ‚\n\t† \n  †.
 ’’ ƒ\t­ ‚\n\t­‰, ­. . ’€   \n  , ‚ ƒƒ \t’­, \t    ‚\n\t­‰.
†. 37.  \r\t  \r:  € \r \r\f   \n \n
 \n;  €    \f \n; \n €    \f \n
\r\f  \r\f 
\n\t­ ­\b ‚ ­\t\n . \t ‚   \n\t‰ ­\t, \t ‚ ­\t \t ‡­
 ‚† ƒ\t­’ ‚\nƒ .  \t\t \t  \t ‡\t­. ­  \b ­\nƒ† ­\t . œ€\t
‚‰‡\t‰, €\t\t‰  € .
\n \t  ( . €).  ’ Š†  ‚\n\t­‰ ‚ \n  ­\t\n \t\b\b\t’­. \t \n 
‚  \t‰­ \n  ’  \n† ­ . \n \t ­ \t\t •   ‚\nƒ\t. \t ‚\nƒ \n \t
\t‡ƒ\t’­ \n  ’ ­ \n  ­\b\t ‚† ƒ\t­ ‚\nƒ , \t ‚\t\b\t \t  .3, €. 
\t‡ƒŠ‡ \n  ‰‡ Š†  \t\b\b\t’­.
†. 38. Ž \r\f  \r\f :  € 
‚ \n;  €  \n \n  ; \n € .
\t† ( . ).  \t ­ ‚\t  ‚† ƒ\t­’ ‚\nƒ \t \b\t„ \b\t­
€\t\n‰’­ 2 ‡ \t €\t€­   4,5 ‡. Š†   \t\t ‚ \n  ‰‡ \t\b\b\t \t\b \t’­ \t 6ˆ8 ‡
\n‰ € Šƒƒ \t’­ \t­  \t\t, Š\t \t‰ ‚ ‡\t‰ „ \t 1 ‡.
œ€  ‰­ €\b Š† \b  „ \n ­„ ‚‰‡Š„ ‚\n­ ” ­\t ‚ ‰­† ‡ \n Š
’€  ‚ ‚ ‡ \t ‚•  .
 ‚  \t •Š \b\t‚\tŠ, \t‚\t\n  \n†  ­ ‚ \t ‚\t\b\tŠ \t  .….
  ƒ  ‘7
‡\r\n    \r \r\f\n
‘\n: ‚€­\t­ ‡ \t ’ \t\b ­ ’  ‡ † \tŠ ‡\n \t ‰ Š
\n‰ ‡\t\nƒ 
­ ‡­Š ‡\t­ \t\nŠ: Ž­\t‰ € ‡\t\t, \n†,  ŽŠ, ƒ­Š ­ ‡­Š, •\t€\nŠ
 Š \n‰ ‡\t\nƒ .
\t\t :
‡\n \t­  €\t•    €­† \b\t­†.
2. ‡\n \t­ ­  •­\t • .
\n \t   €\t•   €­† \b\t­†
Ž \t Ž  \f \n\t\f .  ƒ Ž  \f
 \f. ­ ˆ  Œ  2 \t.
    \n  4 \t.         \n  1 \t.   
    ƒ        Ž \n\t.
†. 39. †  \n :  ™ ‚ \n; 6 ™ .
‡\r\n  
Š†  ­ „ •­\t • ­‰­ \t Š† \n Š„ €’ƒ \tŠ‚ .  €‡ 
\b  ­\n\tŠ\t’­   ’ \n   •­\t •  ‚ ‚ ‡ \t ‚•    \b\t 3 ‡ (35 ‡). ­
­‡ƒ† \n Š ‚ €  ‚‰­  \b­\t\n ’ \n \n ’  \b\t •­\t •.
ž    ‚† \b\t† ƒ\t­† •­\t •  \b   ‡•\t’­ \t 1 ‡  •\t‡ \b
‚\n\t’­  \b\t \n  ’  \b\t \t 1 ‡. Šƒƒ \t’­   † \b •­\t •. ­  \b\t •­\t •
­\n\tŠ\t’­ ‚ ‚  \t ‚•   3 ‡. ‹† •\t† \bŠ  ‚ ‚  \t ‚•  
\t• ‰’­  \b .
†.40.  \n  .
\t†.  \t   \n ­ \b\t ­‡, ƒ­€Š \n\t‰  ­ ‚„ \n\t ‚  \b\t „
‚ „ ƒ\t­† •­\t •, ­.. ‚ \n  \b\t ­’ .  €‡  \b  \t’­ ‚ ‚  \t \b\t„
\b\t­ \n † 10 ‡, •  † 3 ‡. \t\t \t’­‰ •­\t • €\b ‚ ‚  \t •Š.
  ƒ  ‘8
…   
‘\n: ‚€­\t­ ‡ \t ’  ‡ † \tŠ \t\b\t€­ ­Š„ —\n‡­
€\t ­† Š
­ ‡­Š ‡\t­ \t\nŠ: Ž­Š \t\t\t• , \n‡\t­Š, € ‡\t\t.
\t\t : \b\t­ ‚­ €\t ­† Š.
‰ Š‚\n ‰:
1. \b ƒ ­ —­\t‚Š \b\t ‰ €\t.
2. \t\b\n ­ \t ‡\tŠ ‚ 4-5 ƒ\n.
3.   ‡\t†­ \t\b\t  \t• €\t ­† Š  \b.
4. ‚\n ­, \t \t† \b\t­ € ­ ‚\t\b\tƒ\t­‰ \t \t• €\t.
5. \t  ­\t ‚\n\b ’­‰ ‚ ‚•  ­† Š \t• €\t?
6. \t  †­ † \t­ ‡­ Š.
7.   ‡\t†­ ‚\b­\tŽ ’ €\t.
8. \b­ †­ \t• € Š.
™­\t‚Š \b\t ‰ €\t
1. ‘\n‚\n\t\t .
ˆ \t\n \b ‡  ‡‚\t \n \t \b\tŽ
ˆ ‚\n  ‡­\t €\t  \t„ ­­  € ‡‚\t \n \t \b\tŽ
ˆ ‚\n  \n\t‡ ­‰ ‰ €\t (\tƒ­,  \b Ž \n\t,  ­Š„
‚ ‡ ”­)
ˆ ‡ \n \t  \b‡‰‡Š„ ‚\t\t‡­ €\t (KPI)
2. \n\t \t  ‚­\t.
ˆ \t\n \b ‡’” „‰   ( \tŠ„, ƒ\nƒ „, \b\t † ­. .)
ˆ ‚\n  ‡\tŠ \b\t\t\bƒ ,  ƒ\t­  ‚\n ­\n†
ˆ ‚\n   ‚­\t
ˆ Š‰\n  Š„  \n † \n \t ƒ \t’” „ \t­
3. \t\n \b ­ ” ­‰ ‰ €\t (­\n \n‰  ”­ ’” „ €).
ˆ ‡\n¨­  €   Ž\n† \t  ­
ˆ \t   € Ž\n† \t  ­
ˆ ­•   €  Ž\n† \t  ­
ˆ  \n‰\n­  € 
ˆ ‚\n  ­­­ ‰ ­ ” ­‰ ‰ €\t \n\t‡‡ 
4. \t\n \b Šƒ†  ­ \tŽ
ˆ \t\n \b  ­ (\t­ ‡­, Ž\n\t‰ \t  ­ ‰, ‚\b Ž  \t , ‡­Š
‚  ‰, Ž€\t\b\t )
ˆ \t\n \b ‚‚\n\t\t‡† Ž\n† \t  ­ („\t\t­ ­  , ‚‚ƒ­ ‰). \n
‚ ‰ ‚­€ ­\n†.
ˆ Š €Š­\t (‚, \n‰,  \t‡ \t).
5. ‡ \n \t   ”­ €\t
ˆ   ‰, ‚\b Ž  \t  ‚\n\b­ €\t \n‰ Ž\n† \t  ­
ˆ    \t\n­: Ž­ , \tŽ \tŽ , ƒ­Š,  ­Š ‚ ‡ ”­\t
ˆ ­ € ­Š €\t ( ‡‰, \n­ ‚/ ‡Š† \b\t, ‚\t \n †, • ­,  ‚\t\t
­. .)
6. ­\t­ ‰  ‚\t\n ‰ €‡
ˆ \t\b\t€­\t ‚\t \n \b\t ‰ ‡\t­ Š„ ‡\t­ \t\n ‚ \t  ‚Ž  ‚  ‚\t\n ’
€‡ (€-€ ).
ˆ ‚\n  \n Ž, ­­­Š„ \b\t \t\b ­  €\t („\t ­\n† €\t)
ˆ \t\b\t€­\t ‚\n\t\t †­ † ‚ ‚  ’ €\t ( ­ \tŠ ‡\t­ Š
‡‡  \tŽ )
ˆ \t\b\t€­\t ‚\n\t\t ‚Ž  ‚ ‡ ­   €\t Ž —­ ­
7.    €\t š ­ \tŠ ‡\t­ Š ‡‡  \tŽ
ˆ  \t‚\n\t
ˆ \b­\n  \n\t‡† ‚ Ž
ˆ \t\b‡”  \n\t‡† ‚ Ž  \t\t\n\t„ ‡‡  \tŽ †
ˆ ‡‚\nŠ ‚\t‡‡Š \n‰\n­
8.  ­  €\t Ž\t —­ ­ †­ †
ˆ  ­  \b‡‰‡Š„ ‚\t\t‡­ (KPI) €\t, ‚\n¨Š„ \t —­\t‚ 1
ˆ \t  ­ ” ­‰ ‰ €\t  \n\t‡Š‡
ˆ Ž ‰ ­\t­ \n ­\t­ 
– \n  ˆ\f\n\b\r \n\f
„ 1
…\t   ƒ  Žˆ  , ƒ \f  
ƒ.
‚ \t  ‡\n :
\n\t­  ‚‰‡† ­†.  ‚ \t  ­ƒŠ‡
\n\t\t‡ . \t­\t \t ‚ . ­\n† ­  \b  „
­ . ­\tƒŠ  \t\t «\t  » ­ .
„ 2
…\t   ƒ  Žˆ  , ƒ \f  
ƒ.
‚ \t  ‡\n :
\n\t­  ‚‰‡† ­†. \t   ‚\t \b\t­\t. ­\n†
­ .  \t\t ­\tƒŠ ­ . • † \t\n\t† \t‡\t 
 \b­\t\nŠ‡ \t‚\n ‡ \n   \b\t.
„ 3
…\t   ƒ  Žˆ  , ƒ \f  
ƒ.
‚ \t  ‡\n :
\n\t­   ‡‡­ ƒŠ‡ ‚\b‡ \t ‚. \t­\t \t ‚ .
­\n† ­  \b  „ ­ . ­\tƒŠ  \t\t «\t  »
­  \t ‡\t­\t„.
„ 4
…\t   ƒ  Žˆ  , ƒ \f  
ƒ.
‚ \t  ‡\n :
\n\t­  ‚‰‡† ­†.  ‚ \t  ­ƒŠ‡
\n\t\t‡ . \t   ‚\t \b\t­\t. ­\n† ­ .
 \t\t ­\tƒŠ \n Š \t ‡\t­\t„.
„ 5
…\t   ƒ  Žˆ  , ƒ \f  
ƒ.
‚ \t  ‡\n :
­’‡ ­ ­ \b \t\t\t\t \t­\t. \t­\t \t\t\t\t \t
‚ . \r\t­  \n Š‡ ­\tƒŠ‡  \t\t‡ . \t­\t-\b\t‰\b\t
 ‚\n €† , ­† ­\n\tŠ \t‰ \t­\t  \b  \t\t.
„ 6
…\t   ƒ  Žˆ  , ƒ \f  
ƒ.
‚ \t  ‡\n :
\n\t­ ­\b ‚ \n  ­\t\n . \t­\t \t ‚ . \t ‚
‚  ‚ 2 ­\t\n Š Š­\tƒ . œ€\t  2 \n\t\t‡ ‚ \n  Š­\tƒ
\t ‚  2 \t ‚ .
­\tƒŠ  \t\t «\t  » \t ‡\t­.
­  ­\n† \b  „ ƒ\t­†.
„ 7
…\t   ƒ  Žˆ  , ƒ \f  
ƒ.
‚ \t  ‡\n :
\t\t\t ­\b† ‚ \n  ­\t\n . \t­\t \t €†
\n  \n\t. \t ‚ ‚  ‚ 2 ­\t\n Š Š­\tƒ . œ€\t  2
\n\t\t‡ ‚ \n  Š­\tƒ \t ‚  2 \t ‚ .
„ 8
…\t   ƒ  Žˆ  , ƒ \f  
ƒ.
‚ \t  ‡\n :
\n\t­ ­\b ‚ \n  ­\t\n . \t­\t \t ‚ . \t
‚ \nŠ Š­\tƒ . œ€\t ‚‰‡\t‰, €\t\t‰  € .
 \t\t ­\tƒŠ ­ . ­  ­\n†, ­ ­ \b  „
­ .
„ 9
…\t   ƒ  Žˆ  , ƒ \f  
ƒ.
‚ \t  ‡\n :
\n\t­ ­\b ‚ \n  ­\t\n . \t­\t \t ‚ . \t
‚ \nŠ Š­\tƒ , ‚„‰”   2 ­ƒŠ \n\t
\t ’€. \t ‚  2 ­ƒŠ \n\t .
­\tƒŠ  \t\t «\t  » ­  \t ‡\t­. ­ 
­\n†, ­ ­ \b  „ ­ .
„ 10
…\t   ƒ  Žˆ  , ƒ \f  
ƒ.
‚ \t  ‡\n :
\n\t­ ­\b ‚ \n  ­\t\n . \t­\t \t ‚ . \t
‚ ‚  ‚ 2 ­\t\n Š Š­\tƒ , ‚„‰”   2 ­ƒŠ
\n\t \t ’€ ‚ \b\t .
­\tƒŠ  \t\t \n Š \t ‡\t­. ­  ­\n†,
­ ­ \b  „ ­ .
\b\n \f\bˆ\n \r

ˆ ‚‡­, ‚\n\b ‡Š† \n‰ ‚\n ‰ •  \t \n ­ \n‰ \t €\n
‚Š† ‡Š‡ ­Ž ‰‡.   \t \tŠ ‚ \t’­ ­’‡  \b\tƒ­:
\n†  €, •\t, ‚\n\t­, ‚ƒ\t­ ,  ‡\t, \t\n­ , ‡, •\n¨ (‚­‡),
\n’ƒ Ž\t,  ­\n‰, €\n, € \n\t\t, \t\n †\t‰ € \n\t\t .
 \t  
– ƒ­ Š\tŠ \n    
‡Š \t ­\n €\t\b\t ‰
\n­\t: •„\t­­ , € Š, ­­ 
­†, \t ŽŠ ‡‰ „ ­\t† \t ­\n.
ƒ
– —­ \b\t     ‚ ­‡ \b\t‚\n ‰  ƒ ­\t \t ­\t‡ .
ƒ  ƒ 
– \b€\t  Š„ ­\t\n† ‚
\n
 \t  \n —­\t Š   ƒ­‡ ‚ €\t \t € , ­\n”   ‚\t­\t ‡\t­ \t\n
­„\n ƒ „ ‚ ‚  \t \n\t-­‚\n ’ €\t€­  ­‡ €\n \t ,
\n  ­ \n‰ \t\b\t€­ ‡\nŠ„ 
­ Ž †   \tŠ‡ ‚ \b\t\t‡
‚\n ‰ \n ƒ  \t\tŽ .
 ƒ
–  ­ † ‚\t , „\t\t­ \b ­‰ \t ‡ ‚ „ \b\t „
ƒ\t­† \b\n ‰ \t    (‚\b\t † €\t\n\t) Ž­\t\nŠ„ €Š„ ƒ\t­†
(€† €\t\n\t).
 \n \f
–  ­ † ‚\t , „\t\t­ \b ­‰ \b\t ‡
Š‡ ‚\n ‡
Š• „ ­ƒ \n Š ‚\t ‚    \b
­\t\n‡ ­ \t\n‡ \t‚\t\n ‰„.
 ƒ\n 
–  ­ † ‚\t , „\t\t­ \b ­‰ \t\b
­’ ‡  \n \t‡
 „ \n  † \b\t† ‚† ƒ\t­† ‚‰Š„ \b\n † ­ ­\t\n  €, €‚ƒ \t­
\t ‚\n  \b\n ‰ \t   .
ƒ
ˆ ­\n­\t‰ „\n‚ƒ\t­€ ‡\t\t‰ ­\t ‚\n­‰ ‚‚\n­ ‰, ­€\n\t‰,
\n\t\t•\t‰ \n \t€ \t‰.  \t­‰” ‡‰ ‚\n\b ­‰  ‡ \t ­\t
\n‰ ‚­\n €\n‰.

ˆ ‚\n­\t‰ \t‰ ­\t  „\n‚ƒ\t­€ ‡\tŠ‡ ‡ ( ­ƒŠ‡), Š\t€\t­Š\t‡\t‰
\b \t ­\n ­† ‚‰ .  ƒ• ‡ ­‡ \n­\t ‰\n‰­‰ \n­-, ‡’” †
\t \n Ž† ­ \n Š Š  €ƒ  .
Œ
– ƒ ­•­‰† \t­ \t\nŠ† ‡\t­ \t\n   ­†  ­† ‚„­’ (­ 3-„
 7- ‡‡), ‡‰ † Š† \t ” ‚. ­\t­ƒ ‚ƒ  ­†ƒ   ‡„\t ƒ ‡
‚ ‰‡ ‚ \b†­ ‡ ­ ‰, „•  ­ ‡  \n „\t‰­
‚\tƒ\t\nŠ† • †  .

– ‚\n  \nŠ \t­ Š —\n‡­Š. ‚\n\b ’­‰   \t• ­ ƒ,
‚\n\t­ Ž, ‚ ­.
 
– ­\t\n \n  \b\n •† \b\n ‰ \n‰ €\t€­ 
‡\n ‰ Š\b\t
\n Š.  ‡ƒ\t : ­  ‡­ ­‰­ \b „   ­ \t.

– ­\tƒ†  ƒ\t­ ­\t  \b\n , \n \t” † \n‰ \b\t ‰ €“‡† ‡Š
­\t\n .
Ž
– —­ \b€\t , \t ‡  ‚‡”’ ­, \t‡Š† ‚‚ \n‰Š†  
­\n .
­ 
– Š\b \n‰ • \t Š† ‚\nƒ ‚  .
  
– —­ \n  ,  ”­ ’”  \n’ƒ ­\n \n‰ \t­ Š„
Ž\n†.  \t­ Š‡ ­‰­‰ \n  \t\b\n ƒŠ„ ­\n: \b\t” ‚Š, \n\t , € ,
Š•  , ­\nƒŠ •Š.
  \n
– \n ‡\t‰ \n €\t‰ ­\t\n \b\n ‰ \b  (‚)
‡\t­ \t\n\t.
 
– ƒ\t­ \b\n ‰ (\n ‡\t‰ \n €\t‰ \b ‚
\n\tƒ ‡\t­ \t\n\t),
‚ ‚\n\t‰   ­† ­ \b\n ‰ ‚\t\b\tƒ\t‰ \n‰ ‡\n ‰
\b\n ‰  \b\tƒ† ­Š (\n‰ Š­ ‰ •, \b, „\t ‰ ‡Š,  ‚ƒ ‰,
 ­‚\n ‰  €
­\t —‚\n \t­\tŽ ).
  
– ƒ\t­ \b\n ‰ (\n ‡\t‰ \n €\t‰) \b ‚
Ž \t\n ‡\t­ \t\n\t,
\n \t”\t‰ \n‰ ‚ \t ‰  ­†ƒ † ‡Š \n  ­‚\n ‰, \t‚\n\t‰ ‡ 
­\t\n‰‡ „\t ‚\n\t .
 Ž\fˆ ƒ
– ƒ\t­ •† \b\n ‰, Ž\n\t‰ \n ­\t\t‰.
  
– —­ \b\t   † ‡Š  ƒ\t­\t \b\n ‰  ‚‚† ‡‰ „ \n\t.
\b 
– ­ ­\t ‚\n­, \t  ‡‚\nŠ„ \n  ­ ­ † 
«\b  ». ­\t ‚\n­\t – „\n‚ ‚\n —­.

ˆ  † \n†  €,  ‰’” †  € ƒ­Š ƒ‚Ž\t •\n‰‚Š.  \t‚\t
Š\t‰ •\n‰‚\t‰ ­ \n‰ (\n‰  €\tŠ„ \t \b\t­Š\n \n) €\t‡\n‰’”  \n Ž •  
¨­  ‚\n‰,  \t’” ‰  \b\t­Š\n . \t‚   \t\n‰ \t \n ‡\t­\t‡ š
•  ‡ \n­\t‡ , \b\t‰\bŠ\t• ‡ ‰ ‚ ‚€‡ €\t­‡.

– \t­ \t‰ ­\t\n, ‡\n‰’”\t‰ „’’ ƒ\t­ \t\b\b\t \t‡\t\t.
‰ƒ \f
– \t‚\n  ­\t\n† ‚  ‚‚\t‡ \t 
 ­\t ‚
‚\nŠ‡ ‚ \b\t\t‡.

– „‰‰, ­\b\t‰ ƒ\t­ ­\t\n† \b\n ‰, ‚\nƒ , ‚  , ’€ , €’).
   
– ‚­  ‡\n , \b\t  ­ 
Ž , \tƒ­
‚­  ƒ­† \t\b­ ­\t\n† Š, \t\b\t€­\t ­„ ƒ†  ‡­\tŽ
\t \b­\n .
  
– \n  , \b\t’”   ’ ‡  ­\t\n†, \n 
 ‰’”  ­\tŠ ­\t\n Š: €Š, ‚ , ­\t\n Š, ‚\nƒŠ •Š, •Š
 ‰’”  ­Š ,  \t\t, Š­\tƒ .
 ƒ 
–  ‚­ \b\t ‡‰\b\tŠ„ ­\t\n† Š, ‚€Š „
  ‰  Ž\n’ ‚\n ƒ ‰ ‚\n† ‡Š Š.
 
 • ­Š‡  ‚  ‡ ‚\n\t­ \t‡ , ­  „\t­Š\t’”  ’’ ƒ\t­  † \n­
 ­ \n‰ ‚ \t ‰    €„ ‡  \t (\t‰ \t\t, ­†\t‰ ­\t\n ‰) ‡‰†
‚   . €Šƒ  † \n \n „ ­ \n\t\t • \t,  
 † ­Š \n\t’­ \b\t­¨ \n ­\t\n‰’­ ‡\n ’.
 
– —­ \b\t   \bŠ„ \t Š„ \b\n †  ‚‡”’ • ­‰ \n† \n ‚\n­ ‰
\t \n’•\t„ (€€ \t„),     \t €\t\b ­‰  \b \n­\t­ ‚‚\n­ ‰  ­†.

– —\n\t­ ƒ ­ ­\t ‚\n­ \b „\n‚\t  Š\t€­†  ‡\n ’ ‚\n .
­\t ‚\n­\t – 100% „\n‚.

– ‚ ­\tƒ\t‰ \n Ž\n\t‰   \t\t‡ ­\t\n \t  \b  ‚†‡Š,
€‚ƒ \t’”\t‰  €­    .
  
– \n  ‚­ ‰ ƒ­\t ­ Ž Š.
‰
– „‰‰ ƒ\t­ † ‚\nƒ† Š.
\n 
ˆ \n‰\t‰ \n „\n‚ƒ\t­€ ‡\t\t‰ ­\t, ‚„­ ­†  † \n  „
­ ‚Š­\t ‡ \b ‚­\n Š„  ­†.
   ƒ 
–  ‚­ ‡­, ‚
‡ ‚\t­ ƒ
‚­ ‰ ƒ­† \t\b­ ­\t\n† Š, \t\b\t€­\tŠ„ ‚ ‚\n‡  ‚ Ž ‚ .
 
– —­ \b‡  \n  † † ­ Ž  ­­­  Š€\t†
‡\n’.

– —­ ‚\n ­\n\t‰ ‚ €\t\t \t €\t\b\t  € €“¨‡\t \b\n ‰ \t
•‡   ‰  „ ­\t\n†.
€
– ­\t\n \n‰ €\t€­ Š\b\t, \t\b\b\t, Š\t‰ ‚ ‡ €\t€\t­Š\t‡
 ƒ\t­\t.
€ 
–   \tŽ ‰ ­\n\t ƒ\n\t ‚ ­­‡ ­
\t\n‡ ‚\n ,
„\t\t­ \b ­‰, \t\b\n ƒŠ‡ \b €\t‡ ‚\bƒ
 \t  €\n\t­ • ­\t\n , ‚\n ‡
  ‚ ­• ’  ­\n  Š­† ‚\nƒ.
€
– \b\n  \n  ‚­ \b\n † ‚Š\t’” „ (ƒ\t­ ƒ
 \n ‚\n­’)
­\n ƒ\n\t \n‰ €‚ƒ ‰   ”­\t ‰  \b‰­\n­ , \b\t ‡‰\b 
 \t’”† Ž \t\n†  \b ƒ
† †.
€ \tˆ  
– \t, \b­\t\n \t‡\t‰   \n
‰„ ‡\t
‚‡Š•\n ‚ \b­\t \t ­\t\t­Š ­ ‚Š 
 Š.
€  \t \t
– \t, \b­\n‰‡\t‰ ‚ \b
‡ ‰‡   Š
\b\t\t\bƒ \t     \t\nŠ‡ \t‡.
€ Žƒ
–   Š  \t\b\b‡ ‚\t \n ‚  „   \b ,  \b\t­†
\n €\b .
€  Žƒ
–   Š \t\t‡† ƒ\b \n  €\b \t\b
\b\t ‚\t \n
‚  „   \b .
€
– „‰‰ ƒ\t­  \t\t, \t ƒ\t‰ \n\t\n† \n  †.
€   
– €”\t‰,   \t\n\t‰, „\t‰ €\t\b\t \n‰ ‚­ ‰
­ Ž † Š \t\b\n ƒ \t­ ‡­\t,  \t‰ \n‰ ‡ ƒ , ”  ­†,
\n’ƒ\t­  ­‡  Š„ ­ ­ 
Š„ ­\b \t ƒ \b€\t 
Š„ ­\t\n†  ‡\n
 ‡ \n Š,  † ƒ\t­ ‚†‡Š, Š­\tƒ \t \n‚\t­ ,
 ,  ­,  ­\t\t\n \t­ \b\t ‡‰\b \t\b‡Š„ ‚ \b\t  ­ ­ 
­\b\t‡ , ­­­ ­ €\nƒ  ‡  ‡\t\nŠ‡ ‚ €\t\t‡ .
€
– €\t€­\tŠ† \t† ­\t\n : ­ \t, ‡\t­Š, \n\t\t ­.‚.
 
– \t­ Š ­\t\n \t  \t\t„, \t‡\t\t„    ‚\n \t\b† ‡Š.
  
– ‚‰‰ ­\t\n •† \b\n ‰ Ž\nŠ\t‰ \n ­‰”\t‰ \b ƒ\t­†.
 ƒ 
– \t\n\t\t \n‰ ‚ \t ‰ ‡Š ‚\nƒ† ƒ\t­ •† \b\n ‰.
 ƒ 
– \t ‚ \t’”\t‰‰ \t ‚\nƒ† ‚‰.
 ˆ
– \t­ Š ­\t\n    ‚\n, \t‚\n\t\t‡Š„ \t ‚\nƒ \n „† ƒ\t­
 \t\t.
  
– ­\t\n \b\n ‰ \b † ­\t , ‚\t\b\tƒ\t‰ \n‰ €\t€­ €­\t
Š\t‰ ‚  ‡.
  (‰)
š ­ ­  \tŠ† «\t\n‰Š†» ‚\n —­, ‚ ‚ \b­ ­
‚\n\b ­‰ ‚Ž \t\nŠ ­„\n ‚\n­ ‰ \n \b\t ‰ \t.
 ’
š €” \t\b\t  ‚\n — Š„ \n ‡\t­ \t\n. \t \b ‚\n —­\t
‚ƒŠ, \b­† ,  \n . • „\t‰’­ ‡ , ‡\t\n ‡ ­‰,  ­†ƒ Š 
\b†­ ‰‡ ­‚\n\t ­\t,  ­€ ’­ ‚Ž \t\n  „\t.
   Œ
– ­\t\n •† \b\n ‰, \n\t‰ ‚\t\t‰, ‚Š
\t’”\t‰  ’’ ƒ\t­
­ \n ”\t  .  ‡ƒ\t : ‚\n \t €’ ‡­ ­‰­ \b ‚† \b\t† ƒ\t­†.
 ‚ Œ
– ­\t\n •† \b\n ‰, ‚‰‰ ( \n ) \b\t
‰‰, ‚Š\t’”\t‰
ƒ\t­ ­ \n ”\t .
  ƒ
– ‚\n  Š \t    ƒ\n\t, „\t\t­
 \b ­‰ \b\t ‡Š‡
­­­ ‡ \t\b‡ ‡ ­\n\t ƒ\n\t Š.
 ƒƒ 
– \t ‚Š\t’”\t‰  ’’ ƒ\t­ ­ \n ”\t  ƒ\t­ ƒ \n
‚\n­’, ‚ \t’”\t‰‰ \t ­\t\b€Š† ‚‰.
    
– ‚­  ‡Š ‡\n , \t\b\t€­\t ‚­\t ­ Ž
Š, \n’ƒ\t­ ‚ \t , \tƒ­Š, ƒ­ \t\b
­ ­\t\n† Š   ƒ­‡ †­
­\t , ­„\n € \t
 ‰, ‚­  \t\tŽ ‰ \n\t\n —‚ ‡­\t\n
€\t\bŽ\t ‚Š­
† ‚\t­ .
     ƒ
– ‚\n\t­\nŠ† ‚‰ \t€­  „ \b\t ‰
­ Ž Š.
    ƒ
– ­\t\t‰ ƒ\t­ ­ ­  ­\b
\t, ­\t‰
 \n ƒ \t­ \n  ‡•\t­ \t\b‡Š† ‚ \b\t   ƒ­‡  \b \n-   ƒ „
­€\t †, ­\n” Š ‚\t­\t, €Š  \b\t  ‡­ ­ \t\b\tƒ ‰ Š, ‡
\t‚\t\n ‰,  \n —­\t, \n ‰­ \t \t\b‡Š ­ \b\n ‰,
    \t
– \n ƒ \t ‚ €\t ,  ƒ ­Š\t’”\t‰ \b‡
 ‰ \t\b‡ ­\n\t ‚
  .
    
– \n ƒ \t ‚ €\t ,  ƒ ­Š\t’”\t‰  \b \n-   ƒ 
­€\t ‰, \b •Š ‚\n† , \b\t ‰”  ­ \t\b\t
ƒ ‰ Š,  \t‡  , ‡Š,
 \n —­\t.
    ‚  \t 
– \n ƒ \t ‚ €\t ,  ƒ
­Š\t’”\t‰ ­\n”  
„ \n ‡\t­ \t\n ‚ ‚­  ‡† †, ­\t‰ \t‚\n‰­‰ \t  ­ †
‚\t­ (\t„‰” †‰ ‚ ‚­
 ‡† †) • † (€­Š† ‚\t­
‚­  ‡† 
   ‰ˆ-ˆˆƒ
– \n ƒ \t ‚ €\t ,  ƒ ­Š\t’”\t‰ Š„\t ,
€\t” , ‚ ”\t , ­‡ \n \t , \t\b€
‡  \n \t”\t‰ \n‰ \b\t ‰
‡ \n ‡\t­\t ‡­Š„  \n † \n‰ \t \b‡\t.
  
– —­ ‚ €\t\t \t €\t\b\t  •\t.
   \nˆ\f
– ­\t\t‰ ƒ\t­ ­ ­  ­\b
\t,  ƒ ­Š\t’”\t‰
‚€ ­ Ž ’   ‰ ­\t\n†, \n\t-­‚\n ’ €\t€­ , †­\t
‡\t­ \t\n,  \n ‰­ \t \t\b‡Š ­ \b\n ‰.
       -\f  
– \n ƒ \t ‚
‚ \t,  ƒ ­Š\t’”\t‰
\b‡  ­ ­ Š„ ­\b  \b\t  ‡­ ­  \t ‡\t­ \t\n\t ‚ \n\t-
­‚\n† €\t€­.
  \f\t
š Š\b ­ ‚\nƒŠ„  €Š„ \b \n‰   ‰  \t\t  \n
‡.
    
– ‚\n ­•  ­\nŠ„ ƒ\t­† ­\n\t ‡  €†, 
‡ ƒ­ ­ \n ”\t.
\t \f  
– \t\b‡  ƒ\t­\t ­\n\t ‡  \t­‚‡­ ƒ
‡ ­ƒ\t‡ .
\t ƒ ˆƒ
–    Ž \t\t‰  ­‡\t ­ ‚Š„    ‡ ƒ , ” 
­†, €‚ƒ \t’”\t‰ \t €\n• ’  \n­
­ \t\n ‰ † ‡\t
‚ \b­\t ‚ \b\t\t‡ ƒ \n ­ ‚.
‰
– —­ \bŠ \n  , ­Š \n‰­  ’ Š†  \t ƒ\t­  ‚‡”’
­Š„ \b\t­‰ ‡\t \b\n ‰, €\n\t’”\t‰    .

ˆ —\n\t­ ƒ „\n‚ ­ ­\t ‚\n­  Š\t€­†  ‡\n ’ ‚\n .
­\t ‚\n­\t – „\n‚  \n\t††, „\n‚  \n\t†† ‚\n —­‡.

– \n  ‰ •\t ­\tƒ \t ‰ ­ \t  ‚€­‡ ­ ‚\nƒ •\t  ­ƒ  ­ ‚\t.

ˆ Š\b \n‰ • ­ ‚\nƒŠ„ \b   Š ‚  „ .

– ­\t\n \n  \b\n •† \b\n ‰ ‚Š\t’”\t‰   .  ‡ƒ\t :  \t
‡­ €Š­ \t\b\n ƒ† \n Š, ­Š†,  „•Š† \n ­„•Š†, ­\tƒ†,
Ž\nŠ†  ‚ †, ‚‡, ­†, ­‰”† \b „†,  †, \b\t†
( \n ) ‚† ƒ\t­ .
…
ˆ ­\t \t­  ‚‚\n­ ‰  ­† \b „\n‚ƒ\t­€ ‡\t \n „ ‡ ƒ
\n\t. ‡­ \n\t ’, •\n ­ ’ \n Ž ’ ‚„­, \t ­† ‚€\n\t\t’­
 ­ƒŠ  ­ ; Š‚ \t­‰  ‡ \n\t\t•†, \t€ † ­€\n¨†.
 ‡‰­‰ \n‰ \b­\n ‰ ‚\n\t­, ‡  „  €\t•, \t ‚\n\tƒ\t‰ ­\t ­..
…ƒ
– ­ ­\t ‚\n­ \b „\n‚ƒ\t­€ ‡\tŠ„  ­­ ƒ „ \n. \n‰ 
‚\n\b ­‰ \n‰ \b­\n ‰ ‚­ † Š. ­\t ‚\n­\t – 100% „\n‚, „\n‚
 ‚\n —­‡, \t \n.
…\t   ƒ 
–  ‚­ ‚ ‡, ‚ƒ
Š„ €”‡ 
‡  ‚ Ž ‚ , ‰\n‰­‰ \t ƒ† † 
­  \t ‰ Š.
…
ˆ \n\t‰ „\n‚ƒ\t­€ ‡\t\t‰ ­\t ‚\n­‰ ‚‚\n­ ‰ \b ­€\n† ‚‰ .
 ­  ­\t Š  \t† ­\n” Š. \t‡­ \t ­‰ \t€††.
…
– \b\t‰‰ ­\t\n •† \b\n ‰ Ž\nŠ\t‰ \n ­‰”\t‰ \b ƒ\t­†.
… 
– ­ Š ŠŠ„ ­\t\n†.
… 
ˆ ‚\n¨\t‰ \tŽ­ \t­ \t\t‡€\n‰ (­’‡\t  • ‡ ‡Š\n),
‚ ­\t\t‰ \n ’” ‡ ‚ \b\t\t‡ ( \n „  ‚­’): \b\t­‡, ‚\n‡,
‚ †, Ž \t\nŠ‡ ­\t­ ‡, ‚ \t\n­’   € \n­ , \n ƒŠ‡  ‡
ƒ\n\t, —‚„†  \b €”­\t, \tŽ \t\n­’, \n  \b† ‚ \t\n­’,
 ‡­­’,  Ž \t\n­’, €\t\b‡  \b    \t\nŠ‡ €­‰‡ .
†\n 
–  ‡­  ­\t\t\n \t­  \t\b\tƒ  ‚\t\b\t­\n
\tƒ­\t \b\n ‰, ­„ -—‡ ƒ  ‚Ž \t\nŠ ­€\t ‰, ‚“‰\n‰‡Š
 \t\b\t€\t­Š\t‡‡  \b\n ’, €“‡ , ­\t
 ‰‡ \t\b\t€­ ­\t  ­ ­†
 ‡­\tŽ .
†ƒ \f
–   €\n• \n ƒ­\t \t\b€\t\bŠ„ ­\t\n† 
‚\n‡  ƒ \n  ­ ‚, ­Š €‚ƒ \t’­  Š 
­­­ ’”† €\n\t­ .
†ƒ ‰ˆ 
–   \t, Š \t\b‡Š „\t\t­ ­  ­
†  ­\t\t\n \t’­‰
­\t\t­‡, \t ­ ’ \b­\n‰­‰ \t ‡\t
 ‚ \b­\t, ‚ \t‰ \n‰
‚\n†  ‚‚Š    \t\n
† 
– ­ƒ\t \tƒ\t\n\t ­\tƒ \t ‰ ­ \t  \n  .
† Œ
(­ . tournure ˆ \t\t ˆ ‡\t\t \t­‰), ‡  80-„ . XIX \t
‚ ‚€\n     ‚ •ƒ , ­\t‰ ‚\n\tŠ\t\n\t \t‡\t‡ \b\t ‚ ‚\n\t­,
  ­\t\n \n‰ ‚ \t ‰ ‚Š•­   . \t  ­ ’ ‡ €Š­    €ƒ\t­†
\t\n\t , \t‚\n\t\t•‰ ƒ ­   ­\t\n \t \b\t‡ ‚\n­ ” „† ƒ\t­ ’€ ,
ƒ­ ‡ \t\n „\t\t­Š†  \n —­  ƒ Š‚ \n†  † ƒ\t­’ ­\n\t.
‰ƒ \f
– ‚   \t\b‡, ­ ‚, ‡ ­\t\n†   Ž \t\n
\t\b\tƒ ‰  ‚­ ‡\t\n‡   €\t\b ’.
 
–  ƒ\t­ €­\t ­ ­ƒ  ­ ‚\t (\tƒ\t\n ­ \t)  \t‰ €­\t.
Šƒ
– \t­ \t‰ ­\t\n, ‚ ‡‰’”\t‰‰ ‡­ ‚‰\t \t ‚  \b\n ‰ \n‰
‚ \t ‰ ‡  €\n•† ‚ ­\t\n­ .
     
– \b€\t   ‚­ Š„ ­\t\n†
Š \n‰ „†  † ƒ\t­† ­\n\t,  ­\t\t\n
\t­ \b\t ‡‰\b, \t\b‡Š„
‚ \b\t €„ ‡Š„ ‚ €\t  
­ ­ Š‡ ­\b\t‡ ,   ƒ ­Š\t­ \n ‰ ‰
 \t‡  , ‡\t­ \t\n, ­„\n , ‡Š.
  \f   
– \b€\t  Š„ ­\t
\n† ‚\n
 \t  \n —­\t Š \t  ­\t\n ’ ­ ‚ ’       ƒ­‡ ‚ €\t \t € ,
­\n”   ‚\t­\t ‡\t­ \t\n ­„\n ƒ „ ‚ ‚  \t \n\t-­‚\n ’ €\t€­ 
­‡ €
\n \t , \t  ­† \t\b\t€\t­Š\t’­‰ ‡\nŠ ­ Ž 
 \tŠ‡ ‚ \b\t\t‡ .
\rˆ  
– • ƒ­\t  ­\n\t ƒ\n\t.
\r
ˆ „\n‚ƒ\t­€ ‡\t\t‰, •­‰\t‰ \n ‚\n •­‰\t‰ ­\t ‚\n­‰ \n
\t ‚‚\n­ ‰, €Šƒ  ‚ • ­Š‡  ‡ \tƒ¨‡. ‚\n€\t’” †,
‡‰ †, ‚ ‰­Š† \t ” ‚ ‡\t­ \t\n.  ­Š† ­\t­ ˆ ‚ \n •‡ \n†
 \tƒ \t­ «\t­Š\t­‰».
\r
– ­ ­\t ‚\n­ \b „\n‚\t.  Ž\t‰ ­\t  ­\t \t‚‡ \t­  \n  ’
\n\t, \b\tƒ\t‰ ­\t – ‚­\n€\t\b\t‰ \n  Šƒ\tŠ‡ ‡. ­\t ‚\n­\t –
„\n‚, „\n‚  €\t\n ‡ ‚\n —­\t.
“
– ­\t\n  ‡  \b† ‚\n , ‚ ‡‰­‰ \n‰ ‚\t ‰ ‚‰\t, ‚,
‚\t­, „\n‰­ \t.
\r\f \n\t ,., \r\f \n\t \b..
­  \t  ‡\n \t  ­† Š:  ƒ€-‡­ ƒ ‚€
‹ ‡\t\t ­\t‰. ƒ\t­  \b\t ƒ\t‰.
 \t 500 —\b. \t\t\b 00/2
    
    
    

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